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Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students

Solutions: Chapter 2 1
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS

Problem 2.1
The pulley of Fig. 2.33 is composed of five portions: three cylinders (of which two
are identical) and two identical cone frustum segments. The mass moment of inertia of a
cylinder defined by a height h, a radius R, and mass density is given by:

2 4
1 1
2 2
cyl
J mR h R = = (P2.1)
whereas the mass moment of inertia of a conical portion defined by the radii R
1
and R
2
,
in addition to the parameters introduced in Eq. (P2.1), is expressed as:

( )
4 3 2 2 3 4
1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1
10
cone
J h R R R R R R R R = + + + + (P2.2)
As a consequence, the total mass moment of inertia of the pulley of Fig. 2.33 is
1
, another cylindrical
2
, and two identical conical segments, namely:

( )
4 4 4 3 2 2 3 4
1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
2 2 10
J h R h R h R R R R R R R R
| |
= + + + + + +
|
\ .
(P2.3)
and the final expression of J is:

( )
4 4 3 2 2 3 4 4
1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2
10 2 5
10
J h R h R R R R R R R R h R
(
= + + + + + +

(P2.4)
For the numerical values of this problem, J =6.543 x 10
-5
kg-m
2
.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 2
Problem 2.2
When changing the plate width from w to w + w, the axial mass moment of inertia
becomes:
( )
( )
( )
2 2
' 2 2
'
12 12
x
l w w h
m
J w w h w w h
+
( (
= + + = + +

(P2.1)
where l is the plate length (dimension perpendicular on w in Fig. 2.34). Using w =w/2
(required by the maximum 50% width increase), changes Eq. (P2.1) to:

( )
( )
2
2
' 2 2
3 9
12 2 12 4
x
l w w h
m w
J w w h h
+ | |
(
= + + = +
|

\ .

(P2.2)
This mass moment of inertia needs to be 20 times larger than the original one, namely:

( )
2
2 2 2
3 9
20
2 12 4 12
m w m
h w h
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
(P 2.3)
Equation (P 2.3) reduces to:

2 2
133 148 0 w h + = (P 2.4)
which is impossible for w >0 and h >0.
The second modality is to calculate the mass moment of inertia with respect to an
axis parallel to the central axis x and which is at a distance d from x. The new mass
moment of inertia is:

2 2
x x
J J md J mw

= + = + (P 2.5)
which used d =w (the condition of maximum d). The connection between the mass
moment of inertia of Eq. (P 2.5) and the needed moment of inertia is:

2
20
x x
J mw J + = (P 2.6)
Equation (P 2.6) can also be written as:

2
19
x
mw J = (P 2.7)
Considering that:

( )
2 2
12
x
m
J w h = + (P 2.8)
in conjunction with Eq. (P 2.7), leads to:

2 2
7 19 0 w h + = (P 2.9)
which is, again, impossible.
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 3
The last resort is using a combination of the two methods attempted thus far. One
variant is to calculate the mass moment of inertia with respect to a moved axis and to
increase the plate width at the same time. Assuming the width increases by w/2, let us
calculate the distance d between the central axis x and the new axis. Taking into account
that the new mass is 3/2m (with m being the original mass), the following equation
relates the new mass moment of inertia and the necessary one:

( )
2
2 2 2 2
3 9 3
20
2 12 4 2 12
m w m
h md w h
| |
+ + = +
|
\ .
(P 2.10)
After some algebra, Eq. (P 2.10) yields the following distance d:

2 2
133 148
12
w h
d
+
= (P 2.11)
This value is acceptable provided d is less or equal to w, which leads to:

11
148
h w (P 2.12)

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 4
Problem 2.3
As shown in the springs section of Chapter 2, the stiffness of a torsional helical
spring is:

4
2
1
64
h
Ed G
k
nR E
| |
= +
|
\ .
(P2.1)
whereas the stiffness of a spiral (planar) spring is:

4
64
s
E d
k
l
=

(P2.2)
E is Youngs modulus, G is the shear modulus, d is the wire diameter, n is the number of
active turns, and R is the helical spring external radius. The length of either of the two
springs is:
( ) 2 l n R = (P2.3)
Using the relationship between G and E, which is given in Appendix D and which is G =
E/[2(1 +)], it follows that:

( )
2
2 1
2 1
1
E
G
E E

+
= =
+

(P2.4)
where is Poissons ratio. The helical spring stiffness becomes:

