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University Of Sheffield Structural Engineering Masters Linear Systems And Structural Analysis Coursework 4 Alex Pavic

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Local Axes For the Elements:

Degrees Of Freedom:

There are 8 unknowns as shown in the figure above. 1

**Calculation Of Displacements Section Properties :
**

Element ac cb ab cd 1st Node a c a c 2nd Node c b b d θ 53 307 0 0 sinθ 0.8 -0.8 0 0 cosθ 0.6 0.6 1 1 I (m4) 0.00068 0.00137 0.00068 E kN/m2 30000000 30000000 210000000 30000000 A (m2) 0.09 0.114 0.0004 0.09 l(m) 10 10 12 6

**Local Stiffness Matrices for the Elements:
**

Local Stiffness Matrix - Element ac uxa 270000 0 0 -270000 0 0 uya 0 243 1215 0 -243 1215 θa 0 1215 8100 0 -1215 4050 uxc -270000 0 0 270000 0 0 uyc 0 -243 -1215 0 243 -1215 θc 0 1215 4050 0 -1215 8100

Local Stiffness Matrix - Element cb uxc 342000 0 0 -342000 0 0 uyc 0 493 2466 0 -493 2466 θc 0 2466 16440 0 -2466 8220 uxb -342000 0 0 342000 0 0 uyb 0 -493 -2466 0 493 -2466 θb 0 2466 8220 0 -2466 16440

Local Stiffness Matrix - Element cd uxc 450000 0 0 -450000 0 0 uyc 0 1125 3375 0 -1125 3375 θc 0 3375 13500 0 -3375 6750 uxd -450000 0 0 450000 0 0 uyd 0 -1125 -3375 0 1125 -3375 θd 0 3375 6750 0 -3375 13500

ab uxa 7700 -7700 uxb -7700 7700

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**Transformation Matrices for the Elements :
**

Transformatin Matrix - Element ac uxa 0.6 0.8 0 0 0 0 uya -0.8 0.6 0 0 0 0 θa 0 0 1 0 0 0 uxc 0 0 0 0.6 0.8 0 uyc 0 0 0 -0.8 0.6 0 θc 0 0 0 0 0 1

Transformatin Matrix - Element cb uxc 0.6 -0.8 0 0 0 0 uyc 0.8 0.6 0 0 0 0 θc 0 0 1 0 0 0 uxb 0 0 0 0.6 -0.8 0 uyb 0 0 0 0.8 0.6 0 θb 0 0 0 0 0 1

Transformation Matrices for elements ab and cd are not needed because they are on the same axes with the global.

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Global Stiffness Matrices for the Elements : Transformation Matrix × Local Stiffness Matrix × Transpose Of Transformation Matrix (Matrix Calculations are made using MATLAB)

Global Stiffness Matrix - Element ac uxa 97360 129480 -970 -97360 -129480 -970 uya 129480 172890 730 -129480 -172890 730 θa -970 730 8100 970 -730 4050 uxc -97360 -129480 970 97360 129480 970 uyc -129480 -172890 -730 129480 172890 -730 θc -970 730 4050 970 -730 8100

Global Stiffness Matrix - Element cb uxc 123440 -163920 1970 -123440 163920 1970 uyc -163920 219060 1480 163920 -219060 1480 θc 1970 1480 16440 -1970 -1480 8220 uxb -123440 163920 -1970 123440 -163920 -1970 uyb 163920 -219060 -1480 -163920 219060 -1480 θb 1970 1480 8220 -1970 -1480 16440

Local Stiffness Matrix - Element cd uxc 450000 0 0 -450000 0 0 uyc 0 1125 3375 0 -1125 3375 θc 0 3375 13500 0 -3375 6750 uxd -450000 0 0 450000 0 0 uyd 0 -1125 -3375 0 1125 -3375 θd 0 3375 6750 0 -3375 13500

ab uxa 7700 -7700 uxb -7700 7700

The columns and rows with gray background are not needed when creating the Global Stiffness Matrix because those displacements are zero.

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**Global Stiffness Matrix for the Structure :
**

Global Structure Matrix XB 131140 -1970 -123440 163920 -1970 0 0 0 θB -1970 16440 1970 1480 8220 0 0 0 XC -123440 1970 670800 -34440 2940 -450000 0 0 YC 163920 1480 -34440 393075 4125 0 -1125 3375 θC -1970 8220 2940 4125 38040 0 -3375 6750 XD 0 0 -450000 0 0 450000 0 0 YD 0 0 0 -1125 -3375 0 1125 -3375 θD 0 0 0 3375 6750 0 -3375 13500

Calculation Of The Displacements by Using The Known Forces On The Nodes : The uniformly distributed load can be act as two forces and two moments on nodes c and d to do the same effect on the total structure.

