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DESIGN OF A PLANT TO PRODUCE 15000 TONNES PER


ANNUM OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
BY
EMUZE, ANDREW IGHODALO
(2003/14981 EH)
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING,
FEDARAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, MINNA
NOVEMBER, 2008
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DESIGN OF A PLANT TO PRODUCE 15000 TONNES PER
ANNUM OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
BY
EMUZE, ANDREW IGBODALO
(2003/1 4981 EH)
A PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOWGY, MINNA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE
AWARD OF B.ENG (CHEMICAL)
NOVEMBER, 2008
DECLARATION
I, EMUZE, ANDREW GIHODALO (2003/14981EH), declare that this project work is
my work, and to the best of my knowledge has never been submitted elsewhere before now.
Signature Date
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CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by Emuze, Andrew Ighodalo with
registration number 2003/14981, and that it was examined and approved for the
partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering, Federal
university of Technology, Minna.
Engr. M. Auta
(project Supervisor)
Dr. M.O. Edoga
(Head of Department)
External Examiner
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Date
Date
Date
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DEDICATION
This project work is dedicated to God Almighty for his love, care, protection and
provision for me and my family throughout our time on earth. This project is also dedicated to
~ my ever-loving parents, Mr. and Mrs. 8.0. Emuze, for being there for me at all times. May God
!
... continue to bless you, and grant your heart desires. Amen
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I overwhelmingly acknowledge and thank God Almighty, the Alpha and Omega,
Beginning and the End for his wlquantifiable love, care, guidance, provision, mercies and favour
:. granted to me since I was born till date. You enabled the beginning and end of this pursuit, there
is none like You.
.
Great thanks and appreciation to my supervisor, Engr. Auta .M. whom without your
constructive criticism, guidance, and moral support tIus project, would not have been a success.
I also acknowledge the Dean of the School of Engineering and Engineering Technology,
Prof. J.A. Odigure. I say a big tIlank you for your moral and academic advices, may God
continue to bless you. Amen.
My sincere gratitude also goes to my Head of Deprutment, Dr. M.O. Edoga. Thank you
for all your moral and academic advice, your principles have added beauty to my life .
I greatly tIlrulk Prof. K. R. Olufade. You have been a fatl1er to me in tIlis school,
and I pray God blesses you with your heart desires, long life, and excellent health. I can't thank
you enough.
I also greatly appreciate my lecturers; Dr. D. Aloko, Engineer Muktar, Engineer
Mrulasseh, Engineer Galadima, and indeed the entire staff (teaching ruld non-teaching) of
Chemical Engineering department. May God reward you greatly.
I say a big tIlank you to Pastor Emmenuel Ohere of Transfonl1ation Chapel, may God
continue to uplift you, strengthen you, and continue to grow your knowledge. A big thank you to
the entire Living Faith Church family in Minna, may God bless you all. I also appreciate Pastor
ltuah Ighodalo and the entire family of R.C.C.G-ChristChurch Parish, for your love, prayers, and
messages, May God bless you aU abundantly. Amen
My thanks cannot be enough for my loving parents, Mr. and Mrs. S.O. Emuze, words
C8l1 't tell how much I love you, and appreciate all your efforts. You are the best parent rulyone
could have, and I thank. God I'm your son. May God continually bless and keep you. Amen.
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Great thanks to my brothers and sisters; Anthony, Arnold, and Alero, you have made me who I
am today. I thank God we're family, and pray God bless you abundantly. Thanks also to my
youngest aunt Adesuwa, may God bless you.
Big thanks to my cousins; Tuoyo, Mone, Dolapo, Temilola, and others, may God be with
you. My sincere gratitude also goes to aunties and uncles, and also to Mr. and Mrs. Odunuga for
your kindness, may God always guide you. I also appreciate my big bros, Mr. Funso Akin-
Amuwa, you are a brother indeed, and may God bless you abwuiantly. My sincere appreciation
to the Mr. and Mrs. Akinbo, and the entire Akinbo family, you were my parents in Minna, and I
would never forget you and your kindness. May God be with you all always. I also say a big
thank you to Mr. Akande Hassan, and Mr. Tunde and your family, you would always be
remembered. May God bless you all.
