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A sign of Renaissance

David by the Divine One

Entering the Academia Gallery in Florence the tourists
have the opportunity to admire the greatest master
piece of Italian Renaissance, David. The 5.17metre
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When Music... meets Cinema
The Music of the Cinema keeps in memory the picture,
interprets it, while simultaneously paints desires and
memories and our personal empathy with the aspects
of a dream of 35 milliseconds said the famous Greek
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(born c. 450 bcdied c. 388 bc)
Little is known about the life of Aristophanes, and most
of the known facts are derived from references in his
own plays. . He is thought to have written about 40
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Tsakona Despina G4
A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food
from or at the expense of its host. Parasites can cause disease in hu
mans. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. The
burden of these diseases often rests on communities in the tropics and
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A few things you did not know about potatos
In the era of information, it is not often that we pause our hectic
lifestyle, in order to take appreciation of the little things, especially
when it comes to our nutrition. In fact, it is estimated that a large per
centage of American children dont even know that French fries are
made of potatoes. So here are a few facts about the worlds fourth
largest crop1.
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Music Therapy: an alternative medicine
By Lathouraki Eva, Papaevangelou Spiridoula
& Savvidou Dimitra
What is Music Therapy? Research has shown that
music has a profound effect on our body and soul. In
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Healthy hair for a beautiful girl
Why is healthy hair important?
Like your skin, your hair needs nutrition from the inside
out. If your diet is deficient in hair friendly foods, or
your digestion is not efficient, all the expensive sham
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Fast Food: All about by Frageios Vasileios
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and
served very quickly, first popularized in the 1950s in the
United States. While any meal with low preparation time can
be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to
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There are a lot of misconceptions about what steroids
are, how steroids work, and why steroids are danger
ous. If you are curious about the subject of steroids,
lets eliminate certain misconceptions that surround
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By Panagiotis Kokovinis, Ioannis Kiriakidis,
Fotios Pappas
Who is Hypnos? Sleep is one of the most fundamental
needs of a human being. From ancient times people im
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Biography of
Friedrich Nietzsche :
1) German philosopher born in a family of pastors. After having given up the career
of pastor, Friedrich Nietzsche studies philology and is interested in Arthur Schopenhauer.
He becomes professor of philosophy in 1869 at the University of Basle, but he must stop
teaching in 1879 for health reasons. Nietzsche binds friendship with Richard Wagner with
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Constantine P. Cavafy
By Detsikas Konstantinos & Vargiemitzidis Konstantinos
Constantine P. Cavafy was a Greek poet who lived in Alexandria and worked as a
journalist and civil servant. He published 154 poems; dozens more remained incom
plete or in sketch form. His most important poetry was written after his fortieth
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MARIA CALLAS: A short story behing her name
By Anastasia Axari
In 1932 Maria is given her fist paino lessons. Later in life she is
able to study all her roles at the piano without the help of a repeti
teur. In 1939 Maria makes her stage debut as Santuzza in a student
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Trick or treat ?
By Dimitra Manavi Achilleas Gousiopoulos
Most high school, college, amateur and professional
athletes participate in sports for the opportunity to pit
their abilities against those of their peers and to expe
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F1 Be the one
Formula 1, the greatest competition. Cars, designs and engines created by
the brightest minds. Driven to the edge of beyond by the chosen few. Teams
rise and fall, drivers come and go, but echoes of the past always remain.
Competing in arenas that stood the test of time, when glory and failure are
separated by fractions. When victory is rescued from defeat. This is where
history is made. This is Formula 1.
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Playing the videogames
Any people have prejudiced notions that video games make us violent, anti
social, and fat (since most games dont require a lot of physical movement).
While gaming is not necessarily considered the healthiest hobby but there
are actually many health benefits that come from video games.
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By Dodopoulou Dafni,
Ioannidou Alexandra,
Karaglani Evelina
adays m
ore and
ore young w
en are
dealing w
ith the serious
consequences of
any of them
dont believe its a life
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Blame the Game?
By Vasileiou Christ,
Tetepoulides John
As video gaming spreads,
the debate about its so
cial impact intensifies. Ga
ming has gone from a
minority activity a few
years ago into a mass en
tertainment industry. No
netheless, what exactly is
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whom he will fall out a few years later.
The Nietzsches philosophical thought is carried by passion,
with the risk sometimes to wander from the point. The German
philosopher does not hamper with proven theories or systems.
The principle of the Nietzsches philosophy is the enthusiasm of
life and his morals is a criticism of the Christian ideas as pity and
resignation. For him, the Christian morals of slaves places man
in a state of inferiority, and makes a virtue of it; this morals has
to give way to the morals of the Masters (Beyond Good and
Evil, 1886).
By declaring God is dead in Thus spoke Zarathustra
(1883), Nietzsche regards religion as an alibi facing the human
weakness and misfortune. He castigates the ascetic morals of the
Churches and rejects God that man has invented to constrain
mankind to resignation. However, God being dead, the alienated
man releases himself from the burden of the divine transcen
dence and from its moral and metaphysical requirements. Never
theless, Nietzsche notes that man, who has killed God, did not
draw all the conclusions from this, being satisfied to transform
Christianity into humanism or turning to a religious atheism.
The works of Nietzsche is a fight for the protection of man
confronted in the Western culture with the danger of weakness
and nihilism, produced by Christianity that destroys life by want
ing to save it. The permanent effort to overcome pessimism had
to transform man into superman, exceptional being, free of
any constraint and who will be able to assume his finite. Because
of the shrewdness of his psychological analysises, Nietzsche may
be regarded as a precursor of Freud.
From1879, Nietzsche lives alone and wanders about Italy and
the Alps where he finds inspiration for his last works. He sinks into
insanity in 1890. After his death, his words, in particular in Will
to Power, have been misrepresented by his sister, who would
like to reveal there, wrongly, genesis of nazism.
2)The Italics are :
The Antichrist (1895)
Beyond Good and Evil (1886)
The Birth of Tragedy (1872)
The Case of Wagner (1888)
The Dawn (1881)
Ecce Homo (1900)
The Gay Science (1882)
Human, All Too Human (1878)
My Sister and I (1889)
On the Genealogy of Morality (1887)
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (1873)
Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883 and 1885)
Twilight of the Idols (1888)
Untimely Meditations (1873)
The Will to Power (1889)
The most important maxims:
1 Idleness is the beginning of all psychology. What? Is psy
chology a vice?
2 Even the most courageous among us only rarely has the
courage to face what he already knows.
3 To live alone one must be a beast or a god, says Aristotle.
Leaving out the third case: one must be both a philoso
4 All truth is simple. Is that not a double lie?
5 I want, once and for all, not to know many things. Wisdom
requires moderation in knowledge as in other things.
6 In our own wild nature we find the best recreation fromour
unnature, from our spirituality.
7 What? Is man merely a mistake of Gods? Or God merely a
mistake of mans?
8 Out of lifes school of war: What does not destroy me,
makes me stronger.
9 Help yourself, then everyone will help you. Principle of bro
therly love.
10 Not to perpetrate cowardice against ones own acts! Not
to leave themin the lurch afterward! The bite of conscience
is indecent.
11 Can an ass be tragic? To perish under a burden one can nei
ther bear nor throw off? The case of the philosopher.
12 If we have our own why in life, we shall get along with al
most any how. Man does not strive for pleasure; only the
Englishman does.
13 Man has created woman out of what? Out of a rib of his
god of his ideal.
14 What? You search? You would multiply yourself by ten, by a
hundred? You seek followers? Seek zeros!
15 Posthumous men I, for example are understood
worse than timely ones, but heard better. More precisely:
we are never understood hence our authority.
16 Among women: Truth? Oh, you dont know truth! Is it not
an attempt to kill our modesty?
17 That is the kind of artist I love, modest in his needs: he really
wants only two things, his bread and his art panem et
Circen [bread and Circe].
18 Whoever does not know how to lay his will into things, at
least lays some meaning into them: that means, he has the
faith that they already obey a will. (Principle of faith.)
19 What? You chose virtue and took pride in your virtue, and
yet you leer enviously at the advantages of those without
scruples? But virtue involves renouncing advantages. (In
scription for an antiSemites door.)
20 The perfect woman indulges in literature just as she in
dulges in a small sin: as an experiment, in passing, looking
around to see if anybody notices it and to make sure that
somebody does.
3)Ecce Homo: HowOne Becomes What One Is (German: Ecce
homo: Wie man wird, was man ist) is the last original book written
by philosopherFriedrich Nietzsche before his final years of insan
ity that lasted until his death in 1900. It was written in 1888 and
was not published until 1908.
According to one of Nietzsches most prominent English
translators, Walter Kaufmann, the book offers Nietzsches own
interpretation of his development, his works, and his signifi
cance. [1] The book contains several chapters with worldhistor
ically ironic, supposedly selflaudatory titles, such as Why I Am
So Wise, Why I Am So Clever, Why I Write Such Good Books
and Why I Am a Destiny. In a paradoxical way, Ecce Homo is the
quintessential reflection of Nietzsches humility as a philosopher,
writer and thinker. Walter Kaufmann, in his biography Nietzsche
Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist noticed the internal paral
lels, in form and language, to Platos Apology which docu
mented the trial of Socrates. In effect, Nietzsche was putting
himself on trial with this work, and his sardonic judgments and
chapter headings are mordant, mocking, selfdeprecating, sly,
and they turn this trial against his future accusers, distorters, and
superficial judges.
Within this work, Nietzsche is selfconsciously striving to
present a new image of the philosopher and of himself, for ex
ample, a philosopher who is not an Alexandrian academic nor
an Apollonian sage, but Dionysian. [2] On these grounds, Kauf
mann considers Ecce Homo a literary work comparable in its
artistry to Vincent van Goghs paintings. Just as Socrates was pre
sented in Platos Apology as the wisest of men precisely because
he freely admitted to his own ignorance, Nietzsche argues that
he himself is a great philosopher because of his withering assess
ment of the pious fraud of the entirety of Philosophy which he
considered as a retreat from honesty when most necessary, and
a cowardly failure to pursue its stated aim to its reasonable end.
Nietzsche insists that his suffering is not noble but the expected
result of hard inquiry into the deepest recesses of human selfde
ception, and that by overcoming ones agonies a person achieves
more than any relaxation or accommodation to intellectual diffi
culties or literal threats. He proclaims the ultimate value of every
thing that has happened to him (including his fathers early death
and his nearblindness an example of love of Fate or amor fati).
In this regard, the wording of his title was not meant to draw par
allels with Jesus, but suggest a contrast, that Nietzsche truly is a
man. Nietzsches point is that to be a man alone is to be more
than a Christ.
One of the main purposes of Ecce Homo was to offer Niet
zsches own perspective on his work as a philosopher and human
being. He wrote: Under these circumstances I have a duty
against which my habits, even more the pride of my instincts, re
volt at bottom namely, to say: Hear me! For I am such and such
a person. Above all, do not mistake me for someone else! Through
out the course of the book, he expounds in the characteristi
cally hyperbolic style found in his later period (18861888)
upon his life as a child, his tastes as an individual, and his vision
for humanity. Him books are: The Birth of Tragedy, The Untimely
Meditations, Human, All Too Human, The Dawn, The Gay
Science, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil, On the Ge
nealogy of Morality, Twilight of the Idols and The Case of Wagner.
The last chapter of Ecce Homo, entitled Why I Am a Destiny, is
primarily concerned with reiterating Nietzsches thoughts on
Christianity, corroborating Christianitys decadence and his ideas
as to uncovering Christian morality.
He signs the book Dionysus versus the Crucified.
Cavafy drew his themes from personal experience,
along with a deep and wide knowledge of history,
especially of the Hellenistic era. Many of his poems
are pseudohistorical, or seemingly historical, or ac
curately, but quirkily, historical.Almost all of Cavafys
work was in Greek; yet, his poetry remained unrec
ognized in Greece until after the publication of his
first anthology in 1935. He is known for his prosaic
use of metaphors, his brilliant use of historical im
agery, and his aesthetic perfectionism. These attrib
utes, amongst others,have assured him an enduring
place in the literary pantheon of the Western World.
Besides his subjects, unconventional for the time, his
poems also exhibit a skilled and versatile craftsman
ship, which is almost completely lost in translation
.Cavafy was a perfectionist, obsessively refining
every single line of his poetry. His mature style was
a free iambic form, free in the sense that verses
rarely rhyme and are usually from 10 to 17 syllables.
