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Abstract The IEEE 802.

11n is an emerging technology


that has very high throughput WLAN stanar !hich coul
achieve ata rates up to "00 #$ps in 2.% &'( or ) &'( $an
!ith a channel $an!ith o* 20 #'( or %0 #'(. In This
paper !e investigate the ata throughput per*ormance o*
IEEE 802.11n in multiple input multiple output +#I#,-
orthogonal *re.uency ivision multiple/ing +,01#- system.
A list o* suspect parameters is analy(e in this paper to assess
their e**ect on per*ormance o* the IEEE 802.11n physical
layer ta2en as an application o* #I#, technology. The
scheme uses $inary phase shi*t 2eying +3456-7 .uarature
phase shi*t 2eying +8456- an .uarature amplitue
moulation +8A#- techni.ue uner Aitive !hite &aussian
noise +AW&N- channels. 5imulation results sho! a signi*icant
per*ormance o* $it error rate +3E9- an pac2et error rate
+4E9- epening on the channel selection.
Index Terms #I#,7 ,01#7 IEEE802.11n7 4ac2et
Error 9ate7 throughput.
I. INTRODUCTION
The communication development of the twenty-first
century is facing an indication of the local wireless
networs. !eople want to "e connected everywhere and all
the time. This is the reason of giant popularity of wireless
local area networs. The physical layer #!$%& design of
wireless systems has to manage with the comple'
interaction "etween analog radio fre(uency hardware that
operates at carrier fre(uencies in some )$* range and the
digital "ase"and hardware which performs comple'
algorithms lie viter"i-decoding+ filtering+ pulse shaping
fast fourier transform #,,T& etc -./. The demand for
fle'i"ility has initiated a convergence of several wireless
standards in very small porta"le devices.
The I000 123...n is a currently emerging wireless local
4rea networ #564N& standard capa"le of providing
dramatically increased throughput+ as well as improved
range+ reduced signal fading+ over the e'isting I000
123...a7"7g 564N standards. To reali*e a wide range of
services at high rate with high "andwidth and (uality of
services #8o9& assurance+ the I000 123...n is presented
which adopts :I:O-O,D: technology -3/. The research
shows that :I:O-O,D: system can transmit information
with higher data rate and "etter 8o9. Therefore+ the I000
123...n will "e a"le to reach data rates of ;22 :"ps+ and it
guarantees a minimum of .22 :"ps of throughput+
meanwhile+ it depresses the Inter-9ym"ol Interference
caused "y multi-path fading+ enhances immensely
transmission performance of wireless communication
system. In order to simulate new characteristics of 123...n
physical layer+ 123...n Tas )roup #T)n& considers and
proposes si' inds of channel model applied to adapt to
different environments -</. In =anuary 322> the I000
?
formed a new T)n to develop an amendment to the
123...n standard. The raw data throughput over the !$%
was defined to reach appro'imately ;22 :"ps using a radio
"andwidth of >2:$*. It was also pro@ected that 123...n
should offer a "etter operating distance than e'isting
networs. There was a lengthy phase in which two system
proposals "loced each other. Aeside some different ideas
#coding+ higher order modulations+ space-time-coding&
there has "een an overwhelming agreement that the
intended high throughput can only "e achieved "y using
:I:O techni(ues+ i.e. multiple antennas at the transmitter
as well as at the receiver. The new standard "uilds upon the
previous 123...a standard "y adding :I:O and an
e'tension of the radio "andwidth to >2:$*. :I:O uses
multiple transmitter and receiver antennas to allow for
increased data throughput through spatial multiple'ing and
for increased range "y e'ploiting the spatial diversity as
well as through space-time coding schemes lie alamouti
coding ->/. In 322B the 0nhanced 5ireless Consortium
#05C& was formed to help accelerate the I000 123...n
development process and promote a technology
specification for interopera"ility of ne't 564N products
-3/. The final standard is e'pected to "e completed in 322;.
In this article+ we discuss computation of input A0R in
:I:O channels with different modulation types on each
spatial stream.
II. :I:O-O,D:
O,D: is a multi-carrier transmission techni(ue in
employment to decrease the inter sym"ol interference #I9I&
of wireless systems with lesser sym"ol periods. 4s a result+
the overall capacity in wireless systems is upgraded.
