Cape u1 Ia Booklet | Gradient | Experiment

EXPERIMENT 1:- Simple Pendulum (MM

)

























EXPERIMENT 2:- GALILEO’S Inclined Plane (MM)

Q6 Assuming g to be 9.81ms
-2
determine the value for the constant frictional force acting along
the plane.
EXPERIMENT 3:- Static Equilibrium (AI)














EXPERIMENT 4:- Projectile motion (ORR)


The object of this experiment is to verify that the time of flight of a projectile is independent of initial
horizontal velocity.





THEORY:
The parabolic path of a projectile may be analyzed in two parts each using the general equations of
motion.
Horizontally: x = u
x
t
Vertically y = ½gt
2
u
y
= 0 for horizontal projection

Given that the vertical height from which the object is projected is constant, the time of flight of the
projectile should be independent of the initial horizontal velocity.


u
x
may be calculated from the energy changes that take place when the object falls along the chute.

Plot a suitable graph to verify the relationship.





EXPERIMENT 5:- Density of water


































EXPERIMENT 6:- Terminal Velocity (ORR)















































EXPERIMENT 7:- Acceleration (PD)





































9702/51/M/J/10 © UCLES 2010
For
Examiner’s
Use
7a A hammer is often used to force a nail into wood. The faster the hammer moves, the deeper
the nail moves into the wood.
This can be represented in a laboratory by a mass falling vertically onto a nail.
It is suggested that the depth d of the nail in the wood (see Fig. 1.1) is related to the
velocity v of the mass at the instant it hits the nail by the equation
d = kv
n
where k and n are constants.
d
nail
wood
Fig. 1.1
Design a laboratory experiment to investigate the relationship between v and d so as to
determine a value for n. You should draw a diagram showing the arrangement of your
equipment. In your account you should pay particular attention to
(a) the procedure to be followed,
(b) the measurements to be taken,
(c) the control of variables,
(d) the analysis of the data,
(e) the safety precautions to be taken.
[15]
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EXPERIMENT 7a:- The force of speed (P&D)

EXPERIMENT 8:- Focal Length of a convex lens (MM)









EXPERIMENT 9:- Resonance (AI)










EXPERIMENT 10:- Damped Oscillations (PD)




EXPERIMENT 11:- Diffraction Grating (PD)






EXPERIMENT 12:- Transverse waves (PD)






EXPERIMENT 13:- Hysteresis of rubber (ORR)

Hysteresis and Rubber Bands

Introduction
When one performs a Hooke’s Law type experiment with a rubber band, it
can be noticed that the band does not behave exactly like a spring. A rubber
band, made of latex and rubber, does not return to its exact original shape
after being stretched. This is an example of a phenomenon called hysteresis.
By studying the relationship between the rubber band during stretching and
unstretching, one can determine the amount of work done on the rubber
band, and the amount of energy (in joules) lost by the band.
Design
A retort stand with clamp should be used to hold a ruler and rubber band.
The ruler should be accurate to ± 0.5mm. Masses should be added to the
band in increments of 100g. The device holding the masses in this
experiment had a mass of 50g; therefore, the progression of masses went:
0g, 50g, 150g, 250g, 350g, etc. up to 1.05kg.
One should use a ruler (or some sort of straight edge) to find the position of
the rubber band on the held ruler—this should be done to avoid parallax.
The image (at the bottom) is a representation of the set up.
To measure data in this experiment, masses should be added slowly and
gently. The stretch should be recorded in meters. Once 1.05kg have been
added, masses should be removed in the same increments as they were
added and the new stretch should be recorded. This data will therefore be
split into two sections: stretching and unstretching.



EXPERIMENT 14:- Latent Heat of fusion (ORR)





EXPERIMENT 15:- Thermal Conductivity of glass (AI)











Title: g from a simple pendulum
Skill: Manipulation / Measurement
Max.
mark
Act
mark
Follows instructions 1
Repeats readings to reduce
random errors

1

Takes 6 or more readings 1
Readings range over 50cm 1
Avoids zero error 1
Avoids error due to parallax 1
Measures lengths to appropriate
accuracy

1

Ensures the angle of oscillation is
small

1

Uses appropriate procedure for
measure to the inaccessible point

1

Most times >20 s 1
Use of a fiducial marker 1
Countdown method used 1
Total 12



Lab Title: Galileo’s Experiment Max.
mark
Actual
mark
(a) Statement of formula :
s = ut + ½ at
2


1

(b) Formula for motion down an
inclined plane, ma = mgsinθ - F
R

1

(c) Formula converted to show
straight line: t
2
= (2/a) s

1

(d) Identified slope as m = (2/a)

1
(e) Identified vertical rise /
horizontal run y
2
– y
1
/ x
2
– x
1


1

(f) Calculated gradient 1
(g) Used large triangle for gradient 1
(h) Correct sig. figs. / units 1
(i) Correct formula to calculate θ 1
(j) F
R
calculated 1
(k) Correct sig. figs / units for F
R
1
(l) Identified errors in experiment 1
Total (AI) 12






