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Physics data booklet

First assessment 2016


4082
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Physics data booklet
Contents
Fundamental constants 1
Metric (SI) multipliers 2
Unit conversions 3
Electrical circuit symbols 4
EquationsCore 5
EquationsAHL 8
EquationsOptions 10
Physics data booklet
Fundamental constants
Quantity Symbol Approximate value
Acceleration of free fall (Earths surface) g 9.81 m s
2

Gravitational constant G 6.67 10
11
N m
2
kg
2

Avogadros constant
A
6.02 10
23
mol
1

Gas constant R 8.31 J K
1
mol
1

Boltzmanns constant
B
1.38 10
23
J K
1

StefanBoltzmann constant 5.67 10
8
W m
2
K
4

Coulomb constant k 8.99 10
9
N m
2
C
2

Permittivity of free space
0
8.85 10
12
C
2
N
1
m
2

Permeability of free space
0
4 10
7
T m A
1

Speed of light in vacuum c 3.00 10
8
m s
1

Plancks constant h 6.63 10
34
J s
Elementary charge e 1.60 10
19
C
Electron rest mass
e
9.110 10
31
kg = 0.000549 u = 0.511 MeV c
2

Proton rest mass
p
1.673 10
27
kg =1.007276 u = 938 MeV c
2

Neutron rest mass
n
1.675 10
27
kg =1.008665 u = 940 MeV c
2

Unified atomic mass unit u 1.661 10
27
kg = 931.5 MeV c
2

Solar constant S 1.36 10
3
W m
2
Fermi radius
0
1.20 10
15
m

1
Physics data booklet
Metric (SI) multipliers
Prefix Abbreviati on Value
peta P 10
15

tera T 10
12

giga G 10
9

mega M 10
6

kilo k 10
3

hecto h 10
2

deca da 10
1

deci d 10
1

centi c 10
2

milli m 10
3

micro 10
6

nano n 10
9

pico p 10
12

femto f 10
15


2
Physics data booklet
Unit conversions
1 radian (rad)
180


Temperature (K) = temperature (C) + 273
1 light year (ly) = 9.46 10
15
m
1 parsec (pc) = 3.26 ly
1 astronomical unit (AU) =1.50 10
11
m
1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 3.60 10
6
J
hc = 1.99 10
-25
J m = 1.24 10
6
eV m


3
Physics data booklet
Electrical circuit symbols
cell

battery

ac supply

switch

voltmeter

ammeter

resistor

variable resistor

lamp

potentiometer

light-dependent resistor
(LDR)

thermistor

transformer


heating element

diode

capacitor



V A
4
Physics data booklet
EquationsCore
Note: All equations relate to the magnitude of the quantities only. Vector notation has not been used.
Sub-topic 1.2 Uncertainti es and errors Sub-topic 1.3 Vectors and scalars
If: =
then: = +
If: =


then:


If: =


then:

H
= cos

V
= sin

Sub-topic 2.1 Motion Sub-topic 2.2 Forces
= +
= +
1
2

2

2
=
2
+2
=
( + )
2

=

f

s

f
=
d

Sub-topic 2.3 Work, energy and power Sub-topic 2.4 Momentum and impulse
=

K
=
1
2

2

P
=
1
2

2

P
=
power =
Eficiency =
useful work out
total work in

=
useful power out
total power in

=
=

K
=

2
2

Impulse = =

5
Physics data booklet
Sub-topic 3.1 Thermal concepts Sub-topic 3.2 Modelling a gas
=
=
=

A

=

K
=
3
2

B
=
3
2

A


Sub-topic 4.1 Oscillations Sub-topic 4.4 Wave behaviour
=
1

2
=
sin
2
sin
1
=

2

1

=


Constructive interference: path difference =
Destructive interference: path difference = ( +
1
2
)
Sub-topic 4.2 Travelli ng waves
=
Sub-topic 4.3 Wave characteristics

2


2

=
0

2


Sub-topic 5.1 Electric fiel ds Sub-topic 5.2 Heating effect of electric currents
=

2

=
1
4
0

=


=
Kirchhoffs circuit laws:
= 0 (loop)
= 0 (junction)
=


= =
2
=

2

total
=
1
+
2
+
1

total
=
1

1
+
1

2
+
=


Sub-topic 5.3 Electric cel ls Sub-topic 5.4 Magnetic effects of electric currents
= ( + ) = sin
= sin

6
Physics data booklet
Sub-topic 6.1 Circul ar motion Sub-topic 6.2 Newtons law of gravitati on
=
=

2

=
4
2

2

=

2

=
2

=

2

=

2


Sub-topic 7.1 Discrete energy and radi oacti vity Sub-topic 7.2 Nuclear reactions
=
=


