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LECTURE NOTE on G E O D E S Y

prepared by Joenil Kahar




for


Research Center for Seismology,
Volcanology, and Disaster Mitigation
at Graduate School of Environmental Studies

NAGOYA UNIVERSITY
April, 2004

- - 1 -





Preface



This lecture note is prepared for Research Center for Seismology, Volcanology, and
Disaster Mitigation, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University. At
present, combination of geodetic data and seismological data are often to use on research
on Seismology, Volcanology that is related to Disaster Mitigation. Geodetic data, which
are usually used, obtained from Global Positioning System observations, spirit leveling
which is combined with gravity measurements data. Therefore general knowledge about
geodesy for geophysicists is necessary.
This note is started by introducing the history of geodesy that is related to the
determination of the figure of the earth, scope of geodesy related to structure of the
International Association of Geodesy. Coordinate Systems in Geodesy is a basic for
positioning systems in geodesy; it is consists of earth coordinate system, geodetic
coordinate system, celestial and natural coordinate systems, geodetic datum and its
transformation, and computation of geodetic coordinate from geocentric coordinate.
Positioning in geodesy is started by introducing concept of astronomical positioning, and
System. Data processing is an important knowledge in geodesy. Least squares method as
a tool for data processing consists of least squares adjustment, least squares prediction
and adjustment in step; introducing of propagation law of variance and co-variance is
also take a part in the least square solution. The determination of the geoid as figure of
the earth is discussed in physical geodesy. Finally, this note is discussed about the
application of geodesy for geophysics.
My gratitude should be expressed to Dr. Fumi Kimata, Associate Professor at the
Research Center for Seismology, Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation at Graduate
School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, who make this lecture note
successfully prepared during my stay as Visiting Professor. My thank is also addressed
to Dr. H.Z. Abidin, Associate Professor at the Department of Geodetic Engineering, the
Institute of Technology in Bandung, Indonesia that supplied many materials on GPS, and
also to Mr. M. Irwan, a doctorate student at Nagoya University, who gave valuable
suggestions. My thank is also duo to Mr. K. Prijatna who supplied gravity anomaly data
derived from GPM98. At last but not the least, I would like to express my ssincere love
and gratitude to my wife, Etty Suharti, who gave her moral support during our stay in
Nagoya , Japan

Joenil Kahat




- - 2 -



Contents




Preface

1. Introduction
2. Coordinate Systems in Geodesy
3. Positioning
4. Least Squares Method
5. Physical Geodesy
6. Applications of Geodesy for Geophysics
- - 3 -

1. INTRODUCTION
History Figure of the Earth.
Since many centuries, the earth is the only place for everybody lives. The story of
mankind told that during very early times they only concern with the surrounding where
they lives. Interaction between a group to another group made the concern expanding and
matching, so that the first group require the knowledge about another world that belongs
to the other as well as the other group require the knowledge of the world of the first
group belongs to. Then, the interest to the knowledge about the earth as the only place
for living becomes demand for some scientist and, or philosophers.
In very early stage, the Earth was known as a flat surface and known as flat earth model.
The theory about the shape of the earth as a sphere came out from Pythagoras (around
500 BC) a famous Greek mathematician, then supported by Aristotle (384-322 BC), a
Greek philosopher. Eratosthenes (276-195 BC), an Egyptian astronomer measuring the
Earth sphere size using simple technique - as we think at present. Figure(1.1) shows
Eratosthenes technique to determine radius of the spherical earth model. He observed that
once a year the Sun at noon is directly overhead of a borehole in Aswan (Syena). At the
same time he measured shadow of a tower in Alexandria at the north of Aswan, to
determine . Because he knows the distance dS between these two places, he found the
radius R of the Earth sphere.



Figure 1.1: Erathostenes measuring technique

The unit of measure used by Eratosthenes was stadia and the distance between
Aswan and Alexandria is 5000 stadia. Nobody knows the conversion of stadia to meter

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
R
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
Aleksandria
Aswan
dS
t
b

t
b

t
b

t
b

t
b

- - 4 -
correctly, but it is about 185 meter for one stadia. By using this conversion Eratosthenes
obtained the radius of the earth 15.5% larger than the radius of the earth that is obtained
from satellite technology at present.
Poseidonius (135 50 BC), a Greek philosopher also determined Earth size using arc
measurements between Rhodes and Alexandria by result 11% too large, and then one
century later, it was about 827 AD, the Arabian caliph Abdullah al Mamun gave and
answer only about 3.6% larger [http://www.zianet.com/globalcogo/ge002.pdf].
According to Newton (1642 1727), two bodies of m
1
and m
2
attract one another
with gravitational force by magnitude F which is shown in figure 2, where gravitational
force F in dyne (= gram cm sec
-2
), G is the Newton gravitational constant 6.67 x 10
-8

dyne cm
2
gr
-2
and r
12
is the distance between those two bodies.


2
12
2 1
N
r
m Gm
F = (1.1)


Apply the equation (1.1) to any mass m in rest at the surface of that the spherical
earth of mass M. The spherical earth attracts any the mass m by magnitude F
N



2
N
R
GMm
F = (1.2)

where R is the radius of the earth. According to the Newtons Second Law,

F
N
= m a
E
(1.3)

means that the gravitational force of the earth F
N
produce the gravitational acceleration
a
N
of spherical earth model

2
N
R
GM
a =
(.1.4)

Let gravitational force of the earth F
N
attracts a unit mass with the distance from earth
center r, the equation (1.1) becomes


2
E
r
GM
F = (1.5)

F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
Figure 1.2: Illustration of Newtons Law
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
F m
1
m
2
F
r
12
Figure 1.2: Illustration of Newtons Law
- - 5 -
This equation (1.3), (1.2) and (1.3) shows that gravitational force field differs from the
gravitational acceleration field by a scale m [Vanicek & Krakiwsky, 1986, p. 75].

