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Stephen Hawking

NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking, 1999

8 January 1942 (age 67)
Oxford, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Applied mathematician
Theoretical physicist
University of Cambridge
Institutions Perimeter Institute for Theoretical
University of Oxford
Alma mater
University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Robert Berman
academic advisors
Bruce Allen
Fay Dowker
Malcolm Perry
Bernard Carr
Gary Gibbons
Doctoral students
Harvey Reall
Don Page
Tim Prestidge
Raymond Laflamme
Julian Luttrell
Black holes
Known for Theoretical cosmology
Quantum gravity
Influences Dikran Tahta
Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Notable awards
Copley Medal (2006)

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British
theoretical physicist. Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University
of Cambridge (but intends to retire from this post in 2009),[1] a Fellow of Gonville and
Caius College, Cambridge and the distinguished research chair at Waterloo's Perimeter
Institute for Theoretical Physics.[2] He is known for his contributions to the fields of
cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes. He has also
achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories
and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time,
which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237
weeks.[3] Hawking has a neuro muscular dystrophy that is related to amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost
completely paralysed.
Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose,
theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the
theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as
Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation).[4] He is a world-
renowned theoretical physicist whose scientific career spans over 40 years. His books and
public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. He is an Honorary Fellow of
the Royal Society of Arts,[5] and a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Science.

• 1 Biography
o 1.1 Research fields

o 1.2 Losing an old bet

o 1.3 The Final Frontier

o 1.4 Illness

o 1.5 Media appearances

o 1.6 Religious views

• 2 Recognition
o 2.1 Acclaim

o 2.2 Distinctions

o 2.3 Awards and honours

• 3 Selected publications
o 3.1 Technical

o 3.2 Popular

o 3.3 Children's fiction

o 3.4 Films and series

• 4 See also
• 5 References
• 6 Further reading
• 7 External links

[edit] Biography
Stephen Hawking was born to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist, and Isobel
Hawking, a political activist.[citation needed] He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary
and an adopted brother, Edward.[7] Though Hawking's parents were living in North
London, they moved to Oxford while Isobel was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer
location for the birth of their first child (London was under attack at the time by the
Luftwaffe).[8] According to one of Hawking's publications, a German Wehrmacht V-2
missile struck only a few streets away.[9]
After Stephen was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the
division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research.[7]
In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans in Hertfordshire where he attended
St Albans School from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls school
until the age of 10.[10]) From the age of 11, he attended St Albans School, where he was a
good, but not exceptional, student.[7] When asked later to name a teacher who had
inspired him, Hawking named his Mathematics teacher, Dikran Tahta.[11] He maintains
his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an
extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited to deliver one of the lectures and has
also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, The Albanian.
Hawking was always interested in science.[7] He enrolled at University College, Oxford
with the intent of studying mathematics, although his father would have preferred he go
into medicine. Since mathematics was not offered at University College, Hawking
instead chose physics. His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity,
and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in the New York
Times Magazine:
It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it
without looking to see how other people did it. [...] He didn't have very many books, and
he didn't take notes. Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his
Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habits resulted in a final examination
score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral
examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination:
And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to
someone far more clever than most of themselves.[7]
After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford University in 1962, he stayed to study
astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots, which was all the
observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in
theory than in observation.[7] He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he
engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.
Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (known colloquially in the USA as Lou Gehrig's disease), a
type of motor neuron disease which would cost him almost all neuromuscular control.
During his first two years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the
disease had stabilized and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama, he
returned to working on his Ph.D.[7] He revealed that he did not see much point in
obtaining a doctorate if he were to die soon. Hawking later said that the real turning point
was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, a language student.[7] After gaining his Ph.D.,
Stephen became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville
and Caius College.
Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society in 1974, was
created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1982, and became a
Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
Hawking's achievements were made despite the increasing paralysis caused by the ALS.
By 1974, he was unable to feed himself or get out of bed. His speech became slurred so
that he could only be understood by people who knew him well. In 1985, he caught
pneumonia and had to have a tracheotomy, which made him unable to speak at all. A
Cambridge scientist built a device that enables Hawking to write onto a computer with
small movements of his body, and then have a voice synthesizer speak what he has typed.

Jane Hawking (née Wilde), Hawking's first wife, cared for him until 1991 when the
couple separated, reportedly due to the pressures of fame and his increasing disability.
They had three children: Robert (b. 1967), Lucy (b. 1969), and Timothy (b. 1979).
Hawking married his nurse, Elaine Mason (who was previously married to David Mason,
the designer of the first version of Hawking's talking computer), in 1995. In October
2006, Hawking filed for divorce from his second wife.[13]
In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars, detailing her own
long-term relationship with a family friend whom she later married. Hawking's daughter,
Lucy, is a novelist. Their oldest son, Robert, emigrated to the United States, married, and
has one child, George Edward Hawking. Reportedly, Hawking and his first family were
reconciled in 2007.[14]

[edit] Research fields

Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose, applied a
new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein's general theory
of relativity.[15] This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity
theorems; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a
singularity in space-time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities
which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general
He supplied a mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner Israel and D.
Robinson, of John Wheeler's "No-Hair Theorem" – namely, that any black hole is fully
described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.
Hawking also suggested that, upon analysis of gamma ray emissions, after the Big Bang,
primordial mini black holes were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four
laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he
calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known
today as Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate.[17]
In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the universe had
no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang
models with a region akin to the North pole: One cannot travel north of the North Pole, as
there is no boundary there. While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed
universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal
is also consistent with a universe which is not closed.
Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study of quantum
cosmology, cosmic inflation, helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large
N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe,
baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix, anti de Sitter space, quantum
entanglement and entropy, the nature of space and time, including the arrow of time,
spacetime foam, string theory, supergravity, Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational
Hamiltonian, Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation, gravitational
radiation, and wormholes.
At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's 50th anniversary, Prof.
Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life, "primitive life is very common
and intelligent life is fairly rare."[18]

[edit] Losing an old bet

Main article: Thorne-Hawking-Preskill bet
Hawking was in the news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about black holes
which goes against his own long-held belief about their behaviour, thus losing a bet he
made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech. Classically, it can be shown that
information crossing the event horizon of a black hole is lost to our universe, and that
thus all black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical charge and angular velocity
(the "no hair theorem"). The problem with this theorem is that it implies the black hole
will emit the same radiation regardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a
pure quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an "ordinary" mixed state will be
returned. This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics and is known as the black
hole information paradox.
Hawking had earlier speculated that the singularity at the centre of a black hole could
form a bridge to a "baby universe," a term coined by Canadian Astrophysicist Chad
Bryden, into which the lost information could pass; such theories have been very popular
in science fiction. But according to Hawking's new idea, presented at the 17th
International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, on 21 July, 2004 in
Dublin, Republic of Ireland, black holes eventually transmit, in a garbled form,
information about all matter they swallow:
The Euclidean path integral over all topologically trivial metrics can be done by time
slicing and so is unitary when analytically continued to the Lorentzian. On the other
hand, the path integral over all topologically non-trivial metrics is asymptotically
independent of the initial state. Thus the total path integral is unitary and information is
not lost in the formation and evaporation of black holes. The way the information gets out
seems to be that a true event horizon never forms, just an apparent horizon.[19]
Having concluded that information is conserved, Hawking conceded, awarding Preskill a
Total Baseball, The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia. Thorne, however, remained
unconvinced of Hawking's proof and declined to contribute to the award.[20] Another older
bet – about the existence of black holes – was described by Hawking as an "insurance
policy" of sorts. To quote from his book A Brief History of Time:
This was a form of insurance policy for me. I have done a lot of work on black holes, and
it would all be wasted if it turned out that black holes do not exist. But in that case, I
would have the consolation of winning my bet, which would win me four years of the
magazine Private Eye. If black holes do exist, Kip will get one year of Penthouse. When
we made the bet in 1975, we were 80% certain that Cygnus was a black hole. By now, I
would say that we are about 95% certain, but the bet has yet to be settled.
—Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time (1988)[3]
According to the updated 10th anniversary's edition of A Brief History of Time, Hawking
has conceded the bet, "to the outrage of Kip's liberated wife," due to subsequent
observational data in favour of black holes.