4
2
32 1
h
Ed
k
l
+
=
+

(P2.5)
The following relative stiffness ratio is formulated by means of Eqs. (P2.2) and (P2.5) as:

( )
3
2 2
h s
h
k k
k
+
=
+

(P2.6)
Figure P2.1 shows the variation of this relative stiffness ratio with Poissons ratio, which
indicates a reduction comprised between 70% and a little more than 72% by using the
spiral springs instead of the helical ones.
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 5
0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.7
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

c
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

s
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

Figure P2.1 Relative stiffness change in terms of material Poissons ratio

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 6
Problem 2.4
The springs of stiffnesses k
1
and k
2
are connected in series; therefore, their equivalent
stiffness is:

1 2
12
1 2
k k
k
k k
=
+
(P2.1)
which becomes:

( )
2
' 1 2
12 12
1 2
3 9
k k l
k k
l k k
| |
= =
|
+
\ .
(P2.2)
when transferred to point A. Similarly, the original stiffness k
3
is transferred at A and
becomes:

2
'
3 3 3
2 4
3 9
l
k k k
l
| |
= =
|
\ .
(P2.3)
The two equivalent springs that are now located at point A are connected in parallel (they
undergo identical motions), and therefore the total stiffness at point A is:

' ' 1 2
12 3 3
1 2
1
4
9
A
k k
k k k k
k k
| |
= + = +
|
+
\ .
(P2.4)
Its numerical value is k
A
=32.17 N/m.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 7
Problem 2.5
The translatory damping coefficient accounts for the lateral friction, and therefore, its
expression can be retrieved from the first Eq. (2.28) taking into account that the hydraulic
resistance is zero, namely:

2
i d
t
o i
Dl f
c
D D v
= =

(P2.1)
which enables expressing the coefficient of dynamic viscosity as:

( )
2
o i d
i
D D f
Dlv

(P2.2)
The rotary damping coefficient is expressed in the second Eq. (2.28) as:

( )
3
2
30
i d
r
o i
D l m
c
n
D D
= =

(P2.3)
This last equation enables formulating the coefficient of dynamic viscosity as:

( )
2 3
60
o i d
i
D D m
nD l

(P2.4)
By equating the coefficients of dynamic viscosity of Eqs. (P2.2) and (P2.4), the piston
diameter becomes:

30
2
d
i
d
m v
D
nf
=

(P2.5)
with a numerical value of 13.3 mm, which is used in Eq. (P2.2) to calculate the
coefficient of dynamic viscosity =0.0298 N-s/m
2
.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 8
Problem 2.6
On each shaft, the bearings act as rotary dampers in parallel; the damping coefficients
of the long and short bearings are according to the second Eq. (2.28):

( ) ( )
3 3
1 2
;
2 2
i i
l s
o i o i
D l D l
c c
D D D D
= =

(P2.1)
Transferring the damping coefficient corresponding to the short bearings, c
s
, from the
original shaft to the long shaft results in an equivalent (total) damping coefficient:

2
1
2
2
3 2
e l s
N
c c c
N
= + (P2.2)
Taking into account Eq. (2.59), the angular velocity of the long shaft
1
is expressed in
terms of the rpm (rotations-per-minute) of the short shaft n
2
as:

2 2 2
1 2
1 1
30
N N n
N N
= =

(P2.3)
The damping torque applied to the long shaft is:

2
1 2 2
1 2
2 1
3 2
30
d e l s
N N n
m c c c
N N
| |
= = +
|
\ .

(P2.4)
With the numerical data of this example, the following results are obtained: c
l
=9.4248 x
10
-8
N-m-s, c
s
=6.2832 x 10
-8
N-m-s, c
e
=5.7453 x 10
-7
N-m-s, and m
d
=7.8967 x 10
-6

N-m.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 9
Problem 2.7
Figure P2.1 shows the side view of the plate in an arbitrary transverse position
defined by the coordinate z in the channel.