Daily life shows to us that the earth is a rotating body, which rotates through its
rotational axis. Angular velocity of the earth rotation is 2 rad. per day. Moritz used
= 7 292 115 x 10
-11
rad s
-1
as one of constants parameter to define Geodetic Reference
System 1980 [Moritz, 1988] The rotation of the earth through its rotational axis
produces centrifugal force F
c
that acting to mass m

p m F
2
c
= (1.6)

where p is the distance of mass m to rotational axis. This force produces centrifugal
acceleration a
f
with the same direction of the centrifugal force, that is is perpendicular to
the rotational axis of the earth, as shown figure (1.3). The magnitude of the centrifugal
acceleration a
c
is easily obtained by utilizing the Newtons Second Law as shown in eqn.
(1.6). Thus any point P will subject to gravity acceleration a
g
as resultant of gravitational
acceleration a
F
and centrifugal acceleration a
c
with direction outward of the earths center.
Distance p is maximum at the equator, so that the values of a
c
is also maximum. The
value centrifugal force F
c
is about 0.034% of the value of gravity force F
g
at the equator
as shown in Heiskanen & Moritz [1967, p. 75], Torge [1989, p. 38] and Vanicek &
Kraakiwwsky [1986, p.74]. This ratio is also can be used for the value of centrifugal
acceleration and gravity acceleration. The centrifugal acceleration is

p a
2
c
= (1.7)

This value is also the same to the value of centrifugal force acting to unit mass.


From the above discussion we know that gravity force vector is sum of gravitational
force and centrifugal force vectors and also gravity acceleration vector is sum of
gravitational and centrifugal forces vectors.
Figure 1.3:
Gravitational accelaration a
N
, and
centrifugal acceleration a
c
produce
gravity acceleration
a
c
p P
.

rotational axis
a
N

a
c
p P
.

rotational axis
a
N
a
c
p P
.

rotational axis
a
N
a
c
p P
.

rotational axis
a
N
p P
.
pp P
.
P
.
P
.

rotational axis

rotational axis
a
N
a
N

- - 6 -


c N g
F F F

+ = (1.8a)
and

c N g
a a a

+ = (1.8b)

The equation (1.8) shows that gravity force field differs from the gravity acceleration
field by a scale m .
By considering that the earth rotates through its rotational axis, one will improve the
idea about the shape of the earth. Figure of the earth becomes ellipsoidal earth that is an
ellipsoid of revolution, which is constructed by an ellipse, rotates through its semi minor
axis. Geodesists use the ellipsoid of revolution as a model of the earth as reference
surface for geodetic position. There are two parameters to define ellipsoidal earth model,
that is the equatorial radius (=a) and semi minor axis (=b) or flattening (= f). The
relation among a, b and f is shown in the eqn. (1.9). Table 1 shows some reference
ellipsoids, which their parameters were obtained the data available at around the year of
the reference ellipsoid, was defined.


a
b a
f

= (1.9)

Using idea of the ellipsoid revolution as figure of the earth is taken by assuming that
the earth is a homogenous density. As a matter of fact, it is not true. Therefore the figure
of the earth is called the geoid, a level surface that closed to mean sea level. In the box
we can see the development of ideas about of the earth started from the earth sphere, then
Earth ellipsoid then geoid.

Table 1: Parameters of some Reference Ellipsoid

Reference Ellipsoid Semi major axis a
(meters)
1/Flattening
(f
--1
)
Bessel (1841) 6377 397 299.15
Clark (1866) 6378 206 294.18
Helmert (1906) 6378 200 298.3
Hayford (1909) 6378 338 297
Krassovski (1942) 6378.245 298.3
Fischer (1960) 6378 166 298.3
Ref. Ellipsoid. 1967 6378 160 298.247
WGS 1972 6378 135 298.26
Ref. Ellipsoid. 1980 6378 137 298.257
WGS 1984 6378 137 298.257





- - 7 -






Scope of Geodesy and IAG
From the history of geodesy, which has been described briefly, we may conclude that
geodesy is a science, which has a main objective to determine the shape, and the size of
the earth included determination of gravity field. In its development the study of
geodynamic phenomena such as earth rotation, crustal movements, sea and earth tide is
also included. Studying of the shape and the size of other planets are conducted by
geodetic technique. To reach the objective, the knowledge about (1) positioning is a part
of geodesy, which should be studying and to be developed. In classical geodesy, two-
dimensional (2D) positioning consists of geodetic positioning and astronomic positioning.
For three-dimensional (3D) positioning, the 2D positioning should completed by height;
they are geodetic height, the height above ellipsoid for the geodetic positioning, and

Spherical Earth
Homogeneous and non-rotational body
Earth Ellipsoid of Revolution
Homogeneous and rotational body
Geoid
Non-homogeneous and rotational body

Spherical Earth
Homogeneous and non-rotational body
Earth Ellipsoid of Revolution
Homogeneous and rotational body
Geoid
Non-homogeneous and rotational body
- - 8 -
orthometric height, the height above the geoid, a gravity equipotential surface (is also
called a level surface), which globally is closed to mean sea surface. Therefore the
knowledge or (2) the earths gravity field study becomes important. What kind of data
and information required for positioning and the earths gravity field study? Positioning
means to determine position any point relative to a reference point. It requires distance
from the point to the reference point (direct distance with the horizontal component that
is horizontal distance and the vertical component that is vertical distance), direction,
which has two components: horizontal component and vertical component). In classical
geodesy, astronomical positioning is conducted by star observations. Parallel to
positioning, to study the earth gravity field requires gravity data at the whole of the earth
surface. Why do geodesists study the earth gravity field? The knowledge the geometry
of gravity field is needed to make possible the transformation of the geodetic
observations conducted at the earth surface, which is influenced by gravity field, into the
geodetic position.
The earth is not a static body. The earth is composed by some layers, from the core to
the outermost layer. The outmost layer, which is called the lithosphere comprising the
earth crust and upper mantle. This layer consists of some large plates, which are moving
during the time. Tectonic earthquakes is evident of the movements of the earths crust.
The dynamic of the earths interior is as shown by volcano eruptions. The dynamic
activities of the earth interior will affect deformation at the earths surface. The rotation
of the earth is irregular motion. The angular velocity of the earth affects the shape of the
earth. All are evidence that the earth is dynamic body. The phenomena of the
geodynamics problems can be studied from geodetic observations, therefore (3)
geodynamics study using geodetic data is also one of scientific activities of geodesists.
The development of science and technology, particularly space science and technology
influence geodesists activities. The use of geodetic satellite for geodetic works such as
satellite positioning, the global gravity field and geodynamic study become more
accurate and faster. Therefore (4) the use of space technology and its development
become another activity of geodesists. Thus, at present geodesists use many data and
information, which are very huge and non-homogenous data. This requires the
knowledge development about data processing, and other development of applied
mathematics and physics for geodesy. This is the activity of (5) the development of
theory and methodology in geodesy.
In relation to the structure of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), before
the General Assembly XXIII of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
(IUGG) held at Sapporo, June 3 July 11, 2003, there were 5 sections: (1) Positioning,
(2) Advance Space Technology, (3) Determination of Gravity Field, (4) General Theory
and Methodology, and (5) Geodynamics. At the General Assembly XXII in 1999 at
Birmingham, IAG Review Committee agreed to evaluate the structure of IAG and
propose a new structure at IUGG, Sapporo. The new structure of IUGG since Sapporo
2003 is [Andersen, 2004]
Commission 1: Reference Frame;
Commission 2: Gravity Field;
Commission 3: Earth Rotation and Geodynamics;
Commission 4: Positioning and Application;
Inter-Commission Committee on Planetary Geodesy (ICCPG);
- - 9 -
Inter-Commission Committee on Theory (ICCT).
The new structure seems more efficient compare to the previous structure. Section 4
at the previous structure has task to handle the development of Theory and Methodology.
In the new structure it is handled by Inter-Commission Committee by reasoning that
theory is an integrated part of the all commission. The ICC on Theory in the new
structure is the solution. As matter of fact that geodetic technique is also used to
determine the shape and size of other planets, which is called planetary geodesy. One
commission cannot handle this task only. Therefore establishment of ICC on Planetary
Geodesy in the new structure is the solution to handle the planetary geodesy problem.
Geodesy and other disciplines of earth sciences have closed relations. Studying the
earth planet is an integrated task of the disciplines of earth sciences. Therefore integration
of geodesy together with geophysics disciplines under the International Union of
Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is the solution.

