[edit] The Final Frontier

At the 50th Anniversary of NASA, Hawking gave a keynote speech on the final frontier
exhorting and inspiring the space technology community on why we (the human race)
explore space.
At the celebration of his 65th birthday on 8 January, 2007, Hawking announced his plan
to take a zero-gravity flight in 2007 to prepare for a sub-orbital spaceflight in 2009 on
Virgin Galactic's space service. Billionaire Richard Branson pledged to pay all expenses
for the latter, costing an estimated £100,000.[21] Stephen Hawking's zero-gravity flight in
a "Vomit Comet" of Zero Gravity Corporation, during which he experienced
weightlessness eight times, took place on 26 April 2007.[22] He became the first
quadriplegic to float in zero-gravity. This was the first time in 40 years that he moved
freely, without his wheelchair. The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10–15 plunges, but
Hawking was not required to pay the fee. A bit of a futurist,[23] Hawking was quoted
before the flight saying:
Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight. I am doing it for many reasons.
First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by
a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers. I
think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore want to
encourage public interest in space.[24]
In an interview with the British newspaper telegraph, he suggested that space was the
Earth's long term hope. [25]

[edit] Illness

Hawking on 5 May 2006, during the press conference at the Bibliothèque nationale de
France to inaugurate the Laboratory of Astronomy and Particles in Paris and the French
release of his work God Created the Integers.
Hawking is severely disabled by motor neuron disease, likely a variant of the disease
known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (or ALS). Most neuromuscular specialists believe
he has Spinal Muscular Atrophy type IV. Hawking's illness is markedly different from
typical ALS in the fact that his form of ALS would make for the most protracted case
ever documented. A survival for more than 10 years after diagnosis is uncommon for
ALS; the longest documented durations are 32 and 39 years and these cases were termed
benign because of the lack of the typical progressive course.[26]
When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. At
Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom
at the university. Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at
Cambridge; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. Worried
that he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual
abilities were intact.[27] The diagnosis of motor neuron disease came when Hawking was
21, shortly before his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two
or three years. Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and is now
almost completely paralysed.
During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted
pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already
limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what
remained of his ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to
The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American accent, is no
longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it after so many years, Hawking
mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it.
Hawking is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the
synthesizer is both large and fragile by current standards.
In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently through his
synthesizer, but in reality, it is a tedious drawn-out process. Hawking's setup uses a
predictive text entry system, which requires only the first few characters in order to auto-
complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing
complete sentences takes time. His speeches are prepared in advance, but having a live
conversation with him provides insight as to the complexity and work involved. During a
Technology, Entertainment, & Design Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to
answer a question.[28]
He describes himself as lucky despite his disease. Its slow progression has allowed him
time to make influential discoveries and has not hindered him from having, in his own
words, "a very attractive family."[29] When Jane was asked why she decided to marry a
man with a three-year life expectancy, she responded, "Those were the days of atomic
gloom and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."
Wikinews has related news: Scientist Stephen Hawking rushed to hospital in
On 20 April 2009, Cambridge University released a statement saying that Hawking was
"very ill" with a chest infection, and was admitted to Addenbrooke's Hospital.[30][31] The
following day, it was reported that his new condition is "comfortable" and he should
make a full recovery.[32]

[edit] Media appearances

Main article: Stephen Hawking in popular culture
Hawking has appeared as himself on many television shows. For example, he has played
himself on a Red Dwarf anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode
"Descent" of Star Trek: The Next Generation, appeared in a skit on Late Night with
Conan O'Brien, and appeared on the Discovery Channel special Alien Planet.[33] He has
also played himself in several episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama. When he was
portrayed on episodes of Family Guy, the voice was actually done by a speech
synthesizer on a Macintosh computer, according to DVD Commentary. He has also
appeared in an episode of the Dilbert cartoon. His name is mentioned in the song "White
& Nerdy" by "Weird Al" Yankovic. His actual synthesiser voice was used on parts of the
Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking" from the 1994 album The Division Bell, as well as on
Turbonegro's "Intro: The Party Zone" on their 2005 album Party Animals, Wolfsheim's
"Kein Zurück (Oliver Pinelli Mix)". As well as being fictionalised as nerdcore hip hop
artist MC Hawking, he was impersonated in duet with Richard Cheese on a cover of "The
Girl Is Mine". In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the documentary
series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe for Channel 4. He was also portrayed in
the movie "Superhero Movie" by Robert Joy and in Dark Angel TV Series as Logan's
geek colleague. In September 2008, Hawking presided over the unveiling of the
'Chronophage' Corpus Clock (time eating) clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge.[34]
In 2008, Hawking appeared in a commercial for the Discovery Channel. His appearance
can be seen at the 53 second mark of this youtube video – Boom De YaDa.

[edit] Religious views

Hawking has repeatedly used the word 'God' (in metaphorical meanings)[35] to illustrate
points made in his books and public speeches. Having been described as an atheist by
various people, including his former wife Jane,[36][37] Hawking has stated that he is "not
religious in the normal sense" and he believes that "the universe is governed by the laws
of science. The laws may have been decreed by God, but God does not intervene to break
the laws."[38] Dr. "Fritz" Shaefer categorized his beliefs as either "agnostic or deist,"
stating that, "He is an agnostic or deist or something more along those lines. He's
certainly not an atheist and not even very sympathetic to atheism." [39]

[edit] Recognition
[edit] Acclaim
On 19 December 2007, a unique statue of Professor Stephen Hawking by renowned late
artist Ian Walters was unveiled at Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Cambridge
University.[40] In May 2008 the statue of Hawking was unveiled at the African Institute
for Mathematical Sciences in Cape Town. The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in
San Salvador, El Salvador is named in honor of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific
distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity.[41] Stephen Hawking Building in
Cambridge, opened on 17 April 2007. The building belongs to Gonville and Caius
College and is used as an undergraduate accommodation and conference facility.[citation
needed] There is also a Stephen Hawking building in Winchester, at the Westgate school.
[citation needed]

[edit] Distinctions
Hawking's belief that the lay person should have access to his work led him to write a
series of popular science books in addition to his academic work. The first of these, A
Brief History of Time, was published on 1 April 1988 by Hawking, his family and friends,
and some leading physicists. It surprisingly became a best-seller and was followed by
The Universe in a Nutshell (2001). Both books have remained highly popular all over the
world. A collection of essays titled Black Holes and Baby Universes (1993) was also
popular. His most recent book, A Briefer History of Time (2005), co-written by Leonard
Mlodinow, aims to update his earlier works and make them accessible to an even wider
audience. He and his daughter, Lucy Hawking, have recently published a children's book
focusing on science that has been described to be "like Harry Potter, but without the
magic." This book is called George's Secret Key to the Universe and includes information
on Hawking radiation.
Hawking is also known for his wit; he is famous for his oft-made statement, "When I hear
of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my pistol." This was a deliberately ironic paraphrase of
"Whenever I hear the word culture... I release the safety-catch of my Browning", from the
play Schlageter (Act 1, Scene 1) by German playwright and Nazi Poet Laureate Hanns
Johst. His wit has both entertained the non-specialist public and helped them to
understand complex questions. Asked in October 2005 on the British daytime chat show
Richard & Judy, to explain his assertion that the question "What came before the Big
Bang?" was meaningless, he compared it to asking "What lies north of the North Pole?"
Hawking has generally avoided talking about politics at length, but he has appeared on a
political broadcast for the United Kingdom's Labour Party. He supports the children's
charity SOS Children's Villages UK.[42]
He takes an agnostic position on matters of religion.[38][43]

[edit] Awards and honours

• 1975 Eddington Medal
• 1976 Hughes Medal of the Royal Society
• 1979 Albert Einstein Medal
• 1982 Order of the British Empire (Commander)
• 1985 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
• 1986 Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences
• 1988 Wolf Prize in Physics
• 1989 Prince of Asturias Awards in Concord
• 1989 Companion of Honour
• 1999 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society[44]
• 2003 Michelson Morley Award of Case Western Reserve University
• 2006 Copley Medal of the Royal Society[45]
• 2009 Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United