=
2

Sub-topic 7.3 The structure of matter

Charge Quarks Baryon
number
2
3

u c t
1
3

1
3

d s b
1
3

All quarks have a strangeness number of 0
except the strange quark that has a
strangeness number of 1


Charge Leptons
1 e
0 e


All leptons have a lepton number
of 1 and antileptons have a lepton
number of 1



Gravi tati onal Weak Electromagnetic Strong
Particles experiencing All Quarks, leptons Charged Quarks, gluons
Particles mediati ng Graviton W
+
, W

, Z
0
Gluons


Sub-topic 8.1 Energy sources Sub-topic 8.2 Thermal energy transfer
Power =
energy
time

Power =
1
2

3

=
4

max
(metres) =
2.90 10
3
(kelvin)

=
power


albedo =
total scattered power
total incident power


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Physics data booklet
EquationsAHL
Sub-topic 9.1 Simple harmonic moti on Sub-topic 9.2 Single-slit diffracti on
=
2


=
2

=
0
sin ; =
0
cos
=
0
cos ; =
0
sin
= (
0
2

2
)

K
=
1
2

2
(
0
2

2
)

T
=
1
2

2

0
2

Pendulum: = 2


Massspring: = 2


Sub-topic 9.3 Interference
= sin
Constructive interference: 2 = (+
1
2
)
Destructive interference: 2 =
Sub-topic 9.4 Resoluti on Sub-topic 9.5 Doppler effect
= 1.22

=
Moving source:

=


s

Moving observer:



Sub-topic 10.1 Descri bing fields Sub-topic 10.2 Fi elds at work
=



P
=


P
=
e
=

1

G
=

2

E
=

esc
=

2

orbit
=


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Physics data booklet
Sub-topic 11.1 Electromagnetic i nduction Sub-topic 11.3 Capacitance
= cos
=


=
=
=

parallel
=
1
+
2
+
1

series
=
1

1
+
1

2
+
=


=
1
2

2

=
=
0


=
0


=
0


Sub-topic 11.2 Power generation and
transmission

rms
=

0
2

rms
=

0
2

=

0

0
=

rms

rms

max
=
0

=
1
2

0

s
=

p

s
=

s

p


Sub-topic 12.1 The i nteraction of matter with
radiation
Sub-topic 12.2 Nuclear physics
=

max
=
=
13.6

2

=

2

() = ||
2



4



4

=
0

1/3

=
0


=
0


sin



9
Physics data booklet
EquationsOptions
Sub-topic A.1 The beginnings of relati vity Sub-topic A.2 Lorentz transformations

=
=
1

= ( ) ;

= ( )

= (

2
) ;

= (

2
)

=

1

2

=
0

=

0

)
2
(

)
2
= ()
2
()
2

Sub-topic A.3 Spacetime diagrams
= tan
1


Sub-topic A.4 Relati vistic mechanics (HL onl y) Sub-topic A.5 General rel ativi ty (HL onl y)
=
0

0
=
0

K
= ( 1)
0

2

=
0

2
=
2

2
+
0
2

4

=
K

s
=
2

2

=

0



10
Physics data booklet
Sub-topic B.1 Rigid bodies and rotational
dynamics
Sub-topic B.2 Thermodynamics
= sin
=
2

=
= 2

f
=
i
+

f
2
=
i
2
+ 2
=
i
+
1
2

2

=

K
rot
=
1
2

2

= +
=
3
2

=

5
3
= constant (for monatomic gases)
=
=
useful work done
energy input

Carnot
= 1

cold

hot

Sub-topic B.3 Fluids and fluid dynamics (HL onl y) Sub-topic B.4 Forced vibrations and resonance
(HL onl y)
=
f

f

=
0
+
f

= constant
1
2

2
+ + = constant

D
= 6
=


= 2
energy stored
energy dissipated per cycle

= 2 resonant frequency
energy stored
power loss


Sub-topic C.1 Introducti on to imaging Sub-topic C.2 Imaging instrumentation
1

=
1

+
1


=
1


=

i

o
=


=

i

near point
=

+ 1 ;
ininity
=


=

o

e

Sub-topic C.3 Fibre optics
=
1
sin

attenuation = 10 log

0

Sub-topic C.4 Medical imaging (HL onl y)

I
= 10 log

0

=
0


1
2
= ln2
=

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Physics data booklet
Sub-topic D.1 Stellar quantities Sub-topic D.2 Stellar characteristics and stellar
evol uti on
(parsec) =
1
(arcsecond)

=
4

=

4
2

max
= 2.9 10
3
m K

3.5

Sub-topic D.3 Cosmology Sub-topic D.5 Further cosmology (HL onl y)
=

0
1
=
0


1

0

=
4
3

c
=
3
2
8


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Physics data booklet