- - 10 -

2. COORDINATE SYSTEMS IN GEODESY GEODETIC DATUM
Flat Earth Coordinate System
First of all let us consider the idea that the earth is a flat surface and a point P
0
is
located at the horizontal plane (H) through at that point. If we state that coordinate of the
point P
0
consists of abscise x, and ordinate y, it is not clearly define, because there are
many coordinate systems show the same abscise and ordinate values as shown in figures
2.1 (a) and (b).

Figure 2.1: Position of P
0
on two coordinate systems

Polar coordinates of P
0
on (X,Y) system and (X,Y) system are equal,

x = r sin and y = r cos on (X,Y) system

x = r sin and y = r cos on (X,Y) system

Therefore if we want clearly define of coordinate system for P
0
we should have
another point P
1
. The direction angle from P
0
to P
1
measured clockwise from direction
axis Y(+) should be known for orientation of coordinate system, and horizontal distance
d
01
between P
0
and P
1
for scaling, see figures 2.1 (c) and (d). Point P
0
may be called as
initial point of the coordinate system, and the values of abscise x, and ordinate y show the
position P
0
from the origin O, which is exactly shown by its polar coordinate system P
(r,). Then we may introduce how to define geodetic datum in the plane geodesy,
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
(c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
(d)
(x
1
,y
1
)`
h
1
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
(c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
(d)
(x
1
,y
1
)`
h
1
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
(c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
(d)
(x
1
,y
1
)`
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
(c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
(d)
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X

r
O

r
O

r
O

r
O

r
O

P
0
(x.y)
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
ground surface ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
horizontal plane (H) horizontal plane (H)
P
0
(a) (b)
(c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
(d) (c)
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
d
01
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
.
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1

01
//Y
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
X
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
.

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O

Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
Y
r
P
0
(x,y)
O
P
1
P
1

01
//Y

01

01
//Y
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
ground surface ground surface
horizontal plane (H)
P
0
horizontal plane (H) horizontal plane (H)
P
0
P
1
d
01
P
1
d
01
P
1
d
01
d
01
d
01
(d)
(x
1
,y
1
)`
h
1
- - 11 -
1. define a horizontal plane in the field by defining vertical distance of chosen
initial point to the plane (may be defined as zero);
2. define direction angle from initial point to a certain point in the field (may be
defined as 0
o
or 90
o
), if we want direction Y(+) is approximately to the north, then
the direction angle may be found by compass.
3. define coordinate value for the initial point;
4. measure the distance between the initial point to above mentioned certain point.

Plane geodesy only be used for a small area, because we might assume gravity
direction be parallel. Therefore a horizontal plane which perpendicular to gravity
direction in the small area, can be used as reference surface.
The value of P
0
(x,y) is the two dimensional (2D) coordinate of point P
0
which is
located at the horizontal (H) as reference surface on the horizontal plane, or the height
above the reference surface, which is denoted by h, is zero. In the three dimensional (3D)
coordinate system the position of P is (x,y,0) and position of P
1
in 3D coordinate system
is P
1
(x
1
,y
1
,z
1
), where z
1
= h
1
represents the height of P above the reference surface, see
figure 4d. In the 3D coordinate system


Geodetic Coordinate System

In geodesy, position of any point on the earths surface is also defined by its
geographic coordinates, latitude and longitude, as shown in figures (2.2 a and b).
Fig.(2.2a)5a shows geographic coordinate for a spherical earth. Transforming this
geographic coordinate to 3D Cartesian coordinate system will be

x = R cos cos
y = R cos sin (2.1)
z = R sin

X
Figure 2.2: Geographic Coordinate System
(a) (b)
Greenwich meridian
equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
O
1
X
Figure 2.2: Geographic Coordinate System
(a) (b)
Greenwich meridian
equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
O
1
Figure 2.2: Geographic Coordinate System
(a) (b)
Greenwich meridian
equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
O
1
(a) (b)
Greenwich meridian
equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
O
Greenwich meridian
equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
Greenwich meridian Greenwich meridian
equator equator
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
S

P(,)

N
Z
X
Y
S

P(,)

P(,)

P(,)

P(,)

P(,) P(,)

N
Z
N
Z
X
Y
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
O
1
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
O
1
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian
equator
N

P(,)
O
Z
Y
Greenwich meridian Greenwich meridian
equator equator
N

P(,)
O

P(,)