4nother promising transmission techni(ue is :I:O which
ena"les the enhancement of "it capacity and performance
with low A0R proportional to the num"er of antennas.
Therefore high spectrally efficient wireless transmissions
can "e produced "y using multiple transmissions and
multiple receiving antennas. ,urthermore+ the
amalgamation of :I:O and O,D: systems significantly
decreases the e(uali*ation comple'ity -B/.
The definition of :I:O systems is that with a given
ar"itrary wireless communication system+ there is a lin
where the transmitting end and the receiving end are
e(uipped with multiple antenna elements. The signals
produced "y "oth types of antennas com"ine in such a way+
which result in a reduced A0R or increased data rate. 4
ma@or advantage of :I:O system is their a"ility to utili*e
multi-path propagation to increase the transmission
efficiency and channel capacity "y the use of random fading
and multipath delay spread. In this way+ many orders of
magnitude enhancement can "e achieved in wireless
communications without the use of e'tra spectrum -;/. The
destructive addition of multipath in a propagation medium
!erformance analysis of data throughput in I000
123...n :I:O O,D: system
:. 4. Rahman+ :. A. I. Rea*+ $afi*ah $usain+ :ohd 4lauddin :ohd 4li+ :ohd. :arufu**aman+
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600, UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
and the interference of other users results in severe
attenuation of the transmitted signal over the wireless
channel. The relia"ility of wireless communications is the
product of diversity techni(ues such as temporal diversity+
fre(uency diversity or antenna diversity. In order to achieve
the full diversity promised "y transmit and received
antennas+ space time "loc code #9TAC& is used -C-1/. The
employment of more than one antenna at the transmitter
and the proper coding of data across the transmit antennas
physical layers with 9TAC guarantee an increased data rate
with minimal decoding comple'ity at the receiver. The
channel codes are constructed "ased on the classical
mathematical framewor of orthogonal designs. ,or
comple' signal constellations such as 84:+ 9TACs are
designed to achieve the ma'imum possi"le transmission
rate for any num"er of transmit antennas -D/. It is a
techni(ue+ which operates on a "loc of input sym"ols
producing a matri' and outputs whose columns and rows
represent time and antennas+ respectively. 4 ey feature of
9TACs is the provision of full diversity with e'tremely low
encoder7decoder comple'ity -.2/. ,ig. . and 3 show "loc
diagrams of general :I:O transmit and receive data path
structures for an I000 123...n !$% layer.
,ig. .. :I:O-O,D: transmitter "locs
,ig. 3. :I:O-O,D: receiver "locs
$ence+ the most forthcoming tendency of I000 123...n
standard applications anticipated to com"ine :I:O with
O,D: signal processing in the ne't generation 564N
system. The o"@ective is to provide high data rates up to ;22
:"ps. It is nown that the arrangement of :I:O-O,D:
is a promising elucidation for enhancing the performance.
$igh throughput in wireless communication systems can "e
achieved "y increasing the num"er of antennas and
dou"ling the "andwidth range. In addition+ 9TAC
techni(ues are also suggested in the :I:O-O,D: "ased
123...n standard proposals "y considering that 9TAC can
help to achieve the full diversity and hence increase the
data rates and throughput of an 123...n system -;/. The
purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of
123...n under a selection of different 9TAC rates and :C9
inde'. The system under investigation is a >'> :I:O-
O,D: !$% layer with ;>-84: modulation 45)N
channels with 9TAC code rates . and .73. Comparison is
performed with a 3'3 :I:O-O,D: system in order to
show full diversity performance of the system. !revious
wor provided us with results from some simple modulation
techni(ues+ e.g. 8!9E modulation for the code rate of .
and .;-84: for the code rate of .73. The scope of this
paper is to advance the 123...n performance on ;>-84:
modulation techni(ue with 9TAC code rates . and .73+ and
to evaluate its performance through e'tensive simulations.
The simulation results confirm that a significant
performance gain can "e achieved with a system of .73
9TAC code rate and multiple transmit7receive antennas+ in
comparison to those systems with 9TAC code rate ..
Farious modulation schemes and coding rates are defined
"y the standard and are represented "y a modulation and
coding scheme inde' value in ta"le I.