In his poems, the presence of rhyme usually implies
Historical poems
These poems are mainly inspired by the Hellenistic
era with Alexandria at primary focus. Other poems
originate from Hellenoromaic antiquity and the
Byzantine era. Mythological references are also pres
ent. The periods chosen are mostly of decline and
decadence (e.g. Trojans); his heroes facing the final
Sensual poems
The sensual poems are filled with the lyricism and
emotion of samesex love; inspired by recollection
and remembrance. The past and former actions,
sometimes along with the vision for the future un
derlie the muse of Cavafy in writing these poems.
Philosophical poems
Also called instructive poems they are divided into
poems with consultations to poets and poems that
deal with other situations such as closure (for exam
ple, The walls), debt (for example, Thermopy
lae), and human dignity (for example, The God
Abandons Antony).
Cavafy s most famous poems
Thermopiles 1903
The City 1909
Ithaka 1910
The Satrapy1910
The God forsakes Antony1910
Philhellene 1912
As Much As You Can 1913
Noesis 1918
Melancholy of Jason, Son of Cleander: Poet in Com
magene: 595 A.D. 1918
In Alexandria, 31 B.C. 1924Theme and Symbolism in
Cavafys Ithaka
In his poem Ithaca(1910) Constantine Cavafy uses the
familiar story of the Odyssey as a metaphor for the
journey of life. Cavafy wrote his poetry in Greek
(Constantine P. Cavafy) Although some of the lyri
cism and rhyme of the original is probably lost in
translation, it is still a powerful piece that speaks to
the reader in any language.
The major theme of the poem is to take your time
on your journey through life, stopping to obtain wis
dom, pleasure and experience. Some people always
find the straight and easy way through life, proceed
ing linearly and avoiding distractions and detours.
When they reach the end, what do they have to
show for it? Cavafy seems to be saying that the
things that really matter in the end are experiences
and memories. You can not get many of these on the
straight and narrow path. Odysseus ten year voyage
home from the Trojan war, with its many turnings
and adventures, is a metaphor for a fulfilling life.
One unusual feature of the work is that it is written
in the second person imperative. It tells the reader,
the metaphorical Odysseus, what to do. While this
point of view is almost never workable in a narrative
work, it is effective in a short lyrical poem like this.
Ithaka uses several strong symbols, loosely drawn
from the Odyssey. In the first stanza, for instance,
refers to the Laistrygonians, the Cyclops, and Angry
Poseidon. These were among the most terrifying of
Oddyseus enemies. The Laistrygonians and the Cy
clops were gigantic cannibals who ate most of his
followers. Poseidon was a vengeful god who perse
cuted him for years. Cavafy chooses these enemies
to symbolize conflict, particularly conflict with peo
ple or powers that are much bigger and more pow
erful than the reader. Luckily, the reader need not
fear these external conflicts: you wont meet
them / unless you carry the in your soul. A person
without internal strife is less likely to encounter ex
ternal strife.
Another symbol the idea of coming into new har
bors. The harbors are happy times and places in the
life of the reader where pleasure, knowledge and ex
perience are gained. Cavafy mentions two main
types, Phoenician trading stations, and Egyptian
cities. In the Phoenician stations, one is to buy fine
things and sensual perfumes. Cavafy is not telling
the reader to amass treasure. The message is to
enjoy luxury and beauty when the chance arises.
One should appreciate the fine things that come into
ones path for the sake of the experience. The
Phoenician trading stations symbolize times in life
when one is exposed to art and beauty and culture.
The Egyptian cities, on the other hand, symbolize
times of knowledge and education. This could be a
time of formal education such as going to college. It
could just as easily by an informal educational expe
rience. Either way, Cavafy enjoins the reader to visit
many of these Egyptian Cities. Education is not
something that is sought once in life. Rather, should
occur in a series of episodes throughout a lifetime.
When he wrote this reference to Egyptian cities,
Costantine Cavafy was undoubtedly thinking of
Alexandria, where he spent most of his life. Alexan
dria has always been a great center of learning and
a confluence of cultures and ideas. It was the sight
of the largest library of the ancient world. It would
not, however, have existed at the time the events in
the historical Odyssey took place. Cavafy is thus ei
ther creating a deliberate anachronism or referring
to other older Egyptian cities. The symbolism is still
effective either way.
The final, and perhaps most important, symbol in
Ithaka is Ithaka itself. Ithaka, Odysseus island king
dom, represents both the starting and ending place.
Everyone comes from somewhere. There was a time
and place them shaped them and made them they
are. As they reached adulthood they left home.
Some went far indeed, even as this poem recom
mends. Ironically, the farther people get from home
(physically, temporally, and ideologically) the more
they want to return. The great risk, however, is of
idealizing your own personal Ithaka. In the penulti
mate stanza Cavafy warns against expecting too
Ithaka gave you the marvelous journey.
Without her you would not have set out.
She has nothing left to give you now.
The point of life is the journey and the experiences
along the way. If you go long enough you will even
tually get back to where you began. As natural as
this is, this starting and ending point is simply that:
a starting and ending point. It is the path in between
that makes life worth living.
Cavafy is justifiably referred to as the father of Greek
modernist poetry, and Ithaka is widely regarded as
one of his finest poems. In it he develops elements
of a familiar story, The Odyssey, into powerful sym
bols to support his theme.
Just a note
When one of my students suggested the idea of a magazine, I thought that I
couldnt have asked for a better chance to embrace the students interest in re-
search and trigger their skills in writing.
Soon after, I was captivated by their eagerness and enthusiasm. We all sat
down, pen in hand, and began to conceptualize something that was barely
there. The students swift response coming up with topics and resources at their
fingertips, made us all see how the mission of a high-school project was turning
into the vision of creating a magazine and having our work published.
Needless to say that the whole endeavor would not have been carried out
had it not been for Ms Founta, who warmly welcomed the idea from the begin-
ning and generously offered her support throughout the process.
We would like to believe that while youre reading the magazine you will all
find out things you didnt know about, or things you knew about differently.
What is important is to bear in mind that the students took the initiative to take
a step further and present a piece of their work, which is, however, only a piece
of what they are really capable of.
Besides, practice makes one perfect, so we believe that the best is yet to
Melina Kougioumtzi (Project Advisor)
3rd Junior High-school
Frageios Vassileios
Tsakona Despoina
Ezat Alexander Omar
2nd Senior High-school (B2)
Axari Anastasia
Apostolidou Sophia
Vergemitzidis Konstantinos
Detsikas Konstantinos
Zlatinski Rodi
Karakousi Theresia
Karasavvidou Maria
Katzika Anna
Kosmas Petros
Lazaridou Georgia
Michailidou Danai
Morogianni Danai
Pavlidou Christina
Tsolakidou Symela
Hatzianastasiou Ilianna
2nd Senior High-school (B3)
Arvanitidis Dimitrios
Vasileiou Christos
Gesios Georgios
Gola Chrysi
Gousiopoulos Achilleas
Grammenos Petros
Dardamani Alexandra
Dodopoulou Daphne
Ioannidou Alexandra
Kamperis Nikolaos-Raphael
Karaglani Evdokia-Eleni
Kenanoglou Emmanouil
Kokovinis Panagiotis
Komnino Simona
Kountouretis Kyriakos
Kyriakidis Ioannis
Lathouraki Evanthia
Manavi Dimitra
Biliouri Kyriaki
NIkolis Georgios
Orphanidou Eleni
Papaevaggelou Spyridoula
Pappas Fotios
Savvidou Dimitra
Stavridou Despoina
Tetepoulidis Ioannis
Tsatsoulas Chrysostomos
Farmaki Niki-Maria
Fotiadis Serafeim-Nikiforos
Christinidis Dimitrios
Written and compiled by:
production of Cavalleria Rusticana and
wins the Conservatoires prize.
Elvira de Hidalgo becomes Marias teacher
at the Conservatoire and concentrates on col
oratura training. Then she made her profes
sional operatic debut as Beatrice in
Boccaccio at the Palas Cinema with the
Lyric Theatre company with whom she will
sing in Tosca, Tiefland, Cavalleria Rus
ticana, Fidelio, and Der Bettelstudent
during the next four years. In 1942 she sang
Tosca for the first time in Greek at an open
air performance at the Park Summer Theatre
Kaftmonos Square. In 1946 she tried unsuc
cessfully to find work, but she continued
strenuous vocal pratice to perfect her tech
nique. Then she met Eddie Bagarozy. She ac
cepted engagement to sing in Turandot in
Chicago in January 1947 with a cast of cele
brated European singers in a new company to
be founded by Bagarozy and Ottavio Scotto,
an Italian impresario.
After three years of training, Maria made
her professional stage debut in November of
1940 at the National Lyric Theatre in Athens
in Supps operetta, Boccaccio. Her first suc
cess came in 1942 when she was asked to per
form in Tosca at the Athens Opera. Soon
after, she performed Fidelio, Tiefland,
and Cavalleria Rusticana in Athens and re
turned to her birthplace, New York, in the
hopes of starting a successful career in opera.
Her auditions had not been going well
until she was asked to audition for Edward
Johnson, the General Manager of the Metro
politan Opera. Johnson heard her and imme
diately offered her the leading roles in two
productions of the 1946/7 season:
Beethovens Fidelio and Puccinis Madama
Butterfly. Maria, to Johnsons surprise, turned
the roles down. She didnt want to sing Fide
lio in English and she felt that she was too
heavy to portray the young, fragile Butterfly.
This story may just be a myth, though, since
the Met maintains Callas audition was not a
success and that she was never offered a con
Maria was, however, able to find work.
After an engagement in La Gioconda in
Verona, she traveled to Venice to sing
Brnnhilde in Die Walkre for the 1948/9 sea
son with Tullio Serafin conducting. After the
first Puritani on January 19, 1949, Maria be
came the talk of Italy. It was a huge success,
even though she had made some small mis
takes, one of them being that instead of
singing son vergin vezzosa (I am a charm
ing virgin), she sang son vergin viziosa (I am
a vicious virgin). Three months after her suc
cess, she married Giovanni Battista Menegh
ini, a man almost 30 years older than Maria,
on 21 April 1949, in the Chiesa dei Filippini in
Verona, Italy.
Maria had become a major opera celebrity
in Italy but had still not been offered a role at
La Scala in Milan. Finally, Maria was offered
the lead role in Verdis Ada after Renata
Tebaldi (who had been cast in the role) be
came unavailable. Maria and Meneghini ex
pected a huge triumph, but
when Ada opened on April 12, 1950, she re
ceived a polite reception and lukewarm re
views. It wasnt until 7 December 1950 that La
Scala surrendered to Maria Callas. She had
opened the 1950/1 season with I Vespri Sicil
iani and was greeted with thunderous ap
plause and enthusiastic reviews.
In July of 1952, Maria signed an exclusive
recording contract with Walter Legge, direc
tor of EMI. A few days after the contract was
signed, Legge and his wife, the great German
soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, went to see
Maria in La Traviata at the Arena in Verona,
Italy. Following the performance,
Schwarzkopf offered Maria one of the most
moving tributes she had ever received: Elisa
beth would never sing La Traviata again.
When asked to explain her decision,
Schwarzkopf replied, What is the sense in
doing a part that another contemporary artist
can do to perfection?
Maria finally made her debut at the Met
ropolitan Opera on 28 October 1956 as Norma
in Bellinis Norma. Unfortunately for Maria,
Time magazine had done an interview with
Marias mother, the woman Maria blamed for
robbing her of her childhood. Maria had last
seen her mother in Mexico in 1950 and had
vowed that she would never meet or speak
with her again (a promise she took with her
to her death). The Time article portrayed
Maria as an ungrateful daughter and the New
York public reacted coldly when Marias Met
debut came. In fact, the legendary soprano
Zinka Milanov received more applause when
she took her seat than Maria did when she
made her entrance. By the end of the final
act, though, the New York public surrendered
and Maria received 16 curtain calls.
The next time Maria made headlines was
when she was scheduled to sing in a gala per
formance of Norma at the Rome Opera House
on 2 January 1958. The performance was to
be attended by Italys president, Giovanni
Gronchi and his wife. Unfortunately, Maria
had seen in the New Year by drinking cham
pagne and staying up very late at the fashion
able Rome nightclub, Circolo degli Sacchi.
When Maria awoke, less than thirtysix hours
before curtainup, her voice had gone. She
couldnt even whisper, let alone sing. The
Opera House was informed that a replace
ment would be needed. There was no under
study and a cancellation would have been
disastrous. What happened instead was
worse than a disaster. Maria, against the or
ders of her doctors, went on stage but it was
clear from her first note that her voice was in
ruins. At the end of the first act, half the audi
ence jeered while the other half sat in
shocked silence. Maria escaped through a
back exit and an announcement had to be
made that the performance simply could not
go on. The public was furious but Maria was
relieved to receive a phone call from Signora
Gronchi assuring her that neither she nor her
husband had been offended.
On 3 September 1959, Maria announced
that she would be parting from her husband.