P(,)
O
O
1
- - 12 -
where R is radius of spherical earth. Geometry of latitude at ellipsoidal earth is differing
from the geometry of the latitude at spherical earth as shown at fig. (2.2b).
Transformation from geographic coordinate system to 3D Cartesian coordinate system
will be


sin
a
b
z
sin cos y
cos cos x
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
(2.2)
where a, and b are semi-major and semi-minor axes of earth ellipsoid, is prime
vertical radius of curvature (length of O
1
P at the fig. (2.2b) which is obtained from


+
=
2 2 2 2
2
sin b cos a
a
(2.3)

For spherical earth R = a = b, then = R.
Equations (2.2) and (2.3) shows transformation from geodetical geographic
coordinate system to 3D Cartesian coordinate system of point P, which is located on the
surface of spherical earth and ellipsoidal, earth respectively. The height of P from that
reference surface is denoted by h, the transformation equations become

x = {R + h} cos cos
y = {R + h} cos sin (2.4)
z = {R + h} sin

for spherical earth system, and


sin h
a
b
z
sin cos } h { y
cos cos } h { x
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
+ =
(2.5)

for ellipsoidal earth system. The 3D coordinate of any point, which is referred to a
reference ellipsoid, denoted by geodetic latitude , geodetic longitude and height above
ellipsoid h is named geodetic coordinate system.
Ellipsoidal earth is a model of the real earth. Therefore geodetic coordinate system
is an artificial model of natural coordinate system.


Celestial Coordinate System
Celestial coordinate system is the most important coordinate system in geodesy. This
system may be used as reference system for two-dimensional case of geodetic coordinate
- - 13 -
system and natural coordinate system. The sky where the stars and others celestial body
located may be considered as a surface of a unit sphere which is called celestial sphere.
The center of the celestial sphere is the earth. The position of stars on celestial sphere in a
system called celestial coordinate system.
Extending the rotational axis of the earth will intersect the celestial sphere at the north
celestial sphere and the south celestial sphere. Expanding the equatorial plane of the earth
will intersects the celestial sphere the celestial equator. Any small circle at the celestial
sphere, which is parallel to the celestial equator, is called a celestial parallel. Any plane
through the rotational axis of the earth intersects the celestial sphere is called a celestial
meridian . Horizontal plane through an arbitrary point at the earth intersects the celestial
sphere a celestial horizon. The line through the observer perpendicular to the horizontal
plane is called the vertical of the point. Upward direction the vertical intersects the
celestial sphere a point that is called astronomical zenith of that point, and downward
direction of the vertical is called direction of the plumb line, which intersects the celestial
sphere at the nadir; the direction of the plumb line is also called gravity direction of that
point. Figure (2.3) shows geometry of celestial coordinate system, (a) for equatorial
system, and (b) for horizon system or called as LA system for local astronomical system
[Vanicek & Krakiwsky, 1986, p. 295].


Figure 2.3: Geometry of celestial coordinate system


Thus, astronomical position of the arbitrary point at the earth is represented by
position of the astronomical zenith of that point at the celestial sphere, they are
astronomical latitude and astronomical longitude.


Natural Coordinate System
Astronomical geographic coordinate of any point at the earth surface, which is
denoted by astronomical latitude () and astronomical longitude () is obtained by star
observations. Determination of astronomical position of any point at the earth surface
will be discussed latter. Reference surface if this 2D coordinate system is the geoid, a
Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis

(a)
(b)
Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis

Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
Earth horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
horizon horizon
NCP
SCP
NCP
SCP
east
west
east
west
east
west
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
celestial meridian
of observer
celestial meridian
of observer

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator

zenith
nadir
vertical
north
south
celestial equator
zenith
nadir
vertical vertical
north
south
celestial equator celestial equator
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis

NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian
rotational axis
NCP
SCP
Earth
celestial parallel
celestial equator
Earth
celestial parallel celestial parallel
celestial equator
celestial meridian celestial meridian
rotational axis rotational axis

(a)
(b)
- - 14 -
gravity equipotential surface closed to global mean sea level. If the point is outside of the
geoid, then the height of that point above the geoid is called orthometric H, which is
obtained from spirit leveling and gravity measurements. The 3D coordinate system (,,
H) is called natural coordinate system.


Figure 2.4: Deviation of natural coordinate from
geodetic coordinate system at P

Figure (2.4) shows the deviation of natural coordinate system from geodetic
coordinate system, that consists of geoid undulation N and deflection of the vertical
. The deflection of the vertical has two components, they are the meridian component
and the parallel component , see figure (2.5).


Figure 2.5: Deflection of the vertical and its components


NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth
astronomical
meridian
geodetic
meridian

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
celestial equator

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth
astronomical
meridian
geodetic
meridian

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth
astronomical
meridian
geodetic
meridian

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth
NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g
NCP
SCP

NCP
SCP
NCP
SCP

z
a
z
g

Earth
astronomical
meridian
geodetic
meridian
astronomical
meridian
astronomical
meridian
geodetic
meridian
geodetic
meridian

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
celestial equator

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
celestial equator

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean

NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
NCP
geodetic
meridian
z
g
z
g
z
g
z
g
astronomical
meridean
celestial equator
H
h
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
N
is the deflection of the vertical
from the normal to ellipsoid
N is the geoid undulation
H
h
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
N
is the deflection of the vertical
from the normal to ellipsoid
N is the geoid undulation
H
h
H
h
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
N
is the deflection of the vertical
from the normal to ellipsoid
N is the geoid undulation
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
N
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
N
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
P
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
ref. ell
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces
geoid
earths surface
vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

vertical
normal to ellipsoid
zenith

level surfaces level surfaces


P
N
is the deflection of the vertical
from the normal to ellipsoid
N is the geoid undulation
- - 15 -
Relation of two systems are shown in equation (2.6)

=
= () cos (2.6)
N = h H

The latest equation is used because is very small so that cos 1. Figure (2.5) shows
geometry of deflection of the vertical is shown in celestial sphere,


2
=
2
+
2
(2.7)


Geodetic Datum
Reminding to the matters have been described in the flat earth coordinate system, that
to establish a coordinate system we should define coordinate value for chosen initial
point and the value should be referred to chosen reference surface. Following this idea,
to establish geodetic datum for establishing a geodetic coordinate system, we have to do
the items below,
1. define an ellipsoid of revolution as reference surface, and semi-minor of the
ellipsoid defined parallel to the rotational axis of the earth,
2. define geodetic coordinate value (, , h) for a chosen initial point,
3. measure the distance from the initial point to another point,
4. measure the azimuth from the initial point to the other point.

