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Index
I. Do we know?
II. Points of Content
A. Machines
i. Definition
ii. Functions and Uses
iii. Technical terms
iv. Princile
v. !elation "etween #fficienc$% M.A. And &.!.
'. (evers
i. Definition
ii. Princile
iii. )inds of (evers
*+, Class I (evers
*-, Class II (evers
*., Class III (evers
*/, (evers in human "od$
iv. 0umericals
C. Inclined lane
i. Definition
ii. Mechanical Advanta1e
D. Pulle$s
i. T$es
ii. 2in1le fixed ulle$
*+, Mechanical advanta1e
*-, &elocit$ ratio
*., #fficienc$
iii. 2in1le mova"le ulle$
*+, Mechanical advanta1e
*-, &elocit$ ratio
*., #fficienc$
iv. Com"ination of "lock and tackle ulle$s
v. M.A.%&.!.% #fficienc$ of com"ination of "lock and tackle ulle$s

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vi. 0umericals
#. Mindmas3dia1rams3ta"les3charts
III.4"5ective 6uestions
1. Machines as force multipliers;
2. load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency;
3. Simple treatment of levers, inclined plane and pulley systems showing the utility
of each type of machine.
1. Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio
and efficiency; simple treatment of levers, inclined plane and pulley systems
showing the utility of each type of machine.
a. Functions and uses of simple machines.
b. Technical terms effort E, load L, mechanical advantage , velocity ratio
, input !Wi", output !Wo",efficiency!",
c. #elation $etween %and MA,VR ;for all practical machines %<1; MA < VR.
d. &nclined plane MA, VR and . '0o derivation details(.
2. )ever principle !for an ideal lever only", ;
a. 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
class of levers; e*amples MA and VR in each case.
b. +*amples of each of these classes as found in the human $ody.
3. ,ulley system; simple fi*ed, single mova$le, com$ination of mova$le pulleys,
$loc- and tac-le; MA, VR and %in each case.'0o derivation details.(
.. /tility of each type of machine. Simple numerical pro$lems.

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A. Machines
i. Definition
Q.1.0hat do you understand $y a simple machine1
Ans.2 machine is a device $y which we can either overcome a large resistive force at
some point $y applying a small force at a convenient point and in a desired direction
or $y which we can o$tain a gain in speed.
ii. Functions and Uses
6.+.State four ways in which machines are useful to us.
Ans.The machines perform the following functions and they are useful to us in the
following four ways
i, &n lifting a heavy load $y applying a less effort, i.e., as a force multiplier.
ii, &n changing the point of application of effort to a convenient point.
iii, &n changing the direction of effort to a convenient direction.
iv, For o$taining a gain in speed !i.e., a greater movement of load $y a smaller
movement of effort".
Q.2.3ive an illustration of the following use of a simple machine
i, to o$tain gain in force,
ii, to change the direction of force,
iii, to o$tain gain in speed.
Ans.
i) Pliers
ii) A Car jack
iii) Bicycle
iii. Technical terms
6.+.4efine effort.
Ans.+ffort is the e*ternal force applied to a simple machine
6.-.4efine )oad.
Ans.)oad is the force against which the machine does the wor-

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6...+*plain the term mechanical advantage. State its unit.
Ans.Mechanical 2dvantage !M2"5 &t has no unit
0hen is the mechanical advantage
of a machine 11
when the machine
changes direction
0hen is the mechanical advantage
of a machine less than 11
0hen the machine
increases distance
0hen is the mechanical advantage
of a machine greater than 11
when the machine
increases force
6...4efine the term velocity ratio. State its unit.
Ans.6elocity #atio !6#" is defined as the ratio of displacement of effort !d
+
" to the
displacement of load !d
)
" in the same interval of time. &t has no unit.
6elocity #atio !6#"5
6./.4efine the term efficiency of a machine.
Ans.+fficiency of the machine !" is the ratio of the wor- done on the load to the wor-
done $y the effort. +fficiency !" 5
7ote +fficiency is always e*pressed as percentage
Q.5.0hy is a machine not 1889 efficient1
Ans.7o machine is ideal or 1889 efficient for the following reasons
i, the moving parts in it are not frictionless
ii) the string in it if present, is not perfectly elastic.
iii, its different parts are not perfectly rigid, and
iv, its moving parts are not weightless.
4ue to a$ove factors there is always some loss of energy in the machine. Thus,
the output energy from a machine is always less than the input energy to it .
iv. Princile
Q.1.0hat is the purpose of a machine1
Ans.The purpose of a machine is to ma-e the wor- easier $y either reducing effort or
changing the point of application of force or changing the direction of force or
increasing the speed.
Q.2.0hat do you understand $y an ideal machine1