T4A60 IG :ODU64TION 4ND CODIN) 9C$0:0
:C9
in-
de'
9patial
streams
:odulati
on
type
Coding
rate
Data rate #:"it7s&
32 :$*
channel
>2 :$*
channel
2 . A!9E .73 C.32 .B.22
. . 8!9E .73 .>.>2 <2.22
3 . 8!9E <7> 3..C2 >B.22
< . .;-84: .73 31.D2 ;2.22
> . .;-84: <7> ><.<2 D2.22
B . ;>-84: 37< BC.12 .32.22
; . ;>-84: <7> ;B.22 .<B.22
C . ;>-84: B7; C3.32 .B2.22
1 3 A!9E .73 .>.>2 <2.22
D 3 8!9E .73 31.D2 ;2.22
.2 3 8!9E <7> ><.<2 D2.22
.. 3 .;-84: .73 BC.12 .32.22
.3 3 .;-84: <7> 1;.C2 .12.22
.< 3 ;>-84: 37< ..B.;2 3>2.22
.> 3 ;>-84: <7> .<2.22 3C2.22
.B 3 ;>-84: B7; .>>.>2 <22.22
III. 9%9T0: :OD06 D09CRI!TION
The first step in a wireless system implementation is
system level design. This is usually done "y means of high
level mathematical modeling software such as :atla" or
9imulin. 4t this stage 9imulin was chosen "ecause of its
modular and real time environment which resem"les our
real world design. 9o far+ the transmission of the data
stream with four transmit and four receive antennas has
"een descri"ed. In "rief the se(uence of the transmitter+ the
output "its after the encoder and especially from the
interleaver of a single spatial stream are mapped to the
su"carriers of the first antenna. !air of comple' num"ers
are transmitted through the four transmit antennas -../.
The encoding scheme that has "een used for this
transmission is referred to as 9TAC. The 9TAC operates on
a "loc of input sym"ols that produce a matri' output
whose columns represent the time and rows of the
antennas. 4ccording to the mode of operation+ the data "its
are punctured and mapped using one of the constellations
mentioned in the standard+ and then sent to the :I:O
parser -D/. This parser can perform different operations on
the data "its which enter it. 4t the receiver+ the signal
should first "e detected. Ne't+ the receiver has to
synchroni*e itself with the transmitter. This is done
through three main steps coarse synchroni*ation+ fine
synchroni*ation and carrier fre(uency offset estimation.
The guard interval is then omitted and the signal is sent to
the ,,T "loc. 4fter calculating ,,T+ the signals are
deinterleaved and sent to the :I:O detection unit. This
"loc detects the signals using the channel estimation. The
"locHs operation depends on the method used to code the
signals in the transmitter. 4fter signal detection+ the
received signals are demapped into corresponding num"ers.
The detected signals are then decoded through Fiter"i
decoder and finally descram"led. 4t this point the data are
ready for sending to the higher level. The 123...n draft
mandates two transmit and receive antennas. 4dditional
num"ers of antennas are optional. The new standard
operates in B)$* R, "and and may use >2 :$* or 32 :$*
"andwidth. The rest of the O,D: parameters in our design
which are "ased on the T)n9ync standard are shown in
Ta"le II.
T4A60 IIG O,D: !4R4:0T0R ,OR 123...N
!arameter Falue
,,T si*e ;>
9u"carrier B3
Data su"carrier >1
Carrier spacing 2.<.3B :$*
,,T period <.3 s
)uard Interval 2.1 s
9ym"ol period > s
IF. I000 123...NG !0R,OR:4NC0 4N46%909
The main determination of the simulation is performance
analyses of the of the 123...n for various data rates under
different 9TAC code rates with A!9E+ 8!9E and 84:
modulation using 45)N channel. In our simulation we set
some "asic settings ad@ustments. Num"er of transmit
antennas and the receive antennas are the >I> systems
depending on the num"er of space time streams and :C9
value respectively. :C9 value is from 2 to .B. 9pace time
Aloc coding varies from 2 to 3+ and it depends on :C9
value. .; :I:O-O,D: data sym"ols send through the
transmitter per spatial stream. Farious pacet lengths are
o"tained for transmission of different data rates. To o"tain
the average performance+ .222 pacets are transmitted for
each data rate.