Defining an ellipsoid of revolution as reference surface means that we should define
the figure of the reference ellipsoid (defining semi-major a, and semi-minor b or
flattening f). For orientation of the reference ellipsoid, semi-minor axis is defined
parallel to the rotational axis of the earth. The rotational axis of the earth is defined as the
z-axis of the conventional terrestrial system (CTS) which the center of the earth is
defined as the origin of the (CTS). The z axis of CTS is the straight line through its center
to the Conventional International Origin (CIO) and CIO is defined as the mean position
of the instantaneous pole measure during 1900 1905 [Vanicek & Krakiwsky, 1986,
p.44]. The geodetic coordinate (, , h) of initial point usually is adopted from the
astronomical geographic coordinate (, ) and orthometric height H of the point is
adopted as the geodetic height h. Defining the geodetic coordinate of the initial point
means that the center of reference ellipsoid from earths center is defined, this will be
shown later. Measuring the distance between the initial point and the other point is for
scaling the geodetic coordinate system. Measuring the azimuth from the initial point to
another point is usually to measure astronomical azimuth between these points. Because
the deflection of the vertical shows the difference of the astronomical geographic
coordinate to the geodetic latitude and longitude of arbitrary point at the earth surface,
then it will affect to the difference between the astronomical azimuth and the geodetic
azimuth of the point to another point, A
ij
as shown in the eqns. (2.7 a and b). The
equation is obtained by considering that the semi-minor of reference ellipsoid is parallel
to the rotational axis of the earth.

- - 16 -

ij ij ij
A A = (2.7a)


ij ij i ij i i i ij
Z ) A cos - A sin ( tan A = (2.7b)

The eqns (2.7a and b) tell us that to obtain geodetic azimuth of an arbitrary point to
another point, the measured astronomical azimuth between these points should be
reduced by A. The reducing value is depending on the deflection of the vertical at the
arbitrary point and measured zenith distance of the point to the other point. The
difference between measured zenith distance and is


ij i ij i ij
A sin A cos Z = (2.8a)


ij
= - Z
ij
= Z
ij
- z
ij
(2.8b)

where Z
ij
is measured zenith distance and z
ij
is geodetic zenith distance. The eqn (2.8a)
shows that if A
ij
is zero then Z
ij
becomes -
i
and for A
ij
is /2 then Z
ij
becomes -
i
.


Datum Shift and Transformation
By adopting classical approach that the astronomical coordinate at the initial point ,
and orthometric height H as the geodetic coordinate , , h at the point or = 0, = 0
and N = 0 yields the reference ellipsoid from the center of the earth is known or in other
words that the reference ellipsoid is non-geocentric ellipsoid, see figure (2.6).



Figure 2.6: Position and Orientation of Reference Ellipsoid (RE)

Let Cartesian coordinate of arbitrary point P on the RE-1 system is (x, y ,z). which
system is a reference ellipsoid with the parameter a and f. And let the Cartesian
Datum point
RE-new
RE-1
geoid
O
O
X ,Y
X,Y
// CTS
Z
CTS
Z
Datum point
RE-new
RE-1
geoid
Datum point
RE-new
RE-1
geoid
Datum point
RE-new
RE-1
geoid
Datum point
RE-new RE-new
RE-1 RE-1
geoid geoid
O
O
X ,Y
X,Y
// CTS
Z
// CTS
Z
CTS
Z
CTS
Z
- - 17 -
coordinate of the point on new RE system which has parameter a and f is (x, y, z).
According to the eqn. (2.5) and because b = a(1 f)


{ } ' sin ' h ' ) f' - (1 ' z
' sin ' cos } ' h ' { y'
' cos ' cos } ' h ' { ' x
2
+ =
+ =
+ =
(2.9)

and from eqn (2.3)

' sin ) ' f 2 ( ' f 1
' a
'
2

= (2.10)

The axes of the RE-1 and the new systems are parallel. For simplification we may write
the equations (2.4) for RE-1 system, and (2.9) for the new system as

x
(
(
(

=
z
y
x
and x
(
(
(

=
z'
y'
x'


and let the coordinate of the center of the two systems from the earth center respectively
as
x
0

(
(
(

=
0
0
0
z
y
x
and
'
0
x
(
(
(

=
'
0
'
0
'
0
z
y
x


and coordinate of the arbitrary point in the earth center system is

X =
(
(
(

Z
Y
X


Thus we have
x
0
= X - x
and

'
0
x = X - x
or
x
0
-
'
0
x = x - x

x = x + dx (2.11)

- - 18 -
Displacement of the center ellipsoid dx

is called datum shift. If x
0
= 0 , then
'
0
x is the
position the center of RE-1 from the earth center. Therefore, in general the eqn. (2.3) is
closely related to the position the center of ellipsoid.


Figure (2.7) shows geometry of six transformation parameters (without scale change
parameter). Coordinates of an arbitrary point on (X,Y,Z) system will be obtained from
(X,Y,Z) system by the equation


(
(
(

+
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

dz
dy
dx

z
y
x

1 R - R
R 1 R -
R - R 1

' z
' y
' x
x y
x z
y z
(2.12)

If all rotation parameters R
x
, R
y
and R
z
are zero, we will have again the eqn (2.11). And
then if Sc is a small-scale change from (X,Y,Z) system to (X,Y,Z) system the eqn
(2.12) becomes

( )
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

(
(
(

+ =
(
(
(

dz
dy
dx

z
y
x

1 R - R
R 1 R -
R - R 1
Sc 1
' z
' y
' x
x y
x z
y z
(2.13a)

No unit for scale change parameter, and rotation parameters are in radian unit. Because
Sc, and all rotation parameters R
x
, R
y
and R
z,
are small values, so that multiplication of
Sc with the all rotation parameters may be neglected, then the eqn (2.13a) will be


(
(
(

+
(
(
(

(
(
(

+
+
+
=
(
(
(

dz
dy
dx

z
y
x

Sc 1 R - R
R Sc 1 R -
R - R Sc 1

' z
' y
' x
x y
x z
y z
(2.13b)
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
Figure 2.7: Geometry of six transformation
parameters
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
X
Z
Z
X
Y
Y
dx
dy
dz
O
O
Rx
Ry
Rz
Figure 2.7: Geometry of six transformation
parameters
- - 19 -