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Ans.2n ideal machine has an efficiency of 1889.2 machine in which wor- inputs e:uals
wor- output; such a machine would $e frictionless.
v. !elation "etween #fficienc$% M.A. And &.!.
6.+.State the relationship $etween mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency.
Ans. = =
Q.2.4erive the relationship $etween the terms mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and
efficiency as applied to a machine.
Ans.;onsider actual machine which displaces a useful load through a distance
when effort
<+< causes a displacement through distance <4<.
=utput 5 0or- done in displacing load.
= .
&nput 5 wor- done $y effort in causing displacement
=
+fficiency = = = = =
= =
'. (evers

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i. Definition
Q.1.0hat is a lever1
Ans.2 lever is a simple machine. 2 lever $ar e*erts a force to move a load $y turning on a
pivot or fulcrum.
ii. Princile
6.-.State the principle of a lever.
Ans.For e:uili$rium, the moment of the effort a$out the fulcrum must $e e:ual and
opposite to the moment of the weight !)oad" a$out it. So that, we have
+ffort > effort arm 5 0eight > weight arm.
This is -nown as the principle of lever.
Q.3.0rite down a relation e*pressing the mechanical advantage of a lever.

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Ans.?y the principle of moments, in state of e:uili$rium, for all types of levers,
we have,
)=24 > load arm 5 +ffort > effort arm
=r
i.e. Mechanical advantage of a lever 5
;learly, therefore, the longer the effort arm and the shorter the weight arm, the greater
is the mechanical advantage of the lever.
Q.3.0hat is the use of the lever if its mechanical advantage is less than 11
Ans.2lthough levers have M2 less than 1, they help to get gain in force, or gain in
speed, there$y help us apply force at a convenient place to ena$le movement of effort
over a large distance.
iii. )inds of (evers
6.+.7ame the three classes of levers and distinguish $etween them. 3ive two e*amples of
each class
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Q.2.The following are e*amples of levers. State the class of levers to which each one
$elongs giving the relative positions of )oad !)", +ffort !+" and Fulcrum !F"
i, Scissors
ii, Sugar tongs.
iii, 7ut crac-er

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iv, pliers.
Ans.
7o.
7ame of
)ever
=rder of
)ever
,osition of
)oad !)" +ffort !+"
Fulcrum
!F"
!i" Scissors First =ne end =ther end 2t centre
!ii"
Sugar
tongs
Third =ne end 2t centre =ther end
!iii"
7ut
crac-er
Second 2t centre =ne end =ther end
!iv" ,liers First =ne end =ther end
2t the
centre

Q.3.0hich type of lever has a mechanical advantage always more than one1 3ive one
e*ample. 0hat change can $e made in this lever to increase it mechanical advantage1
Ans.&n a lever of the second ;lass, we always have effort arm A )oad arm and hence the
mechanical advantage in this case must always $e greater than
1._________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_
6./.4raw diagrams to illustrate the positions of fulcrum, load and effort, in each of the
following
i, 2 seesaw
ii, 2 common $alance
iii, 2 nut crac-er
iv, Forceps.

