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Experiment No. 1

Problem Definition: Analysis of Inertia Force in Slider Crank Mechanism
Using Computer Software.

% Programme For Slider Crank Mechanism
function slidercrank1()
clc;

fprintf('\nINPUT\n');

N=input('Engine Speed, N (rpm) : ');
l=input('Length between centres, l (mm): ');
l2=input('Dist between centres of mass, l2 (mm): ');
m=input('Mass of connecting rod, m (kg): ');
mr=input('Mass of reciprocating parts, mr (kg): ');
r=input('Crank length, r (mm): ');
theta=input('Crank angle, Theta (Deg) : ');
k=input('Radius of Gyration, k (mm) : ');

fprintf('\nOUTPUT');

% Angular Velocity
w=2*pi*N/60;
fprintf('\nAngular Velocity, w = %f rad/s\n',w);

% Mass at Crank Pin
l1=l-l2;
mi=m*l2/(l1+l2);
Mr=mr+mi;
fprintf('\nMass at Crank Pin, Mr = %d kg',Mr);

theta_rad=theta*pi/180;

% l/r Ratio
n=l/r;
fprintf('\nl/r Ratio, n = %f',n);

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%Acceleration of Reciprocating Parts
f=r/1000*w^2*(cos(theta_rad)+cos(2*theta_rad)/n);
fprintf('\nAcceleration of Reciprocating Parts, f = %f m/s^2',f);

% Inertia Force
Fi=Mr*f;
fprintf('\nInertia Force, Fi = %f N',Fi);

% Inertia Torque
Ti=Fi*r/1000*(sin(theta_rad)+sin(2*theta_rad)/(2*(n^2-(sin(theta_rad))^2)^(1/2)));
fprintf('\nInertia Torque Due to Reciprocating Parts, Ti = %f N.m\n',Ti);

L=l1+(k^2)/l1;
alpha=(-1)*w^2*sin(theta_rad)*((n^2-1)/((n^2-(sin(theta_rad))^2)^(3/2)));

fprintf('\nl1 = %d mm',l1);
fprintf('\nL = %f mm\n',L);
fprintf('\nalpha = %f rad/s^2\n',alpha);

% Correction Couple
dT=m*alpha*l1/1000*(l-L)/1000;
fprintf('\nCorrection Couple, dT = %f N.m/n',dT);

% Correction Torque on Crankshaft
Tc=dT*cos(theta_rad)/(n^2-(sin(theta_rad))^2)^(1/2);
fprintf('\nCorrection Torque on Crankshaft, Tc = %f N.m',Tc);

% Torque due to Weight of Mass at Crank Pin
g=9.81;
m2=m-mi;
Ta=m2*g*r*cos(theta_rad)/1000;
fprintf('\nTorque Due to Weight of Mass at Crank Pin, Ta = %f N.m',Ta);

% Total Inertia Torque on Crankshaft
T=Ti-Tc+Ta;
fprintf('\nTotal Inertia Torque on Crankshaft, T = %f N.m\n\n',T);

for theta=0:20*pi/180:2*pi;
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f=r/1000*w^2*(cos(theta)+cos(2*theta)/n);
Fi=Mr*f;
Ti=Fi*r/1000*(sin(theta)+sin(2*theta)/(2*(n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(1/2)));
L=l1+(k^2)/l1;
alpha=(-1)*w^2*sin(theta)*((n^2-1)/((n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(3/2)));
dT=m*alpha*l1/1000*(l-L)/1000;
Tc=dT*cos(theta)/(n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(1/2);
g=9.81;
m2=m-mi;
Ta=m2*g*r*cos(theta)/1000;
T=Ti-Tc+Ta;
thetad= theta*180/pi;
fprintf('\nTheta = %f Deg',thetad);
fprintf('\tT = %f N.m',T);
end

for theta=0:0.001:2*pi;
f=r/1000*w^2*(cos(theta)+cos(2*theta)/n);
Fi=Mr*f;
Ti=Fi*r/1000*(sin(theta)+sin(2*theta)/(2*(n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(1/2)));
L=l1+(k^2)/l1;
alpha=(-1)*w^2*sin(theta)*((n^2-1)/((n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(3/2)));
dT=m*alpha*l1/1000*(l-L)/1000;
Tc=dT*cos(theta)/(n^2-(sin(theta))^2)^(1/2);
g=9.81;
m2=m-mi;
Ta=m2*g*r*cos(theta)/1000;
T=Ti-Tc+Ta;
thetad= theta*180/pi;
hold on
plot (thetad,T,'r');
hold off
end
title('T-\theta Diagram');
xlabel ('\theta [Deg]');
ylabel ('T(N.m)');
grid
end
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INPUT
Engine Speed, N (rpm) : 600
Length between centres, l (mm): 450
Dist between centres of mass, l2 (mm): 180
Mass of connecting rod, m (kg): 90
Mass of reciprocating parts, mr (kg): 120
Crank length, r (mm): 90
Crank angle, Theta (Deg) : 80
Radius of Gyration, k (mm) : 150

OUTPUT
Angular Velocity, w = 62.831853 rad/s

Mass at Crank Pin, Mr = 156 kg
l/r Ratio, n = 5.000000
Acceleration of Reciprocating Parts, f = -5.077442 m/s^2
Inertia Force, Fi = -792.081014 N
Inertia Torque Due to Reciprocating Parts, Ti = -72.691161 N.m

l1 = 270 mm
L = 353.333333 mm

alpha = -792.113864 rad/s^2

Correction Couple, dT = -1860.675467 N.m/n
Correction Torque on Crankshaft, Tc = -65.911711 N.m
Torque Due to Weight of Mass at Crank Pin, Ta = 8.278955 N.m
Total Inertia Torque on Crankshaft, T = 1.499505 N.m