The datum transformation equations (2.13b) show that an arbitrary point P that has
coordinate values on the two systems (X,Y,Z) and (X, Y, Z) may be written in a set of
three linear equations,

x = (1 + Sc) x + (Rz) y + (-Ry) z + dx
y = (-Rz) x + (1 + Sc) y + (Rx) z + dy (2.13c)
z = (Ry) x + (-Rx) y + (1+ Sc) z + dz

We cannot determine the seven parameters, dx, dy, dz, Rx, Ry, Rz, and Sc from the three
linear equations. At least, there are four more equations must be required to determine the
seven transformation parameters. It means that there are three points have Cartesian
coordinate values in the two systems.
The purpose of determination of the seven transformation parameters is to obtain
geodetic coordinate of geodetic points in a new datum from the geodetic coordinates in
the old datum. Originally the coordinate values come out from two sets of the geodetic
coordinates of the points in the both datum. Thus, data input for datum transformation
parameters determination are two ellipsoidal parameters, the radius equator a and the
polar flattening f for each reference ellipsoid, two sets of geodetic coordinate values of
at least of three geodetic points. Let (, , h) is geodetic coordinate in new geodetic
datum, (, , h) is geodetic coordinate in old datum, then the parameter of ellipsoid are
(a, f) and (a, f) in the new and the old datum respectively. Cartesian coordinates of the
geodetic points, which have geodetic, coordinate values in the both datum, (x, y, z) for
the new datum and (x, y, z) for the old datum that is obtained from (2.9). Usually more
than three geodetic points that have geodetic coordinate in the both system, so that we
have redundant data to compute the transformation parameters. Therefore computation of
the transformation parameters should be done by least squares adjustment technique,
which will be described later. The Cartesian coordinate of other geodetic points in the
new datum is computed by using the eqn. (2.9). Finally the geodetic coordinate of the
other geodetic points is computed the Cartesian coordinates which will described below.


Computation of Geodetic Coordinate from Cartesian Coordinate
Computation of Cartesian coordinate from geodetic coordinate has been shown in the
eqn. (2.5) and (2.9) which is rewrite here with a new number,


sin h
a
b
z
sin cos } h { y
cos cos } h { x
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
+ =
(2.14a)
or
- - 20 -

{ } sin h f) - (1 z
sin cos } h { y
cos cos } h { x
2
+ =
+ =
+ =
(2.14b)
or

{ } sin h ) e - (1 z
sin cos } h { y
cos cos } h { x
2
+ =
+ =
+ =
(2.14c)

where prime vertical radius of curvature is rewrite from the eqns (2.3) and (2.10)


+
=
2 2 2 2
2
sin b cos a
a
(2.15a)
or


=
2
sin ) f 2 ( f 1
a
(2.15b)
or


=
2 2
sin e 1
a
(2.15c)


Eqn (2.14) is the equation for computation Cartesian coordinate from geodetic coordinate.
Computation geodetic coordinate from Cartesian is a little bit complicated. Geodetic
longitude is obtained from


x
y
tan = (2.16)
Let
2 2
y x + = p, then from (2.14c) we have

h =
cos
p
(2.17)
and


( )
( ) { }p
z
h e 1
h
tg
2
+
+
= (2.18a)

because
2
e 1
1

= ! + e
2
, ( 2.18a) becomes

p
z
e
h
1 tg
2
|
.
|

\
|
+

= (2.18b)

- - 21 -
The eqns. (2.17) and (2.18) show that computation of is depending on h. , so that the
two values is determined iteratively, by taking h = 0 to get approximate value of latitude
[Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 183; Heitz, 1988, p.199]. The iteration algorithm is

(1) compute approximate value of latitude
o
by taking h =0, using (2.18);
(2) compute prime vertical radius of curvature , using (2.15);
(3) compute the ellipsoidal height h, using (2.17);
(4) compute latitude , using (2.18)
(5) repeat the computation from (2) and until and h remain practically
constant.

Other methods for computation geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates may be
found in some publications such as Borkowski [1987, 1989], Jones [2002] and Vermeille
[2002].
































- - 22 -
3. POSITIONING
Astronomical Positioning
In the previous subject we have discussed that position of any point at the surface is
represented by its astronomical zenith on the celestial sphere. The position of the point is
certainly astronomical position, they are astronomical latitude and astronomical longitude.
The position system of that point on the celestial sphere is equatorial system, which refers
to the celestial meridian of Greenwich for the longitude, and the celestial equator for the
latitude. Position determination of this point is conducted by doing star observation at
that point as observer station. Position of a star at the celestial sphere is represented by its
right ascension () and declination (). The initial point of this coordinate system in
celestial coordinate system is the vernal equinox (). Declination of star is spherical
distance along celestial meridian of the star measured from the celestial equator to the
star, in the same way as latitude, having positive value for a star at north of equator, and
negative value for southern star. Right ascension () is measured anticlockwise from the
vernal equinox along the celestial equator to the meridian of the star, in the same way as
longitude in time unit, see figure (3.1c). Thus position system of stars in the celestial
coordinate system is equatorial system or AP system for apparent place system [Vanicek
and Krakiwsky, 1986, p. 298].
A set of figure 3.1 shows astronomical spherical triangle, which is basic triangle for
astronomical positioning system, which built by three points, NCP for north of celestial
pole, Z
a
for astronomical zenith of observer and S for stars. The important elements of the
triangles as shown in figures (3.1a, b, and d), are co-latitude (90 ), hour angle (h), co-
declination (90 - ), zenith distance (z) of a star and astronomical azimuth (A
S
) of the star.
Figure 3.1c shows that hour angle of observer (h) is measured westward from the
meridian of observer to the meridian of a star, and other important elements are Local
Apparent Sidereal Time (LAST) which is measured eastward from of the observer
meridian to the vernal equinox meridian and Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST)
which is measured eastward from the Greenwich Meridian to the vernal equinox meridian.
Basic formula found from the astronomical triangle is, (see fig. 3.1d):

cos z = sin () sin () + cos () cos () cos (h) (3.1)