[edit] Selected publications

[edit] Technical
• Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes with Dennis William
Sciama, 1969 Comments on Astrophysics and Space Physics Vol 1 #1
• The Nature of Space and Time with Roger Penrose, foreword by Michael Atiyah,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-691-05084-8
• The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with George Ellis, 1973 ISBN
• The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind, (with Abner Shimony, Nancy
Cartwright, and Roger Penrose), Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-
56330-5 (hardback), ISBN 0-521-65538-2 (paperback), Canto edition: ISBN 0-
• Information Loss in Black Holes, Cambridge University Press, 2005
• God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed
History, Running Press, 2005 ISBN 0762419229

[edit] Popular
• A Brief History of Time, (Bantam Press 1988) ISBN 055305340X
• Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, (Bantam Books 1993) ISBN
• The Universe in a Nutshell, (Bantam Press 2001) ISBN 055380202X
• On The Shoulders of Giants. The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy,
(Running Press 2002) ISBN 076241698X
• A Briefer History of Time, (Bantam Books 2005) ISBN 0553804367
Footnote: On Hawking's website, he denounces the unauthorised publication of The
Theory of Everything and asks consumers to be aware that he was not involved in its

[edit] Children's fiction

These are co-written with his daughter Lucy.
• George's Secret Key to the Universe, (Random House, 2007) ISBN
• George and the Cosmic Treasure Hunt, (Random House, 2009)

[edit] Films and series

• A Brief History of Time (film)
• Stephen Hawking's Universe
• Horizon: The Hawking Paradox[47]
• Masters of Science Fiction
• Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe
A list of Hawking's publications through the year 2002 is available on his website.
r Dame Jane Goodall

Dr. Jane Goodall at Hong Kong University

on 24 October 2004
Born 3 April 1934 (age 75)
Residence England, Tanzania
Nationality British
Fields Biologist, Primatologist, Conservationist
Alma mater University of Cambridge
Doctoral students none.
Known for Study of chimpanzees, conservation
Notable awards DBE (2004)
Religious stance Christian
Dame Jane Goodall, DBE (born Valerie Jane Morris Goodall on 3 April 1934) is an
English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. She is
well-known for her 45-year study of chimpanzee social and family interactions in Gombe
Stream National Park, Tanzania, and for founding the Jane Goodall Institute.

• 1 Early life and studies
• 2 Personal life
• 3 Professional accomplishments
• 4 Environmentalism
• 5 Criticism
• 6 Honours
• 7 Animal welfare activism
• 8 Awards
• 9 Publications
o 9.1 Books

o 9.2 Children's books

o 9.3 Films

• 10 In popular culture
• 11 See also
• 12 References
• 13 External links

Early life and studies

Jane Goodall was born in London, England in 1934. As a child she was given a lifelike
chimpanzee toy named Jubilee by her father. Goodall was not very interested in animals
until her father brought her the stuffed animal. Today, the toy still sits on her dresser in
London. After the divorce of her parents when Goodall was 12 years old, she moved with
her mother to Bournemouth, England.
Goodall's interest in animals prompted notable anthropologist Louis Leakey to hire her as
his assistant and secretary. He invited her to accompany him and his wife, Mary Leakey,
to dig at Olduvai Gorge in eastern Africa. He asked Goodall to study the chimpanzees of
Gombe Stream National Park (then known as 'Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve'). She
arrived at Gombe accompanied by her mother in July 1960. Leakey arranged for her to
return to the United Kingdom where she earned a doctorate in ethology from Darwin
College, the University of Cambridge in 1964. Along with Dian Fossey, famous for
living with gorillas, and Biruté Galdikas, who advanced studies in orangutans, Goodall
was one of three women dubbed "Leakey's Angels".

Personal life
Goodall has been married twice. On 28 March 1964 she married aristocratic wildlife
photographer Baron Hugo van Lawick at Chelsea Old Church, London, becoming
Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall. The couple had a son, Hugo Eric Louis,
affectionately known as 'Grub', who was born in 1967. They divorced in 1974. In 1975
she married Derek Bryceson (a member of Tanzania's parliament and the director of that
country's national parks) and they remained married until his death in 1980. Jane and her
younger sister, Judy, both suffer from prosopagnosia, a neurological condition which
impairs the recognition of human faces. [1]

Professional accomplishments

Orphaned by poachers, young chimpanzees are raised by volunteers and researchers at

the Tchimpounga Sanctuary (part of the Jane Goodall Institute) in the Republic of the
Goodall is best known for her study of chimpanzee social and family life. She began
studying the Kasakela chimpanzee community in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania
in 1960.[2] In 1977, Goodall established the Jane Goodall Institute (JGI), which supports
the Gombe research, and she is a global leader in the effort to protect chimpanzees and
their habitats. With nineteen offices around the world, the JGI is widely recognized for
innovative, community-centered conservation and development programs in Africa and a
global youth program, Roots & Shoots, which currently has over 8,000 groups in over
100 countries. Today, Goodall devotes virtually all of her time to advocacy on behalf of
chimpanzees and the environment, traveling nearly 300 days a year. Goodall is also a
board member for the world's largest chimpanzee sanctuary outside of Africa, Save the
Chimps in Fort Pierce, Florida.
Goodall was instrumental in the study of social learning, primate cognition, thinking and
culture in wild chimpanzees, their differentiation from the bonobo, and the inclusion of
both chimpanzee species, and the gorilla, as Hominids.
One of Goodall's major break-throughs in the field of primatology was the discovery of
tool-making among chimpanzees during her study. Though many animals had been
clearly observed using 'tools', previously, only humans were thought to make tools, and
tool-making was considered the defining difference between humans and other animals.
This discovery convinced several scientists to reconsider their definition of being human.

Goodall also set herself apart from the traditional conventions of the time by naming the
animals in her studies of primates, instead of assigning each a number. Numbering was a
nearly universal practice at the time, and thought to be important in the removal of one's
self from the potential for emotional attachment to the subject being studied. Among
those that Goodall named during her years in Gombe were:
• David Greybeard, a grey-chinned male who first warmed up to Goodall.[4]
• Goliath, a friend of David Greybeard, originally the alpha male named for his
bold nature.
• Mike, who through his cunning and improvisation displaced Goliath as the alpha
• Humphrey, a big, strong, bullysome male.
• Gigi, a large, sterile female who delighted in being the "aunt" of any young
chimps or humans.
• Mr. McGregor, a belligerent older male.
• Flo, a motherly, high-ranking female with a bulbous nose and ragged ears, and her
children, Figan, Faben, Fifi, and Flint.[5][6]
• Frodo, Fifi's second eldest child, an aggressive male who would frequently attack
Jane and who once killed and began to eat a human infant.[7]

Jane Goodall's involvement in tropical forests and conservation has led her to be actively
involved in a number of environmental issues, and to found the Roots & Shoots youth
group. She has also endorsed the Forests Now Declaration, calling for new market based
mechanisms to protect tropical forests. She is a patron of the Optimum Population Trust.