Theta = 0.000000 Deg T = 47.676600 N.m
Theta = 20.000000 Deg T = 2376.265323 N.m
Theta = 40.000000 Deg T = 3182.214761 N.m
Theta = 60.000000 Deg T = 2091.243250 N.m
Theta = 80.000000 Deg T = 1.499505 N.m
Theta = 100.000000 Deg T = -1787.634693 N.m
Theta = 120.000000 Deg T = -2516.629612 N.m
Theta = 140.000000 Deg T = -2200.522564 N.m
Theta = 160.000000 Deg T = -1249.418507 N.m
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Theta = 180.000000 Deg T = -47.676600 N.m
Theta = 200.000000 Deg T = 1159.815809 N.m
Theta = 220.000000 Deg T = 2127.477775 N.m
Theta = 240.000000 Deg T = 2468.953012 N.m
Theta = 260.000000 Deg T = 1771.076784 N.m
Theta = 280.000000 Deg T = 15.058405 N.m
Theta = 300.000000 Deg T = -2043.566650 N.m
Theta = 320.000000 Deg T = -3109.169972 N.m
Theta = 340.000000 Deg T = -2286.662625 N.m
Theta = 360.000000 Deg T = 47.676600 N.m>>

Result :-










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Experiment No. 2

Problem Definition: Coupler Curve Synthesis for A Mechanism Using
Computer Software.


INPUT
% ProgrammeFor Coupler Curve Synthesis
functionCoupler_Curve_Synthesis()
clc;

%Inputs
t1=110; t2=77; t3=50;
r1=80; r2=90; r3=96;
a1=65; a2=56; a3=48;

%Angle Conversions
t1=degtorad(t1); t2=degtorad(t2); t3=degtorad(t3);
a1=degtorad(a1); a2=degtorad(a2); a3=degtorad(a3);

%Assuming Suitable Value of Angles Gamma=20 Deg, Si=10 Deg, Delta1=150 Deg
gg=degtorad(20); ss=degtorad(10); d1=degtorad(150);

for j=0:1:1
if j==0
tt1=t1; tt2=t2; tt3=t3; dd=gg; sign=1;
end

if j==1
a=x; g=y; e=z;
b1=(acos((r1*cos(a1)-g*cos(gg)-a*cos(t1))/e));
b2=(acos((r2*cos(a2)-g*cos(gg)-a*cos(t2))/e));
b3=(acos((r3*cos(a3)-g*cos(gg)-a*cos(t3))/e));
d2=d1+(b2-b1); d3=d1+(b3-b1);
tt1=d1; tt2=d2; tt3=d3; dd=ss; sign=-1;
end

%Matrix For l
l0=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) 1;2*r2*cos(tt2-a2)...
2*r2*cos(a2-dd) 1;2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-dd) 1];
l1=[r1^2 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) 1;r2^2 2*r2*cos(a2-dd) 1;r3^2 2*r3*cos(a3-dd) 1];
l2=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) r1^2 1;2*r2*cos(tt2-a2) r2^2 1;2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) r3^2 1];
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l3=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) r1^2;2*r2*cos(tt2-a2)...
2*r2*cos(a2-dd) r2^2;2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-dd) r3^2];

%matrix for m
m0=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) 1;2*r2*cos(tt2-a2)...
2*r2*cos(a2-dd) 1;2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-dd) 1];
m1=[2*cos(tt1-dd) 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) 1;2*cos(tt2-dd)...
2*r2*cos(a2-dd) 1;2*cos(tt3-dd) 2*r3*cos(a3-dd) 1];
m2=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) 2*cos(tt1-dd) 1;2*r2*cos(tt2-a2)...
2*cos(tt2-dd) 1;2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) 2*cos(tt3-dd) 1];
m3=[2*r1*cos(tt1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-dd) 2*cos(tt1-dd);2*r2*cos(tt2-a2)...
2*r2*cos(a2-dd) 2*cos(tt2-dd);2*r3*cos(tt3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-dd)...
2*cos(tt3-dd)];

%Constants Calculation
la=det(l1)/det(l0);
lg=det(l2)/det(l0);
lk=det(l3)/det(l0);
ma=det(m1)/det(m0);
mg=det(m2)/det(m0);
mk=det(m3)/det(m0);

A=ma*mg;
B=la*mg+lg*ma-1;
C=la*lg;

L=(-B-sign*sqrt(B^2-4*A*C))/(2*A);
x=la+L*ma; y=lg+L*mg; k=lk+L*mk; z=sqrt(k+x^2+y^2);
end

f=x; h=y; c=z;
dx=h*cos(ss)-g*cos(gg);
dy=h*sin(ss)-g*sin(gg);
d=sqrt(dx^2+dy^2);
b=distance(a*cos(t1),a*sin(t1),(a*cos(t1)+e*cos(b1)+f*cos(pi+d1)),...
(a*sin(t1)+e*sin(b1)+f*sin(pi+d1)));

%Link Lengths
fprintf('\nOUTPUT');
fprintf('\n a b c d e f g h');
fprintf('\n%8.2f %8.2f %8.2f %8.2f %8.2f %8.2f %8.2f %8.2f\n',a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h);


%Set Graph Limits
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xlim([-60 100])
ylim([-10 110])

%Plotting Fixed Link
line([0,dx],[0,dy],'Color','g','DisplayName','Fixed Link','LineWidth',2);

for j=0:1:2
if j==0
tt=t1; bb=b1; dd=d1;
end

if j==1
tt=t2; bb=b2; dd=d2;
end

if j==2
tt=t3; bb=b3; dd=d3;
end

%Plotting Moving Links
line([0,a*cos(tt),(a*cos(tt)+e*cos(bb)+f*cos(pi+dd)),dx],...
[0,a*sin(tt),(a*sin(tt)+e*sin(bb)+f*sin(pi+dd)),dy],...
'DisplayName','Moving Links','LineWidth',2); %Line Properties

%Plotting Coupler Links
line([a*cos(tt),(a*cos(tt)+e*cos(bb)),(a*cos(tt)+e*cos(bb)+f*cos(pi+dd))]...
,[a*sin(tt),(a*sin(tt)+e*sin(bb)),(a*sin(tt)+e*sin(bb)+f*sin(pi+dd))]...
,'Color','r','DisplayName','Coupler Links','LineWidth',2);
end