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*+, Class I (evers
Features of Class 4ne (ever
Fulcrum is in $etween load and effort
?y adBusting the position of fulcrum towards load the mechanical advantage of the class one
lever can $e increased
+*amples pair of scissors, See C Saw, ;row$ar ,0ater pump, ,liers, ;law hammer

Q.1.3ive two e*amples of class & lever.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Q.2.;lass & lever is that in which
i, fulcrum is $etween the load and effort
ii, load is $etween the fulcrum and effort
iii, effort is $etween the load and fulcrum
iv) Fulcrum, load and effort are at one point.
Ans.Fulcrum is $etween the load and effort

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6...3ive one e*ample each of a ;lass & lever where mechanical advantage is !a" more than
one, and !$" less than one.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Q.4.3ive an e*ample of a class & lever which has mechanical advantage e:ual to 1. Dow can
the mechanical advantage of this lever $e made greater than one1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.+.2 pair of scissor and a pair of pliers $oth $elong to the same class of levers. 7ame the
class of lever. 0hich one has the M.2. less than 11
Ans.;lass &, Scissors
6./.+*plain why scissors for cutting cloth may have $lades longer than the handles, $ut
shears for cutting metals have short $lades and long handles.
Ans.Shears, used for cutting the thin metal sheets, have much longer handles as
compared to its $lades. Dence, &n a shear, the effort arm is longer than the load arm,
the mechanical advantage and the velocity ratio of the lever are greater than 1. Such a
lever serves as a force multiplier, i.e., it ena$les us to overcome a large resistive force
!load" $y a small effort. Dowever, &n a scissor , effort arm is shorter than the load arm,
its mechanical advantage and velocity ratio $oth are less than .Such levers are used to
o$tain gain in speed $ecause the velocity ratio less than 1 implies i.e., the
displacement of load is more as compared to the displacement of effort. The scissors
is used to wor- on loads !cloth, paper, etc" with high speed.
6.-.4raw a la$elled diagram of a ;lass & lever. 3ive one e*ample of such a lever.
Ans.

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*-, Class II (evers
Characteristics of Class Two (ever
)oad is in $etween effort and fulcrum
Mechanical advantage is always greater than one, $ecause effort arm is always greater than
load arm.
+*amples 7ut crac-er, 0heel$arrow, ?ottle opener, )emon s:ueeEer

Q.1.3ive two e*amples of class && lever.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6...+*plain why the M.2. of a ;lass && type of lever is always more than one.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6./.4raw a la$elled diagram of a ;lass && lever. 3ive one e*ample of such a lever.
Ans.

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*., Class III (evers
Characteristics of Class Three (ever
+ffort is $etween fulcrum and load
Mechanical advantage is always less than one $ecause effort arm is always smaller than load
arm
+*amples Fire tongs, Forceps, Forearm ,Fishing rod


Q.1.3ive two e*amples of class &&& lever.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.-.+*plain why the M.2. of the class &&& type of lever is always less than one.
Ans. By principle of Machines, Effort Effort ARM = load oad ARM
!n class"!!! le#ers effort E is in bet$een the f%lcr%& ' and oad
!n this case, Effort ARM ( oad ARM,
(1
M. A =
M. A ( 1
Q.3.;lass &&& levers have mechanical advantage less than one. 0hy are they then used1
Ans.0ith ;lass &&& type of levers we do not get gain in force, $ut we get gain in speed
i.e., a larger displacement of load is o$tained $y a smaller displacement of effort. For
e*ample, the $lade of a -nife moves longer $y a small displacement of its handle.

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Q.4.4raw a la$elled s-etch of a ;lass &&& lever. 3ive one e*ample of this -ind of lever.
+*ample
Q.5.The lever for which the mechanical advantage is less than one has
i, fulcrum at mid point $etween load and effort
ii, load $etween effort and fulcrum
iii, effort $etween fulcrum and load
iv) )oad and effort acting at the same point.
Ans.+ffort $etween fulcrum and load.
*/, (evers in human "od$

M7effort
F7Fulcrum
!7(oad
6.+.3ive e*ample of each class of lever in a human $ody.
Ans.