Some primatologists have suggested flaws in Goodall's methodology which may call into
question the validity of her observations. Goodall used unconventional practices in her
study, for example, naming individuals instead of numbering them[clarification needed]. At the
time numbering was used to prevent emotional attachment and loss of objectivity. Many
standard methods are aimed at helping observers to avoid interference and the use of
feeding stations to attract Gombe chimpanzees is, in particular, thought by some to have
altered normal foraging and feeding patterns as well as social relationships.[8]
It has been suggested that higher levels of aggression and conflict with other chimpanzee
groups in the area were a consequences of the feeding, which could have created the
"wars" between chimpanzee social groups described by Goodall. Thus, some regard
Goodall's observations as distortions of normal chimpanzee behavior.[9] Goodall herself
(on several occasions) acknowledged that feeding contributed to aggression within and
between groups:
"I didn't see aggression to start with. There's no question that chimpanzees
become more aggressive as a result of crowding, as a result of competition for
food." (J. Goodall)
"It's very hard to look back with hindsight and say oh well I would have done it
differently. If I had gone to Gombe and had access to information about the effect
of feeding bananas on wild chimpanzees I wouldn't have done it". (J. Goodall)
However, Goodall has also said that the effect was limited to alteration of the intensity
and not the nature of chimpanzee conflict and further that feeding was necessary for the
study to be effective at all.
Some recent studies such as the study by Crickette Sanz in the Goualougo Triangle
(Congo) or by Prof. Christophe Boesch in the Tai Forest (Ivory Coast) have not shown
the aggression observed in the Gombe studies.[10]
"So far, we haven't seen any abnormal levels of aggression. We've never seen
chimps killing other chimps. We haven't seen highly elevated territorial disputes.
If I had to guess, I wouldn't expect to see it". (C. Sanz)
"I have not seen this kind of killing in Tai Forest. This violence is not always
present". (C. Boesch)
However, not all primatologists agree that the studies are flawed; for example, Jim Moore
provides a critique of Margaret Powers' assertions[11] and some studies of other
chimpanzee groups have shown similar aggression to Gombe even in the absence of
feeding.[12] Despite the early theories of this aggression being somewhat artificial, it is
now known that chimpanzees kill and even eat other chimpanzees in the wild[citation needed].
Jane Goodall has received many honors for her environmental and humanitarian work, as
well as others. She was named a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in
a ceremony held in Buckingham Palace in 2004. In April 2002, Secretary-General Kofi
Annan named Dr. Goodall a United Nations Messenger of Peace. Her other honors
include the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, the French Legion of Honor,
Medal of Tanzania, Japan's prestigious Kyoto Prize, the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life
Science, the Gandhi-King Award for Nonviolence and the Spanish Premio Príncipe de
Asturias. She is also a member of the advisory board of BBC Wildlife magazine.
In 2002, the Canadian city of Greater Sudbury, Ontario dedicated a walking trail,
highlighting some of the city's efforts to rehabilitate environmental damage from the
local mining industry, to Goodall. [13]
On 7 July 2007 Goodall presented at Live Earth.
In April 2008, Jane was awarded the Montana State University Medal for Global and
Visionary Leadership.

Animal welfare activism

Jane Goodall is an animal welfare activist and is the former president of Advocates for
Animals, an organization based in Edinburgh, Scotland, that campaigns against the use of
animals in medical research, zoos, farming and sport.
In May 2008, Goodall controversially described Edinburgh Zoo's new primate enclosure
as a "wonderful facility" where monkeys are "are probably better off [than those] living
in the wild in an area like Budongo, where one in six gets caught in a wire snare, and
countries like Congo, where chimpanzees, monkeys and gorillas are shot for food
commercially." [14] This was in conflict with Advocates for Animals' position on captive
animals, who stated "She's entitled to her opinion, but our position isn't going to change.
We oppose the keeping of animals in captivity for entertainment." [15] In June 2008
Goodall confirmed that she had resigned the presidency of the organisation which she
had held since 1998, citing her busy schedule and explaining, "I just don't have time for
them." [16]

• 1980: Order of the Golden Ark, World Wildlife Award for Conservation
• 1984: J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize
• 1985: Living Legacy Award from the International Women's League
• Society of the United States; Award for Humane Excellence, American Society
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
• 1987: Ian Biggs' Prize
• 1989: Encyclopaedia Britannica Award for Excellence on the Dissemination of
Learning for the Benefit of Mankind; Anthropologist of the Year Award
• 1990: The AMES Award, American Anthropologist Association; Whooping
Crane Conservation Award, Conoco, Inc.; Gold Medal of the Society of Women
Geographers; Inamori Foundation Award; Washoe Award; The Kyoto Prize in
Basic Science
• 1991: The Edinburgh Medal
• 1993: Rainforest Alliance Champion Award
• 1994: Chester Zoo Diamond Jubilee Medal
• 1995: Commander of the Order of the British Empire, presented by Her Majesty
Queen Elizabeth II; The National Geographic Society Hubbard Medal for
Distinction in Exploration, Discovery, and Research; Lifetime Achievement
Award, In Defense of Animals; The Moody Gardens Environmental Award;
Honorary Wardenship of Uganda National Parks
• 1996: The Zoological Society of London Silver Medal; The Tanzanian
Kilimanjaro Medal; The Primate Society of Great Britain Conservation Award;
The Caring Institute Award; The Polar Bear Award; William Proctor Prize for
Scientific Achievement
• 1997: John & Alice Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement; David S.
Ingells, Jr. Award for Excellence; Common Wealth Award for Public Service;
The Field Museum's Award of Merit; Tyler Prize for Environmental
Achievement; Royal Geographical Society / Discovery Channel Europe Award
for A Lifetime of Discovery
• 1998: Disney's Animal Kingdom Eco Hero Award; National Science Board
Public Service Award; The Orion Society's John Hay Award
• 1999: International Peace Award; Botanical Research Institute of Texas
International Award of Excellence in Conservation, Community of Christ
International Peace Award
• 2001: Graham J. Norton Award for Achievement in Increasing Community
Livability; Rungius Award of the National Museum of Wildlife Art, USA; Roger
Tory Peterson Memorial Medal, Harvard Museum of Natural History; Master
Peace Award; Gandhi/King Award for Non-Violence
• 2002: The Huxley Memorial Medal, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great
Britain and Ireland; United Nations "Messenger of Peace" Appointment
• 2003: Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science; Harvard Medical School's
Center for Health and the Global Environment Award; Prince of Asturias Award
for Technical and Scientific Achievement; Dame of the British Empire, presented
by His Royal Highness Prince Charles; Chicago Academy of Sciences' Honorary
Environmental Leader Award
• 2004: Nierenberg Prize for Science in the Public Interest; Will Rogers Spirit
Award, the Rotary Club of Will Rogers and Will Rogers Memorial Museums;
Life Time Achievement Award, the International Fund for Animal Welfare
(IFAW); Honorary Degree from Haverford College
• 2005: Honorary doctorate degree in science from Syracuse University
• 2005: Presented with Discovery and Imagination Award
• 2006: Received the 60th Anniversary Medal of the UNESCO and the French
Légion d'honneur.
• 2007: Honorary doctorate degree in commemoration of Linnaeus from Uppsala
• 2007: Honorary doctorate degree from University of Liverpool
• 2008: Honorary doctorate degree from University of Toronto
For a complete list of Dr. Jane Goodall's awards and honors, view her Curriculum Vitae
[2] on the Jane Goodall Institute website.


• 1969 My Friends the Wild Chimpanzees Washington, DC: National Geographic
• 1971 Innocent Killers (with H. van Lawick). Boston: Houghton Mifflin; London:
• 1971 In the Shadow of Man Boston: Houghton Mifflin; London: Collins.
Published in 48 languages.
• 1986 The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior Boston: Bellknap Press
of the Harvard University Press. Published also in Japanese and Russian. R.R.
Hawkins Award for the Outstanding Technical, Scientific or Medical book of
1986, to Bellknap Press of Harvard University Press, Boston. The Wildlife
Society (USA) Award for "Outstanding Publication in Wildlife Ecology and
• 1990 Through a Window: 30 years observing the Gombe chimpanzees London:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Translated into more than 15
languages. 1991 Penguin edition, UK. American Library Association "Best" list
among Nine Notable Books (Nonfiction) for 1991.
• 1993 Visions of Caliban (co-authored with Dale Peterson, Ph.D.). Boston:
Houghton Mifflin. New York Times "Notable Book" for 1993. Library Journal
"Best Sci-Tech Book" for 1993.
• 1999 Brutal Kinship (with Michael Nichols). New York: Aperture Foundation.
• 1999 Reason For Hope; A Spiritual Journey (with Phillip Berman). New York:
Warner Books, Inc. Translated into Japanese.
• 2000 40 Years At Gombe New York: Stewart, Tabori, and Chang.
• 2000 Africa In My Blood (edited by Dale Peterson). New York: Houghton Mifflin
• 2001 Beyond Innocence: An Autobiography in Letters, the later years (edited by
Dale Peterson). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company
• 2002 The Ten Trusts: What We Must Do To Care for the Animals We Love (with
Marc Bekoff). San Francisco: Harper San Francisco
• 2005 Harvest for Hope: A Guide to Mindful Eating New York: Warner Books,
Inc. ISBN 0-446-53362-9