%Plotting Coupler Curve
k1=d/a; k2=d/b; k3=(c^2-a^2-b^2-d^2)/(2*a*b);
A=(k2+1)*cos(t1)+k3-k1; B=-2*sin(t1); C=k1+k3+(k2-1)*cos(t1);
beta=2*atan((-B-sqrt(B^2-4*A*C))/(2*A)); alpha=b1-beta;

for t=0:.001:2*pi;
A=(k2+1)*cos(t)+k3-k1; B=-2*sin(t); C=k1+k3+(k2-1)*cos(t);
beta=2*atan((-B-sqrt(B^2-4*A*C))/(2*A));
x=real(a*cos(t)+e*cos(alpha+beta)); y=real(a*sin(t)+e*sin(alpha+beta));
holdon
plot(x,y,'k','DisplayName','Coupler Curve','LineWidth',2);
legendshow
holdoff
end
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title('Coupler Curve Plot');
xlabel ('X-Axis');
ylabel ('Y-Axis');
grid
end

title('Coupler Curve Plot');
xlabel ('X-Axis');
ylabel ('Y-Axis');
grid
end


OUTPUT

a b c d e f g h
17.20 44.63 28.50 27.51 39.40 65.04 54.95 79.91




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Experiment No. 3

Problem Definition: Determination of Natural Frequencies & Modal Analysis
of A Cantilever Beam Using FFT Analyzer.



5mm

600mm 50mm

Fig 3.1 Cantilever beam with loading
Table 3.1 shows the detail of cantilever beam which includes dimension of beam and its material
properties.
Table 3.1Dimension and material properties of cantilever beam.
Length 600 mm
Width 50 mm
Height 5 mm
Youngs modulus (E)

210 GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3

The beam is clamped to a rigid wall at the left end and Impact load is applied on Specimen by
using Impact hammer.




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Fig 3.2 Experimental Setup of FFT Analyzer
As shown in Fig no.3.2 the experimental setup of FFT Analyzer consist of following equipment
as.
1. Speciman: The Specimen having dimension 600 X 50 X 5 mm, of mild steel is used for
testing.
Accelerometer
'C 'Clamp for
Holding Specimen
Channel Board
Impact Hammer
FFT Software
Specimen
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2. 'C' Clamp Board: It is used for holding the beam at one end.
3. FFT Channel: This is hardware device which is used for giving input and output to the FFT
software. It contains 8 no of channels out of that channel no 2 and channel no 5 are used to take
input and output of data. Channel no 2 is connected to accelerometer sensor to take output
signals from beam and channel no 5 is connected to impact hammer to excite the beam.
4. Impact Hammer: It is used to excite the beam.
5. Acclerometer Sensor: It is used for measuring vibration parameters.

Fig 3.3 Channel Setup
The Fig no. 3.3 is shows channel setup window hear we gives channel setup for channel no2 and
no5.
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Fig 3.4 Channel Setup for channel no 2.

In channel no 2 we give the physical quantity as Acceleration and unit as 'g'. Here Sensitivity of
accelerometer sensor is 9.749 mv/g.


Fig 3.5 Channel Setup for channel no 5.

In channel no 5 we give the physical quantity as Force and unit as 'N'. Here sensitivity of Impact
hammer which is 2.28 mv/N.




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Fig 3.6 Modal Test Window.

The fig no 3.6 shows the model test window in that we selected calculation type as
Triggered(FRF) and tick on Roving hammer/acc. In this experiment we excite the specimen at 3
different position (at X= -300,X=0 and X=300mm)


Fig 3.7 Frequency Domain Graph of Model Test

Conclusion: In above fig. Maximum peaks at frequency 332.31 Hz and 546.875 Hz.
So,Natural frequency in the first two modes are 332.31 Hz and 546.875 Hz.



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Experiment No 4
4.1 Problem Definition: Stress And Deflection Analysis of Short and Long
Beams With Different End Condition and Crass-Section Subjected to
Different Loading Condition Using FEA Software.



Fig 4.1 Cantilever beam with loading
Table 4.1 shows the detail of cantilever beam which includes dimension of beam and its
material properties.
Table 4.1 Dimension and material properties of cantilever beam.
Length 90 mm
Width 10 mm
Height 5 mm
Youngs modulus (E)

210 GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3

The beam is clamped to a rigid wall at the left end and loaded at x =80mm by a point load of
P =100 N.

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Fig 4.2 Flowchart of the structural analyses by ANSYS.

Modeling: Figure 1.3-1.4 show the ANSYS Main Menu window where we can find
layered command options imitating folders and files in the Microsoft Explorer folder
window. In order to prepare for creating the beam, the following operations should be made:
(1) Preprocessor to open its sub-menus in ANSYS Main Menu window.
(2) Modeling to open its sub-menus and select Create menu.
(3) Areas to open its sub-menus and select Rectangle menu.
(4) Click on By 2 corners menu.

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Fig 4.3 ANSYS Main Menu Fig 4.4 Rectangle by 2 Corners
window. window.



Fig 4.5 2-D beam created and displayed on the ANSYS Graphics window.

Material Properties: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMaterial PropsMaterial
Models. Then the Define Material Model Behavior window opens as shown in
Fig 4.6-4.7
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Fig 4.6 Define Material Model Behavior window.



Fig 4.7 Input of elastic constants through the Linear Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1
window.

Finite-Element Discretization of the Beam Area: Here we will divide the beam area into
finite elements. The procedures for finiteelement discretization are firstly to select the
element type, secondly to input the element thickness and finally to divide the beam area into
elements. ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessorElement TypeAdd/ Edit/Delete

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Fig 4.8 Library of Element Types window.



Fig 4.9 PLANE 182 element type options window.



Fig 4.10 Real Constants Set Number 1. for PLANE 183 window.
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Sizing of the elements: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingSize
CntrlsManual SizeGlobalSize



Fig 4.11 Global Element Sizes window.

Meshing: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingMeshAreasFree



Fig 4.12 FE model of beam

Input of Boundary Conditions: Here we will impose constraint and loading conditions on
nodes of the beam model. Display the nodes first to define the constraint and loading
conditions.
ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoadsApplyStructuralDisplacementOn
Nodes
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Fig 4.13 Apply U. ROT on Nodes window.

ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefine LoadsStructuralForce/ MomentOn Nodes




Fig 4.14 Apply F/M on Nodes window.


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Fig 4.15 Boundary condition with loading

Solution Procedures: ANSYSMainMenuSolutionSolveCurrent LS



Fig 4.15 Solve Current Load Step window.