And other basic formula is, see fig (3. 1c):

LAST = h + (3.2)

Let hour angle of an observed star h = 0, it means the star located in the same
meridian of observer, or the star in culminating position, then from the eqn (3.1)

cos z = cos ( - )
or
cos z = cos ( - )

Thus we have two equations related to observed zenith distance of a star, declination of
the observed star and latitude of observer,

- - 23 -

Figure 3.1: Astronomical Spherical Triangle

= z + (3.3a)
and
= z (3.3b)

These equations are used for determination of latitude of the observer. According to
Mueller [1969] the latitude of the observer may be found from a pair of stars in upper
culmination at the north and the south of observer

( ) ( ) { }
N S N S 2
1
z z + + = (3.4a)

and for a pair of stars in lower culmination at the north and the south of observer

( ) ( ) { } + + =
2
1
N S N S 2
1
z z (3.4b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

S
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
(a)
(b)
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
1
= meridian of V. Equinox
11
= meridian of V. Equinox
2
= meridian of Greenwch
22
= meridian of Greenwch
3
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer
3
= meridian of Star
33
= meridian of Star
4 = meridian of Observer 44 = meridian of Observer
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
Z
a
S
celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

Z
a
S
celestial equator celestial equator
NCP
SCP
1
2
3

NCP
SCP
1
2
3

NCP
SCP
1
2
3

NCP
SCP
1
2
3

NCP
SCP
1
2
3

NCP
SCP
11
22
33

44

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

south
north
Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

Z
a
z
horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west

Z
a
zz
horizon horizon
NCP
SCP
east
west
NCP
SCP
east
west
NCP
SCP
east
west
NCP
SCP
east
west
NCP
SCP
NCP
SCP
east
west
east
west
east
west
east
west

south
north
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
S
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
z
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
A
S
h
NCP
Z
a
Z
a
|/2 |
|/2 |
zz
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST

.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
LAST
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
.

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST

h
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
hhh
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
S
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
.
NCP

Z
a
.
NCP

Z
a
.
NCP

Z
a
.
NCP

Z
a
.
NCP

.
NCP

.
NCP
.
NCP
.
NCP
.
NCP

Z
a
celestial equator
Gr
GAST GAST
.
LAST

S
- - 24 -
The astronomical longitude of the observer is obtained from, see figure (3.1c)

= LAST - GAST (3.5)

By observing the star in culmination position, from the equations (3.2) and (3.5) then we
have

= - GAST (3.6)

, the right ascension of the observed star may be found in Apparent Places for
Fundamental Stars, and GAST is obtained through the Universal Time by synchronizing
a local time piece at the observer with a time standard by means of HF radio time signals.
In the previous subject that is related to geodetic datum we know astronomical
azimuth (=A) from the datum point to another point of a horizontal geodetic networks is
adopted as the geodetic azimuth. To determine the astronomical azimuth to the other
geodetic point, for the first instance we should determine astronomical azimuth from the
geodetic datum to a star. From astronomical spherical triangle,



=
cos tan - h cos sin
h sin
A tan
S
(3.7)

If a star at meridian of observer, the hour angle h becomes zero so that the astronomical
azimuth of star A
S
will be 0
o
or 180
o
. Thus, if can we pointing the stars precisely in the
observers meridian plane, then by measuring horizontal angle from the observers
meridian plane to the other geodetic point will obtain astronomical azimuth of the
observer to the other geodetic point. To obtain a precise result of the astronomical
azimuth as well as astronomical positioning we must refer particular textbook that
describe this matter more detailed, such as Mueller [1969].

Geodetic Positioning


Figure 3.2: A Geodetic Network with Laplace Stations L
0
, L
1
, and L
2

L
0
L
1
P
0
P
1
L
2
P
2
L
0
L
1
P
0
P
1
L
0
L
1
P
0
P
1
L
0
L
1
P
0
P
1
L
0
L
1
P
0
P
1
L
2
P
2
- - 25 -
Before satellite technology is applied to geodesy, geodetic positioning was held by
geodetic surveys at the earths surface. There are three geodetic networks: geodetic
traverse, triangulation and trilateration. It is quite often by the reasoning of precision and
optimization of the networks, two from the three kinds of networks or the three kinds of
networks are combined. Because the measurements are conducted at the earths surface,
all the measured directions (vertical and horizontal) and distances should be reduced to
chosen reference ellipsoid. Figure 3.2 shows a triangulation networks with two Laplace
stations L
o
and L
1
. In the stations astronomical azimuth are measured. If L
o
is initial point
of the network, where geodetic azimuth is defined as geodetic azimuth, but in L
1
geodetic
azimuth and astronomical azimuth from L
1
to P
1
should satisfy Laplace condition in the
eqn (2.8). Processing of the geodetic networks may be divided becomes two parts; they
are processing of horizontal networks and vertical networks. Usually the processing is
conducted independently. Horizontal (2D) coordinates of the geodetic points are
computed in a chosen projection plane. For the first instance the geodetic latitude and
longitude of datum point must be converted become a plane Cartesian coordinate on the
projection plane. After the position of other points are computed by using plane
coordinate system, then they are converted become 2D geodetic coordinates on the
reference ellipsoid. Height differences among the geodetic points usually are computed
from trigonometric height difference measurements, and mean sea level at datum point is
used as reference surface.
Precise height difference measurements are conducted by spirit leveling, as part of
determination of optometric height will be described latter.


