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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

Prepared by
Assoc Prof Ir Dr Shuhaimi Mansor
Head of Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

1. Introduction to UTM Wind Tunnel Facility 2


2.1 Test Section 2
2.2 Fan Motor and Drive System 3
2.3 Settling Chamber 4

2. Facility Arrangement 4

3. Balance and Model Support System 5

4. Surface Pressure Measurement 7

5. Flow Visualization 8

6. Facility Control System 8

APPENDIX 9-13

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

1. Introduction to UTM Wind Tunnel Facility


The UTM low speed wind tunnel is commissioned in 2001 and has served for more than 7 years. Our
clients include researchers from universities and designers from industries such as USM, UTeM,
UPM, MINDEF, MODENAS, PROTON and others. UTM wind tunnel has capability to provide wide
range of testing include aircraft, ground surface vehicle and industrial aerodynamics such as
building, bridges, street-lantern light and wind turbine.

General Arrangement of the wind tunnel is shown in Figure 1. There are three important
components in the wind tunnel which is known as test section, fan-motor and settling chamber.

Fan Diffuser
Cross leg 2
Fan & Motor

Settling Chamber
.Honeycomb Test Section
.Heat Excahnger
.Screens Cross-leg 1

Figure 1. Wind tunnel components

1.2 Test Section

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Wind Tunnel (UTM-LST) is capable of delivering
maximum airspeed of 80 m/s (160 knots or 288 km/hr) inside the test section. The test section
size is 2.0 m wide x 1.5 m height x 5.5 m length. The wind tunnel has an excellent flow quality
(flow uniformity < 0.15%, temperature uniformity < 0.2o, flow angularity uniformity < 0.15o,
turbulence < 0.06%). With good flow quality and facility, UTM-LST is confident to deliver high
accuracy and good repeatability of wind tunnel test results.

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Figure 2. Aircraft model is installed in the test section and attached to a 6-components
balance/load-cell to measure aerodynamic forces and moment in 3-dimensional loads.

2.1 Fan Motor and Drive System

UTM wind tunnel is propelled by 430 kW ac Motor from ABB with Allen Bradley drive system.
The measured power consumption of the motor with test section wind speed is shown in Figure
3.

Figure 3. Fan-motor and power consumption with wind speed.

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

2.2 Settling Chamber

Settling chamber is an area where the flow is control using honeycomb and three screens.
Honeycomb is used to straighten the flow while the screens are used to reduce the turbulence
intensity. Heat exchanger is used to reject heat generates from air friction and maintain the test
section temperature at normal condition. Figure 4 shows the effect of heat exchanger on test
section temperature.

o o
Cooling System Test at 70 m/s, set temp=27.8 C, ambient=27.0 C
40

38

36 Cooling OFF
o
0.29 C/minutes
Temperature ( C)
o

34

32
Cooling ON
o
0.06 C/minutes
30

28

26
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time (minutes)

Figure 4. Heat exchanger to maintain test section air temperature.

Figure 5. Honeycomb is used to straighten the flow and screen is used to reduce the
turbulence intensity.

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

3. Facility Arrangement

The wind tunnel is housing inside the Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory building. The wind tunnel
is furnished with compress air facility for general purpose applications. The test section is connected
to wind tunnel control room via metal structure platform.

Figure 6. Wind tunnel arrangement and control room

4. Balance and Model Support System


The wind tunnel is equipped with a 6-component balance for load measurements. The balance is a
pyramidal type with virtual balance moment at the centre of the test section. The balance has a
capability to measure aerodynamic forces and moment in 3-dimensional. The aerodynamic loads
can be tested at various wind direction by rotating the model via turntable. The accuracy of the
balance is within 0.04% based on 1 standard deviation. The maximum load range is ±1200N for axial
and side loads (i.e. drag force and side force).

The wind tunnel is originally furnished with 3-strut support system as shown in Figure 7. This type of
model support system is commonly used in most well known wind tunnels (e.g. DNW Holland, NLR
German, IAR-NRC Canada and ILST Indonesia).

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Figure 7. Wind tunnel Balance and Model Support System

Various model support systems had been designed to accommodate various types of model tests
requirements. It ranges from a simple single strut to 4-strut support system. Figure 8 to 11 shows
some of the examples of model support systems in UTM wind tunnel.