Fig 4.16 Note window.

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Graphical representation of the results: ANSYSMainMenuGeneral PostprocPlot
ResultsContour PlotNodal Solution



Fig 4.17 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for deflection




Fig 4.18 Contour map representation of the distribution of displacement in the y- or vertical direction.

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Fig 4.19 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for stress



Fig 4.20 Contour map representation of the distribution of Von Mises stress

Conclusion: The maximum deflection in Y direction is 0.927 mm and maximum Von Mises
stress is 190.45 MPa.

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4.2 Problem Definition: Stress and Deflection Analysis of Short and Long Beams With
Different End Condition and Crass-Section Subjected to Different Loading Condition
Using FEA Software .


Fig 4.21 Stepped beam with loading
Table 4.21 shows the detail of stepped beam which includes dimension of beam and its
material properties.
Table 4.21 Dimension and material properties of cantilever beam.
Length 100 mm
Width 10 mm
Height 20 mm
Youngs modulus (E)

210GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3

The beam is clamped to a rigid wall at the left end and loadedat x =100mm by a point load of
P =100 N.

Modeling: Figure 4.20 -4.21 show the ANSYS Main Menu window where we can find
layered command options imitating folders and files in the Microsoft Explorer folder
window.In order to prepare for creating the beam, the following operations should be made:
(1) Preprocessor to open its sub-menus in ANSYS Main Menu window.
(2) Modeling to open its sub-menus and select Create menu.
(3) Areas to open its sub-menus and select Rectangle menu.
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(4) Click on By 2 corners menu.
(5)ModelingOperateBooleansSubtractArea.
(6) Areas to open its sub-menus and select Circle menu.
(7) Click onSolid circle menu.
(8)ModelingOperateBooleansSubtractArea.




Fig 4.22ANSYS main menu Fig 4.23Rectangle by 2 corners
window. window.
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Fig 4.24Solid circle Area window.



Fig 4.25 2-D beam created and displayed on the ANSYS Graphics window.

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Material Properties: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMaterialPropsMaterialModels.
Then the Define Material Model Behavior window opens as shown in
Figure 4.22.-4.22.3



Fig 4.26 Define Material Model Behavior window.



Fig 4.27 Input of elastic constants through the Linear Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1
window.

Finite-Element Discretization of the Beam Area:Here we will divide the beam area into
finite elements. The procedures for finiteelement discretization are firstly to select the
element type, secondly to input the element thickness and finally to divide the beam area into
elements.ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessorElement TypeAdd/ Edit/Delete

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Fig 4.28 Library of Element Types window.



Fig 4.29 PLANE 182 element type options window.



Fig 4.30 Real Constants Set Number 1. for PLANE 183 window.
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Sizing of the elements:
ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingSizeCntrlsManualSizeGlobalSize



Fig 4.31Global Element Sizes window.

Meshing: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingMeshAreasFree



Fig 4.32 FE model of beam

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Input of Boundary Conditions: Here we will impose constraint and loading conditions on
nodes of the beam model. Display the nodes first to define the constraint and loading
conditions.
ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoadsApplyStructuralDisplacementOn
Nodes


Fig 4.33 Apply U. ROT on Nodes window.

ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoadsStructuralForce/MomentOn Nodes




Fig 4.34 Apply F/M on Nodes window.


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Fig 4.35 Boundary condition with loading

Solution Procedures: ANSYSMainMenuSolutionSolveCurrent LS



Fig 4.36 Solve Current Load Step window.



Fig 4.37 Note window.

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Graphical representation of the
results:ANSYSMainMenuGeneralPostprocPlotResultsContourPlotNodal Solution



Fig 4.38 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for deflection



Fig 4.39 Contour map representation of the distribution of displacement in the y- or vertical direction.

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Fig 4.40 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for stress



Fig 4.41 Contour map representation of the distribution of Von Mises stress

Conclusion: The maximum deflection in Y direction is 0.044 mm and maximum Von Mises
stress is 30.36MPa.









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Experiment No 5
5.1 Problem Definition: Stress and Deflection Analysis of Rectangular Plates Using FEA
Software.

Fig 5.1 rectangular plate having one hole
Table 5.1 shows the detail of rectangular plate which includes dimension of plate and its
material properties.
Table 5.1 Dimension and material properties of cantilever beam.
Width 1000 mm
Height 500 mm
Thickness 10 mm
Radius of circle 25 mm
Youngs modulus (E)

210GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3

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Fig 5.2 Flowchart of the structural analyses by ANSYS.

Modeling:Figure 5.3-5.4 show the ANSYS Main Menu window where we can find
layeredcommand options imitating folders and files in the Microsoft Explorer
folderwindow.In order to prepare for creating the plate, the following operations shouldbe
made:
(1) Preprocessor to open its sub-menus in ANSYSMainMenu window.
(2) Modeling to open its sub-menus and select Create menu.
(3) Areas to open its sub-menus and select Rectangle menu.
(4) Click on By 2 corners menu.
(5) Areas to open its sub-menus and select Circle menu.
(6) Click onSolid circle menu.
(7)ModelingOperateBooleansSubtractArea.
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Fig 5.3ANSYS Main Menu Fig 5.4Rectangle By 2 Corners window.
Window.

Fig 5.5Solid Circular Area window
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Fig 5.6 2-D plate created and displayed on the ANSYS Graphics window.

Material Properties: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMaterialPropsMaterialModels.
Then the Define Material Model Behavior window opens as shown in
Figure 5.6-5.7



Fig 5.7 Define Material Model Behavior window.

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Fig 5.8 Input of elastic constants through the Linear Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1
window.

Finite-Element Discretization of the Rectangular plate Area:Here we will divide the plate
area into finite elements. The procedures for finiteelement discretization are firstly to select
the element type, secondly to input the element thickness and finally to divide the plate area
into elements.ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessorElement TypeAdd/ Edit/Delete



Fig 5.9 Library of Element Types window.

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Fig 5.10PLANE 183 element type options window.



Fig 5.11 Real Constants Set Number 1. for PLANE 183 window.