Children's books
• 1972 Grub: The Bush Baby (with H. van Lawick). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
• 1988 My Life with the Chimpanzees New York: Byron Preiss Visual Publications,
Inc. Translated into French, Japanese and Chinese. Parenting's Reading-Magic
Award for "Outstanding Book for Children," 1989.
• 1989 The Chimpanzee Family Book Saxonville, MA: Picture Book Studio;
Munich: Neugebauer Press; London: Picture Book Studio. Translated into more
than 15 languages, including Japanese and Kiswahili. The UNICEF Award for the
best children's book of 1989. Austrian state prize for best children's book of 1990.
• 1989 Jane Goodall's Animal World: Chimps New York: Macmillan.
• 1989 Animal Family Series: Chimpanzee Family; Lion Family; Elephant Family;
Zebra Family; Giraffe Family; Baboon Family; Hyena Family; Wildebeest
Family Toronto: Madison Marketing Ltd.
• 1994 With Love New York / London: North-South Books. Translated into
German, French, Italian, and Japanese.
• 1999 Dr. White (illustrated by Julie Litty). New York: North-South Books.
• 2000 The Eagle & the Wren (illustrated by Alexander Reichstein). New York:
North-South Books.
• 2001 Chimpanzees I Love: Saving Their World and Ours New York: Scholastic
• 2004 Rickie and Henri: A True Story (with Alan Marks) Penguin Young Readers

• 1963 Miss Goodall and the Wild Chimpanzees National Geographic Society
• 1975 Miss Goodall: The Hyena Story The World of Animal Behavior Series
• 1984 Among the Wild Chimpanzees National Geographic Special
• 1988 People of the Forest with Hugo van Lawick
• 1990 Chimpanzee Alert in the Nature Watch Series, Central Television
• 1990 Chimps, So Like Us HBO film nominated for 1990 Academy Award
• 1990 The Life and Legend of Jane Goodall National Geographic Society.
• 1990 The Gombe Chimpanzees Bavarian Television
• 1995 Fifi's Boys for the Natural World series for the
• 1996 Chimpanzee Diary for BBC2 Animal Zone
• 1997 Animal Minds for BBC
• 2000 Jane Goodall: Reason For Hope PBS special produced by KTCA
• 2001 Chimps R Us PBS special Scientific Frontiers.
• 2002 Jane Goodall's Wild Chimpanzees (IMAX format), in collaboration with
Science North
• 2005 Jane Goodall's Return to Gombe for Animal Planet

In popular culture

David Greybeard Sculpture at Animal Kingdom

• Goodall is honored by the Walt Disney Company with a plaque on the The Tree
of Life at Walt Disney World's Animal Kingdom theme park, alongside a carving
of her beloved David Greybeard, the original chimp who approached Goodall
during her first year at Gombe.[3] The story goes that when she was invited to visit
the developing Animal Kingdom park as a consultant and saw the Tree of Life,
she didn't see a chimp as part of the tree. To rectify this situation, the Imagineers
added the carving of David Graybeard and the plaque honoring her at the entrance
to the It's Tough to be a Bug! show.
• Cartoonist Gary Larson once drew a cartoon in his The Far Side newspaper comic
that showed two chimpanzees grooming. One finds a human hair on the other and
inquires, "Conducting a little more 'research' with that Jane Goodall tramp?" The
Jane Goodall Institute thought this to be in bad taste, and had their lawyers draft a
letter to Larson and his distribution syndicate, in which they described the cartoon
as an "atrocity." They were stymied, however, by Goodall herself, who revealed
that she found the cartoon amusing. Since then, all profits from sales of a shirt
featuring this cartoon have gone to the JGI.
• Dr. Goodall also appeared and lent her voice as herself in the animated TV series
The Wild Thornberrys.

• The protagonist in Jonathan Safran Foer's second novel, Extremely Loud and
Incredibly Close, asks Goodall for a recommendation, to which she responds with
a gentle rejection.
• In The Simpsons episode "Simpsons Safari", a character loosely based on Goodall
is a research scientist in charge of a Chimpanzees refuge who is secretly forcing
them to mine diamonds for her benefit.
• On her album "Street Angel" Stevie Nicks pays tribute to Jane Goodall with the
track "Jane".
• In the movie George of the Jungle, Beatrice Stanhope sits next to Ape the Gorilla
and says "I feel just like Jane Goodall", to which Ape replies "Ma'am, I have
known Jane Goodall, and you certainly aren't Jane Goodall".
James D. Watson

James D. Watson
April 6, 1928 (age 81)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Residence U.S., UK
Nationality United States
Fields Molecular biology
Institutions Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Alma mater University of Chicago, Indiana University
Doctoral advisor Salvador Luria
Known for DNA structure, Molecular biology
Notable awards Nobel Prize (1962)
Religious stance None (Atheist)[1][2]
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best
known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and
Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for
their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance
for information transfer in living material".[3] He studied at the University of Chicago and
Indiana University and subsequently worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish
Laboratory in England where he first met his future collaborator and personal friend
Francis Crick.
In 1956 he became a junior member of Harvard University's Biological Laboratories until
1976, but in 1968 served as Director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island,
New York and shifted its research emphasis to the study of cancer. In 1994 he became its
President for ten years, and then subsequently served as its Chancellor until 2007, when
he was forced into retirement by controversy over several comments about race and
intelligence. Between 1988 and 1992 he was associated with the National Institutes of
Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project. He has written many science
books, including the seminal textbook The Molecular Biology of the Gene (1965) and his
bestselling book The Double Helix (1968) about the DNA Structure discovery.

• 1 Biography
• 2 The Double Helix
• 3 Genome project
• 4 Awards and decorations
• 5 Career
• 6 Honorary degrees received
• 7 Professional and honorary affiliations
• 8 Political activism
• 9 Controversies
o 9.1 Use of King's College results

o 9.2 Statement claiming links between race and intelligence

o 9.3 Other statements

• 10 See also
• 11 References
• 12 Further reading
• 13 Multimedia
• 14 External links

[edit] Biography
Watson was born in Chicago, Illinois, on April 6, 1928, to the son of a businessman, also
named James Dewey Watson, and Margaret Jean Mitchell.[4] His father was of Scottish
descent (both Dewey and Watson being Scottish surnames).[5] His mother's father
Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow, Scotland, and her mother, Lizzie Gleason,
was the child of Irish parents from Tipperary.[6] Watson was fascinated with bird
watching, a hobby he shared with his father.[7] Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular
radio show that challenged precocious youngsters to answer questions.[8] Thanks to the
liberal policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of
Chicago at the age of 15.[9] After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book What Is Life? in
1946, Watson changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to
genetics.[10] He earned his B.S. in Zoology from the University of Chicago in 1947. In his
autobiography, Avoid Boring People, Watson describes the University of Chicago as an
idyllic academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for critical thought
and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who impeded his search for truth, in contrast
to his description of his later work at Harvard University.[11]
He was attracted to the work of Salvador Luria. Luria eventually shared a Nobel Prize for
his work on the Luria-Delbrück experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic
mutations. Luria was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of
the viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. Luria and Max Delbrück were
among the leaders of this new "Phage Group", an important movement of geneticists
from experimental systems such as Drosophila towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948
Watson began his Ph.D. research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University and that
spring he got to meet Delbrück in Luria's apartment and again that summer during
Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL).[12] The Phage Group
was the intellectual medium within which Watson became a working scientist.
Importantly, the members of the Phage Group had a sense that they were on the path to
discovering the physical nature of the gene. In 1949 Watson took a course with Felix
Haurowitz that included the conventional view of that time: that proteins were genes and
able to replicate themselves.[13] The other major molecular component of chromosomes,
DNA, was thought by many to be a "stupid tetranucleotide", serving only a structural role
to support the proteins. However, even at this early time, Watson, under the influence of
the Phage Group, was aware of the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment, which
suggested that DNA was the genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using
X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses.[14] He gained his Ph.D. in Zoology at Indiana
University in 1950 (at age 22).
Watson then went to Copenhagen in September 1950 for a year of postdoctoral research,
first heading to the laboratory of biochemist Herman Kalckar.[7] Kalckar was interested in
the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids, and wanted to use phages as an experimental
system. Watson, however, wanted to explore the structure of DNA, and his interests did
not coincide with Kalckar's.[15] After working part of the year with Kalcker, Watson spent
the remainder of his time in Copenhagen conducting experiments with microbial
physiologist Ole Maaloe, then a member of the Phage Group.[16] The experiments, which
Watson had learned of during the previous summer's Cold Spring Harbor phage
conference, included the use of radioactive phosphate as a tracer to determine which
molecular components of phage particles actually infect the target bacteria during viral
infection.[15] The intention was to determine whether protein or DNA was the genetic
material, but upon consultation with Max Delbrück,[15] they determined that their results
were inconclusive and could not specifically identify the newly labeled molecules as
DNA.[17] Watson never developed a constructive interaction with Kalckar, but he did
accompany Kalckar to a meeting in Italy where Watson saw Maurice Wilkins talk about
his X-ray diffraction data for DNA.[7] Watson was now certain that DNA had a definite
molecular structure that could be solved.[18]
In 1951 the chemist Linus Pauling published his model of the protein alpha helix, a result
that grew out of Pauling's relentless efforts in X-ray crystallography and molecular model
building. After obtaining some results from his phage and other experimental research
conducted at Indiana University, Statens seruminstitute (Denmark), Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory, and the California Institute of Technology, Watson now had the desire to
learn to perform X-ray diffraction experiments so that he could work to determine the
structure of DNA. That summer, Luria met John Kendrew and arranged for a new
postdoctoral research project for Watson in England.[7]