She began a 9 year love affair with Aristotle
Onassis. The couple was expected to marry
but in the end, Aristotle married Jackie
Kennedy, John F. Kennedys widow, on 20 Oc
tober 1968. His death on 15 March 1975, is
considered to be one of the major factors be
hind Marias death.
In May of 1965, Marias voice once again
became the subject of dispute. She was per
forming Norma at the Paris Opera with
Fiorenza Cossotto as Adalgisa. Cossotto knew
that Maria was exhausted and her voice was
weak so Cossotto intentionally held on to
notes longer than Maria could. On the night
of the final Norma on 29 May, Maria was at
her weakest. To make things worse, Cossotto
treated their big duet like a duel. At the end,
when the curtain came down, Maria col
lapsed and was carried unconscious to her
dressing room.
In June 1969, Maria began work on a film
of Medea (not Cherubinis opera or Euripides
tragedy but the myth of Medea) with Pier
Paolo Pasolini. She hardly sang but still
worked very hard. So hard that one day she
fainted after running on a dry riverbed in the
sun for a particular shot. Unfortunately for
Maria, the film was not a success.
By 1970, Marias singing career had come
to a quick halt. On May 25, she was rushed to
the hospital and it was announced that she
had tried to commit suicide by taking an over
dose of barbiturates. It seems unlikely that
she actually attempted suicide, though by this
time she was known to take more sleeping
tablets to find sleep and more barbiturates to
find peace.
In 1973, she began a comeback tour with
Giuseppe di Stefano. For the first time in eight
years, Maria Callas was singing in public. It
was clear from the first concert in Hamburg
on 25 October that the tour would be an artis
tic disaster. Callas and di Stefano had as an ac
companist, Ivor Newton, who was well into
his eighties. During the tour, Newton began
having dizzy spells in the street and fantasiz
ing about his death. He once said to Robert
Sutherland, who was turning the pages for
Newton, If I have a heart attack while Maria
is singing a high note, you are to push me off
my stool and take over as though nothing had
happened. Maria refused to fire Newton,
fearing that doing so would probably kill him.
Sutherland eventually took over as accompa
nist when the tour travelled to the U.S. The
final concert took place on November 11,
1974, in the city of Sapporo in northern Japan.
That was the last place on earth that would
hear Maria sing.
On 16 September 1977, Maria woke up late
in her home in Paris. She had breakfast in bed,
then got up and started towards the bath
room. There was a piercing pain in her left
side and she collapsed. She was put back into
bed and drank some strong coffee. After fail
ing to get a hold of any medical help, they
called Marias butlers doctor who started out
immediately for Marias residence. She was
dead before he arrived. Her funeral was held
on September 20th. She was cremated and
her remains kept at the cemetery of Pre
Lachaise in Paris. In the spring of 1979, the
ashes were taken to Greece and were scat
tered in the Aegean.
rience the satisfaction that cames from playing to their potential. Others do
so to satisfy a desire for recognition and fame.Unfortunately, that creates
some athletes who are determined to win at any cost. They may use that de
termination to justify the use of anabolic steroids, de
spite evidence that these drugs can inflict irreversible
physical harm and have significant side effects.
The number of athletes who abuse anabolic steroids
is unknown. Believing that anabolic steroids can im
prove competitiveness and performance, uniformed
or misguided athletes, sometimes encouraged by
coaches or parents, abuse these drugs to build lean
muscle mass, promote aggressiveness and increase
body weight. Moreover, people suffering from the
behavioral syndrome called muscle dysmorphia tend
to use these drugs. This syndrome causes them to
have a distorted image of their bodies. Finally, some
adolescents abuse steroids as part of a pattern of
highrisk behaviors. These adolescents also take risks such as drinking and driv
ing, driving a motorcycle without helmet and abusing other illicit drugs. Con
ditions such as muscle dysmorphia, history of sexual or physical abuse, or a
history engaging in a high risk behaviours have all been associated with an in
creased risk of initiating or continuing steroid abuse.
Some athletes believe that different drugs will produce greater strength or
muscle size than by using just one drug. What they dont know or choose to
ignore is the damage to the body that abuse of these drugs can cause. When
improperly used, anabolic steroids can cause serious health problems such as
high blood pressure and heart disease, liver damage and cancers,stroke and
blood clots. Other side effect of steroids include : nausea and vomiting, in
creased risk of ligament and tendon injuries,headaches,aching joints, muscle
cramps,diarrhea,sleep problems and severe acne. Although,while the total im
pact of anabolic steroid abuse is not known, health care providers have ob
served some problems regarding the blood, heart,
liver, skeleton, skin, immune system and psychologi
cal (such as mood swings, aggressive violent behav
ior, depression, psychotic episodes and
addiction).Prolonged abuse of anabolic steroids very
often results in physical addiction. Abusers must un
dergo a strict medically supervised with drawl pro
All things considered, the abuse of anabolic steroids
by high school, college and other amateur athletes is
a dangerous practice. Participants in amateur sports
must be made aware of the physical and emotional
dangers associated with steroid abuse. The win at
any cost attitude embraced by some athletes must
be redirected and replaced by personal dedication to the sport, a thorough
knowledge of the sports physical demands and requirements, maintenance of
a healthy lifestyle and the appreciation of fair game.
() . 132-133, . ,
Formula 1 is a rally, which started to grow fast in the
30s, swept away by the whirlwind of World War II,
like any sport in the old continent. Europe was then
the dominant force in motorsports, as it is nowadays.
On 1 September 1946 the first Formula 1 test match
took place in Turin, under the name Valentino Grand
Prix, won by Italian Akile Vartsi, driving an Alfa
Romeo 158 Alpheus. The cars that took part in the
race did not differ much from those of the prewar
era. Vartsis car was built in the 30s.
In the next few decades, Formula 1 cars, underwent
many changes, associated with the distance or hours
of a race, the cars cubism and mostly the engines.
Those changes were put into force from the victori
ous Formula 1 teams of the past years. Someone
could have said that those clever conversions, gave
the league to any team which applied them. . The first
decade of the 21st century belongs to Michael Schu
macher and Ferrari.
In the 90s the death of Ayrton Senna at Imola (1994)
marked forever the world of Formula 1. He had man
aged to win three world championships and unfortu
nately no one will ever know where they could go.
Both the death of the Brazilian ace and a number of
fatal accidents forced the to take strict measures for
the races safety. Since 2010 began the dynasty of an
other German, Sebastian Vettel, who won four
straight titles until 2013 and at the age of just 26
years, threatens many records in Formula 1. He had
assistance, in this effort, from the reliable Red Bull
team of wealthy Austrian distiller Dietrich Matesits,
which in turn won an equal number of titles in the
constructors championship.
The Formula 1 is now a highly profitable show busi
ness, which attracts thousands of spectators to the
slopes and billions of viewers. But above all, remains
a testing ground for the development and safety of
How to become a F1 driver
Chance to become a Formula 1 Driver is very rare and
very expensive because it needs a lot of finance just
to get to the GP2 series. F1 teams only select top driv
ers who finish GP2 in Europe.
All time and money that they invested will not be paid
properly up. To become a champion a combination of
yourself, with your team, car, strategy, is required to
succeed. Of course, it also needs luck and support
from your country both you and Motor sport. If your
own country has no F1 team and no F1 race track, no
rich sponsors then it is more difficult to become a
F1 Driver. However, there is a chance and an oppor
tunity to become a successful Touring or Rally Driver
who is also highly paid by their teams and sponsors.
It is recommended that while trying to become a
racer you must try simultaneously to get a college or
university degree as a backup for your future and sur
vival in case you are not successful in your racing ca
reer. If it is only a hobby without any target then you
can go ahead for as long as you can afford.
To sum up, if someone wanted to describe Formula 1
with a few worlds, he would say that it is a very diffi
cult sport, in which you can take part as a driver, due
to the financial obstacles. Although, once you make
it to top of the sport you will be thrilled by the emo
tions that this Motor sport can cause, because of the
importance of its history and its breakthrough in en
F1StatisticsTeam position
Red Bull RacingRenault 553
Mercedes 348
Ferrari 333
LotusRenault 315
McLarenMercedes 102
Force IndiaMercedes 77
Sauber Ferrari 53
STRFerrari 32
WilliamsRenault 5
MarussiaCosworth 0
CaterhamRenault 0
F1Driver Position
Sebastian Vettel 372
Fernando Alonso 227
Lewis Hamilton 187
Kimi Rikknen 183
Mark Webber 181
Nico Rosberg 161
Romain Grosjean 132
Felipe Massa 106
Jenson Button 61
Paul di Resta 48
Nico Hulkenberg 47
Sergio Perez 41
Adrian Sutil 29
Daniel Ricciardo 19
JeanEric Vergne 13
Esteban Gutierrez 6
Valtteri Bottas 4
Pastor Maldonado 1
Jules Bianchi 0
Charles Pic 0
Giedo van der Garde 0
Max Chilton 0
Heikki Kovalainen 0
By Nikos Kamberis & Raphael Gesios
References: F1 2013 game,,,
of playing VideoGames
1. Stress and Depression Relief
In a study conducted by the 2009 Annual Review of Cybertherapy and
Telemedicine, it was found that gamers who suffered from mental stress
or depression were able to use video games to vent out their frustra
tions. This in turn helped them relax and gamers showed much improve
ment. In another study by PopCap Games it was shown that 88% of
people play video games for stress relief. Games like Plants vs Zombies
are effective examples.
2. Pain Relief
As crazy as it sounds, video games can also help relieve physical pain.
The way that this works is by distracting the player from their pain by
putting them into the virtual reality setting of a video game. The Univer
sity of Washingtons psychologists developed a game for military hospi
tals called Snow World. This game helped relieve soldiers who were
suffering from battle wounds. The objective of the game was to put play
ers into a winter wonderland where they could throw snowballs at var
ious targets like snowmen and penguins. Patients who played this game
had an easier time recuperating and required less pain medication and
their pain tolerance increased by up to 65%.
3. Faster Reflexes
A study in the journal of Current Directions in Psychological Science,
showed that people who played video games had faster reflexes than
people who did not. However, this study was conducted under circum
stances that did not involve actual games. Another study by Deakin Uni
versity studied 53 preschool children and showed that children who
played interactive games had better reflexes.
4. Improved Eyesight
The University of Rochester conducted a study by checking the vision of
a group of people who played action video games for a few hours a day
for a month. It was found that their vision actually improved by about
20% on a standard eye chart. This is a very surprising discovery because
many people believed that sitting in front of the television would do the
complete opposite for your eyes. The reason for this is because action
games, like first person shooters, require a lot of attention and our eye
sight is led to view things more sharply.
5. Greater Dexterity
According to the Archives of Surgery Laparoscopic surgeons people who
played videogames were able to operate faster and with fewer errors.
They could operate about 24% faster and with 32% fewer errors than sur
geons who did not play video games. This study was conducted using a
simulated surgery course.
Your parents may have tried to kick you off your Super Nintendo just
about every time you sat down in front of it because they were con
cerned about how it might affect your longterm health. Plenty of stud
ies have shown that games that dont require a lot of physical movement
can have an adverse effect on children as they grow older. But perhaps
counterintuitively, there have also been several studies touting the
health benefits of gaming.
6. Video games are therapeutic for children with chronic illnesses
The University of Utah released a study last year that examined the ef
fects of regular gaming on children diagnosed with illnesses like autism,
depression, and Parkinsons disease. Kids who played certain games, in
cluding one designed just for the study, showed signs of improvement
in resilience, empowerment, and a fighting spirit. Researchers believe
the games ability to act on neuronal mechanisms that activate positive
emotions and the reward system helped improve kids demeanors as
they faced the daily challenges of their illnesses.
7. Video games improve preschoolers motor skills
Letting a 4yearold sit in front of a TV with a game controller might not
seem like the most productive use of her time. But researchers
from Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia, would disagree.
Their study examined the development of 53 preschoolaged children,
and found that those who played interactive games had better object
control motor skills than those who didnt. Its not clear, though,
whether children with betterthanaverage motor skills tend to gravitate
toward video games in the first place.
8. Video games improve your decisionmaking skills
Most video games require fast reactions and splitsecond decisions that
can mean the difference between virtual life and virtual death. Cognitive
neuroscientists at the University of Rochester in New York found these
games give players brains plenty of practice for making decisions in the
real world. Researchers suggest that actionoriented games act as a sim
ulator for the decisionmaking process by giving players several chances
to infer information from their surroundings and forcing them to
react accordingly.