Figure P2.1 Transverse position of body sliding in a channel

Friction, which leads to viscous damping, occurs in both interstices, underneath and
above the sliding body; according to Eq. (2.27), the corresponding viscous damping
coefficients are:

1 2
0
;
lw lw
c c
z g h z
= =

(P2.1)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x 10
-3
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
x 10
-3
z(m)
c
(
N
-
s
/
m
)

Figure P2.2 Equivalent viscous damping coefficient as a function of the body-channel wall gap

The total effect on the body is that of two dampers that are connected in parallel, and the
equivalent damping coefficient, as provided in Eq. (2.31), is:
l
h
g0
z
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 10

( )
( )
0
1 2
0
lw g h
c c c
z g h z

= + =

(P2.2)
Figure P2.2 illustrates the variation of c with the position z of the body in the channel.
For the plot of Fig. P2.2, the minimum and maximum values of z have been set as

0
min max 0 min
;
20
g h
z z g h z

= = (P2.3)
whose values are: z
min
=0.45 mm and z
max
=8.6 mm.
The damping coefficient reaches its maximum value when the gap between the body
and the internal wall of the channel is minimum (which means the other gap is
maximum) or maximum (which means the other gap is minimum). In order to find the
transverse positions for which c is minimum, we need to analyze the first derivative of c
with respect to z, which is:

( )( )
( )
0 0
2
2
0
2 lw g h g h z
dc
dz
z g h z

=

(P2.4)
The derivative of Eq. (P2.4) is zero for
0
' 4.5mm
2
g h
z

= = ; it can be checked that c is
minimum for that value because for z <z the derivative of Eq. (P2.4) is negative (so the
function c decreases) whereas for z >z the derivative is positive (which indicates c
increases).

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 11
Problem 2.8
Let us use Newtons second law of motion based on Fig. P2.1 below.

Figure P2.1 Rod-bob pendulum in arbitrary position with geometry and forces

The gravity forces of the bob and of the rod (which is placed at the center of gravity)
produce moments opposing the rotation , according to Newtons second law of motion:
sin sin
2
l
J Mgl mg =

(P2.1)
with m = ld
2
/4 being the total mass of the rod. For small rotations, sin is
approximately equal to and, therefore, Eq. (P2.1) becomes:

2
l
J Mgl mg =

(P2.2)
The total moment of inertia of the mechanical system about the rotation axis passing
through the pivot point is:

2 2
1
3
J Ml ml = + (P2.3)
Substitution of Eq. (P2.3) into Eq. (P2.2) results, after simplification, in:
0
3 2
m m
l M M g
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

(P2.4)
It is known that Eq. (P2.4) can be written in the generic form:

2
0
n
+ =

(P2.5)
and therefore the natural frequency corresponding to Eq. (P2.4) is:
l
M
l/2

m
Mg
mg
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 12

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
3 8
3 2
2
2 3 2 12
3
n
m
M g
M ld g
M m g
m M m l M ld l
M l
| |
+
|
+
+
\ .
= = =
+ | | +
+
|
\ .

(P2.6)
When the mass of the rod is not considered (which is equivalent to = 0), Eq. (P2.6)
reduces to
*
n
g
l
= ; this is the known equation of the natural frequency of a massless
rod bob pendulum. For the numerical values of this problem, the natural frequencies of
n
= and
*
n
= so the relative error between these
two values is less than 0.08%.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 13
Problem 2.9
Consider a counterclockwise rotation of the lower lever by an angle , as sketched in
Fig. P2.1, which shows the a displaced position of the two-lever system.

Figure P2.1 Two-lever mechanical system in displaced position

The spring is transferred from its original location (A in Fig. 2.39) at the end point B,
case where its stiffness becomes:

2
/ 2
'
4
l k
k k
l
| |
= =
|
\ .
(P2.1)
Similarly, the mass is relocated from its original position at D to C (which is the same as
being moved at B on the adjacent rod) and the transformed mass becomes:

2
' 16
/ 4
l
m m m
l
| |
= =
|
\ .
(P2.2)
For small motions, the dynamic equation describing the rotation of the left rod about its
pivot point is:
( )
2
or ' '
e
J f l m l k l l = =

(P2.3)
where f
e
is the spring elastic force. Combining Eqs. (P2.1), (P2.2) and (P2.3) yields:

2 2
1
16 0or 0
4 64
k
ml kl
m
+ = + =

(P2.4)
which indicates the natural frequency is:

1
8
n
k
m
= (P2.5)
B
C
D
A
l/2
l
l/4
l

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 14
The mass m needs to be moved to the left on the upper lever in order to increase the
natural frequency. Assuming the mass moved a distance x measured from the right end
of the upper lever, it can be shown that the modified dynamic equation is:
( )
2
2
1
16 0
4
m l x kl + =

(P2.6)
As a consequence, the new natural frequency is:

( )
*
8
n
l k
l x m
=

(P2.7)
The condition of the problem actually requires that:

*
1.2
n n
= (P2.8)
By combining Eqs. (P2.5), (P2.7) and (P2.8), results in x =l/6.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 15
Problem 2.10
The following coordinate connections can be formulated considering small motions
occur in Fig. P2.1:

2 y l
x l R
=

= =

(P2.1)
As a consequence, the coordinates x, y and can be expressed in terms of (the rotation
angle of the horizontal rod) as:

2
l
R
x l
y l

(P2.2)
The original mechanical system is partitioned in two subsystems as shown below in Fig.
P2.1 with f being the force connecting the two separated portions.