Lastly,my profound gratitude goes to my friends Ige Saheed, Kamal, Mahmood, Ramat,
Bola, Yewande, Tobosun, Paul and others in queens, may God be with you all. I can't say
enough thank you to Tolu (Ori-Tee), Bisola, (MSA), Oyinlola, Grace, Busayo, and Bunmi, you
were my family in Milma, and I'm going to miss you big rune. I thank God I meet you guys, and
hope we meet even in another generation. Big thanks to Mr. and Mrs. B. Agusiobo
(MOLISA'08), your house was my presidential lodge in Abuja, may God bless you greatly. I
can't forget to say thank you to my great peeps; Chinedu, Micheal, Dotun, Ayo Alabi, Ayo
Akinsola, and Wole (Abuja), you guys have a pennanent place in my heart. May God bless and
keep you. Amen. I greatly appreciate Dare, thanks for your calls, messages, prayers and
encouragement. You are dear to me, may God bless you greatly.
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ABSTRACT
The production of hydrochloric acid using propylene and chlorine as raw materials has
been investigated in this work. The product properties studied were used to design a plant to
produce 15000 tonnes of hydrochloric acid per annum, with great consideration to safety,
quality, economy and technology.
The production process is showed in the process flow diagram, and consists of unit
processes involving heating chlorine and propylene to reaction temperator of 350
Q
C, chlorination
of propylene, cooling of reactor product, separation of dicbloro propylene from the reactor
product, reactive absorption of to produce more HCI and finally, separation of excess propylene
for recyclene.
The economic analysis was used using carried out using a plant efficiency of 90% and
300hours operating days, and assuming 8ooohours per annum. The plant was found to be of
great economy, having pay-back period of9 months, and rate of return of 134.274%.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page
Title page
Declaration
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgemen.t
Abstract
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Historical Background
2.1.1 General propeliies of Hydrochloric Acid
2.1.2 Chemical properties of Hydrogen Chloride and
Hydrochloric Acid
2.2.1 Hydrochloric Acid Emissions
2.3.0 Alternative Process Description Routes
2.3.1 The manufacture of Hydrochloric Acid by Thermal or Synthetic
Process
2.3.2 Hydrochloric Acid manufacture from By-Product of Organic
Chlorination
2.3.3 Manufacture of Hydrochloric Acid from the Reaction between
Sodiwn Chloride with Sulphuric Acid or Hydrogen. Sulphate
2.4. Selection of Best Alternative Production Route
2.4.1 By-Product Process
2.4.2 Synthetic Process
2.4.3 Hargreaves Process
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IV
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VIll
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2.4.4 Salt Sulphuric Process
8
2.5 Yield and Conversion 9
2.6 Number of Equipments 9
2.6.1 Salt Sulphuric process 9
2.6.2 Hargreaves Process 10
2.6.3 Synthetic Process 10
2.7 By-Product Process 10
2.8 ProcessFlexibility 11
2.9 Application of Hydrochloric Acid 11
2.9.1 Ends Uses of Hydrochloric Acid 12
2.10 Design Process 12
2.11 Assumptions used in the project Work 12
2.12 Technical Matters of Importance 13
2.20 Process Description of Selected Technology 13
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Material Balance Across Units
15
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Energy Balance
23
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Process Flow Diagram
32
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 Equipment Design and Optimization of Separator (2)
33
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CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0 Safety and Quality Control 37
7.1 Insight into Safety 37
7.1.2 Some Safety Measures 38
7.2 Quality Control 39
CHAPTER EIGHT
8.0 Process Control and Instnunentation 40
8.1 Process Control 40
8.1.2 Control of Flowrate 40
8.1.3 Control of Temperature 41
8.1.4 Control of Pressure 42
8.2 Process Instrwnentation 42
8.2.1 Objectives of Instrumentation
42
8.2.2 Instrwnentation Equipments
43
CHAPTER NINE
9.0 Environmental Acceptability
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CHAPTER TEN
10.0 Start-Up and Shut-Down Procedure
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10.1 Start-Up and Shut-Down Procedure for the Hydrochloric-
Acid plant
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10.1.2 Strut-Up of the Separator
50
10.1.3 Start-Up of the Heater
50
10.1.4 Start -Up of the Reactor
50
10.1.5 Start-Up of the Absorber
50
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10.2 Hydrochloric Acid Plant Shut-Down 51
10.2.1 Routine Hydrochloric Acid plant Shut-Down 51
10.2.2 Emergency Shut-Down of the Hydrochloric Acid Plant 52
10.3 Start-Up after Emergency Shut-Down 52
CHAPTER ELEVEN
11.0 Plant Location and Layout
11.1 Plant Location
11.2 Diagram of Plant Layout
CHAPTER TWELVE
12.0 Economic Analysis
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
l3.0 Recommendation to the Industrialists
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
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