9. Video games keep you happy in old age and have help relationships
Researchers from North Carolina State University looked closely at our
aging population to see if there was a link between playing video games
and mental wellbeing i.e. happiness. They found that senior citi
zens who said they played video games even occasionally reported
higher levels of happiness, or wellbeing, says Rick Nauert at Psych
Central. Those who did not play video games reported more negative
emotions and were more likely to be depressed. Its unclear what ex
actly is behind this link or if the relationship is even causal. Last but
not least
10. Education
The federation of American Scientists revealed that students remember
up to 90% of info when taught using simulations compared with 10% via
of Playing VideoGames
Video gamerelated health problems can induce repetitive strain in
juries, skin disorders or other health issues. Other problems include video
gameprovoked seizures in patients with epilepsy. In rare and extreme
cases, deaths have resulted from excessive video game playing.
There may or may not be an accompanying video game addiction. Video
games have also been linked in some studies to aggressive
behavior and violence or fearful behavior by its players in the short term
although other studies have not supported this link.
Studies have mainly reported health problems in children, mainly boys.
Several specific names have been given to videogame related health
problems, for example PlayStation thumb, Nintendinitis and acute Wii
itis; however, the literature does not seem to support these as truly sep
arate disease entities.[5] Video game consoles linked to medical
problems include the PlayStation and the Nintendo Wii, although it is un
known whether certain types are more connected to these problems
than others.
Physical signs linked to excessive video game playing include black rings
in the skin under the eyes and muscular stiffness in the shoulders, pos
sibly caused by a tense posture or sleep deprivation.
Existing literature on gaming is inconsistent, and studies occasionally
produce contradictory results. Some studies show strong correlations
between gaming and psychological issues like increased aggression in
males, and increased depression in females Whilst another study claims
that girls who gamed were less likely to experience depression but were
more likely to get into fights.
In 2009, during a speech to American Medical Association, Obama
named video games as a health concern, stating that video games are a
key factor in unhealthy sedentary lifestyles.
1. Musculoskeletal problems
When questioned, children often admit to having physical complaints
during video game playing, for example pain in the hands and wrists,
back and neck. Ergonomic measures could improve postural problems
associated with video game playing.
A 2004 case report in The Lancet, authored by a 9yearold boy, mentions
the Playstation thumb, which features numbness and a blister caused
by friction between the thumb and the controller from rapid game
play. Using dermoscopy, dermatologists found point
like hemorrhages and onycholysis (letting go of the nail) in a patient who
presented with hyperkeratosis.
Nintendonitis has been used to describe tendon injuries (tendinosis) of
the hands and wrists in Nintendo players.
A 2010 case report in the New England Journal of Medicine reported a
fracture of the base of the fifth metatarsal after using a Wii balance
board, this was dubbed a Wii fracture.
A further study involving musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use
among Finnish adolescents affirmed the association between muscu
loskeletal symptoms and computer usage. The study claims that daily
computer use of 2 hours or more increases the risk for pain at most
anatomic sites.
Consistently long sessions of video game play also leads to an increased
likelihood of lower back pain, according to a study conducted in a pop
ulation of school children. Children who played video games for more
than 2 hours a day were more inclined to have lower back pain, however
the same could not be said for those who watched television instead.
2. Skin Problems
Skin problems from excessive gaming may include stiffness, chaffed
hands, warts on hands or on arms.
Nintendinitis has been associated with skin ulceration.
Palmer hidradenitis is a skin disorder induced by console gaming. Painful
lesions on the palms and fingers are the main features. It differs from re
current palmoplantar hidradenitis in that it affects only the hands.
Those experiencing atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome, may experi
ence a heightened allergic response due to video game play. However
video game play does not seem to have an effect on normal subject or
those with allergic rhinitis.
3. Vision Problems
Video game playing may be associated with vision problems. Extensive
viewing of the screen can cause eye strain, as the cornea, pupil, and iris
are not intended for mass viewing sessions of electronic devices. Using
video games for too long may also cause headaches, dizziness, and
chances of vomiting from focusing on a screen for too long.
However, certain studies have shown that video games can be used to
improve various eye conditions. An investigation into the effect of action
gaming on spatial distribution of attention was conducted and revealed
that gamers exhibited an enhancement with attentional resources com
pared to nongamers, not only in the periphery but also in central vision.
Further studies in 2011, concluded that a combination of video game ther
apy alongside occlusion therapy, would greatly improve the recovery of
visual acuity in those experiencing Amblyopia.
4. Psychological Problems
Some studies claim that excessive video game playing may lead to sev
eral adverse psychological affects. One such study claimed that exces
sive interaction with violent video games may lead to an increase in
aggressive behavior and decreases prosocial behavior. A different study
involving a mixture of male and female undergraduate students sup
ports the previous fact and also claims that the effect is larger for men
than for women. On the other hand, studies have also revealed that par
ticipation in prosocial video games increases prosocial cognitions and
helpful behaviors. Sessions of prosocial video games are associated with
reduced hostility and increased positive state affect; Violent video games
proved to have the opposite effects.
Studies have concerning video game play and cerebral blood flow, con
cluded that after a session of violent video game play, the player would
show a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, anterior cingulated
cortex and fusiform gyrus. The decreased cerebral blood flow thus
shows reduced or abnormal prefrontal cortex functions after video
game playing.
Violent video games also contribute to stress levels. A recent study
states that violent video game players had lower cardiac coherence lev
els and higher aggression levels compared to nonviolent game players.
The study claims that it is quite possible that violent games increase ag
gression by inducing stress, however more studies are required to fully
confirm this fact.
A study in 2009 showed greater depression amongst female video game
players, and overall poorer health when compared to females who did
not play video games. The same study concluded that the only deter
minant common to female and male videogame players was a greater
reliance on the internet for social support.
Those who experience video game dependency are accompanied by in
creased levels of psychological and social stress. They tend to have lower
academic achievements, increased truancy and reduced sleep time.
5. Gaming obesity
Video game play has been constantly associated with obesity. Many
studies have been conducted on the link between television & video
games and increased BMI (Body Mass Index). Due to video games re
placing physical activities, there appears to be a clear association be
tween time spent playing video games and increased BMI in young
children. One such study produced data that indicated that boys who
spend less than 1.5 hours on the television and playing video games,
were 75.4% less likely to be overweight than those who spend more than
1.5 hours.
A study conducted in 2011 formalized the association of video game play
and an increase in food intake in teens. A single session of video game
play resulted in an increase in food intake, regardless of appetite. The
recent trend of active video games revolving around the Wii and Xbox
Kinect might be a way to help combat the aforementioned problem
however this finding still needs confirmation from other studies. Fur
thermore a study conducted in Baylor College of Medicine revolving
around children claims that there is no evidence which supports the be
lief that acquiring an active video game under naturalistic circumstance
would result in a beneficial outcome toward children. The study pro
duced no results showing an increased amount of physical activity within
the children receiving the active video games. It has been estimated that
children in the United States are spending 25 percent of their waking
hours watching television and playing videogames. Statistically the chil
dren who watch the most hours of television or play video games have
the highest incidence of obesity we can see.
I hope I influenced your opinion about gaming.
Ezat Alexandros Omar
subtropics, but parasitic infections also affect people in developed
Parasites are organisms that derive nourishment and protection
from other living organisms known as hosts. Many of these orga
nisms can be transmitted by water, soil, or persontoperson con
tact.Parasites range in size from tiny, singlecelled organisms to
worms visible to the naked eye.
In the United States, the most common foodborne parasites are
protozoa, roundworms, and tapeworms. The foodborne parasite
that causes the most hospitalizations and deaths in this country is
Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis.
Parasitic Diseases (NIH MedlinePlus)
Trusted health information on causes, symptoms, treatment, and
Parasites: Food (CDC)
General information on parasitic diseases plus a directory of specific
Parasites and Foodborne Illness (USDA)
Symptoms, risk factors, and prevention information for 6 parasites
that cause diseases such as giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, and trichino
Bad Bug Book (FDA)
Basic facts regarding foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and
natural toxins, including parasites.
Foodborne Illnesses Table: Parasitic Agents (PDF 217 KB) (AMA)
Table provides incubation period, symptoms, associated foods, and
treatments for 8 parasites that cause foodborne illness.
When found in food, they can cause diseases in humans. In the Eu
ropean Union (EU), over 2,500 human cases of foodborne parasitic
infections are reported each year.
To protect consumers from this public health threat, the EU has ado
pted an integrated approach to food safety from the farm to the
fork. The approach consists of both risk assessment and risk mana
gement measures involving all key actors: EU Member States, Eu
ropean Commission, European Parliament, EFSA and the European
Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The approach is
supported by timely and effective risk communication activities.
EFSA plays an important role in protecting consumers from this pu
blic health threat by providing independent scientific support and
advice on the human health and food safetyrelated aspects of pa
rasites in food.
Some parasites, such as Trichinella, Toxoplasma and Giardia can be
directly or indirectly transmitted between animals and humans th
rough the consumption of contaminated food or drinking water.
Health effects of foodborne parasitic infections vary greatly depen
ding on the type of parasite ranging from mild discomfort to debi
litating illness and possibly death. Parasites can also be transmitted
to humans or other animals through other means such as by vec
tors. Safe handling of food and good kitchen hygiene can prevent
or reduce the risk posed by contaminated foodstuffs.
Organic farming
Organic farming works in harmony with nature rather than against
it. This involves using techniques to achieve good crop yields with
out harming the natural environment or the people who live and
work in it.
The philosophy of organic food production maintains certain prin
ciples: biodiversity, ecological balance, sustainability, natural plant
fertilization, natural pest management, and soil integrity. Since
farms vary in product and practice, there is also a wide variety in
how these principles are applied.3 However, generally, organic food
Traditionally, organic food production has certain characteristics,
Are grown or raised by a producer who uses practices in balance
with the natural environment, using methods and materials that mi
nimize negative impact on the environment. The organic farmer is
committed to replicating the ecology of the natural environment
by maintaining biodiversity G and fostering healthy soil and gro
wing conditions.
Are produced on land that has been free of known and perceived
toxic and persistent chemical pesticides and fertilizers for at least
three years prior to certification, and synthetic fertilizers and pesti
cides are not used in production.
Are planted on a rotating basis within the farm system. Crops are
rotated from field to field, rather than growing the same crop in the
same place year after year. Cover crops such as clover are planted
to add nutrients to the soil and prevent weeds.
Organic meat, poultry and egg products come from farms that use
organic feed, do not administer added hormones to promote gro
wth or any antibiotics G and they allow animals the space and fre
edom to behave naturally.
Organic farming generally falls within the accepted definition of su
stainable agriculture. However, it is important to distinguish bet
ween the two, since organic products can be (unsustainably)
produced on large industrial farms, and farms that are not certified
organic can produce food using methods that will sustain the farms
productivity for generations. Some organic dairy farms, for exam
ple, raise cows in large confinement facilities but are able to meet
the bare minimum requirements for organic certification, while a
nonorganic certified small farm could use organic guidelines and
be selfsufficient by recycling all the farms waste to meet its fertility
Organic Foods
In addition to not using synthetics during the production process,
organic foods are not genetically modified and do not contain any
chemical food additives or solvents. Many industrialized countries
including the United States require special certification for produ
cers to list foods as organic. Therefore, organic food is distinct from
private gardening or natural foods. Organic refers to both the food
itself and the food production process used to produce the finished
food product. In the United States, the Organic Foods Production
Act of 1990 in combination with Title 7, Part 205 of the Code of Fe
deral Regulations list the specific site requirements and standards
required for producers to sell foods as organic.
There are several commonly associated benefits associated with or
ganic foods. First, the organic farming process is good for the ove
rall environment. Synthetic pesticides commonly used in the food
production process can harm local wildlife. Additionally, organic
farms typically produce less waste and use less energy. Consumers
also benefit from organic foods by limiting exposure to potentially
harmful synthetics. Further, several studies show that organic foods
contain more nutrients than nonorganic foods.
The primary argument against the consumption of organic foods
relates to food safety. While many individuals believe consuming
organic foods is safer than consuming nonorganic foods, a lack of
scientific evidence exists supporting this hypothesis. Further, the
Food and Drug Administration has concluded that the limited amo
unt of pesticides found in nonorganic foods does not cause or con
tribute to any health related issues. Additionally, organic food is
generally more expensive than inorganic food items. This increased
cost results from the increased production costs associated with
producing organic foods.
Inorganic Foods
Inorganic Foods use synthetics during the production process.
These synthetics commonly include chemical fertilizers and pestici
des. Additionally, producers can also modify inorganic food items
at a molecular or genetic level. This allows producers to crossbreed
crops to produce hardier strains with higher quantities. In the Uni
ted States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates inorganic
food items and determines the acceptable levels of synthetics that
finished food products can contain.