Meshing: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingMeshAreasFree

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Fig 5.12: FE model of plate

Input of Boundary Conditions: Here we will impose constraint and loading conditions on
nodes of the plate model. Display the nodes first to define the constraint and loading
conditions.
ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoadsApplyStructuralDisplacementOn
Nodes


Fig 5.13 Apply U. ROT on Nodes window.

DCOER ,Pune Page 42

ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoads ApplyStructuralForce/MomentOn
Nodes



Fig 5.14 Apply F/M on Nodes window.




Fig 5.15 Boundary condition with loading

DCOER ,Pune Page 43

Solution Procedures: ANSYSMainMenuSolutionSolveCurrent LS



Fig 5.16 Solve Current Load Step window.



Fig 5.17 Note window.


Graphical representation of the results:
ANSYSMainMenuGeneralPostprocPlotResultsContourPlotNodal Solution




DCOER ,Pune Page 44



Fig 5.18 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for stress
DCOER ,Pune Page 45




Fig 5.19 Contour map representation of the distribution of Von Mises stress



Result: The maximum Von Mises stress in the plate having one hole is 7.35489MPa.

















DCOER ,Pune Page 46

5.2 Problem Definition: Find The Stress Analysis of Rectangular Plate
Having Three Holes As Shown In Fig.



Fig 5.20 rectangular plate having three holes
Table 5.2 shows the detail of rectangular plate which includes dimension of plate and its
material properties.
Table 5.2 Dimension and material properties of plate
Width 1000 mm
Height 500 mm
Thickness 10 mm
Radius of middle circle 25 mm
Radius of outside circle 12.5 mm
Youngs modulus (E)

210GPa
Poissons ratio 0.3
DCOER ,Pune Page 47



Fig 5.21 2-D plate created and displayed on the ANSYS Graphics window.



Finite-Element Discretization of the Rectangular plate Area: Here we will divide the
plate area into finite elements. The procedures for finiteelement discretization are firstly to
select the element type, secondly to input the element thickness and finally to divide the plate
area into elements.ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessorElementTypeAdd/ Edit/Delete


Meshing: ANSYSMainMenuPreprocessorMeshingMeshAreasFree

DCOER ,Pune Page 48


Fig 5.22 FE model of plate

Input of Boundary Conditions: Here we will impose constraint and loading conditions on
nodes of the plate model. Display the nodes first to define the constraint and loading
conditions.

ANSYSMainMenuSolutionDefineLoads ApplyStructuralForce/MomentOn
Nodes





DCOER ,Pune Page 49



Fig 5.23 Boundary condition with loading

Solution Procedures: ANSYSMainMenuSolutionSolveCurrent LS



Fig 5.24 Note window.

Graphical representation of the results:
ANSYS MainMenuGeneralPostprocPlotResultsContourPlotNodal Solution
DCOER ,Pune Page 50




Fig 5.25 Contour Nodal Solution Data window for stress
DCOER ,Pune Page 51




Fig 5.26Contour map representation of the distribution of Von Mises stress



Result: The maximum Von Mises stress in the plate having three hole is 7.30891MPa.


Conclusion: The maximum Von Mises stress in the plate having three holes is less as
compared to the plate having one hole.







DCOER ,Pune Page 52

Experiment No 6
Problem Definition: Stress Analysis of Rotating Disk Using FEA Software.


Fig 6.1 3-D model of disk


DCOER ,Pune Page 53




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DCOER ,Pune Page 59











DCOER ,Pune Page 60






DCOER ,Pune Page 61











DCOER ,Pune Page 62







DCOER ,Pune Page 63





















DCOER ,Pune Page 64

Experiment No 7

Problem Definition: Direct/Model Frequency Response Analysis of a
Beam/Plate Under a Single-Point Cycle Load/Base Excitation With and
Without Damping Using FEA Software.



DCOER ,Pune Page 65



DCOER ,Pune Page 66


DCOER ,Pune Page 67



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DCOER ,Pune Page 69



DCOER ,Pune Page 70



DCOER ,Pune Page 71




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DCOER ,Pune Page 76


Fig 8.1 linear buckling on 1
st
node



DCOER ,Pune Page 77


Fig 8.2 linear buckling on 2
nd
node


DCOER ,Pune Page 78


Fig 8.3 linear buckling on 3
rd
node




DCOER ,Pune Page 79



Structural Steel > Isotropic Secant Coefficient of Thermal Expansion








DCOER ,Pune Page 80

Experiment No 8
Problem Definition: Direct /Model Frequency Response Analysis of A Plate
Under A Single Point Cycle Load/ Base Excitation With and Without
Damping Using FEA Software.

Units
Unit System Metric (mm, kg, N, s, mV, mA) Degrees rad/s Celsius
Angle Degrees
Rotational Velocity rad/s
Temperature Celsius



DCOER ,Pune Page 81

Geometry

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Geometry
Object Name Geometry
State Fully Defined
Definition
Source
C:\Users\mi747\AppData\Local\Temp\WB_W3-
A46012_mi747_5480_2\unsaved_project_files\dp0\SYS\DM\SYS.agdb
Type DesignModeler
Length Unit Meters
Element Control Program Controlled
Display Style Body Color
Bounding Box
Length X 50. mm
Length Y 5. mm
Length Z 400. mm
Properties
Volume 100000 mm
Mass 0.785 kg
Scale Factor Value 1.
Statistics
Bodies 1
Active Bodies 1
Nodes 6053
Elements 800
Mesh Metric None
Basic Geometry Options
Parameters Yes
Parameter Key DS
Attributes No
Named Selections No
Material Properties No
Advanced Geometry Options
Use Associativity Yes
Coordinate Systems No
Reader Mode Saves
Updated File
No
Use Instances Yes
Smart CAD Update No
Compare Parts On
Update
No
Attach File Via
Temp File
Yes
Temporary
Directory
C:\Users\mi747\AppData\Local\Temp
Analysis Type 3-D
Decompose
Disjoint Geometry
Yes
DCOER ,Pune Page 82