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i) ;lass 1 &n the action of nodding of the head, the spine acts as the fulcrum, load
is at its front part, while effort is at its rear part. Thus this is an e*ample of ;lass &
lever.
ii) ;lass2 The fulcrum is at toes at one end, the load !i.e., weight of the $ody" is in
the middle and effort $y muscles at other end. Thus this is an e*ample of ;lass &&
lever.
iii) ;lass 3 The el$ow Boint acts as fulcrum at one end, $iceps e*erts the effort in the
middle and a load on the palm is at other end. Thus this is an e*ample of ;lass &&&
lever.
C. Inclined lane
Inclined Plane

i. Definition
Q.1.0hat is an inclined plane1 3ive two e*amples where it is used to raise a heavy load
with less effort.
Ans.2n &nclined plane or a ramp is one of the $asic machines. &t reduces the force
necessary to move a load a certain distance up $y providing a path for the load to
move at a low angle to the ground. This lessens the needed force $ut increases the
distance involved, so that the amount of wor- stays the same. Examples are ramps,
sloping roads, chisels, hatchets, and wedges.
6.-.The force needed to push a load up an inclined plane is less than the force needed to lift
it directly. 3ive a reason.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

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ii. Mechanical Advanta1e
6.+.0rite an e*pression for the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane in terms of its
length F and vertical height h.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.-.GSteeper the inclined plane more is the effort needed to push a load up the planeH.
+*plain it.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
D. Pulle$s
Pulle$
2 pulley is a flat circular dis-, having a grooved rim and capa$le of revolving around a fi*ed
point passing through its centre.

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6.+.The efficiency of a pulley is always less than 1889.0hy1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

i. T$es

ii. 2in1le fixed ulle$

34

Fixed Pulle$s7Features
Single fi*ed pulley is classified as a lever of class &
The fulcrum is at the centre and the load arm and effort arm have the same length
&t is used to change the direction of force
6.+.0hat is a fi*ed pulley1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.-.3iven one use of a single fi*ed pulley.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6...&n a single fi*ed pulley, if the effort moves $y a distance * downwards, $y what height is
the load raised1
Ans.*
*+, Mechanical advanta1e
6./.0hat is the ideal mechanical advantage of a single fi*ed pulley1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.8.There is no gain in mechanical advantage in the case of a single fi*ed pulley. +*plain,
why the pulley is then used1
Ans.The single fi*ed pulley inverts the direction of the force. 2n upward force on the
load is changed to a downward pull. This is very convenient to lift load. So it is used
very often.
*-, &elocit$ ratio
6.+.&n a single fi*ed pulley, why is the velocity ratio always more than the mechanical
advantage1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
*., #fficienc$
6.+.0hat is the efficiency of the single fi*ed pulley1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

34

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
iii. 2in1le mova"le ulle$
Features72in1le Mova"le Pulle$ s$stem
&t consists of two pulleys 2 and ?
The pulley 2 is fi*ed
The pulley ? is mova$le
The pulley 2 helps in changing the direction of effort applied
6.+.0hat is a single mova$le pulley1 0hat is its mechanical advantage in the ideal case1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.-.7ame the type of single pulley that can act as a force multiplier. 4raw a la$elled diagram
of the pulley mentioned $y you.
Ans.Single movea$le pulley

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6...3ive two reasons why the efficiency of a single mova$le pulley system is not 1889.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6./.&n which direction the force need $e applied, when a single pulley is used with a
mechanical advantage greater than one1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.8.Show how a single pulley can $e used to reduce the effort re:uired to overcome a given
load. 4raw a diagram of the system. 0hy is it generally more convenient to use two
pulleys for this1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.9.&n a single mova$le pulley, if the effort moves $y a distance * upwards, $y what height is
the load raised1
Ans.
*+, Mechanical advanta1e
6.+.0hat is the mechanical advantage of a single movea$le pulley1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
*-, &elocit$ ratio
6.+.0hat is the velocity ratio of a single movea$le pulley1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
*., #fficienc$
6.-.0hat is the efficiency of a single movea$le pulley1

34

Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
iv. Com"ination of "lock and tackle ulle$s
6.:.0hat is a $loc- and tac-le system of pulleys1
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.;. 4raw a diagram of a $loc- and tac-le system of pulleys having a velocity ratio of I. &n
your diagram indicate clearly the points of application and the direction of the load and
effort. 2lso mar- the tension in each strand.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.<.&n case of a $loc- and tac-le arrangement, the mechanical advantage increases with the
increase in the num$er of pulleys .+*plain.
Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
Q.10.The lower $loc- of a $loc- and tac-le pulley system must $e of negligi$le weight.
0hy1