The synthetic materials used in the production of inorganic food
items can help to control contamination with potentially dangerous
mold toxins and bacteria. Therefore, some individuals argue that al
though inorganic foods may contain trace amounts of pesticides,
these synthetic substances pose less harm than the natural toxins
potentially found in organic foods. Additionally, inorganic foods are
cheaper than their organic counterparts, and the increased yields
associated with inorganic food items can potentially help to feed
the poor around the world more cost effectively. Further, the nu
trient levels in organic foods can vary considerably, whereas inor
ganic foods typically contain standardized levels of nutrients in the
same food items. Proponents of inorganic foods, therefore, main
tain that these food items safely use modern technology to produce
more cost effective food products.
Many of the synthetic substances found in inorganic food items do
not have long term studies available confirming the safety of these
substances over time. Therefore, the longterm effects of many syn
thetic substances are not known. Additionally, inorganic foods ty
pically contain fewer nutrients than organic food items. Further,
some evidence exists that the synthetic substances used to produce
inorganic food items may cause longterm damage to the land, ul
timately making the land less fertile or nonfertile.
Pesticides are substances meant for preventing, destroying or mi
tigating any pest.They are a class of biocide. The most common use
of pesticides is as plant protection products (also known as crop
protection products), which in general protect plants from dama
ging influences such as weeds, diseases or insects. This use of pe
sticides is so common that the term pesticide is often treated as
synonymous with plant protection product, although it is in fact a
broader term, as pesticides are also used for nonagricultural pur
A pesticide is generally a chemical or biological agent (such as a
virus, bacterium, antimicrobial or disinfectant) that through its ef
fect deters, incapacitates, kills or otherwise discourages pests. Tar
get pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks,
birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes that
destroy property, cause nuisance, spread disease or are vectors for
disease. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, some
also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other
animals. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Or
ganic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic
chemicals are pesticides.
A pesticide is any substance used to kill, repel, or control certain
forms of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests. Pesti
cides include herbicides for destroying weeds and other unwanted
vegetation, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fun
gicides used to prevent the growth of molds and mildew, disinfec
tants for preventing the spread of bacteria, and compounds used
to control mice and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricul
tural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels
of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have
a clear understanding of the health effects of these pesticide resi
dues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study
of pesticide exposures in farm families, show that farmers who used
agricultural insecticides experienced an increase in headaches, fa
tigue, insomnia, dizziness, hand tremors, and other neurological
symptoms. Evidence suggests that children are particularly susce
ptible to adverse effects from exposure to pesticides, including ne
urodevelopmental effects. People may also be exposed to
pesticides used in a variety of settings including homes, schools, ho
spitals, and workplaces.
With the latest news that ADHD in children is linked to common pe
sticides used on fruits and vegetables, it is more important than
ever to be aware of what we are putting on our plates. Of the 1.2
billion pounds of pesticides used annually in the US, less than .01%
actually reach their intended targetsthe bugs! Obviously they are
completely contaminating our food, and the consequences are di
sastrous, with numerous national and international government
agencies acknowledging the connection to various health pro
blemsnervous system toxicity, cancer, hormone system effects,
and irritation of skin, eyes, and lungs among them.
The cultivated potato as we know it today origins back to Andean and
Chilean landraces developed by preColombian cultivators2. The Inca Indi
ans in Peru were the first to cultivate potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000
B.C. In 1536 Spanish Conquistadors conquered Peru, got to know the flavors
of the potato, and carried them to Europe. Within decades it spread
throughout entire Europe, thanks to its tastefulness and nutritional value.
However, in the 1840s a major plant disease, potato blight broke out, leav
ing Ireland, whose working class lived largely on potatoes, devastated.
Nearly a million died of malnutrition or disease, whereas nearly another mil
lion Irish citizens migrated to Canada or the United States3.
Of course, the Irish working class was up to something. Potatoes are a great
source of potassiumeven more than bananas, as well as vitamin C (45%
of the DV), which is more vitamin C than one medium tomato (40% DV) or
sweet potato (30% DV). Furthermore, potatoes are rich in vitamin B6 with
one medium potato providing 10% of the recommended daily value, whilst
one medium potato provides 6% of the recommended daily value of iron.
In other words, potato consumption may help lower blood pressure and
cholesterol, fight cellular damage by stabilizing free radicals and aiding in
collagen production, support the bodys immune system and benefit us in
so many other ways.
Yet, eating it is not the only way to exploit this spectacular vegetable. It is
known that Incas used potatoes in ways other than dinner as well. They
used to:
carry potatoes in their pockets, as a means of relieving toothache and pre
venting rheumatism,
measure time by correlating units of how long it took potatoes to cook,
treat facial blemishes through daily washing of their face with cool potato
place raw slices on broken bones to aid healing, and so on4.
All in all, remarkable things are all around us and potatoes are definitely
one of them. From Irish history to preventing iron deficiency they are def
initely worth pondering on next time you stumble upon one of them.
Stavridou Elina, Grammenos Petros,
Dardamani Alexandra, Arvanitidis Dimitris
1, 3, 4: Potato History | The History of Potatoes | Potato Fun Facts
2: A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyp-
composer Manos Hatzidakis. There is no denying that music is an integral part of a movie that en
hances its success. The following 14 songs not only contribute to the success of their movies but
they made their own success.
The Bodyguard I will always love you
Whitney Houston sang this song in 1992 for the movie The Bodyguard. That was a second version
because the first was by Dolly Parton in 1973. Her record company believed that the a cappella per
formance will not be successful. However, both Whitney Houston and Kevin Costner insisted. The
track managed to be inextricably linked to the movie and more than 12 million copies have been
sold worldwide.
Never on SundayThe children of Piraeus
Manos Hantzidakis composed this song and Melina Merkouri sang it
for the movie Never on Sunday. The track won an Academy Award
for Best Original Song, the first given to a song from a Foreign Lan
guage film.
Titanic My heart will go on
The romantic song climbed up to number 1 all over the world. It was
sung by Celine Dion and originally released in 1997 on
the Titanic soundtrack album. My Heart Will Go On is Cline Dions
biggest hit. Also, it has sold more than 15 million copies worldwide
and won the Oscar for Best Original Song.
Daredevil Bring me to life
The song that had made Evanescence famous all over the world, has become a commercial hit top
ping the charts in many countries. Thats the song of the movie Daredevil (2003) with Ben Affleck
and Jennifer Garner as headliners. The band won in the category for Best Hard Rock Performance at
the 46th Grammy Awards where the song was also nominated for Best Rock Song.
Armageddon I dont wanna miss a thing
U2 were nominated to sing this song at first but they refused and
Aerosmith replaced them and it became their biggest hit. It was nom
inated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Bruce Wills
and the daughter of Aerosmiths singer, Steven Tyler, Liv Tyler, head
lined at the movie.
Dangerous Minds Gangsta s Paradise
The song was released on the Coolio album Gangstas Paradise, as
well as the Dangerous Minds soundtrack in 1995. The single reached
number one in many countries and was awarded a Grammy, making
it Coolios most successful single.
Cruel Intentions Bitter Sweet Symphony
The film Cruel Intentions is an adaptation of the novel The Dangerous Liaisons. The Bitter Sweet
Symphony by the Verve was one of the many great songs that have been listened at the movie.
This track is distinguished, though, because it frames up the last scene of the film, to wit Catherines
Gladiator Now we are free
This song is included in the soundtrack of the film Gladiator. Its composers are Hans Zimmer and
Lisa Gerrard. The music of the movie was nominated for Oscar, Bafta and it has been awarded a
Golden Globe.
8 Mile Lose Yourself
That Eminems performance at the movie 8 Mile was his first at cinema. Also, he is the composer
of the film s song Lose Yourself which is one of the most famous hiphop songs and has been
awarded an Academy Award for Best Original Song.
Slumdog Millionaire Jai Ho
Jai Ho means be winner and is the title of the big success of 2008,
Slumdog Millionaire. The song has been awarded an Oscar for Best
Original Song and has been sung by Mahalakshmi Iyer, Tanvi Shah
and Sukhwinder Singh. Then it was adapted in English by Pussycat
Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (Everything I do) I do it for you
Bryan Adams sang this song for the movie Robin Hood (1992) with
Kevin Costner. It was nominated for Academy Award and it remains
until today one of the most famous and lovely Globeads.
Pretty Woman It must have been love
The Roxette composed the song of the 1990s big success Pretty Woman with Richard Gere and
Julia Roberts. The track was Roxettes first success in United States.
Top Gun Take my breath away
A song by Berlin from the movie Top Gun with Tom Cruise . It has been awarded an Oscar for Best
Original Song and a Golden Globe. It is inextricably linked to the movie because when someone lis
tens to it, scenes of sky, planes and pilots come to his mind.
Skyfall Skyfall
Skyfall is written by Adele and the producer Paul Epworth. The song quickly went to the top of
the iTunes chart. Also, Skyfall is the first Bond theme to win at the Golden Globes, the Brit Awards
and the Academy Awards.
Websites: -
Books: Music school textbook for the 3rd class of Secondary School
plays in all. A large part of his work is concerned with the
social, literary, and philosophical life of Athens itself and
with themes provoked by the great Peloponnesian
War (431404 bc). This war was essentially a conflict bet
ween imperialist Athens and conservative Sparta and so
was long the dominant issue in Athenian politics. Aristo
phanes was naturally an opponent of the more or less bel
licose statesmen who controlled the government of
Athens throughout the better part of his maturity. Aristo
phanes lived to see the revival of Athens after its defeat
by Sparta. He died in about 388 bc.
His plays have been frequently produced on the 20th
century stage in numerous translations, which manage
with varying degrees of success to convey the flavour of
Aristophanes puns, witticisms, and topical allusions. But
it is not easy to say why his comedies still appeal to an au
dience almost 2,500 years after they were written. In the
matter of plot construction Aristophanes comedies are
often loosely put together, are full of strangely inconse
quential episodes, and often degenerate at their end into
a series of disconnected and boisterous episodes.
Thesmophoriazusae was performed in Athens in 411 BCE,
most likely at the City Dionysia, and is among the most
brilliant of Aristophanes eleven surviving comedies. It is
the story of the crucial moment in a quarrel between the
tragic playwright Euripides and Athens women, who ac
cuse him of slandering them in his plays and are holding
a meeting at one of their secret festivals to set a penalty
for his crimes. Thesmophoriazusae is a brilliantly inventive
comedy, full of wild slapstick humor and devastating lite
rary parody, and is a basic source for questions of gender
and sexuality in late 5thcentury Athens and for the po
pular reception of Euripidean tragedy.
Analysis about the play and stereotypes
The play is notable for its reversal of sexual stereotypes,
where men dress as women and the women appear to be
the equal of men, particularly in their imitation of the ec
clesia or democratic assembly. The play points out how
both tragic and comic poets in classical Athens tend to
reinforce sexual stereotyping, even when they appear to
demonstrate empathy with the female condition, and
how women in classical literature are typically considered
as irrational creatures in need of protection from them
selves and from others. The sexual rolereversals can also
be understood to have a broader political significance, th
ough. The comparison of the warrior ethos of older ge
nerations versus the effete intellectualism of the younger
generation is a debate that recurs in various forms. In ad
dition to the usual political targets of Aristophanes wit,
various literary traditions, fashions and poets are particu
larly subject to comment and parody in Thesmophoriazu
sae. His theatrical rivalEuripides is clearly the main target,
but several other contemporaries also receive derogatory
mentions, including Agathon, Phrynicus, Ibycus, Ana
creon, Alcaeus, Philocles, Xenocles and Theognis.
The plays
The Acharnians 425 BC
The Knights 424 BC
The Clouds original 423 BC, uncompleted revised version
from 419 BC 416 BC survives
The Wasps 422 BC
Peace first version, 421 BC
The Birds 414 BC
Lysistrata 411 BC
Thesmophoriazusae or The Women Celebrating the The
smophoria. First version c.411 BC
The Frogs 405 BC
Ecclesiazusae or The Assemblywomen 392 BC
Wealth second version, 388 BC
statue stands exactly in the centre of the large hall. It represents the young Is
raeli just before his brave fight against the giant Goliath. This amazing master
piece, created by Michelangelo, glorifies human will along with Gods power.
His majesty creates only one question to the observer. How a young man at the
age of 26 was able to achieve such an amazing result?
The history of the statue starts years before Michelangelos work. The Overseers
of the Office of Works of Florence Cathedral were planning to construct and
place 12 large statues in the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Among those
plans was a representation of David. A huge block of marble was provided from
northern Tuscany for this reason. The block was given to many artists but all of
them quitted due to the large size of the marble and a flaw near the chest area.