The A0R performance of a transmission system is very
important figure of merit that allows different designs to "e
compared in a fair manner. A0R performance is usually
represented as a two dimensional graph. The coordinates
are the normali*ed signal-to-noise ratio #9NR& e'pressed as
the energy-per-"it divided "y the one-sided power spectral
density of the noise+ e'pressed in deci"els. :any "its will
"e in error if the A0R is high. The worst case A0R is
B2J+ and the modem is useless then. :ost communications
systems re(uire A0R several orders of magnitude lower.
0ven a A0R of .J is considered as very high. The 9NR
varies across data carriers+ and the !0R is dominated "y the
low 9NR carriers. Thus+ a higher average 9NR is re(uired
to achieve the same !0R as for the 45)N channel. The
A0R simulation result shown in ,ig. < for the :C9 values
from 1 to .B.The >'> :I:O-O,D: system using .73
9TAC code rate and a 3'3 :I:O-O,D: system using
9TAC code rate . e'hi"its in ,ig. >. The !erformance gain
is achieved "y the channel selection with .73 9TAC code
rate for :C9.<-.B.
,ig. <. A0R performance of :C91-.B
,ig. >. !0R simulation results using 9TAC . and .73 9TAC
,ig. B The I000 123...n throughputs under 9NR in .B22 Ayte payload
,rom ,ig. B the ma'imum data rate is 1> :"it7s for >'>
systems at >B dA using 9TAC code rate .73 and payload
.B22 Ayte under 45)N channel. The a"ove simulation
result e'hi"its a significant performance gain that can "e
achieved "y .73 9TAC.
F. CONC6U9ION
In this paper+ we have presented an elucidation of :I:O
O,D: system performance in I000 123...n. 4 lower
:C9 value has used corresponding to a throughout
reduction. It can "e seen that if :C9 is changed to higher
data rate with the same transmitting antennas+ "oth !0R
and A0R performance will "e influenced. The reached gain
is more significant for large pacets+ since the 123...n
standard "ecomes less an issue+ with larger amounts of
payload information is transmitted per channel access.
R0,0R0NC09
-./ A. ,u and !. 4mpadu+ K4n area efficient ,,T7I,,T processor for
:I:O-O,D: 564N 123... n+L !o"rnal of Signal #rocessing
Systems, vol. B;+ pp. BD-;1+ 322D.
-3/ 0. !erahia+ KI000 123... n developmentG history+ process+ and
technology+L $omm"nications Maga%ine, &EEE, vol. >;+ pp. >1-BB+
3221.
-</ %. Iiao+ KI000 123... nG enhancements for higher throughput in
wireless 64Ns+L 'ireless $omm"nications, &EEE, vol. .3+ pp. 13-D.+
322B.
->/ =. ,riedrich+ 9. ,rohn+ 9. )u"ner+ and C. 6indemann+ KUnderstanding
I000 123... n multi-hop communication in wireless networs+L in
Modeling and (ptimi%ation in Mobile, )d *oc and 'ireless +et,or-s
.'i(pt/, 0011 &nternational Symposi"m on+ pp. <3.-<3;+ 32...
-B/ A. Eang and =. Eim+ K6ow comple'ity multi-point >-channel ,,T
processor for I000 123... n :I:O-O,D: 564N system+L in 2reen
and Ubi3"ito"s 4ec5nology .2U4/, 0010 &nternational $onference
on+ 32.3+ pp. D>-DC.
-;/ 0. Charfi+ 6. Chaari+ and 6. Eamoun+ K!$%7:4C enhancements and
8o9 mechanisms for very high throughput 564NsG a survey+L &EEE
$omm"nications S"rveys 6 4"torials, vol. .B+ pp. .C.> M .C<B+ 32.<.
-C/ $. 9etiawan+ %. Nagao+ :. Eurosai+ and $. Ochi+ KI000 123... n
!hysical 6ayer Implementation on ,ield !rogramma"le )ate 4rray+L
4el-omni-a, vol. .2+ 32.3.
-1/ R. !. ,. $oefel+ KI000 123... nG !erformance 4nalysis with 9patial
0'pansion+ Receive Diversity and 9TAC+L in 7e5ic"lar 4ec5nology
$onference .74$ 8all/, 0010 &EEE+ pp. .-B+ 32.3.
-D/ D. $alperin+ 5. $u+ 4. 9heth+ and D. 5etherall+ KTool releaseG
gathering 123... n traces with channel state information+L )$M
S&2$(MM $omp"ter $omm"nication 9evie,, vol. >.+ pp. B<-B<+
32...