Figure P2.1 Free-body diagrams and geometric parameters

The no-slippage rolling of the wheel about the instant center of rotation (the contact point
with the vertical wall) is governed by Newtons second law of rotation motion and results
in the equation:

( )
2
J mR fR + =

(P2.3)
Taking into account that the wheel moment of inertia about its center is J =mR
2
/2, the
force f is expressed from Eq. (P2.3) as

3
2
mR
f =

(P2.4)
Rotation of the horizontal massless rod about its pivot point is similarly expressed as
x
m, J
R

f
x
l
m
l l
x
y
k1
k2
f
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 16
( )
2
1 2
2 ml k k y l fl = (P2.5)
where the mass moment of inertia in the left-hand side of Eq. (P2.5) results from the
point mass m which lies on the horizontal rod. Using the connection relationships of Eq.
(P2.2) and f of Eq. (P2.4) in Eq. (P2.5), transforms the latter equation in:

( )
2 2
1 2
5 2 4 0 ml k l k + + = (P2.6)
which is the mathematical model of this mechanical system.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 17
Problem 2.11
The equation of motion of the system was derived in Problem 2.10 as:

( )
2 2
1 2
5 2 4 0 ml k l k + + = (P2.1)
which yields the natural frequency of the system

( )
2
1 2
2 4
1
5
n
k k l
l m
+
= (P2.2)
with a numerical value of
n
A reduction of 10% in the natural frequency can be achieved through an increase of m,
which changes Eq. (P2.2) to

( )
( )
2
1 2
2 4
1
0.1
5
n n
m
k k l
l m c m
+
=
+
(P2.3)
where c
m
is the, unknown as yet, fractional increase in m. Solving Eq. (P2.3) for c
m
to

( )
( )
2
1 2
2
2 2
2 4
1
5 1 0.1
m
n
k k l
c
l m
+
=

(P2.4)
which is c
m
=0.2346. This means that a decrease of 10% in the natural frequency is
obtained through a 23.46% increase in the mass m.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 18
Problem 2.12
The equivalent stiffness transferred to the middle shaft is

2 2
3 2
1 2 2 2
1 4
e
N N
k k k
N N
= + (P2.1)
and its numerical value is k
e
=237.071 N-m. The total, equivalent mass moment of
inertia corresponding to the middle shaft is

2 2
3 2
1 4 2 3 2 2
1 4
e
N N
J J J J J
N N
= + + + (P2.2)
with a numerical value of J
e
=0.012 kg-m
2
. The resulting natural frequency of the rotary
system is
/
n e e
k J = (P2.3)
which is
n
According to the problem, the altered natural frequency is

*
0.02 1.02
n n n n
= + = (P2.4)
Using Eqs. (P2.1), (P2.2) and (P2.3), the altered frequency of Eq. (P2.4) is expressed as

( )
2 2
3 2
1 1 2 2 2
1 4
1.02
k
n
e
N N
k c k k
N N
J
+ +
= (P2.5)
where c
k
is the fraction increase in k
1
. Solving Eq. (P2.5) for c
k
results in

2 2
2 2 3 1
2 2 2
1 2 4
1.02 1
k n e
N N
c J k
k N N
| |
=
|
\ .
(P2.6)
whose numerical value is c
k
=0.3831. In other words, an increase of 38.31% in k
1
is
needed to produce a 2% increase in the systems natural frequency.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 19
Problem 2.13
The forces acting on the body m on the incline are shown in Fig. P2.1(a), while the
original position and an arbitrary position spaced at x from the original position (which
coincides with the reference frame) are indicated in Fig. P2.1(b).