However, it was young Michelangelo who stepped up and shouldered the re
sponsibility to complete the statue. His work was not easy at all, as he had to
give a new shape to the already damaged enormous marble. He started carving
it in August 1501 and he would continue working on the massive biblical hero
for three years. In order to achieve a convincing result he studied human corps
and anatomy. Three years later, when his work was almost completed, Floren
tine authorities realized that itd be difficult to raise the statue on the roof of
the cathedral. To solve this problem, a council of 30 Florentine citizens was con
vened, including Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci. Finally, in June 1504,
the committee decided to install David at the entrance of Palazzo Vecchio. The
statue was removed from the piazza in 1873 and was displayed in Academia,
where its its current place.
Michelangelos David depicts the Israeli hero preparing to face the enemy of his
people, Goliath. As he marches to battle, without any armour, a decisive look is
pictured on his eyes, showing his deep concentration. The veins around his neck
are intense and his tendons between his lips and his nose are tight as they rep
resent a stiff posture. In his left hand, David holds a slingshot and in his right a
rock, the tools he used to kill his enemy. His entire body is in a classical contra
posto. The weight is clearly on the right leg, as the left leg is free, but the body
is engaged in something more spe
cific: much of the body is still relaxed.
His right hand is just beginning to
tense and his eyes have darted to left.
In the same time, his corps seems to
follow the movement of the hand, so
it creates the sense that David has just
caught side of Goliath. Its impossible
not to notice the remarkable way that
Michelangelo presents the human
body, by pointing out every little de
tail in this ideally beautiful figure.
However it was his colossal size that
impressed Michelangelos contempo
raries. The famous artist Giorgio
Vasari was referring to this statue as
the largest and the grandest statue
he had ever seen. In addition, his symbolism is interesting too. The story of
David had come to be alive with the story of Florence. It was a symbol of the
public of Florence in opposition to the threads of its rivals. Florence was a city
well known for its independence as a citystate and it was also highly connected
to Renaissance. So, the giantslayer represents the defence of civil liberties
against tyranny.
Michelangelos David consists one of the greatest masterpieces on the history
of art. After that many other successes were about to follow for the young
artist. But it was this particular statue that gave the opportunity to a very tal
ented and promising boy to reveal his abilities, and later got him the nickname
Il Divino (The Divine One).
References: KHANACADEMY, Wikipedia, Journal of the Royalty Society of Medicine
food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or pre
cooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a pack
aged form for takeout/takeaway. Due to the relatively
cheap prices of it and the convenience of fastfood restau
rants, in our times fastfood is loved by the masses, who
seem to prefer it to any other form of food.
Fastfood is a king of money, all around the world. Mc
Donalds, Burger King, Wendys, KFC, Pizza Hut
and Dominos Pizza are some of the most famous fast
food chains all over the continent. In Greece, the biggest
chain is Goodys with more than 150 restaurants in the
However, such kind of food is extremely high in ingredi
ents like salt, fat, sugar and calories. A study conducted
around 2008 at the Scripps Research Institute proved that
fast food is as addictive as a drug. Subsequently, the fact
that they are so addictive stroke many as odd and led
them to further research. They discovered that most fast
food restaurants are of bad quality and that their prod
ucts are highly processed items. This is the primary
reason, why fastfood is also known as junkfood.
It may sound sad, but the curiosity of many people to find
out more about what they really consume led to some
shocking news. It is claimed that fastfood products con
tain more unhealthy fat, than allowed, that they are too
high in sodium and that they have a tremendously large
number of calories. For example, high blood pressure,
obesity, osteoporosis and even cancer which are all of
great danger are mainly caused by fastfood.
An average adult must consume about 1200 mg sodium
per day to be healthy. Yet, a regular sandwich of fastfood
chains, such as Mc Donalds and KFC can amount to
more than 2000 mg sodium and cause great problems to
its consumers. If we just realize than 1 out of 4 Americans
visits a fastfood restaurant every day, we will come to the
conclusion that the fastfood lovers will end up less
healthy than people who survived radioactive wars.
The thing is, that children tend to eat at fastfood restau
rants very frequently, because of the low prices and the
toys given with meals. They may feel excited at the begin
ning, but what is going to happen next will mark them for
the rest of their lives. The dangers that were referred pre
viously are mainly what can happen to children:
One 2011 study published in Circulation found the con
sumption of added sugars was associated with increased
risk of cardiovascular disease among adolescents. This is
of no surprise, since a large chocolate milkshake at any
fastfood chain usually rises up to the amazing number of
120 grams of sugar! Such amounts of sugar, can easily lead
to hyperactivity.
The American Heart Association found that elevated cho
lesterol levels can lead to atherosclerosis the buildup
of plaque in the arteries in early childhood and may
eventually lead to coronary heart disease, which is the No.
1 cause of death among Americans. This is the expected
thing to happen, if we think that just a side of large fries
has 22 grams of fat, including 4 grams of saturated fat,
which both can raise blood cholesterol and begin to cause
serious health problems for children.
Sodium is an additive that enhances flavor. Kids need
sodium, but under a normal rate. A large bacon cheese
burger contains an enormous 1,440 milligrams of sodium,
which is 100% of the daily intake of sodium recommended
by the Institute of Medicine. High blood pressure which
is caused by over excessive sodium consumption is a lead
ing risk factor for heart disease.
Just one fastfood meal can include hundreds of chemical
additives, which are extremely hazardous, on the contrary
with unprocessed foods, like vegetables and fruit, which
promote good health and wellbeing.
It is the number 1 epidemic in the US. It is now confirmed
that fast food cannot cause diabetes to children in most
likelihood, but it is a fact that it can affect their health in
the long run. The high sugar levels used on fast food
meals can cause some small trouble to children, yet it is
not that harmful, regarding diabetes. However, a research
at 2004, in London made it clear that fast food can super
size you. As an effect, getting fat increases the possibil
ities of having diabetes type 2. This was considered to be
an illness of older people, but nowadays, everything looks
changed and different on that subject, since the US is suf
fering from diabetes. 33% of the population faces such
problems and especially children. Diabetes can lead to
heart problems, high blood pressure and strokes, so it is
consulted that fast food is consumed once a week and
not too much. It may not be the primary reason why chil
dren and in general many people have diabetes, but it can
increase the chances of that happening, because of the
ingredients used in fast food.
A kid is more prone to wanting desperately something
shown on the TV. Approximately, a child is a victim of at
least 10 food commercials a day and 4,000 a year! Most
ones, also show toys, given with meals, which impress the
youngsters and make them feel like they are something
essential, that cannot be missed. As a result, parents with
out a second thought let their children visit fast food
restaurants and buy what they want from there. Fast food
companies are frequently accused of using children as tar
gets to sell their products. After all, they use 2 billion dol
lars every year to kidcommercials. Kids who saw adver
tisements, related to food ate 45% more than kids who
didnt. So, it is sure that the food industry takes advantage
of the pure and innocent minds of younger ones, who
have no idea of how harmful some products may be and
blindly follow the instructions of advertisements, choos
ing to consume such products with no fear at all.
The firstlady of the United States, Michelle Obama stated
that fast food has become a habit of the American culture
and expressed her worries. 1 on 3 children of the US are
obese and Obama, who has admitted that Frenchfries are
her favorite treat, believes that fast food should be con
sumed, but on a regular rate. She specifically said : The
issue is on us and praised the parents who give nutritious
and healthy food to their children. Fast food chains were
critical of her words and characterized her too strict and
The disclosure, that, from 50 to 98 percent of a fast food
meal is anything but meat, shocked most people. Caramel
coloring, sodium nitrite, MSG and sand are just some of
the ingredients of fast food meals which are unbelievably
harmful to a persons health.
The bright side is that there are fast food chains which ac
tually promote a healthy way of living. Subway is cur
rently the biggest fast food chain in the world and serves
fresh sandwiches and salads. It rose to fame, when a reg
ular client, Jared Fogle (who now is the chains poster)
lost 245 pounds in a year, after eating 2 subway sand
wiches and walking every day. People loved Subway
from the very first moment and due to popular demand,
got it to the number 1 at the Forbes magazine list of the
most successful fast food chains all over the world. It is
expected. After all, Mc Donalds the last number 1, ad
mitted having used pig fat and colon bacillus on its meals,
which are extremely harmful and may lead to serious
health problems. Other chains, such as KFC were found
to use mutated chicken on their food, which can lead to
very severe situations, such as cancer.
poos and hair treatments in the world will not be ef
fective in maintaining the color and longevity of your
hair. So if you want a healthy crown, glossy hair,
start taking a hard look at what you eat, when you
eat and how you eat. The way we eat our welfare
and reflected effects on the health of our hair. Like
the rest of the body, hair healthy, shiny depends on
a good diet to ensure it provides all the nutrients
necessary for sustained growth and health. Yes that
is correct but I went with a simpler answer.
Is brushing your hair healthy for your hair?
Brushing is a daily routine that we should all do. It
gets rid of tangles and smooth out the hair follicles.
However, brushing when hair is wet is no good as
hair when wet is more likely to break as it is fragile.
Also, brushing too much can cause hair to break as
well, you want to start off by buying a brush that is
suitable for your hair type. And only brushing with
at least 20 strokes a day.
Types of brushes for hair:
If you have thin, straight long hair, youll want to use
a brush with bristles all around it, as this gives vol
If you have curly thin hair, a comb is the solution, as
it just detangles your hair without leaving it frizzy.
The straight truth about Diet for healthy hair
Eating certain nutrient rich foods in your diet for
healthy hair can make a difference in the quality of
your hair. Although it may take a few months in
order to see a noticeable difference in your hair, it
will definitely show when youve changed your diet
to include these hairhealthy foods. Although there
are many factors that determine the quality of your
hair, changing your diet is one of the easier things
you can do.
Diet for Healthy Hair FOODS WITH OMEGA 3 FATTY
Foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids are extremely ben
eficial for your hair. Fatty acids are something that
our bodies cant produce, yet we desperately need
them in order to grow hair. The oils on our scalp and
the skin cells that make up the scalp need them in
order to stay hydrated. Fish is a great way to get
omega 3 fatty acids in your diet. Salmon, halibut,
shrimp, mackerel, herring, trout and scallops are all
great choices. Fish also contain protein and vitamin
D which make the hair stronger. Other foods that
contain these necessary fatty acids are walnuts,
ground flax seeds, soybeans and tofu.
Iron is very important to the hair follicles in that it
carries oxygen to them in order for them to stay
healthy and continue to grow hair. Someone with
anemia, which is the lack of enough iron in the diet,
may experience hair loss, especially in women. Eggs
are a great source of iron. Foods that contain a
healthy amount of iron are chicken, turkey, pork, red
meat and fish.
Lentils, beans, soybeans and chick peas are all great
iron rich super foods as well. They also contain other
great vitamins and minerals such as biotin, protein
and zinc. Spinach and leafy greens are a great source
of iron, too. Spinach also brings other great health
benefits with is such as vitamin C and foliate. Other
foods that are rich in iron are dried fruits such as
raisins and prunes, artichokes, liver and grains.
How can you keep your hair healthy when you
straighten it
Use lots of conditioner and keep it in for five min
utes. Also, you can use products like certain serums
that help your hair not to fry while straightening it.
They are usually sold at hair salons.
Is it healthy to wash your hair every day?
To answer this question, no its not healthy to wash
your hair every day. The natural oils that your head
excretes helps to coat your hair and sinks in through
the many layers of your hair strands to keep it
healthy and strong. However, this doesnt mean
that you should stop washing it altogether! Washing
it every other day is good for people with fine hair.
However if you have thick full hair you can go two
or even three days between washings.
A couple of suggestions in trying to
promote healthy hair.
Lets just say that this would be your
normal week for washing and taking
care of your hair:
On day one you would wash your
hair and style however you like.
Day two you would probably put
part of it in a clip or ponytail of some
Day three, by now you probably
need to pull all of it back into a pony
tail. Just make sure that at the begin
ning and ending of each day without
washing you brush gently from root
to ends of your hair to help the oils coat well.
On day four you can go ahead and wash and start
the cycle over again.
I only suggest this cycle for people with nice full
thick hair and for those of you with this nice full thick
hair that dont sweat too much. As for those that
have finer thinner hair, its ok to go ahead and wash
every other day. Just be sure to use a shampoo and
conditioner that are made to moisturize your hair.
Healthy oils for hair
Castor oil
Olive oil
Coconut oil
Tips for healthy hair
Eat healthy food
Drink lots of water every day
Get regular trims
Dont dye it
Dont blow it dry a lot
Top 10 Foods for Healthy Hair
1. Salmon
Besides being rich in protein and vitamin D (both are
key to strong hair) the omega3 fatty acids found in
this tasty coldwater fish are the true superstar. Your
body cant make those fatty acids, which your body
needs to grow hair. About 3% of the hair shaft is
make up of these fatty acids. Omega3s are also
found in cell membranes in the skin of your scalp,
and in the natural oils that keep your scalp and hair
Other options: If salmon doesnt thrill you, you can
also get essential fatty acids from fish like herring,
sardines, trout, and mackerel, as well as avocado,
pumpkin seeds, and walnuts (see below for more
wonderful things about walnuts.)