34

Ans.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
6.++.&n a $loc- and tac-le system consisting of 3 pulleys, a load of JI -gf is raised with an
effort of 2I -gf. Find the mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency.
Ans.Ans. 3, 3, 1889
6.+-.2 $loc- and tac-le system has I pulleys. &f an effort of 1888 7 is needed to raise a load
of .I88 7, calculate
i, mechanical advantage,
ii, velocity ratio, and
iii, +fficiency of the system.
Ans.
i, ..I
ii, I
iii, K89
Q.13.&n the diagram, draw a tac-le to lift a load $y applying the force in a convenient
direction. Mar- the position of load and effort.
i) &f the load is raised $y 1 m, through what distance will the effort move1
ii, State how many strands of tac-le are supporting the load1
iii, 0hat is the mechanical advantage of the system1
Ans.
i,
ii,
iii,
v. 0umericals
T=P# +
P!4'. +.2 resistance of 1I88 7 is overcome $y a machine of 6.# L and efficiency M89.
Find
i, Mechanical advantage
ii) +ffort re:uired to overcome resistance. !2m-s"

34

Ans.
i) 5 ,
M.2.5 >6.#. 5 >L5..M
ii)
.
P!4'. -.The diagram $elow shows a lever in use.
i, To which class of lever does it $elong1
ii) &f 2? 5 1 m, 2F 5 8.. m, find its mechanical advantage.
iii, ;alculate the value of +.
Ans.
i, ;lass &
ii, 1.I
iii) 18
PROB. 1.)he cro$bar is a type of le#er as sho$n belo$*
A cro$bar of len+th 1,- c& has its f%lcr%& at a distance of 2, c& fro& the
load.
.alc%late the &echanical ad#anta+es of this cro$bar. /20
PROB. 2. A coo1 %ses a 2fire ton+2 of len+th 23 c& to lift a piece of b%rnin+ coal
of &ass 2,- +. !f he applies his effort at a distance of 4 c& fro& the f%lcr%&,
$hat is the effort in 5.!. %nit6 )a1e + = 1- &7s
2
.
P!4'. ..2 crow$ar of length 128 cm has its fulcrum situated at a distance of 28 cm from the
load. ;alculate the mechanical advantage of the crow$ar.
Ans.I
PROB. 4.2 . m long rod of negligi$le weight is to $e $alanced a$out a point 12I cm from
one end. 2 load of 1M -gf is suspended at a point L8 cm from the support on the shorter
arm.
i, 2 weight 0 is placed 2I8 cm from the support on the longer arm. Find 0.
ii, &f 0 5 I -gf, where must it $e -ept to $alance the rod1
iii, To which class of lever does it $elong1

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Ans.
i, ..32 -gf
ii, 2.1L m from support on longer arm
iii, ;lass &.
PROB. 5.2 pair of scissors has its $lades 1I cm long, while its handles are J.I cm long.
0hat is its mechanical advantage1 Ans. 8.I
PROB. 6.2 force of I -gf is re:uired to cut a metal sheet. 2 shears used for cutting the
metal sheet has its $lades I cm long, while its handle is 18 cm long. 0hat effort is needed
to cut the sheet1 Ans. 2.I
PROB. 7.2 $oy has to lift a load of mass I8 -g to a height of 1m. 0hat effort is re:uired if
he lifts it directly1 Ta-e g 5 18 7 -g
N1
. ?ut he can e*ert a ma*imum effort of 2I8 7, so he
uses an inclined plane to lift the load up. 0hat should $e the minimum length of the
plan- used $y him1
PROB. 8. 2 coolie uses a sloping wooden plan- of length 2.8 m to push up a drum of mass
188 -g into the truc- at a height 1.8
i, 0hat is the mechanical advantage of the sloping plan-1
ii, Dow much effort is needed to push the drum up into the truc-1
iii, 0hat assumption have you made in arriving at the answer in part !ii" a$ove1
i. 2ns. !i" 2 !ii" I8
T=P# - PU((#=2
PROB. 1.The diagram alongside shows a system of 5 pulleys.