Enclosure and
Symmetry
Processing
Yes

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Geometry > Parts
Object Name Solid
State Meshed
Graphics Properties
Visible Yes
Transparency 1
Definition
Suppressed No
Stiffness Behavior Flexible
Coordinate System Default Coordinate System
Reference Temperature By Environment
Material
Assignment Structural Steel
Nonlinear Effects Yes
Thermal Strain Effects Yes
Bounding Box
Length X 50. mm
Length Y 5. mm
Length Z 400. mm
Properties
Volume 100000 mm
Mass 0.785 kg
Centroid X -3.5293e-016 mm
Centroid Y 2.5 mm
Centroid Z 200. mm
Moment of Inertia Ip1 10468 kg mm
Moment of Inertia Ip2 10630 kg mm
Moment of Inertia Ip3 165.18 kg mm
Statistics
Nodes 6053
Elements 800
Mesh Metric None





DCOER ,Pune Page 83

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Geometry > Image

Coordinate Systems

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System
Object Name Global Coordinate System
State Fully Defined
Definition
Type Cartesian
Coordinate System ID 0.
Origin
Origin X 0. mm
Origin Y 0. mm
Origin Z 0. mm
Directional Vectors
X Axis Data [ 1. 0. 0. ]
Y Axis Data [ 0. 1. 0. ]
Z Axis Data [ 0. 0. 1. ]
Mesh

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Mesh
Object Name Mesh
State Solved
Defaults
Physics Preference Mechanical
Relevance 0
Sizing
Use Advanced Size Function Off
Relevance Center Coarse
Element Size 5.0 mm
DCOER ,Pune Page 84

Initial Size Seed Active Assembly
Smoothing Medium
Transition Fast
Span Angle Center Coarse
Minimum Edge Length 5.0 mm
Inflation
Use Automatic Inflation None
Inflation Option Smooth Transition
Transition Ratio 0.272
Maximum Layers 5
Growth Rate 1.2
Inflation Algorithm Pre
View Advanced Options No
Patch Conforming Options
Triangle Surface Mesher Program Controlled
Patch Independent Options
Topology Checking Yes
Advanced
Number of CPUs for Parallel Part Meshing Program Controlled
Shape Checking Standard Mechanical
Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled
Straight Sided Elements No
Number of Retries Default (4)
Extra Retries For Assembly Yes
Rigid Body Behavior Dimensionally Reduced
Mesh Morphing Disabled
Defeaturing
Pinch Tolerance Please Define
Generate Pinch on Refresh No
Automatic Mesh Based Defeaturing On
Defeaturing Tolerance Default
Statistics
Nodes 6053
Elements 800
Mesh Metric None







DCOER ,Pune Page 85


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Mesh > Image

Modal (A5)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Analysis
Object Name Modal (A5)
State Solved
Definition
Physics Type Structural
Analysis Type Modal
Solver Target Mechanical APDL
Options
Environment Temperature 22. C
Generate Input Only No

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Initial Condition
Object Name Pre-Stress (None)
State Fully Defined
Definition
Pre-Stress Environment None

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Analysis Settings
Object Name Analysis Settings
State Fully Defined
Options
Max Modes to Find 10
Limit Search to
Range
No
Solver Controls
Damped No
Solver Type Program Controlled
Rotordynamics Controls
DCOER ,Pune Page 86

Coriolis Effect Off
Campbell Diagram Off
Output Controls
Stress Yes
Strain Yes
Nodal Forces No
Calculate Reactions Yes
Store Modal Results Program Controlled
General
Miscellaneous
No
Analysis Data Management
Solver Files
Directory
C:\Users\mi747\AppData\Local\Temp\WB_W3-
A46012_mi747_5480_2\unsaved_project_files\dp0\SYS\MECH\
Future Analysis MSUP Analyses
Scratch Solver Files
Directory
Save MAPDL db Yes
Delete Unneeded
Files
Yes
Solver Units Active System
Solver Unit System Nmm

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Loads
Object Name Fixed Support
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 1 Face
Definition
Type Fixed Support
Suppressed No
Solution (A6)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution
Object Name Solution (A6)
State Solved
Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Max Refinement Loops 1.
Refinement Depth 2.
Information
Status Done
The following bar chart indicates the frequency at each calculated mode.

DCOER ,Pune Page 87


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6)


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6)
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Solution Information
Object Name Solution Information
State Solved
Solution Information
Solution Output Solver Output
Newton-Raphson Residuals 0
Update Interval 2.5 s
Display Points All
DCOER ,Pune Page 88

FE Connection Visibility
Activate Visibility Yes
Display All FE Connectors
Draw Connections Attached To All Nodes
Line Color Connection Type
Visible on Results No
Line Thickness Single
Display Type Lines

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Results
Obj
ect
Na
me
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion
2
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion
3
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 4
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 5
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 6
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 7
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 8
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion 9
Tota
l
Defo
rmat
ion
10
Stat
e
Solved
Scope
Sco
pin
g
Met
hod
Geometry Selection
Geo
met
ry
All Bodies
Definition
Typ
e
Total Deformation
Mo
de
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Ide
ntifi
er

Sup
pres
sed
No
Results
Min
imu
m
0. mm
Ma
xim
um
71.5
26
mm
71.5
24
mm
71.1
63
mm
88.9
84
mm
71.6
33
mm
71.8
78
mm
90.5
84
mm
72.2
74
mm
70.6
78
mm
93.5
57
mm
Minimum Value Over Time
Min
imu
m
0. mm
Ma
xim
0. mm
DCOER ,Pune Page 89

um
Maximum Value Over Time
Min
imu
m
71.5
26
mm
71.5
24
mm
71.1
63
mm
88.9
84
mm
71.6
33
mm
71.8
78
mm
90.5
84
mm
72.2
74
mm
70.6
78
mm
93.5
57
mm
Ma
xim
um
71.5
26
mm
71.5
24
mm
71.1
63
mm
88.9
84
mm
71.6
33
mm
71.8
78
mm
90.5
84
mm
72.2
74
mm
70.6
78
mm
93.5
57
mm
Information
Fre
que
ncy
25.7
01
Hz
160.
9 Hz
252.
26
Hz
390.
12
Hz
450.
48
Hz
882.
99
Hz
1179
.7
Hz
1460
. Hz
1479
.8
Hz
1996
.7
Hz

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation > Image


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 2
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
DCOER ,Pune Page 90