2. Walnuts
These are the only type of nut that have a significant
amount of omega3 fatty acids. Theyre also rich in
biotin and vitamin E, which helps protect your cells
from DNA damage. Since your hair rarely gets much
shielding from the sun, this is especially great. Too
little biotin can lead to hair loss. Walnuts also have
copper, a mineral that helps keep your natural hair
color rich and lustrous, Fishman says.
Other options: Try using walnut oil in your salad
dressing or stirfry instead of canola or safflower,
Fishman says.
3. Oysters
Oysters are rich in zinc, a lack of which can lead to
hair loss (even in your eyelashes), as well as a dry,
flaky scalp. Three ounces has a whopping 493% of
your daily value. You can get some zinc through for
tified cereals and whole grain breads, but oysters
can boast a good level of protein too. Remember,
hair is about 97% protein. Without enough protein,
your body cant replace the hairs that you naturally
shed every day and what you do make can be dry,
brittle, or weak.
Other options: Get your fill of zinc with nuts, beef,
and eggs.
4. Sweet Potatoes
Sweet potatoes are a great source of the antioxi
dant beta carotene, which your body turns into vi
tamin A. Basically, every cell of the body cannot
function without enough A, Fishman says. It also
helps protect and produce the oils that sustain your
scalp, and being low on vitamin A can even leave you
with itchy, irksome dandruff.
Other options: Carrots, cantaloupe, mangoes,
pumpkin, and apricots are all good sources of beta
5. Eggs
A great source of protein, eggs are loaded with four
key minerals: zinc, selenium, sulfur, and iron. Iron is
especially important, because it helps cells carry oxy
gen to the hair follicles, and too little iron (anemia)
is a major cause of hair loss, particularly in women.
Other options: You can also boost your iron stores
with animal sources, including chicken, fish, pork,
and beef.
6. Spinach
The iron, beta carotene, foliate, and vitamin C in
spinach help keep hair follicles healthy and scalp oils
Other options: Try similarly nutrientrich dark, leafy
vegetables such as broccoli, kale, and Swiss chard.
7. Lentils
Tiny but mighty, these legumes are teeming with
protein, iron, zinc, and biotin, says Fishman, making
it a great staple for vegetarian, vegans, and meat
Other options: Toss other beans such as soybeans
(the young ones are called edamame) and kidney
beans into your soup or salad.
8. Greek yogurt
Cruise the dairy aisle for lowfat options such as
Greek yogurt, which is high in hairfriendly protein,
vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid an ingredient youll
often see on hair care product labels), and vitamin
D. Emerging research links vitamin D and hair follicle
health, but exactly how that works isnt clear, Fish
man says.
Other options: Cottage cheese, lowfat cheese, and
skim milk also fit the bill.
9. Blueberries
Exotic super fruits may come and go but when it
comes to vitamin C, Its hard to top this nutrient su
perhero, Drayer says. C is critical for circulation to
the scalp and supports the tiny blood vessels that
feed the follicles. Too little C in your diet can lead to
hair breakage.
Other options: Kiwis, sweet potatoes, tomatoes,
and strawberries.
10. Poultry
This everyday entree is extraordinary when it comes
to protein, as well as hairhealthy zinc, iron, and B vi
tamins to keep strands strong and plentiful. Because
hair is nearly all protein, foods rich in protein are lit
erally giving you the building blocks for hair, Drayer
Other options: Lean cuts of beef are another good
source of lean protein.
fact, there is a growing field of health care known as Music Therapy, which
uses music as a healing process. More specifically, Music Therapy is an estab
lished health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relation
ship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals.
After assessing the strengths and needs of each client, the qualified music
therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving
to, and/or listening to music.
Music therapy interventions can be designed to serve many different pur
poses. To begin with, they can alleviate pain for people coping with cancer.
For instance, music therapy has been shown to reduce anxiety in patients re
ceiving radiation therapy, as well as ease nausea and vomiting resulting from
highdose chemotherapy. Secondly, it can relieve depression and enhance the
ability of expression. Playing an instrument, allows depressed people to ex
press themselves nonverbally when they cant easily talk about how they feel.
Listening to soothing music helps others relax so theyre better able to let go
of feelings that are troubling. Still others may find that sharing a musical ex
perience with a therapistplaying or listeninghelps them feel more com
fortable discussing their problems and feelings.
The benefits of Music Therapy in practice
For visually impaired children, music therapy works not only to strengthen the
sense of sound and hearing but also to promote artistic expression in a child
who otherwise misses out on artistic expression through visual display. Using
music as a colorful palate, will provide the visually impaired child with a way
in which to express themselves and share the world as they see it without vi
sion. Specifically, children with visual impairment, often, will attach specific
sounds to specific objects they can not see. High tones may represent the
sound of birds and insects while low pitched tones may represent vehicles
and trucks passing the distance.
Furthermore, healing music protects the heart rate and breathing. Thats be
cause the heart rate can be altered by the changes music can bring and may
lead to slower heart rate and breathing. This is a primary reason why music
can help counteract or prevent the damaging effects of chronic stress, greatly
promoting relaxation. A study of 10 healthy adults in their midthirties showed
that their blood flowed 26 percent more easily when they were listening to
music they defined as joyful, an increase in blood flow similar to aerobic ac
tivity. Of course, listening to music cant replace a workout, but appears to
be good for the heart.
The most severe diseases mostly concern neurological issues. Many neuro
logical clinics use music as a therapy because of the importance of musics
benefits. Specifically, Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) is a research based ap
proach. NMT focuses on using music to help train functional skills and build
pathways in the brain for better cognitive skills, communication and coordi
nated motor movements. For example using a variety of musical instruments
can train motor coordination as well as movement to music to help develop
coordination and body awareness, can be a strong weapon against Alzheimer.
Additionally using Therapeutic Singing techniques and Rhythmic Speech Cue
ing can help maintain vocal quality to help clients speak more clearly and in
an audible volume. That is useful for Parkinsons disease. Results have been
shown to drastically improve clients everyday lives and functionality in soci
Cognitive skills training includes sustained attention, multitasking, decision
making, planning and strategizing. Music therapy interventions are created
to practice and train cognitive skills through interactive music making experi
ences. In addition, when speech is lost due to brain damage, often the ability
to sing is still present. Experts use techniques that can help clients regain short
functional phrases through singing the phrases. Rhythmic Speech Cueing and
adapted melodic intonation therapy can help clients initiate words and
phrases that they cannot access otherwise.
Down Syndrome & Music
Music Therapy also has a positive effect on young people. Listening to music
for enjoyment is very beneficial but active participation is even better. For chil
dren and adolescents with cerebral palsy, playing music may be an effective
way to stimulate speech development and communication skills, express emo
tions, develop a sense of rhythm and provide opportunity for physical, cogni
tive and motor development whilst creating an environment for socialisation
and fun. So easy access to musical instruments may provide an outlet that en
courages children to use music to deal with emotional issues, especially when
they are unable to express them through speech. Where words fail, music
may be a medium through which to explore ones inner world and experi
ences. Often people with developmental delays and learning disabilities such
as Downs syndrome will respond to music. Even Plato supported of music in
tuition as he said.I would teach children music, physicals and philosophy; but
most importantly music, for the patterns in music and all the arts are the keys
to learning. The easy, nonchallenging way in which pentatonic instruments
can be played offers opportunities for response and expression to children
and adults with such developmental delays.
Music vs Alzheimer
For people with Alzheimers disease and dementia, the bodys functions de
generate as the brains functions deteriorate. Among the most affected are
the five senses, but the sense of hearing is usually the first to go. Before hear
ing finally shuts down, music therapy can be a valuable therapeutic tool to
promote interactive communication. In addition, sound healing is assumed to
be effective because it reduces agitation by altering how patients perceive
noise. It can help patients with AD interpret his or her environment, which
may lessen any fear or agitation. For example, the therapist can make noises
seem familiar and buffer extraneous noises that frighten patients with AD. By
this way it can provide a way for patients with AD to communicate and inter
act with others. Although used as a therapeutic tool, interactive communica
tion in this case through music therapy is sometimes possible. Improvement
in speech fluency and content has also been noted. Music therapy for
Alzheimers patients increases brain chemicals such as melatonin, which helps
to control moods. Reduced aggression levels and better sleep patterns are
added benefits of music therapy for Alzheimers. People with Alzheimers dis
ease often show aggression. Music therapy can help eliminate the tendency
to act out. Last but not least, it can reduce the desire of the patient to wan
With all these benefits that music can carry, it is no surprise that music therapy
is growing in popularity. Many hospitals are using it for pain management and
its promising results on patients are definitely encouraging its further devel
opment and use.
www.stress.about/musictherapy benefits
these drugs. I have never experimented with steroids and do not endorse their usage
but this unbiased and researched report is intended to provide you with objective in
formation of what these drugs are and what they can and cannot do.
What are steroids?
Steroids, sometimes referred to as roids or juice are the same as, or similar to, cer
tain hormones in the body. The body produces steroids naturally to support such func
tions as fighting stress and promoting growth and development. But some people use
steroid pills, gels, creams, or injections because they think steroids can improve their
sports performance or the way they look.
There are two kinds of steroids, anabolic and corticosteroids.
Anabolic steroids are a synthetic copy of the hormone testosterone. They have been
the subject of much debate over the last few decades as well as misinformation. Ath
letes, especially bodybuilders, may feel lured towards them as these drugs do increase
muscle size, strength, and stamina.
Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes steroid hormones naturally pro
duced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates and analogues of these hormones that are
synthesized in laboratories. They are involved in a wide range of physiological
processes, including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflamma
tion, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and be
Why do doctors prescribe steroids?
Doctors prescribe anabolic steroids to treat certain specific medical conditions. For ex
ample, they may be used to treat the muscle wasting seen in AIDS. Steroids may also
be used to treat delayed puberty or loss of testicular function. It is also vital to mention
that doctors are not allowed to prescribe steroids to enhance a persons athletic per
What are the myths of Steroid Usage?
The first thing that we need to understand is that steroids are drugs. Even Tylenol
and Aspirin can cause serious problems if you take them in large quantities. All drugs
when misused and abused have the potential to kill; its not only steroids. However,
since taking steroids is against the law, issues of product purity and authenticity as
well as inaccurate information surrounding their usage add serious risks to steroid
Another misconception about steroids is that they are easily obtained. As far as ac
cessibility, the truth is that they are illegal substances without a medical prescription,
so your accessibility will be through the black market (good luck as far as quality).
In addition, if you get caught in their possession without a prescription you may face
up to 5 years in a federal prison.
On the issue of variety, there are many different types of steroid out there. There
are injectable steroids and oral steroids. The injectable kind are generally more an
drogenic (provide male characteristics like hair growth and aggression) in nature
and less damaging to organs like the liver. The oral versions are more anabolic in
nature and cause more side effects than their injectable brothers as they have to
be processed by the liver. Different steroids have different properties so there are
some that have more tendencies to build muscle mass while others have a tendency
to increase strength. As their properties vary, so do their side effects. Usually the
stronger the steroid (especially if oral), the more side effects you can expect.
Since people know the dangers of steroids, why do they keep using them?
A lot of people tell themselves theyll only use steroids for a season or a school year.
Unfortunately, steroids can be addictive, making it hard to stop taking them. And once
users stop taking steroids, they can have withdrawal symptoms including loss of ap
petite, fatigue, restlessness, insomnia, mood swings, and depression. But most of the
times, people just dont want to quit using them. They adore their results on their out
side appearance and cannot let go. Usually, when they realise their mistake they have
gone too far, their organisation is in need of the drugs and they become unable (both
physically and mentally) to separate themselves from them.
What are the psychological effects of steroids?
Based on the fact that steroids give you all of these good effects that bodybuilders con
stantly look for, it is no surprise that they cause a psychological dependence. Think
about it. If you have been taking them for the past 8 weeks, assuming good diet and
training, chances are that you got very big and strong quick. You feel unstoppable after
the 8 weeks of use. Suddenly you taper them off, up until you completely stop their
use. A week later after cessation of use you notice that you are not getting good pumps,
that your strength is diminishing regardless of your best effort and that your muscle
mass is shrinking! Add to that the fact that for the first few weeks after cessation of
use you will feel depressed due to low testosterone levels and it is no wonder that there
are people out there that never get off from them.