-.2/ :. :aier+ :. 6eves(ue+ and 6. Ivanescu+ KN)-!ONs .N3 and "eyondG
the dawn of the u"er-,i5i networ+L &EEE +et,or-, vol. 3;+ pp. .B-3.+
32.3.
-../ =. 5ang+ $. Ohu+ and N. =. )omes+ KDistri"uted antenna systems for
mo"ile communications in high speed trains+L &EEE !o"rnal on
Selected )reas in $omm"nications, , vol. <2+ pp. ;CB-;1<+ 32.3.
# Anisur 9ahman was "orn in Ra@shahi+ Aangladesh in .D1D. $e received
his A.9c. degree in 0lectrical and 0lectronic 0ngineering from Ra@shahi
University of 0ngineering N Technology+ Aangladesh
in 32... Currently he is pursuing his :asters "y
Research in the area of ,!)4 "ased multi-standard
"ase"and processor under the Department of
0lectrical+ 0lectronic and 9ystems 0ngineering in
Universiti Ee"angsaan :alaysia+ :alaysia. $is
research interest is in the field of 5ireless
communication+ :athematical modeling+ and F69I
design.
#amun 3in I$ne 9ea( was "orn in Aangladesh+ in
Decem"er .D;<. $e received his A.9c. and :.9c.
degree in 4pplied !hysics and 0lectronics+ "oth from
University of Ra@hashi+ Aangladesh+ in .D1B and .D1;+
respectively. $e received his D.0ng. degree in 322C
from I"arai University+ =apan. $e is currently a
!rofessor in the Department of 0lectrical+ 0lectronic
and 9ystems 0ngineering+ Universiti Ee"angsaan
:alaysia+ :alaysia involving in teaching+ research and
industrial consultation. $e is a regular associate of the 4"dus 9alam
International Center for Theoretical !hysics since 3221. $e is also a 9enior
:em"er of I000. $e has vast research e'periences in Norway+ Ireland and
:alaysia. $e has pu"lished e'tensively in the area of IC Design and
Aiomedical application IC. $e is author and co-author of more than 322
research articles in design automation and IC design for "iomedical
applications.
'a*i(ah 'usain received her A.0ng. from University of
$artford+ :.9c from De :ontfort University and !hD
Universiti Tenologi :alaysia in :echatronics. 9he is currently an 4ssociate
!rofessor in the Department of 0lectrical 0lectronic and 9ystems 0ngineering+
,aculty of 0ngineering and Auilt 0nvironment+ Universiti Ee"angsaan
:alaysia #UE:&+ Aangi+ :alaysia. 9he was also $ead of the department of
the faculty. $er research interest include artificial intelligence+ em"edded
systems+ digital signal processing.
#oh Alauin #oh Ali received the A.0ng. #0lectrical&+ A.9c.
#:athematics&+ and :.0ng.9c. #0lectrical& degrees from the University of
Tasmania+ $o"art+ Tas.+ 4ustralia+ in .DC1+ .DCD+ and .D1>+ respectively+
and the !h.D. degree from the University of
Nottingham+ Nottingham+ U.E.+ in .DD>. $e was
involved in the area of microelectronics for his :asterPs
degree and medical electronics for his !hD. $e is
currently a !rofessor with the Department of 0lectrical
0lectronic and 9ystems 0ngineering+ ,aculty of
0ngineering and Auilt 0nvironment+ Universiti
Ee"angsaan :alaysia #UE:&+ Aangi+ :alaysia. $e
was also $ead of the department and Deputy Dean of
the faculty for the periods .DDBM.DDC and .DDCM3223+ respectively. $e is
currently the Director of the Institute of 9pace 9cience+ UE:. $is research
interests include "iomedical signal processing+ instrumentation+ integrated
circuit design and testa"ility+ and ionospheric studies.
#oh. #aru*u((aman was "orn in Aangladesh in =une .D1<. $e received
his :.9c. #0lectrical+ 0lectronic and 9ystems 0ngineering&
from Universiti Ee"angsaan :alaysia in 32.3. Currently
he is doing his !h.D. in the Department of 0lectrical+
0lectronic and 9ystems 0ngineering in University
Ee"angsaan :alaysia. $is research interests are in the
following fieldsG $ardware Implementation+ 9mart $ome+
5ireless Networing and F69I design.