Diagram showing the key structural components in the chemical structure of DNA. The
actual 3D structure is shown at DNA.
Watson and Crick proceeded to deduce the double helix structure of DNA which they
submitted to the journal Nature and was subsequently published on April 25, 1953.
The discovery was made on February 28, 1953; the first Watson/Crick paper appeared in
Nature on April 25,1953. Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory,
where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guys Hospital Medical School in London
on Thursday, May 14, 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in The News
Chronicle of London, on Friday, May 15, 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer
Secret of Life." The news reached readers of The New York Times the next day; Victor
K. McElheny, in researching his biography, "Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific
Revolution", found a clipping of a six-paragraph New York Times article written from
London and dated May 16, 1953 with the headline "Form of `Life Unit' in Cell Is
Scanned." The article ran in an early edition and was then pulled to make space for news
deemed more important.(The New York Times subsequently ran a longer article on June
12, 1953). The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity also ran its own
short article on the discovery on Saturday, May 30th, 1953. Bragg's original
announcement of the discovery at a Solvay conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April
1953 went unreported by the press!
Watson subsequently presented a paper on the double helical structure of DNA at the
18th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Viruses in early June 1953, six weeks after the
publication of the Watson/Crick paper in Nature; many at the meeting had not yet heard
of the discovery. The 1953 Cold Harbor Symposium was the first opportunity to see the
model of the DNA Double Helix.
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

in 1962 for their research on the structure of nucleic acids.[3] Some regret that Rosalind
Franklin did not live long enough to share in the Nobel Prize.[20] Watson mentions in his
autobiography, Avoid Boring People, that he was refused a $1,000 raise in salary after
winning the Nobel Prize.[11]
In 1968, Watson married Elizabeth Lewis and became the Director of Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory. Between 1970 and 1972 Watson's two sons were born and by 1974
the young family made CSH their permanent residence. Watson served as the
Laboratory's Director and President for 35 years, and later assumed the role of
Chancellor. In October 2007 Watson resigned as a result of controversial remarks about
race made to the press. Watson has one son who has schizophrenia.[21]

[edit] The Double Helix

DNA model built by Crick and Watson in 1953, on display in the Science Museum
In 1968 Watson wrote The Double Helix, one of the Modern Library's 100 best non-
fiction books. The account is the sometimes painful story of not only the discovery of the
structure of DNA, but the personalities, conflicts and controversy surrounding their work.
Controversy attended the publication of the book. Harvard professor Richard Lewontin
wrote that the book had "debased the currency of his [Watson's] own life", and molecular
biologist Robert L. Sinsheimer described Watson's portrayal of science as a "clawing
climb up a slippery slope, impeded by the authority of fools, to be made with cadged data
... with malice toward most, and charity toward none." [11] It was originally to be
published by Harvard University Press, but after objections from both Francis Crick and
Maurice Wilkins, among others, Watson's home university where he had been a member
of the biology faculty since 1955, dropped the book and it was instead published by a
commercial publisher, an incident which caused some scandal. Watson's original title was
to have been "Honest Jim," in part to raise the ethical questions of bypassing Rosalind
Franklin to gain access to her X-ray diffraction data before they were published. If all that
mattered was beating Pauling to the structure of DNA, then Franklin's cautious approach
to analysis of the X-ray data was simply an obstacle that Watson needed to run around.
Wilkins and others were there at the right time to help Watson and Crick do so.
The Double Helix changed the way the public viewed scientists and the way they work.[22]
In the same way, Watson's first textbook, The Molecular Biology of the Gene, set a new
standard for textbooks, particularly through the use of concept heads—brief declarative
subheadings. Its style has been emulated by almost all succeeding textbooks. His next
great success was Molecular Biology of the Cell, although here his role was more that of
coordinator of an outstanding group of scientist-writers. His third textbook was
Recombinant DNA, which used the ways in which genetic engineering has brought much
new information about how organisms function. The textbooks are still in print.

[edit] Genome project

In 1989, Watson's achievement and the success led to his appointment as the Head of the
Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health, a position he held until April
10, 1992.[23] Watson left the Genome Project after conflicts with the new NIH Director,
Bernadine Healy. Watson was opposed to Healy's attempts to acquire patents on gene
sequences, and any ownership of the "laws of nature." Two years before stepping down
from the Genome Project, he had stated his opinion on this long and ongoing controversy
which he saw as an illogical barrier to research; he said, "The nations of the world must
see that the human genome belongs to the world's people, as opposed to its nations." He
left within weeks of the 1992 announcement that the NIH would be applying for patents
on brain-specific cDNAs.[24] In 1994, Watson became President of CSHL. Francis Collins
took over the role as Director of the Human Genome Project. Watson became the second
person[25] to publish his fully sequenced genome online[26], after it was presented to him
on May 31, 2007 by 454 Life Sciences Corporation[27] in collaboration with scientists at
the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine. "'I am putting my
genome sequence on line to encourage the development of an era of personalized
medicine, in which information contained in our genomes can be used to identify and
prevent disease and to create individualized medical therapies,' said CSHL Chancellor

[edit] Awards and decorations

• Albert Lasker Award for Basic • Lomonosov Medal
Medical Research[29]
• Lotos Club Medal of Merit
• Benjamin Franklin Medal for • Mendel Medal
Distinguished Achievement in the
Sciences[30] • National Biotechnology Venture
• Charles A. Dana Award
• National Medal of Science[33]
• Copley Medal of the Royal Society
• New York Academy of Medicine
• Eli Lilly Award in Biochemistry Award
• Fellow of the New York Academy of • Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Sciences Medicine[34]
• Gairdner Award • Othmer Medal
• Heald Award • Presidential Medal of Freedom[35]
• Honorary Knight Commander in the • Research Corporation Prize
Order of the British Empire[31]
(K.B.E. (Hon.) • University of Chicago Alumni
• John Collins Warren Prize of the
Massachusetts General Hospital • University College London Prize

• John J. Carty Gold Medal of the • University Medal at SUNY Stony

National Academy of Sciences Brook

• Kaul Foundation Award for

• Liberty Medal[32]
On Saturday, October 20 1962 the award of Nobel prizes to John Kendrew and Max
Perutz, and to Crick, Watson, and Wilkins was satirised in a short sketch in the BBC TV
programme That Was The Week That Was with the Nobel Prizes being referred to as
'The Alfred Nobel Peace Pools'; in this sketch Watson was called "Little J.D. Watson"
and "Who'd have thought he'd ever get the Nobel Prize? Makes you think, doesn't it".