Lab Title: Vectors
CAPE Skill: A/ I
Max.
mk
Act
mk
Raw readings have consistent d.p. 1
% uncertainty in ө found 1
Best straight line estimated 1
Triangle for gradient »½ page 1
Grid Points used for gradient 1
Correct gradient formula 1
Gradient correctly calculated 1
Accurate determination of m & k
from gradient & intercept

2

m ; k found with correct units 1
m; k found with appropriate sig figs. 1
Identified difficulty measuring F & ө 1
Total 12



Lab Title: Density of water
Skill: Analysis /Interpretation
Max.
mark
Actual
mark
(a) Correct evaluation of k 1
(b) Percentage uncertainty in d,
correctly determined

1

(c) Cross-sectional area, A
calculated

1

(d) Large triangle for gradient 1
(e) Converts formula to straight
line equation

1

(f) used formula ρ = - km / Ag 1
(g) Correct Gradient with unit 2
(h) Density evaluated correctly 1
(i) Appropriate sig. figs. for ρ 1
(j) Improvement identified 1
(k) Identified difficulty in
measuring d

1

Total 12





Lab Title: Terminal Velocity
Skill: ORR
Max.
mk
Act
mk
(a) At least 5 sets of tabulated
readings
1
(b) Correct units in column
headings

1

(c) Measurements repeated to
reduce errors

1

(d) Consistent accuracy in
raw readings

1

(e) Appropriate sig. figs 1
(f) Non-standard precautions 1
(g) Unavoidable sources of error 1
(h) Correct spelling used 1
(j) Correct punctuation used 1
(k) Correct grammar used 1
(l) Report has appropriate
sequence

1

(m) Conclusion follows logically
from aim

1

Total 12




Lab Title: Acceleration of free
moving system. CAPE Skill: P / D
Max.
mark
Act.
mark
Objective stated 1
Appropriate equipment chosen 1
Diagram of arrangement of equip 1
Feasible procedure outlined 1
Statement of measurements taken 1
States how acceleration of A is deter. 1
States control variable(s) 1
States independent variable(s) 1
States dependent variable(s) 1
How results were treated 1
Safety Precaution(s) given 1
Possible source of error given 1
Total 12



Lab Title: Focal length of a lens
CAPE: MM
Max.
mk
Act
mk
Uses far object to determine approx F 1
Object, lens and screen aligned 1
Light source close to object card 1
Takes reading at center of lens mount 1
Repeats readings to reduce errors 1
Takes a at least 6 sets of readings 1
Spreads readings over approp range 1
Checks for sharpest image 1
Avoids error due to parallax 1
Adjusts for zero error on metre rule 1
Total 10



Lab Title: Damped Oscillations
CAPE Skill: P / D
Max.
mk
Act
mk
Stated hypothesis 1
Identified quantities measured 1
Gave suitable no. of observations 1
Good range for A 1
Gave how independent variable was
measured

1

Gave how dependent variable was
measured

1

Identified controlled variables 1
Plotted ln X
o
vs A 1
Identified steps taken to improve
accuracy

1

Commented on how experiment
could be improved
1
Conclusion
Hypothesis supported/refuted
Reason given

1
1

Total 12





Lab Title: Resonance
Skill: AI
Max.
mk
Act
mk
(a) Found mean value of c (table) 1
(b) Found mean value of c (formula) 1
(c) Found mean value of c (graph) 1
(d) Compared one value of f from
formula to given value

1

(e) Found end correction frm formula 1
(f) Found end correction graphically 1
(g) Calculated gradient 1
(h) States formula for gradient 1
(j) Gave correct units for gradient 1
(k) Used large triangle 1
(l) Gave unavoidable sources of error 1
(m) Conclusion relevant to aim 1
Total 12







Lab Title: Diffraction Grating
CAPE Skill: P&D
Max.
mark
Actual
mark
States Aim 1
Appropriate equipment chosen 1
Feasible procedure outlined 1
Diagram of diffraction pattern shown 1
Labeled diagram of set-up 1
Type of light source named 1
Reason for choosing source type 1
What measurements are taken 1
How ө found from measurements 1
How spacing is deduced 1
Safety precautions 2
Total 12




Lab Title: Hysteresis of Rubber
Skill: ORR
Max.
mk
Act
mk
(a) At least 6 sets of tabulated
readings
1
(b) Correct units in column
headings

1

(c) Measurements repeated to
reduce errors

1

(d) Consistent accuracy in
raw readings

1

(e) Appropriate sig. figs 1
(f) Non-standard precautions 1
(g) Unavoidable sources of error 1
(h) Correct spelling used 1
(j) Correct punctuation used 1
(k) Correct grammar used 1
(l) Report has appropriate
sequence

1

(m) Conclusion follows logically
from aim

1

Total 12




Lab Title: Thermal Conductivity
of glass. CAPE Skill: A/I
Max.
mark
Actual
mark
Correct evaluation of p and q 2
Graph of ln (θ
0
/ θ) vs t plotted 1
Large triangle for gradient 1
Gradient points used exactly
on grid line intersection

2

Gradient formula stated 1
Correct Gradient with unit 2
λ evaluated correctly 1
Appropriate sig. figs. For λ 1
Identified errors 1
Total 12

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