What can actually happen:
Men who take anabolic steroids may:
Develop breasts
Get painful erections
Have their testicles shrink
Have decreased sperm count
Become infertile
Become impotent
Women who take anabolic steroids may:
Grow excessive face and body hair
Have their voices deepen
Experience menstrual irregularities
Have an enlarged clitoris
Have reduced breast size
Have a masculinized female fetus
Both men and women who take anabolic steroids may:
Get acne
Have an oily scalp and skin
Get yellowing of the skin (jaundice)
Become bald
Have tendon rupture
Have heart attacks
Have an enlarged heart
Develop significant risk of liver disease and liver cancer
Have high levels of bad cholesterol
Have mood swings
Fly into rages
Suffer delusions
Teens who take anabolic steroids may:
Have short height due to arrested bone growth
Girls may suffer longterm masculinisation
Is there really a good side of steroids?
Steroids do increase size and strength. In fact, they do so very signif
icantly. In addition to gains in strength and muscle mass they also
seem to provide you with more energy and aggressiveness, things
that are conducive to good workouts (but not so in interpersonal re
lationships). Depending on the steroid used, you may also get cell vo
luminizing effects that promote a bigger pump. Aside from even just
the legal risks of steroids, the good side comes at a high price.
In conclusion, I personally believe that the drawbacks of steroids def
initely outweigh whatever good side they have. Every person is dif
ferent in order to maintain our diversity as a kind. If all people idolized
someone and began trying to look like him, that would be prevarica
tion to our nature.
personated sleep with a god. In Greek mythology, Hypnos was the person
ification of sleep; the Roman equivalent was known as Somnus. Hypnos
lives in a cave, whose mansion does not see the rising, nor the setting sun,
nor does it see the lightsome noon. At the entrance were a number of
poppies and other hypnotic plants. His dwelling had no door or gate so that
he might not be awakened by the creaking of hinges. The river, Lethe, in
the underworld, is known as the river of forgetfulness and it flows through
his cave. Hypnos lived next to his twin brother, Thnatos in the underworld.
Hypnos mother was Nyx (, night), the deity of Night, and his fa
ther was Erebus, the deity of Darkness. Nyx was a dreadful goddess and
even Zeus feared entering her realm.His wife, Pasithea, was one of the
youngest of the Graces and was promised to him by Hera, who is the god
dess of marriage and birth. Pasithea is the deity of hallucination or relax
Hypnos three sons known as the Oneiroi, which is Greek for dreams.
Morpheus is the Winged God of Dreams and can take human form in
dreams. Phobetor is the personification of nightmares and created scary
dreams, he could take the shape of any animal such as bears or tigers. Phan
tasus was known for creating fake dreams and dreams full of illusion. Mor
pheus, Phobetor and Phantasos appeared in the dreams of kings. The
Oneiroi lived at the shores of the Ocean in the West, in a cave. They had
two gates with which to send people dreams. One was made of ivory and
the other was made from buckhorn. However, before they could do their
work and send out the dreams, first their father, Hypnos, had to put the
people to sleep. Hypnos appears in numerous works of art, most of which
are vases. An example of one vase that Hypnos is featured on is called Ari
adne Abandoned by Theseus, which is part of the Museum of Fine Arts in
Bostons collection. In this vase, Hypnos is shown as a winged god dripping
Lethean water upon the head of Ariadne as shesleeps.One of the most fa
mous works of art featuring Hypnos is a bronze head of Hypnos himself.
This bronze head has wings sprouting from his temples and the hair is elab
orately arranged, some tying in knots and some hanging freely from his
head. Additionally the English word hypnosis is derived from his name,
referring to the fact that when hypnotized, a person is put into a sleeplike
state (hypnos sleep + osis condition).
Why do we need sleep?
It is well known that when you sleep a lot you can perform better in day
time. Scientists are making researches about this subject till nowadays and
the results are always the same.
More specifically, when a person sleeps, the body functions minimize
their activity, metabolism slows down the muscular system minimizes
movements while reducing and communicating with the environmental
stimuli. The brain operating in a loosening pace and that helps the person
to learn and remember more things during the day. In contrast with people
who sleep well at night, those who have lack of sleep, feature mind prob
lems and they cant focus well on what they do.
Furthermore, a good night sleep can extend the life expectancy of a per
son. On the other hand, lack of sleep could cause serious health problems.
For example, women that sleep less than six hours a day have 62% more
possibilities to develop breast cancer. Also, children who sleep for many
hours per day tend to be taller than those that dont get enough sleep.

So, its easy to understand that giving ourselves enough sleep is very im
portant in order to be healthy .But how many hours of sleep are enough
for good health?
How much sleep do we need?
Individuals vary greatly in their need for sleep; there are no established
criteria to determine exactly how much sleep a person needs. Eight hours
or more may be necessary for some people, while others may consider this
to be too much sleep. Scientists suggest that the most average adults need
about seven to nine hours of sleep per night. New born babies, by contrast,
sleep from sixteen to eighteen hours a day, while preschool aged children
usually sleep between ten to twelve hours each night. Older, school aged
children and adolescents need at least nine hours of sleep every night. But
sleeping time is not only affected by age. Women in the first trimester of
pregnancy for example have been observed to need a few more hours of
sleep than usual.
Another factor apart from quantity is sleeping quality. If sleep is fre
quently interrupted or cut short, sleep is not quality at all. So, although
some people claim to need more hours of sleeping, they actually need a
quality and calm sleep, as the quality of sleep directly affects the quality of
ones life when awake.
threatening condition and although they may be already showing symp
toms of the disease they dont know it or wont admit it.Research done
in numerous universities in the Unites States has shown that young
women between the ages of 15 to 24 are at bigger risk developing an
eating disorder .
The saddest conclusion of the research is that the mortality rates that
relates to Anorexia victims are 12 times higher than all other life threaten
ing diseases.Promoting the slogan Starve for perfection, the media and
many internet sites advise young women to eat less, consume a lot of cof
fee, smoke and use diet supplements in order to fulfill their dream of a
perfect body.
Can we say that this is modernity that girls at such a tender age, influ
enced so much by the opinion of others concerning their image, put their
lives at risk without full knowledge of the seriousness of their condition?
The reasons of developing Anorexia nervosa are far too complicated
,while the disorder is affected by biological, genetic, personality, family,
and economy related factors.Individuals with Anorexia dont have full
knowledge of the seriousness of their condition.
They usually dont realize that they are facing a psychological problem,
and almost always believe they are overweight. That is why they never
ask for help.This makes it very crucial that the immediate family should be
informed of the symptoms so they can recognize it in the early stages, in
order to seek help from specialists on this field.
The 5 signs that ring a bell for a possible eating disorder are the following:
The young person aims thoroughly at weight loss The young person expresses intense criticism on her/his body shape
and weight status
The person shows signs of social isolation and depression symptoms.
The women develop problems or show complete loss of their men
strual flow.
The person force vomits ,uses laxatives or excess workout in order
to burn calories of the food consumed.
On the other hand there are many forms of the disease that dont
meet the standard criteria for example a person can show the three
first symptoms,mentioned above without the menstrual abnormalities,
or the person could show all the symptoms but her weight would still
meet the normal levels although trying anxiously to lose more.
In every case all individuals whether they are diagnosed with anorexia
or not ,are dealing with the same amount of psychological stress.The es
tablished cases of teenagers suffering from eating disorders reach a per
centage of 0.51 % ,but researches believe that the real amount of
adolescents suffering could reach an estimate of 80%, a frightening num
In conclusion the early diagnose of this modern disorder is very im
portant for the person involved since fighting the disease in the early
stages allows a much better prognosis for the patient. So if you notice a close friend or member of family that might show
signs of anorexia you must seek help immediately by getting more infor
mation from therapists, dieticians or other specialists who can diagnose
and suggest treatment .
a video game and which are its effects? Good or Bad? Is it a new environment
on a par with music and fitness, a valuable educational tool, a form of harmless
fun or a digital menace that turns children into cruel and tardy zombies. Well,
video gaming is apparently all these things, depending on whom you ask.
Just getting by in a foreign land without some grasp of the local language is
difficult, says Mark Prensky. Older people have had to learn to use technologies
such as the Internet and mobile phones. Yet, relatively few of them have embra
ced video games. Its just a generational divide, says Gerhard Florin, the Euro
pean boss of Electronic Arts, the worlds biggest games publisher. Its people
not knowing what they are talking about, because they have never played a
game, accusing millions of gamers of being zombies or violent.
However, arent critics right to worry that gaming might make people violent
and that it has negative effects on the health of the player? Hardly a week goes
by in which a game is not blamed for inspiring someone to commit a violent
crime and more and more clinics for addicted people or gamers with health pro
blems are being established all over the world.
Undoubtedly, video gaming has a lot of negative effects on the players
health. More than half the number of active gamers have shown pain in the
hands, wrists, back or neck, have mentioned vision problems and repetitive
strain injuries. Even worse, psychological problems, stiffness, chaffed hands,
sleep deprivation and increased phenomena of obesity are occurring all over the
planet, triggering the Global concern and provoking prevention and treatment
On the other hand, unexpectedly, surveys of studies into games and violence
have produced inconclusive results, notes Dmitri Williams, who specializes in stu
dying the social impact of media at the University of Illinois. And, in a paper on
the subject published in June in Communication Monographs, he notes that
such research has serious shortcomings. Another problem, says Mr. Williams, is
that it is meaningless to generalize about game play when there are thousands
of games in dozens of genres.
In his paper, Mr. Williams describes the first study, which he carried out with
Marko Skoric of the University of Michigan. The study concentrated on a mas
sively multiplayer online roleplaying game called Asherons Call 2.It is sub
stantially more violent than the average video game and should have more
effect, given the highly repetitive nature of the violence, the researchers noted.
Two groups of subjects were recruited, none of whom had played roleplaying
games before. One group then played the game for a month, for an average of
two hours per day. Consequently, game players, it turned out, were no more ag
gressive than the controlled group. Whether the participants had played games
before, the number of hours spent on gaming, and whether they liked violent
movies or not, made no difference. The researchers noted, however, that more
research is still needed to assess the impact of other genres, such as shootem
ups or the urban violence of Grand Theft Auto. All games are different, and only when more detailed studies have been carried out will it be possible to generalize
about the impact of gaming.
To get things from a different perspective, games are becoming quite popular
in many fields of business and life, including corporate training. In Got Game,
a book published by Harvard Business School Press, John Beck and Mitchell
Wade, two management consultants, argue that gaming provides excellent trai
ning for a career in business. Gamers, they write, are skilled at multitasking,
good at making decisions and evaluating risks, flexible in the face of change and
inclined to treat setbacks as chances to try again. Firms that understand and ex
ploit this, they argue, can gain a competitive advantage.
Besides, even games with no educational intent, require players to learn a
great deal. Games are complex, adaptive and force players to make a huge num
ber of decisions. Gamers ought to construct hypotheses about the ingame
world, learn its rules through trial and error, solve problems and puzzles, develop
strategies and get help from other players via Internet when they get stuck. The
problemsolving mechanic that underlies most games is like the 90% of an ice
berg below the waterline invisible to nongamers. It is the pleasure of this pro
blemsolving, not the superficial violence which often accompanies it, that can
make gaming such a satisfying experience.
So, games are considered Good or Bad? Actually they are neither, like books,
films, the Internet or any other medium. All can be used to depict sex and vio
lence, or to educate and inform. Indeed the inclusion of violent and sexual con
tent in games is arguably a sign of the maturity of the media, as games become
more like films. In a manner similar to Rock & Roll outbreak during the 1950s,
now its the era of video gaming outbreak, until something new comes up and
gaming is regarded as just another medium.
Obama names video games as health concern in speech to A.M.A. 15 June 2009.
Browne KD Hamilton Giachritsis 2005 The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public health approach.
Chaput JP, Visby T, Nyby S, Klingenberg B, Gregersen NT, Tremblay A, Astrup A, Sjodin A June 2011 Video Gaming increases food
intake in adolescents: a randomized crossover study.
Desai RA, Krishnan-Sarin S, Cavallo D, Potenza MN December 2010 Video Gaming among high school students: Health correlates,
gender differences and problematic gaming. Cochran Lee Teens say: Video Game made them do it ABC News 15-08-2009.
Rebecca Leung Can a Video Game Lead to Murder? CBS News 19-06-2005.
Do Video Games influence Violent Behavior? by Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center 24-08-2011.
Craig A. Anderson October 2003 Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts and Unanswered Questions.
Effects of Video Games on Aggression. Thomas A. Kooijmans - Rochester Institute of Technology.
Dmitri Williams , Marko Skoric research on Asherons Call 2 Video Game Internet Fantasy Violence: A Test of Aggression in an
Online Game.
John C. Beck , Mitchell Wade Got Game: How the Gamer Generation is Resharping Business Forever book.

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