Figure P2.1 Mass-spring single-DOF mechanical system on an incline: (a) schematic representation
with forces; (b) two positions on the incline

Applying Newtons second law of motion to the body m results in:

t e
mx f f = (P2.1)
where f
e
is the elastic (spring) force and f
t
is the tangential component of the gravity
force; they are expressed as:

sin
e
t
f kx
f mg
=

(P2.2)
Substituting the forces of Eqs. (P2.2) into Eq. (P2.1) yields:
sin 0 mx kx mg + = (P2.3)
which represents the mathematical model of the mechanical system of Fig. P2.1(a).

(a) (b)
x

original position
generic (displaced) position
x
fe
m

mg
ft
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 20
Problem 2.14
This particular application is equivalent to a forced undamped case when considering
the Coulomb damping force is equivalent to the (negative) excitation agent. Figure P2.1
shows the free-body diagram for the body moving to the right.

Figure P2.1 Free-body diagram of the single-DOF spring-mass system under the action of a dry-
friction force

The solution to this problem follows a mixed approach, as shown next. The free-body
diagram of Fig. P2.1 enables formulation of Newtons second law of motion for the body
under the action of the elastic (spring) force f
e
and the friction force f
f
, namely:
or
e f
mx f f mx kx mg = + = (P2.1)
Intuitively, the motion consists of vibrations whose amplitudes decay gradually down to
a terminal point where the elastic potential energy stored in the spring in an extreme
position is no longer sufficient to counteract the friction force. Figure P2.2 shows the
qualitative profile of the response curve, capturing the initial motion portion (the
amplitude goes successively from x
0
, through x
01
down to x
1
), as well as a generic
portion (with the defining amplitudes being x
n-1
, x
n-1, n
and x
n
).

Figure P2.2 Decaying vibrations of the mass-spring system with Coulomb damping

The solution to the homogeneous part of Eq. (P2.1) is harmonic (sinusoidal for instance),
as seen in the free undamped response section. Moreover, there is a period for the
x
fe
ff
m
mg
n
x01
x
t
x0
x1 xn-1
xn
xn-1, n
T T
A0
A1
An-1
An
A01
An-1, n
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 21
vibratory motion which is T = 2/ = 2 (k/m)
1/2
, and this explains the time intervals that
are equal to T between any two consecutive amplitudes having the same direction in Fig.
P2.2.
Let us analyze what happens between points A
0
and A
01
in Fig. P2.2 in terms of
energy. At both points the motion direction changes and therefore, the velocity becomes
zero. As a consequence, it can be stated that a decrease in the elastic potential energy
(since, intuitively x
01
<x
0
) is equal to the work done by the friction force, namely:
( )
2 2
0 01 0 01
1 1
2 2
kx kx mg x x = + (P2.2)
The right-hand side of Eq. (P2.2) indicates the distance traveled by the body between
points A
0
and A
01
on the plot of Fig. P2.2 is the sum of the two consecutive amplitudes.
Equation (P2.2) simplifies to:
( )
0 01
1
2
k x x mg = (P2.3)
A similar equation can be written for the motion between points A
01
and A
1
, namely:
( )
01 1
1
2
k x x mg = (P2.4)
By adding up Eqs. (P2.3) and (P2.4), the following equation is obtained:

2
0 1 2 2
4 4 mg g g
x x T
k
= = =

(P2.5)
It can simply be shown that the difference x
n
x
n-1
has the same value as the one of Eq.
(P2.5), and, actually, any difference between two successive amplitudes that are
associated with motion in the same direction is the same, which can also be expressed as:

0 1 1 1 2
2
...
n n
x x x x x x g
T
T T T

= = = =

(P2.6)
The amount on the right-hand side of Eq. (P2.6) is a constant and therefore, points need
to be located on a line segment, as illustrated in Fig. P2.3.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 22

Figure P2.3 Amplitude points on decaying vibrations are located on a line segment

The small right-angle triangles of Fig. P2.3 are similar and therefore:

0 1 1 1 2
... constant
n n
x x x x x x
T T T

= = = = (P2.7)
Equation (P2.6) also indicates the same conclusion as Eq. (P2.7), and therefore, the
decaying envelope of the vibratory response is a line segment it can easily be shown
that a segment line that is mirrored with respect to the time axis is the envelope for the
plot portion corresponding to negative values of x.