[edit] Career
At Harvard University, starting in 1956, Watson achieved a series of academic
promotions from Assistant Professor, to Associate Professor to full Professor of Biology.
He championed a switch in focus for the school from classical biology to molecular
biology, stating that disciplines such as ecology, developmental biology, taxonomy,
physiology, etc. had stagnated and could only progress once the underlying disciplines of
molecular biology and biochemistry had elucidated their underpinnings, going so far as to
discourage their study by students. He left the school in 1976.[11]
Watson joined the staff of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1968. In a retrospective
summary of his accomplishments there, Bruce Stillman, the laboratory's president said,
"Jim Watson created a research environment that is unparalleled in the world of science."
It was "under his direction [that the Lab has] made major contributions to understanding
the genetic basis of cancer." Generally in his roles as Director, President, and Chancellor,
Watson led CSHL to its present day mission, which is "dedicat[ion] to exploring
molecular biology and genetics in order to advance the understanding and ability to
diagnose and treat cancers, neurological diseases, and other causes of human suffering."
In October, 2007, Watson was suspended following criticism of views on race and
intelligence attributed to him, and a week later, on the 25th, he retired at the age of 79
from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory from what the lab called "nearly 40 years of
distinguished service",[36] In a statement, Watson attributed his retirement to his age, and
circumstances that he could never have anticipated or desired.[37]
In January 2007, Watson accepted the invitation of Leonor Beleza, president of the
Champalimaud Foundation, to become the head of the foundation's scientific council, an
advisory organ. He will be in charge of selecting the remaining council members.[38]
As of 2008, Watson is the Institute advisor for the newly-formed Allen Institute for Brain
Science [39]. The Institute, located in Seattle, Washington, was founded in 2003 by
Philanthropists Paul G. Allen and Jody Allen Patton as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation
and medical research organization. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists,
molecular biologists, informaticists, engineers, mathematicians, statisticians, and
computational biologists have been brought together to form the scientific core of the
Allen Institute. Utilizing the mouse model system, these fields have joined together to
investigate expression of 20,000 genes in the adult mouse brain and to map gene
expression to a cellular level beyond neuroanatomic boundaries. The data generated from
this joint effort is contained in the publicly available Allen Brain Atlas application
located at Upon completion of the Allen Brain Atlas, this
consortium of scientists will pursue additional questions to further our understanding of
neuronal circuitry and the neuroanatomic framework that defines the functionality of the
Watson is the only living pioneer in early DNA research; dead pioneering scientists
include Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and James Watson's former colleague
Francis Crick.

[edit] Honorary degrees received

• D.Sc., University of Chicago, • D.Sc., Rockefeller University, 1980
• D.Sc., Clarkson College, 1981
• D.Sc., Indiana University, 1963
• D.Sc., SUNY at Farmingdale, 1983
• L.L.D., Notre Dame University,
1965 • M.D., Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1986

• D.Sc., Long Island University • D.Sc., Rutgers University, 1988

(C.W. Post), 1970
• D.Sc., Bard College, 1991
• D.Sc., Adelphi University, 1972 • D.Sc., University of Stellenbosch, S.
Africa, 1993
• D.Sc., Brandeis University, 1973
• D.Sc., Fairfield University, 1993
• D.Sc., Albert Einstein College of
Medicine, 1974 • D.Sc., University of Cambridge, United
Kingdom, 1993
• D.Sc., Hofstra University, 1976
• Dr.h.c., Charles University in Prague,
• D.Sc., Harvard University, 1978 Czech Republic, 1998

[edit] Professional and honorary affiliations

• American Academy of Arts and
Sciences • Danish Academy of Arts and
• American Association for Cancer
Research • National Academy of Sciences
• American Philosophical Society • Oxford University (Newton-Abraham
Visiting Professor)
• American Society of Biological
Chemists • Presidential Medal of Freedom[35]
• Atheneum (London) • Royal Society (London)
• Cambridge University (Honorary • Russian Academy of Sciences
Fellow, Clare College)

[edit] Political activism

During his tenure as a professor at Harvard, Watson participated in several political
• Vietnam War: While a professor at Harvard University, Watson, along with "12
Faculty members of the department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"
including one other Nobel prize winner, spearheaded a resolution for "the
immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces' from Vietnam."[40]
• Nuclear proliferation and environmentalism: In 1975, on the "thirtieth anniversary
of the bombing of Hiroshima," Watson along with "over 2000 scientists and
engineers" spoke out against nuclear proliferation to President Ford in part
because of the "lack of a proven method for the ultimate disposal of radioactive
waste" and because "The writers of the declaration see the proliferation of nuclear
plants as a major threat to American liberties and international safety because they
say safeguard procedures are inadequate to prevent terrorist theft of commercial
reactor-produced plutonium."[41]

[edit] Controversies
James Watson (February, 2003)
Watson's sometimes abrasive and aggressive personality (once described by E. O. Wilson
as "the most unpleasant human being I had ever met"[11]) has made him the subject of
several controversies; the controversy over his book The Double Helix was merely one
such example. In his autobiography, Avoid Boring People, he describes his academic
colleagues as "dinosaurs", "deadbeats", "fossils", "has-beens", "mediocre", and "vapid".

[edit] Use of King's College results

An enduring controversy has been generated by Watson and Crick's use of DNA X-ray
diffraction data collected by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The controversy
arose from the fact that some of Franklin's unpublished data was used by Watson and
Crick in their construction of the double helix model of DNA.[42] Franklin's experimental
results provided estimates of the water content of DNA crystals and these results were
consistent with the two sugar-phosphate backbones being on the outside of the molecule.
Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside.
Her identification of the space group for DNA crystals revealed to Crick that the two
DNA strands were antiparallel. The X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and
Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Franklin's
experimental work thus proved crucial in Watson and Crick's discovery. Watson and
Crick had three sources for Franklin's unpublished data: 1) her 1951 seminar, attended by
Watson, 2) discussions with Wilkins, who worked in the same laboratory with Franklin,
3) a research progress report that was intended to promote coordination of Medical
Research Council-supported laboratories. Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin all
worked in MRC laboratories.
Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick had little interaction
with Franklin. Crick and Watson felt that they had benefited from collaborating with
Wilkins. They offered him a co-authorship on the article that first described the double
helix structure of DNA. Wilkins turned down the offer, a fact that may have led to the
terse character of the acknowledgment of experimental work done at King's College in
the eventual published paper. Rather than make any of the DNA researchers at King's
College co-authors on the Watson and Crick double helix article, the solution that was
arrived at was to publish two additional papers from King's College along with the helix
paper. Biographer Brenda Maddox suggested that because of the importance of her work
to Watson and Crick's model building, Franklin should have had her name on the original
Watson and Crick manuscript.[43] Franklin may have never known the extent to which her
unpublished data had helped in the double helix discovery. According to one critic,
unprotected by libel laws, Watson's portrayal of Franklin in The Double Helix was
negative, giving the appearance that she was Wilkins' assistant and was unable to
interpret her own DNA data.[44]
In his book The Double Helix, Watson described being intimidated by Franklin and that
they were unable to establish constructive scientific interactions during the time period
when Franklin was doing DNA research. In the book's epilogue, written after Franklin's
death, Watson acknowledges his early impressions of Franklin were often wrong, that she
faced enormous barriers as a woman in the field of science even though her work was
superb, and that it took years to overcome their bickering before appreciating Franklin's
generosity and integrity.
A review of the handwritten correspondence from Franklin to Watson, located in the
archives at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, reveals that the two scientists later had
exchanges of constructive scientific correspondence. In fact, Franklin consulted with
Watson on her Tobacco Mosaic Virus RNA research. Franklin's letters begin on friendly
terms with "Dear Jim", and conclude with equally benevolent and respectful sentiments
like "Best Wishes, Yours, Rosalind". Each of the scientists published their own unique
contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA in separate articles, and all of the
contributors published their findings in the same volume of Nature. These classic
molecular biology papers are identified as: Watson J.D. and Crick F.H.C. "A Structure
for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" Nature 171, 737-738 (1953),[19] Wilkins M.H.F., Stokes
A.R. & Wilson, H.R. "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" Nature 171,
738-740 (1953),[45] Franklin R. and Gosling R.G. "Molecular Configuration in Sodium
Thymonucleate" Nature 171, 740-741 (1953).[46] Franklin did not receive a Nobel Prize
for her important contribution because the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously.[47]
The wording on the DNA sculpture (which was donated by Watson) outside Clare
College's Memorial Court, Cambridge, England is:
On the base:
• "These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in the
sequence of bases."
• "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin and
Maurice Wilkins."
On the helices:
• "The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick and James
Watson while Watson lived here at Clare."
• "The molecule of DNA has two helical strands that are linked by base pairs
Adenine - Thymine or Guanine - Cytosine."
The aluminium sculpture stands fifteen feet high. It took a pair of technicians two weeks
to build it. For the artist responsible it was an opportunity to create a monument that
brings together the themes of science and nature; Charles Jencks, Sculptor said "It
embraces the trees, you can sit on it and the ground grows up and it twists out of the
ground. So it's truly interacting with living things like the turf, and that idea was behind it
and I think it does celebrate life and DNA". Tony Badger, Master of Clare, said: "It is
wonderful to have this lasting reminder of his achievements while [James Watson] was at
Clare and the enormous contribution he and Francis Crick have made to our
understanding of life on earth."
[edit] Statement claiming links between race and intelligence