**The forces that should be acted would be V1 = V2 = -150 kN, Mc = -150 kNm and Md = 150 kNm
**

Global Structure Matrix XB 131140 -1970 -123440 163920 -1970 0 0 0 θB -1970 16440 1970 1480 8220 0 0 0 XC -123440 1970 670800 -34440 2940 -450000 0 0 YC 163920 1480 -34440 393075 4125 0 -1125 3375 θC -1970 8220 2940 4125 38040 0 -3375 6750 XD 0 0 -450000 0 0 450000 0 0 YD 0 0 0 -1125 -3375 0 1125 -3375 θD 0 0 0 3375 6750 0 -3375 13500 Displacements XB θB XC YC θC XD YD θD Force 0 0 0 -150 -150 0 -150 150

**Solving the Global Matrix × Displacements = Force by Matlab gives us the Displacements:
**

Displacements XB 0.0143 meter θB 0.0234 rad XC 0.0074 meter YC -0.0061 meter θC -0.0441 rad XD 0.0074 meter YD -0.6705 meter θD -0.1333 rad

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Local Displacement Vectors: = Transpose of Transformation Matrix × Global Displacement Vector Of Element (Matrix multiplications made my MATLAB)

Global Displacement Vector For Element ac XA YA θA XC YC θC 0 0 0 0.0074 -0.0061 -0.0441 meter meter rad meter meter rad

Local Displacement Vector For Element ac xa ya θa xc yc θc 0 0 0 -0.0004 -0.0096 -0.0441 meter meter rad meter meter rad

Global Displacement Vector For Element cb XC YC θC XB YB θB 0.0074 -0.0061 -0.0441 0.0143 0 0.0234 meter meter rad meter meter rad

Local Displacement Vector For Element cb xc yc θc Xb yb θb 0.0093 0.0023 -0.0441 0.0086 0.0114 0.0234 meter meter rad meter meter rad

Global Displacement Vectors are same with the Local Displacement Vectors for the elements cd and ab as they are on the same axes.

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**Calculating the Local Nodal Forces: = Local Stiffness Matrix × Local Displacement Vector
**

Local Forces ac 118.8 -51.2536 -166.9653 -118.8 51.2536 -345.5703

fxa fya ma fxc fyc mc

kN kN kNm kN kN kNm

fxc fyb mc fxb fyb mb

Local Forces cb 253.08 -55.5738 -555.2939 -253.08 55.5738 -0.4439

kN kN kNm kN kN kNm

xa xb

Local Forces ab -110.1 110.1

meter meter

fxc fyc mc fxd fyd md

Local Forces cd 0 149.7375 749,25 0 -149,7375 149,1750

kN kN kNm kN kN kNm

We need to subtract the forces we have loaded on the nodes to get the correct nodal forces for cd:

Local Forces cd 0 300 900 0 0 0

fxc fyc mc fxd fyd md

kN kN kNm kN kN kNm

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Nodal Forces : (in kN and kN m)

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Axial Force :

Member ab : Dark Gray : +110.01 kN (in tension) Member ac : Light Gray : -118.80 kN (in compression) Member cb : Light Gray : -253.08 kN (in compression) No Axial Force on member cd.

Shear Force : No shear force on element ab. Member ac : Light Gray : - 51.26 kN Member cb : Dark Gray : -55.57 kN Member cd : Dark Gray : 300.00 kN to a zero value at the d

Moment Diagram : Diagram on the tension side of the element. No Moment on member ab. Member ac: The moment on node a is in clockwise direction. At node c it’s rotating the node c in clockwise direction. There is no external load on the frame element causing a constant shear force thru the element and that causing the moment diagram to be linear. Member bc: Moment on node b is zero since there is a roller support there. Moment on node c is bending the node in clockwise direction. Member cd : Moment at node c is rotating at counter-clockwise direction. So the total moment on node c is zero. (The other two moments on this node were in clockwise direction.) Node d is a free end so the moment there is zero. There is uniformly distributed load on the frame element causing a non constant – but linear shear force which causes the moment diagram to be parabolic. The moment is never on the other side of the frame element since there is no contra flexure.

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Reaction Forces:

Reaction Forces at node b (Roller Support) Vb = 253.08 × 0.8 + 55.57 × 0.6 = 235.80 kN Hb = 0 ( Roller Support ) Mb = 0 ( Roller Support ) Reaction Forces at node a Va = 50 × 6 – 235.80 = 64.20 kN Ha = 0 Ma = 166.96 kN m Comments On The Coursework : The main difference between the slope deflection method and the stiffness matrix method is that in the stiffness matrix method, the axial deflections are also considered. With both methods, the displacements are found first, and then the internal forces are derived from the displacements, using the material and section properties, such as the Young Modulus, Moment Of Inertia and the area of the section. (Area of the section only for the stiffness matrix.)

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