x
t
x0
x1
xn-1
xn
A0
A1
An-1
An
A2
x2
T T T
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 23
Problem 2.15
After displacing the body a distance x
0
from the equilibrium position, it will travel
another maximum distance x
1
on the other side of the equilibrium position. Due to
friction, kinetic energy is lost through friction, such that the energy variation is equal to
the work done by the friction force, namely:
( )
2 2
0 1 0 1
1 1
2 2
k
kx kx mg x x = + (P2.1)
Similar equations can be written connecting successive points of maximum displacement
with respect to the equilibrium position:

( )
( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
2 2
...
1 1
2 2
k
n n k n n
kx kx mg x x
kx kx mg x x

= +
= +

(P2.2)
Let us assume the body stops after eventually travelling the distance x
n
from the
equilibrium position. At that point, the static friction force is at least equal to the elastic
force, which means:

s n
mg kx = (P2.3)
resulting in:

s
n
mg
x
k
=

(P2.4)
Addition of Eqs. (P2.1) and (P2.2) results in:
( )
2 2
0 0 1 2 1
1 1
2 ...
2 2
n k n n
kx kx mg x x x x x

= + + + + + (

(P2.5)
By using Eq. (P2.4) in conjunction with (P2.5) yields the total distance travelled by the
body:
( )
2 2 2 2 2
0
0 1 2 1
2 ...
2
s
n n
k
k x m g
d x x x x x
mgk

= + + + + + =

(P2.6)
which is d =0.049 m.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 24
Problem 2.16
The equation of motion for the cylinder is determined by applying Newtons second
law of motion

t t
J c k =

(P2.1)
which can be written as

2
2 0
n n
+ + =

(P2.2)
where

2
2
t
n
t
n
c
J
k
J

(P2.3)
The equation system (P2.3) is solved for the natural frequency
n
and the damping ratio ,
which yields
n
= 244.949 rad/s and = 0.3. The damped frequency is calculated as

2
1
d n
= (P2.4)
and its value is
d
The amplitudes of the free damped vibrations of the cylinder corresponding to a time
t
k
and to a subsequent time t
k+m
, are expressed as

( )
n k
n k d
t
k
t mT
k m
e
e

+
+
=

(P2.5)
where T
d
= 2/(
d
) is the damped period. The ratio of the two amplitudes of Eq. (P2.5) is

2
2
1
n d
m
mT k
k m
e e

+

= =

(P2.6)
Using the natural logarithm in Eq. (P2.6) gives m as

2
1
ln( )
2
m n

(P2.7)
which has a value of m = 2.279 for = 0.3 and n =100. Therefore, the amplitude
decreases 100 times after approximately 3 vibration cycles.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 25
Problem 2.17
For the free vibrations in vacuum, the natural frequency of the system can be
determined from the known natural period as:

2
n
n
T
=

(P2.1)
and its value is
n
The translatory-motion stiffness of the helical spring is calculated as:

4
3
64
Gd
k
nR
= (P2.2)
with a numerical value of k =20 N/m. The lumped-parameter mass can now be found as

2
2 2
4
n
n
kT k
m = =

(P2.3)
which yields m =0.25 kg.
Based on the relationship between natural and damped frequencies,

2
1
d n
= ,
the damping ratio is calculated as

2 2
2 2
1 1
d n
n d
T
T
= =

(P2.4)
and its numerical value is = 0.36. The viscous damping coefficient of the liquid is now
determined as:

2
2
n
n
k
c m = =

(P2.5)
The numerical value of the damping coefficient is c =1.6 N-s/m.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 26
Problem 2.18
The equivalent stiffness corresponding to the three actual springs is

2 3
1
2 3
e
k k
k k
k k
= +
+
(P2.1)
because the spring of stiffness k
1
is coupled in parallel with the serial combination of the
springs of stiffnesses k
2
and k
3
. Similarly, the equivalent damping coefficient
corresponding to the parallel combination of c
1
and c
2
is

1 2 e
c c c = + (P2.2)
Their numerical values are k
e
=144.545 N/m and c
e
=17 N-s/m.

(a)
The mathematical model for no external forcing is simply:
0
e e
c x k x + = (P2.3)
which can be written as

e
e
k
x x
c
= (P2.4)

diagram of the spring-damper mechanical system with no forcing and nonzero

initial conditions

At the integration step, the initial condition of 0.02 (corresponding to the initial
displacement x(0) =0.02 m) needs to be specified. Figure P2.2 illustrates the time
response of this system as plotted by the Scope.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 27

plot of the time response for no forcing and nonzero initial conditions

(b)
When a force f acts at the point where x is measured, the mathematical model
becomes:

e e
c x k x f + = (P2.5)
which is written as

1
e
e e
k
x x f
c c
= + (P2.6)

diagram is shown in Fig. P2.3 and the result of the time-domain

simulation in Fig. P2.4.

diagram of the spring-damper mechanical system with forcing and zero initial
conditions

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 28

Figure P2.4 Simulink plot of the time response for forcing and zero initial conditions

This time, the initial condition needs to be zero in the integration operator to conform to
the problems requirement.