34

i) Copy the diagram and complete it by drawing a string around the
pulleys. Mark the position of load and effort.
ii) If the load is raised by 1 m, through what distance will the effort
move
Ans.
i) The complete diagram of a string around the pulleys is shown as
follows with the marked positions of effort and load.
ii) !et the distance moved by the effort " #
#istance moved by the load " d " 1 m $given%
!et the load " &
and the effort applied " '
(y the principle of machines
Therefore,
(ut " 5
)ence # " *d " 5 + 1 m
# " 5 m

34


PROB. 2.#I,-.,M below gives an arrangement of single moving pulleys.
i) If the effort applied at the free end of the string is ', show the
direction and magnitude of the forces e+erted by the four strings
marked $1% to $/%.
ii) what is the load which can be lifted by the effort

34

iii) calculate the mechanical advantage of the system of pulleys.
Ans.
i)
ii) 0uppose the load lifted " !
(ut effort applied " ' $given%
!et the effort ,rm "
Then the load ,rm "
1ow, by the principle of machine
!oad * load ,rm " 'ffort * 'ffort ,rm

34

i.e
Therefore , ! " /'
iii) M., is defined as the ratio of the load lifted by the machine to the
effort applied on the machine
i.e M., " " /
)ence, M., " /
PROB. 1.The diagram $elow shows a pulley arrangement. &n the diagram, mar- the
direction of the force due to tension, acting on the pulley 2
i, 0hat is the purpose of the pulley ?1
ii, &f the tension is T 7ewton, deduce the relation $etween T and +.
iii, ;alculate the 6elocity ratio of the arrangement.
iv, 2ssuming that the efficiency of the system is 1889, what is the mechanical
advantage1
v, ;alculate the value of +.
PROB. 2.2 pulley system has a velocity ratio 3 and an efficiency of M89. 4raw a la$elled
diagram of this pulley system. ;alculate the mechanical advantage of the system and the
value of the effort re:uired to raise a load of 388 7.
PROB. 3.&n a system of four pulleys, the lower two pulleys are mova$le and the upper two
are fi*ed.
i, 4raw a string around the pulleys. 2lso show the place and direction in which the
effort is applied.
ii, 0hat is the velocity ratio of the system1
iii, 0hat is the mechanical advantage of the system1
iv) 0hat assumption do you ma-e in arriving at your answer in part !iii"1
P!4'. /.2 $loc- and tac-le system has I pulleys. &f an effort of 1888 7 is needed to raise a
load of .I88 7, calculate
i) mechanical advantage

34

ii, velocity ratio, and
iii, efficiency of the system.
P!4'. 8.4raw a diagram of $loc- and tac-le system of pulleys having a velocity ratio of I.
&n your diagram indicate clearly the points of application and the direction of the tension
in each strand.

34

#. Mind mas3dia1rams3ta"les3charts

34








34





4"5ective 6uestions
6.+.0hat is the relationship $etween the mechanical advantage and the velocity ratio for
i, an ideal machine,
ii, a practical machine.
Ans.
i, M.2. 5 6.#.
ii, M.2. O 6.#.
6.-.Mechanical advantage !M.2.", load !)" and effort !+" are related as
i, M.2. 5 ) > +
ii, M.2. > + 5 )
iii) 5 M.2.> )
iv, 7one of these.
Ans.M.2. > + 5 )
Q.3.The correct relationship $etween the velocity ratio !6.#.", distance moved $y load and
distance moved $y effort is
Ans.The correct relationship $etween the mechanical advantage !M.2.", the velocity
ratio !6.#." and the efficiency ! " is
i) M.2. 5 > 6.#.
ii) 6.#. 5 > M.2.
iii) 5 M.2. > 6.#.
iv, 7one of these
Ans.M.2. 5 > 6.#.
6./.For an ideal machine, the ratio of mechanical advantage !M.2." to the velocity ratio
!6.#." is
i, greater than one
ii, less than one
iii, e:ual to one
iv) 4epends on the value of load.
Ans.e:ual to one
Q.5.0hich of the following statements is not true for a machine