3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 2 > Image


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 3
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 3 > Image
DCOER ,Pune Page 91



Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 4
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7







DCOER ,Pune Page 92


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 4 > Image


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 5
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 5 > Image
DCOER ,Pune Page 93



Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 6
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 7
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7
DCOER ,Pune Page 94


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 8
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 9
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Modal (A5) > Solution (A6) > Total Deformation 10
Mode Frequency [Hz]
1. 25.701
2. 160.9
3. 252.26
4. 390.12
5. 450.48
6. 882.99
7. 1179.7
8. 1460.
9. 1479.8
10. 1996.7
Harmonic Response (B5)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Analysis
Object Name Harmonic Response (B5)
State Solved
Definition
DCOER ,Pune Page 95

Physics Type Structural
Analysis Type Harmonic Response
Solver Target Mechanical APDL
Options
Environment Temperature 22. C
Generate Input Only No

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Initial Condition
Object Name Modal (Modal)
State Fully Defined
Definition
Modal Environment Modal
Pre-Stress Environment None

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Analysis Settings
Object Name Analysis Settings
State Fully Defined
Options
Range Minimum 0. Hz
Range Maximum 500. Hz
Solution Intervals 50
Solution Method Mode Superposition
Include Residual
Vector
No
Cluster Results No
Store Results At All
Frequencies
Yes
Output Controls
Stress Yes
Strain Yes
Nodal Forces No
Calculate Reactions Yes
Expand Results From Program Controlled
-- Expansion Modal Solution
General
Miscellaneous
No
Damping Controls
Constant Damping
Ratio
0.
Stiffness Coefficient
Define By
Direct Input
Stiffness Coefficient 0.
Mass Coefficient 0.
Analysis Data Management
Solver Files Directory
C:\Users\mi747\AppData\Local\Temp\WB_W3-
A46012_mi747_5480_2\unsaved_project_files\dp0\SYS-1\MECH\
Future Analysis None
DCOER ,Pune Page 96

Scratch Solver Files
Directory
Save MAPDL db No
Delete Unneeded
Files
Yes
Solver Units Active System
Solver Unit System Nmm

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Loads
Object Name Force
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 1 Face
Definition
Type Force
Define By Components
Coordinate System Global Coordinate System
X Component 0. N
Y Component 150. N
Z Component 0. N
Phase Angle 0.
Suppressed No
Solution (B6)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution
Object Name Solution (B6)
State Solved
Information
Status Done

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6)
DCOER ,Pune Page 97



Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Solution Information
Object Name Solution Information
State Solved
Solution Information
Solution Output Solver Output
Newton-Raphson Residuals 0
Update Interval 2.5 s
Display Points All
FE Connection Visibility
Activate Visibility Yes
Display All FE Connectors
Draw Connections Attached To All Nodes
Line Color Connection Type
Visible on Results No
Line Thickness Single
Display Type Lines

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Result Charts
Object Name Frequency Response Frequency Response 2 Frequency Response 3
State Solved
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 1 Face 1 Vertex
DCOER ,Pune Page 98

Spatial Resolution Use Average
Definition
Type Shear Stress Directional Deformation Directional Velocity
Orientation XY Plane Y Axis
Suppressed No
Options
Frequency Range Use Parent
Minimum Frequency 0. Hz
Maximum Frequency 500. Hz
Display Bode
Results
Maximum Amplitude 1.0311e-009 MPa 80.258 mm 1.2675e+005 mm/s
Frequency 30. Hz 450. Hz
Phase Angle 180. 90.
Real -1.0311e-009 MPa -80.258 mm 0. mm/s
Imaginary 0. MPa 0. mm 1.2675e+005 mm/s

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Frequency Response




DCOER ,Pune Page 99


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Frequency Response 2

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Frequency Response 3

DCOER ,Pune Page 100


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Results
Object Name Equivalent Stress
State Solved
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress
By Frequency
Frequency 50. Hz
Sweeping Phase 0.
Identifier

Suppressed No
Integration Point Results
Display Option Averaged
Average Across Bodies No
Results
Minimum 8.0601e-003 MPa
Maximum 171.71 MPa
Minimum Value Over Time
Minimum 8.0601e-003 MPa
Maximum 8.0601e-003 MPa
Maximum Value Over Time
Minimum 171.71 MPa
Maximum 171.71 MPa
Information
Reported Frequency 50. Hz
Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Equivalent Stress

DCOER ,Pune Page 101

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Equivalent Stress
Set
Frequency
[Hz]
1. 10.
2. 20.
3. 30.
4. 40.
5. 50.
6. 60.
7. 70.
8. 80.
9. 90.
10. 100.
11. 110.
12. 120.
13. 130.
14. 140.
15. 150.
16. 160.
17. 170.
18. 180.
19. 190.
20. 200.
21. 210.
22. 220.
23. 230.
24. 240.
25. 250.
26. 260.
27. 270.
28. 280.
29. 290.
30. 300.
31. 310.
32. 320.
33. 330.
34. 340.
35. 350.
36. 360.
37. 370.
38. 380.
39. 390.
40. 400.
41. 410.
42. 420.
43. 430.
DCOER ,Pune Page 102

44. 440.
45. 450.
46. 460.
47. 470.
48. 480.
49. 490.
50. 500.

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response (B5) > Solution (B6) > Equivalent Stress > Image

Harmonic Response 2 (C5)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Analysis
Object Name Harmonic Response 2 (C5)
State Solved
Definition
Physics Type Structural
Analysis Type Harmonic Response
Solver Target Mechanical APDL
Options
Environment Temperature 22. C
Generate Input Only No

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Initial Condition
Object Name Modal (Modal)
State Fully Defined
Definition
Modal Environment Modal
DCOER ,Pune Page 103