Watson signing autographs after a speech at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on April 30,
See also: Race and intelligence
On October 14, 2007, a biographical article written by one of Watson's former
assistants[48], Charlotte Hunt-Grubbe, appeared in the Sunday Times Magazine in
anticipation of his soon to be released, in the UK, memoir Avoid Boring People: Lessons
from a Life in Science.[48]
Watson was quoted as saying he was "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa" as
all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours
“ — whereas all the testing [IQ and Standardized testing] says not really.[48] ”
Hunt-Grubbe stated that Watson's "hope" was "everyone is equal" but quoted him as
having said "people who have to deal with black employees find this not true."
Furthermore, she suggested that Watson believed "you should not discriminate on the
basis of colour" by quoting him as having said
there are many people of colour who are very talented, but don’t promote them
“ when they haven’t succeeded at the lower level.[48] ”
Watson was then attributed as having written
there is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples
“ geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved
identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal
heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.[48] ”
The quotes attributed to him drew attention and criticism from press in several countries
and were widely discussed on CNN[49], the BBC[50], several papers[51], peers and by civil
rights advocates.[52] The common perception was that of Watson claiming a link between
race and intelligence with the BBC stating that "[Watson] claimed black people were less
intelligent than white people".[50] In his book, the origin of the final written quote, Watson
does not directly mention race as a factor in his hypothesized divergence of intellect
between geographically isolated populations.[53]
On October 18, The Science Museum in London cancelled a talk that Watson was
scheduled to give the following day,[50] stating that they believed Watson's comments had
"gone beyond the point of acceptable debate." On the same day the Board of Trustees at
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory suspended Watson's administrative responsibilities,
stating that

“ this action follows the Board’s public statement yesterday disagreeing with the ”
comments attributed to Dr. Watson in the October 14, 2007 edition of The Sunday
Times U.K.[54]
that they "vehemently disagree with...and are bewildered and saddened" by.[51]
Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, a position
inherited from Watson, said
I am deeply saddened by the events of the last the aftermath of a racist
“ statement...that was both profoundly offensive and utterly unsupported by scientific
evidence.[51] ”
On October 19, Watson issued an apology, stating that he was "mortified" and "cannot
understand how I could have said what I am quoted as having said."[55][56] He also claimed
understand why people, reading those words, have reacted in the ways they have ...
“ To all those who have drawn the inference from my words that Africa, as a
continent, is somehow genetically inferior, I can only apologize unreservedly. That
is not what I meant. More importantly from my point of view, there is no scientific
basis for such a belief.[57] ”
Clarifying his position further, Watson explained
I have always fiercely defended the position that we should base our view of the
“ world on the state of our knowledge, on fact, and not on what we would like it to
be. This is why genetics is so important. For it will lead us to answers to many of
the big and difficult questions that have troubled people for hundreds, if not
thousands, of years.
...Since 1978, when a pail of water was dumped over my Harvard friend E O
Wilson for saying that genes influence human behaviour, the assault against human
behavioural genetics by wishful thinking has remained vigorous.
But irrationality must soon recede ... science is not here to make us feel good. It is
to answer questions in the service of knowledge and greater understanding.
...We do not yet adequately understand the way in which the different environments
in the world have selected over time the genes which determine our capacity to do
different things. The overwhelming desire of society today is to assume that equal
powers of reason are a universal heritage of humanity. It may well be. But simply
wanting this to be the case is not enough. This is not science.
To question this is not to give in to racism. This is not a discussion about superiority
or inferiority, it is about seeking to understand differences, about why some of us
are great musicians and others great engineers.[56][57] ”
Despite Watson's expressed belief in the importance of scientific inquiry into the
relationship between heredity and intelligence, a number of news sources reported that
Watson was "retracting" his earlier statements on this topic. For example, the journal
Nature reported
Watson has apologized and retracted the outburst... He acknowledged that there is
“ no evidence for what he claimed about racial differences in intelligence.[58] ”
Nature went on to say that the controversy and cancellations potentially could suppress
scientific inquiry by geneticists who are studying the differences between different
human population groups.[58] Medical Hypotheses (not peer-reviewed) went further,
saying that "The unjustified ill treatment meted out to Watson therefore requires setting
the record straight about the current state of the evidence on intelligence, race, and
genetics.", and summarised evidence that apparently supports his position, declaring
"These are facts, not opinions and science must be governed by data. There is no place
for the “moralistic fallacy” that reality must conform to our social, political, or ethical
Despite the apology and subsequent attempt to clarify his position the controversy
continued. He returned to the US and Cold Spring Harbor on the 19th October putting his
further engagements in doubt. The University of Edinburgh formally retracted an
invitation to the "DNA, Dolly and Other Dangerous Ideas: The Destiny of 21st Century
Science" Enlightenment Lecture on October 22.[60]
Watson resigned from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on October 25.[49][61] Watson cited
reasons for his retirement other than the controversy, though did refer to it.
Closer now to 80 than 79, the passing on of my remaining vestiges of leadership is
“ more than overdue. The circumstances in which this transfer is occurring, however,
are not those which I could ever have anticipated or desired.[62] ”
On December 9, 2007, a Sunday Times article[63] reported a claim by deCODE Genetics
that 16% of Watson's DNA is of African origin and 9% is of Asian origin. deCODE's
methods were not reported and details of the analysis were not published. According to
deCODE's Kari Stefansson, the analysis relied on an error-ridden version of Watson's full
genome sequence, and Stefansson "doubts [. . .] whether the 16 percent figure will hold
up"[64] In 2008 Watson was interviewed by Henry Louis Gates regarding his views on
race, intelligence, and other controversial subjects.[65]
In 2006 during an interview with Charlie Rose and E. O. Wilson, Watson stated that
some people want to believe that evolution stopped 100,000 years ago. He stated that he
did not agree with this view and that human differences are not trivial.[66]

[edit] Other statements

• Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic engineering in
public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity is a disease and the "really
stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured.[67] He has also suggested that
beauty could be genetically engineered, saying "People say it would be terrible if
we made all girls pretty. I think it would be great."[67]
• He has been quoted in The Sunday Telegraph as stating: "If you could find the
gene which determines sexuality and a woman decides she doesn't want a
homosexual child, well, let her."[68] The biologist Richard Dawkins wrote a letter
to The Independent claiming that Watson's position was misrepresented by The
Sunday Telegraph article, and that Watson would equally consider the possibility
of having a heterosexual child to be just as valid as any other reason for abortion,
to emphasise that Watson is in favor of allowing choice.[69]
• On the issue of obesity, Watson has also been quoted as saying: "Whenever you
interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not going to hire
• Watson also had quite a few disagreements with Craig Venter regarding his use of
EST fragments while Venter worked at NIH. Venter went on to found Celera
genomics and continued his feud with Watson through the privately funded
venture. Watson was even quoted as calling Venter "Hitler."[71]
• While speaking at a conference in 2000, Watson had suggested a link between
skin color and sex drive, hypothesizing that dark-skinned people have stronger
libidos.[70][72] His lecture, complete with slides of bikini-clad women, argued that
extracts of melanin — which give skin its color — had been found to boost
subjects' sex drive. "That's why you have Latin lovers," he said, according to
people who attended the lecture. "You've never heard of an English lover. Only an
English patient." [73]