Figure 8. Assembly of bridge model on 3-struts support

Figure 9. Assembly of street lantern light using single-strut support

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Figure 10. Assembly of helicopter model using 2-strut support

Figure 11. Assembly of Proton Savvy model on 4-strut support

5. Surface Pressure Measurement


Surface pressure measurement is using electronic pressure scanner 128 port scanivalve system.

Figure 12. Surface pressure measurement of the roof

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

6. Flow Visualization

Flow visualization is a qualitative technique to visualise the flow pattern on the surface of the
model. Smoke is commonly use for flow visualization.

Figure 13. Flow visualization using smoke and oil

7. Facility Control System

Fully integrated automatic Control, Data Acquisition and Reduction System (DARS)

Figure 14. Facility control with automatic control, data acquisition system

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Contact Person
Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Shuhaimi B Mansor
Head of Aeronautics Laboratory
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 Skudai, JOHOR

Tel: 07 5535845, Fax: 07 5535997, Mobile: 019 7799778,


Email: Shuhaimi@fkm.utm

APPENDIX

TEST CAPABILITIES
• Aircraft
• Surface Vehicle
• Wind Engineering
• Offshore structures
• Internal flow

• Aircraft model

• Building models
• Automotive model

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

UTM-LST Flow Quality


Parameters Measured value

Velocity Spatial Uniformity 0.13 %

Temperature spatial uniformity 0.16 °C

Flow Angularity, pitch 0.13o

Flow Angularity, Yaw 0.13 °

Axial Wind Speed Gradient 0.0003°/m

Flow Angle Gradient, pitch 0.003°/m

Flow Angle Gradient, Yaw 0.070°/m

Velocity Temporal Uniformity 0.046 %

Temperature Temporal Unifermity 0.08 °C

Axial Turbulence Intensity, Urms/U, 0.037 %


5 Hz <f<10kHz

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

Pressure Measurement

• Capability 128 pressure


ports

• 2 x 64-port Electronic
Pressure Scanner
(Scanivalve DMS 3000
ZOC Series)

• Pressure rating
1 psid, 5 psid FS

• +/- 0.08 FS accuracy

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Airflow Test Equipment

• Hotwire Anemometry System


(Dantec Dynamics)

• Smoke Generator

• Laser Sheet System

• 5-hole Probe, 7-Hole Probe

• Wake Rake

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

Balance Load Range


Type of Balance
Load Component and
Accuracy
External Semi-Span Internal

Axial Force, Fx (N) ± 1200 ± 900 ± 182

Side Force, Fy(N) ± 1200 ± 900 ± 356

Normal Force, Fz (N) ± 4500 ± 4500 ± 445

Roll Moment, Mx (Nm) ± 450 ± 1362 ±7

Pitch Moment, My (Nm) ± 450 ± 250 ± 62

Yaw Moment, Mz (Nm) ± 450 ± 450 ± 50

Primary Accuracy, % (based 0.04 0.04 < 0 .10


on ± 1 standard deviation)

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Training Providers
• Indonesia Low Speed Wind Tunnel, ILST-LAGG
(Indonesia)
• Aiolos Engineering Corporation (Canada)
• Institute of Aerospace Research, IAR-NRC (Canada)
• Carleton University (Canada)
• University of Western Ontario UWO-BLWT (Canada)
• Aerodynamic Model and Research Inc. AMR (Canada)

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

Cooperation & Networking


• 4 m x 3 m Low Speed Wind Tunnel Facility
(Indonesia)
• Technical assistance (planning, technical requirements)
• Training
• Joint Research Program
• Testing Services

• Institute of Aerospace Research, IAR-NRC


(Canada)
• Training
• Post-Commissioning/Expert Services
• Joint Research Program
• Testing Services

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

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UTM LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL November, 2008

Cooperation & Networking


Subsonic Aerodynamics Testing Association (SATA)

• world-wide organization for operators of low speed aerodynamic testing


facilities (since 1965)

• Membership from all major wind tunnel facilities


DNW, Boeing, NASA, GM, Ford, IAR-NRC etc.

• provide at the operational level a means of interchange of ideas,


techniques, and solutions. General area of interest:

• Design, performance, and economics of test facilities.


• Physical measurement, instrumentation, and handling and
reduction of data
• Facility operation and maintenance

• UTM to be a member 2001/02

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Low Speed Wind Tunnel

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