Pre-Stress Environment None

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Analysis Settings
Object Name Analysis Settings
State Fully Defined
Options
Range Minimum 0. Hz
Range Maximum 500. Hz
Solution Intervals 50
Solution Method Mode Superposition
Include Residual
Vector
No
Cluster Results No
Store Results At All
Frequencies
Yes
Output Controls
Stress Yes
Strain Yes
Nodal Forces No
Calculate Reactions Yes
Expand Results From Program Controlled
-- Expansion Modal Solution
General
Miscellaneous
No
Damping Controls
Constant Damping
Ratio
0.2
Stiffness Coefficient
Define By
Direct Input
Stiffness Coefficient 0.
Mass Coefficient 0.
Analysis Data Management
Solver Files Directory
C:\Users\mi747\AppData\Local\Temp\WB_W3-
A46012_mi747_5480_2\unsaved_project_files\dp0\SYS-2\MECH\
Future Analysis None
Scratch Solver Files
Directory
Save MAPDL db No
Delete Unneeded
Files
Yes
Solver Units Active System
Solver Unit System Nmm

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Loads
Object Name Force
State Fully Defined
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
DCOER ,Pune Page 104

Geometry 1 Face
Definition
Type Force
Define By Components
Coordinate System Global Coordinate System
X Component 0. N
Y Component 150. N
Z Component 0. N
Phase Angle 0.
Suppressed No
Solution (C6)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution
Object Name Solution (C6)
State Solved
Information
Status Done
Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6)

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Solution Information
Object Name Solution Information
State Solved
Solution Information
DCOER ,Pune Page 105

Solution Output Solver Output
Newton-Raphson Residuals 0
Update Interval 2.5 s
Display Points All
FE Connection Visibility
Activate Visibility Yes
Display All FE Connectors
Draw Connections Attached To All Nodes
Line Color Connection Type
Visible on Results No
Line Thickness Single
Display Type Lines

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Result Charts
Object Name Frequency Response Frequency Response 2 Frequency Response 3
State Solved
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry 1 Face 1 Vertex
Spatial Resolution Use Average
Definition
Type Shear Stress Directional Deformation Directional Velocity
Orientation XY Plane Y Axis
Suppressed No
Options
Frequency Range Use Parent
Minimum Frequency 0. Hz
Maximum Frequency 500. Hz
Display Bode
Results
Maximum Amplitude 6.338e-010 MPa 59.288 mm 9289. mm/s
Frequency 20. Hz 30. Hz
Phase Angle -36.946 -37.779 -36.956
Real 5.0653e-010 MPa 46.86 mm 7422.9 mm/s
Imaginary -3.8096e-010 MPa -36.32 mm -5584.5 mm/s






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Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Frequency Response

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Frequency Response 2


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Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Frequency Response 3


Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Results
Object Name Equivalent Stress
State Solved
Scope
Scoping Method Geometry Selection
Geometry All Bodies
Definition
Type Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress
By Frequency
Frequency 50. Hz
Sweeping Phase 0.
Identifier

Suppressed No
Integration Point Results
Display Option Averaged
Average Across Bodies No
Results
Minimum 8.0803e-003 MPa
Maximum 161.44 MPa
Minimum Value Over Time
Minimum 8.0803e-003 MPa
Maximum 8.0803e-003 MPa
DCOER ,Pune Page 108

Maximum Value Over Time
Minimum 161.44 MPa
Maximum 161.44 MPa
Information
Reported Frequency 50. Hz

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Equivalent Stress

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Equivalent Stress

Set Frequency [Hz]
1. 10.
2. 20.
3. 30.
4. 40.
5. 50.
6. 60.
7. 70.
8. 80.
9. 90.
10. 100.
11. 110.
12. 120.
13. 130.
14. 140.
15. 150.
16. 160.
17. 170.
18. 180.
19. 190.
20. 200.
21. 210.
22. 220.
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23. 230.
24. 240.
25. 250.
26. 260.
27. 270.
28. 280.
29. 290.
30. 300.
31. 310.
32. 320.
33. 330.
34. 340.
35. 350.
36. 360.
37. 370.
38. 380.
39. 390.
40. 400.
41. 410.
42. 420.
43. 430.
44. 440.
45. 450.
46. 460.
47. 470.
48. 480.
49. 490.
50. 500.

Model (A4, B4, C4) > Harmonic Response 2 (C5) > Solution (C6) > Equivalent Stress > Image

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Material Data
Structural Steel
Structural Steel > Constants
Density 7.85e-006 kg mm^-3
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 C^-1
Specific Heat 4.34e+005 mJ kg^-1 C^-1
Thermal Conductivity 6.05e-002 W mm^-1 C^-1
Resistivity 1.7e-004 ohm mm
Structural Steel > Compressive Ultimate Strength
Compressive Ultimate Strength MPa
0
Structural Steel > Compressive Yield Strength
Compressive Yield Strength MPa
250
Structural Steel > Tensile Yield Strength
Tensile Yield Strength MPa
250
Structural Steel > Tensile Ultimate Strength
Tensile Ultimate Strength MPa
460
Structural Steel > Isotropic Secant Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Reference Temperature C
22
Structural Steel > Alternating Stress Mean Stress
Alternating Stress MPa Cycles Mean Stress MPa
3999 10 0
2827 20 0
1896 50 0
1413 100 0
1069 200 0
441 2000 0
262 10000 0
214 20000 0
138 1.e+005 0
114 2.e+005 0
86.2 1.e+006 0


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Structural Steel > Strain-Life Parameters
Strength
Coefficient
MPa
Strength
Exponent
Ductility
Coefficient
Ductility
Exponent
Cyclic Strength
Coefficient
MPa
Cyclic Strain
Hardening
Exponent
920 -0.106 0.213 -0.47 1000 0.2
Structural Steel > Isotropic Elasticity
Temperature
C
Young's Modulus
MPa
Poisson's
Ratio
Bulk Modulus
MPa
Shear Modulus
MPa

2.e+005 0.3 1.6667e+005 76923
Structural Steel > Isotropic Relative Permeability
Relative Permeability
10000



















DCOER ,Pune Page 112

Problem Definition: Modal Analysis of Beam.
Rectangular cross-section
set time/freq load step sub-step cumulative
1 12.378 1 1 1
2 77.570 1 2 2
3 82.392 1 3 3
4 217.22 1 4 4
5 425.73 1 5 5




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Problem Definition: Modal Analysis of Beam.
Square cross-section:
Set Time/Freq Load Step Sub-step Cumulative
1 31.953 1 1 1
2 31.953 1 2 2
3 200.01 1 3 3
4 200.01 1 4 4
5 559.00 1 5 5



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