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 29
Problem 2.19
Newtons second law of motion is applied to the rod rotating about the pivot point
under the action of damping and elastic forces, which results in

2 2 2 2 2
1 2
1
(2 ) (2 ) (2 ) (2 )
3
r
m l m l c l k l k l
(
+ =
(

(P2.1)
and can be written as
( )
1 2
1
4 4 4 0
3
r
m m c k k
| |
+ + + + =
|
\ .

(P2.2)
Equation (P2.2) represents the mathematical model of the rotary mechanical system. To

, Eq. (P2.2) is reformulated as

1 2
a a =

(P2.3)
with

1 2
1 2
4
;
1 1
4
3 3
r r
k k c
a a
m m m m
+
= =
| |
+ +
|
\ .
(P2.4)
and their numerical values are a
1
=26.667 and a
2
=716.667. Figure P2.1 shows the

process enabling integration of Eq. (P2.3) to determine . The initial

condition for the second integration is 3
o
, which is the value of (0). The time variation
of is plotted in Fig. P2.2. The two gains are introduced as negative values.
Scope
1
s
Integrator1
1
s
Integrator
-K-
Gain2
-K-
Gain1 = a_2
-K-
Gain = a_1
d^2th/dt^2 dth/dt th (rad) th (deg)

diagram integrating Eq. (P2.3)

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 30

plot of the rotation angle in terms of time

Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 31
Problem 2.20
(a)
Figure P2.1 shows the free-body diagrams of the two pulleys with the wire tension f
t
,
the spring elastic force f
e
and the external force f
A
.

Figure P2.1 Free-body diagrams of the two pulleys

Newtons second law of motion in the rotation version is applied to the two pulleys,
which results in:

1
2
AB A A t B
CD t C e D
J f R f R
J f R f R
=

(P2.1)
where:

2 1
2 1
B
C
B D
e D
C
R
R
R R
f kR k
R

= =

(P2.2)
Substitution of Eqs. (P2.2) into the second Eq. (P2.1) and combination of the resulting
equation with the first Eq. (P2.1) yields the equation of motion:

2 2 2
1 1 2 2
B B D
AB CD A A
C C
R R R
J J k f R
R R

| |
+ + =
|
\ .

(P2.3)
The complete mathematical model of the rotary mechanical system consists of Eq.
(P2.3) and the first Eq. (P2.2).
For the numerical values of this problem, Eq. (P2.3) can be written as:

1 1
1,061.9 30.1
A
f = +

(P2.4)

block diagram based on the two aforementioned

equations, and Fig. P2.3 contains the plots of the input force f
A
, and of the output angles
RC
ft
fe
RD
2
RA
RB
fA
ft
1
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 32

1
(t) and
2
(t). In order to obtain the required forcing function a Ramp input (from the
Sour ces library) with a slope of 80 is combined with a Wr ap t o Zer o function
from the Di scont i nui t i es library with a Thr eshol d value of 80 as well. This
particular type of function is a unit ramp function which drops to zero past the threshold
value and keeps that value after that. In the Conf i gur at i on Par amet er s if you
choose a St op t i me of 2 s, you will obtain the plots of Fig. P2.3.

diagram of the two-pulley mechanical system

(a)
Lobontiu: System Dynamics for Engineering Students
Solutions: Chapter 2 33

(b)

(c)

plots: (a) input force (Scope 1); (b) plot of

1
as a function of time (Scope2);
(c) plot of
2
as a function of time (Scope3);

(b)
The system is a single-DOF one, as the variable
2
(t) can be determined in terms of

1
(t), see the first Eq. (P2.2). Considering that f
A
=0, changes Eq. (P2.3) to:

( )
2 2 2 2
1 1
0
C AB B CD B D
R J R J kR R + + =

(P2.5)
which shows that the natural frequency is:

2 2 n B D
C AB B CD
k
R R
R J R J
=
+
(P2.6)
The natural frequency value is
n