34

i, &t always has efficiency less than 1889.
ii, Mechanical advantage can $e less than one.
iii, &t can also $e used as a speed multiplier.
iv, &t can have a mechanical advantage greater than the velocity ratio.
Ans. &t can have mechanical advantage greater than the velocity ratio
6.9.To which class of levers do the following $elong1
i, 0heel $arrow
ii, 7ut crac-er
iii, ;row$ar
iv, Fishing rod
v, Forearm
vi, Fire tongs
vii, ,hysical $alance
viii,Seesaw
ix, #owing oar of a $oat
x, Forceps
xi, =pening a door
xii, =pening a $o*
xiii,Motor car footN$ra-e
xiv,Pnife.
Q.7.&hat are the parts of a lever
i, effort, fulcrum, load
ii, fulcrum, force, load
iii, resistance, effort, fulcrum
iv, all of the a$ove
Q.8.&hich of the following are all simple machines
i, lever, wedge, inclined plane

34

ii, wheel and a*le, screw, wedge
iii, pulley, wedge, inclined plane
iv, all of the a$ove
Q.9.,n a+e is an e+ample of what simple machine
i, inclined plane
ii, pulley
iii, wedge !correct answer"
iv, screw
Q.10., door is an e+ample of what simple machine
i, inclined plane
ii, wedge
iii, screw
iv, lever !correct answer"
Q.11., flagpole is an e+ample of what simple machine
i, screw
ii, pulley !correct answer"
iii, inclined plane
iv, lever
Q.12.&hen using an inclined plane. The work is easier. 0imple machines
only make work easier and do not do less work. )ow do inclined planes
make up this difference
i, move an o$Bect over a longer distance !correct answer"
ii, move an o$Bect over a shorter distance
iii, there is no difference
Q.13.&hen do you need less force using a lever

34

i, when the fulcrum and effort are close together
ii, when the fulcrum and force are close together
iii, when the load and fulcrum are close together !correct answer"
iv, the distance does not ma-e a difference
Q.14.The ramps at the astrodome represent what simple machine
i, pulley
ii, inclined plane !correct answer"
iii, wheel and a*le
iv, lever
Q.15.&hat are the two $2% kinds of pulleys
i, movea$le and nonNmovea$le
ii, fi*ed and nonNmovea$le
iii, movea$le and fi*ed !correct answer"
iv, fi*ed and hoo-ed
6.+9.A ram is an examle of this t$e of simle machine
i) inclined plane
ii) pulley
iii) lever
iv, wedge
Q.17.This makes raising a !ag "# a !ag#$!e m"%h easier
i) inclined plane
ii) pulley
iii) lever
iv, fulcrum

34

Q.18.A s%re& is a%'"a!!( $ne $ 'hese &ra##e) ar$"n) a #$s'
One answer only.
i) inclined plane
ii) pulley
iii) lever
iv, fulcrum
6.+<.Two simle machines found in a air of scissors
i) lever, wedge, sometimes wheel and a*le
ii) pulley
iii) lever
iv, fulcrum
6.+.For greater efficiency of a $loc- and tac-le pulley system
i, the lower $loc- should $e of negligi$le
ii, the upper and lower $loc-s should $e of e:ual weights
iii, the lower $loc- should $e heavier than the upper $loc-
iv, the weight of rope should $e e:ual to the weight of pulleys.
Ans.the lower $loc- should $e of negligi$le weight
6.-.State true or false.
i, The velocity ratio of a single mova$le pulley is always 2.
ii, The velocity ratio of a single fi*ed pulley is always more than 1.
iii, The velocity ratio of a $loc- and tac-le system is always e:ual to the num$er of
strands of the tac-le supporting the load .
Ans.
i, T
ii, F
iii, T
Q.21.State whether the mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is e:ual to 1, less than 1
or greater than 11 Ans. 3reater than 1
Ans.

34