Satellite Positioning System
Terrestrial positioning that has been described previously was time and cost
consuming work. Development of electronic and satellite technology drastically change
geodetic work performance. The first satellite navigation system was transit system
established for US Navy. This system was known as US Navy Navigation Satellite
System (US-NNSS) and operation for military used in 1964 and released for civil used in
1967. The satellites of this system had polar orbits by altitude about 1000 km, and the
period of around 100 minutes. There were six orbits with one satellite operation in each
orbit by using Doppler effect. Because this system is only equipped by one satellite for
each orbit, so that navigation and positioning require long operational time. This system
was terminated in 1996, few years after Navigation Satellite Time And Ranging
(NAVSTAR), the name given to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, was
declared for civil used by the US Government.
GPS consists of three segments: the satellites, the control system, and the users., see
fig. (3.3) The Global Positioning System orbital configuration is designed in order the
system can give information where we are at any time, see fig. (3.4). GPS originally
developed to meet US military requirements. In 1978 four Block I satellites were in orbits
and became 11 satellites in 1985. Launching of the first of 28 Block II satellites was
started at the beginning of 1989. As matter of fact that civilian demand for the using of
GPS which was developed for military purpose came after the downing of Korean
Airlines Flight over the territory of the Soviet Union in 1983. So that President Reagan
announced that GPS would be made available for international used and confirmation
- - 26 -
was made by President Clinton in 1995 by a letter to the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO). The use of GPS for surveying community started around 1984
[http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR614/MR614.appb.pdf]


Figure 3.3: GPS Segments



Figure (3.4): GPS orbital constellation
SATELITTES
. 24 satelittes
. Orbital period : 12 hr
. Altitude : 20200 km
CONTROL SYSTEM
. Time synchronization
. Orbit prediction
. Data injection
. Satellite health monitoring
USERS
. Observe GPS signals
. Compute position, velocity,
time information,
or other parameters
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, 1998
SATELITTES
. 24 satelittes
. Orbital period : 12 hr
. Altitude : 20200 km
CONTROL SYSTEM
. Time synchronization
. Orbit prediction
. Data injection
. Satellite health monitoring
USERS
. Observe GPS signals
. Compute position, velocity,
time information,
or other parameters
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, 1998
- - 27 -


Figure 3.5 : GPS Control System

GPS satellites have six orbital planes with four satellites per orbit, inclined 55
o
with a
nominal altitude of 20 200 km, and orbit period 12 hours. Each GPS satellite transmits
two carrier waves L1 on 1575.42 MHz ( = 19 cm), and L2 on 1227.6 MHz ( = 24.4
cm). The L1 and L2 are modulated by P (precision) code of 110.23 MHz ( = 30 m) and
navigation message of 50 MHz. The L1 is also modulated by C/A (Clear Access) code of
1.023 MHz ( = 300 m). The carrier frequencies and modulations are controlled by on-
board atomic clock. The A/C and P codes, also called pseudo-random noise (PRN) code
have function for ranging information. The navigation message code informs position of
satellite (broadcast ephemeris), UTC, ionosphere correction, etc.
The purpose of the control system is to monitor the health of the satellites, determine
their orbits and the behavior of their atomic clocks, and inject the broadcast message into
the satellites. The control system consists of monitor stations on Diego Garcia, Ascension
Island, Kwajalein, and Hawaii, and a master control station operates at the Consolidated
Space Operations Center, Colorado Springs in Colorado, see fig. (3.5).
The user segment consists of all users, military and civilian. For precise geodetic
work, carrier or code frequency phase is measured and recorded for future processing.
More detailed information about the all segments can be found at Wells, et al. [1987]
GPS navigation and position determination is based on measuring the distance from
the precise location of satellites in their orbits to the user, in three dimensional Cartesian
coordinates as well as geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height).
Geometry of GPS positioning and navigation by measuring distance from satellite to a
receiver may be described as follow, see fig (3.6). Distance measurement from satellite S
1

to the receiver will form a sphere, and distance measurement from satellite S
2
to the
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, 1998
Hawaii
Ascension Diego
Garcia
Kwajalein
Cape
Carnaval
Master Control Station and Monitor Station, Colorado Spring, USA
Master Control Station
Ground Antenna Station
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, 1998
Hawaii
Ascension Diego
Garcia
Kwajalein
Cape
Carnaval
Master Control Station and Monitor Station, Colorado Spring, USA
Master Control Station
Ground Antenna Station
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin, 1998
Hawaii
Ascension Diego
Garcia
Kwajalein
Cape
Carnaval
Master Control Station and Monitor Station, Colorado Spring, USA
Master Control Station
Ground Antenna Station
- - 28 -
receiver form second sphere, which form a circle as intersection with the first circle.
Distance measurement from satellite S
3
intersects the circle at two points. Distance
measurement from a fourth satellite will locate 3D position of the receiver in coordinate
system used by the satellites. The measuring distance from five or more satellites or
yields more accurate and reliable position. In order GPS can be used anytime at anywhere
above the earth surface, the 24 satellites constellations are designed that there are at least
five satellites above the horizon of users at any time and anywhere.




Figure 3.6: Geometry of satellite positioning by measuring distance

There are two kinds of GPS measurements, pseudo-range measurements and carrier
phase measurements. These measurements are influenced by some errors: time offsets of
satellite clock and receiver clock, ionosphere and troposphere effects, and noise on carrier
waves. The distance between satellite and receiver which is obtained from peseudo-range
measurements is
p = c d (3.10)

where velocity of light in vacuum is c = 2.99792458 x 10
8
m s
-1
, and d is travel time
from satellite to receiver that is obtained from satellite clock and receiver clock. The eqn.
(3.10) is true distance between satellite and receiver if there are not error influenced the
measurement. Time scale of satellite clock and receiver clock is different, so that they
should be refer to an ideal scale that is GPS time scale . Let signal is transmitted from
satellite at t
s
in the time scale of satellite, and received by receiver at T
r
in the time scale
of receiver, thus (3.1) originally is

S
3
S
2
S
1
S
3
S
2
S
1
- - 29 -
p = c (T
r
t
s
) (3.11)

In the GPS time scale they should be
s
and
r
If dt and dT are the offset error of satellite
clock and receiver clock respectively, so that we have
s
= t
s
dt and
r
= T
r
dT , then
the eqn. (3.11) become

p = c (
r

s
) + c (dT dt) (3.12a)

p = + c (dt dT) (3.12b)

The measurement is also influenced by ionosphere error d
ion
, troposphere error d
trop
, and
ephemeris errors of satellite d, then the (3.12) become

p = + d + c (dt dT) + d
ion
+ d
trop
(3.13)

The eqn. (3.13) is basic equation for pseudo-range measurement.
The distance between satellite and receiver which is obtained from phase
measurements is
=
meas
(3.14)

is wavelength,
meas
is measured phase consists of Fr() and Int () the fraction part
and integer part of phase measurements respectively,

.
meas
= Fr() + Int () (3.15)

At lock-on time, at epoch t
0
there are the unknown number of cycles, N(t
0
), therefore at
epoch t we have total phase


total
= Fr() + Int() + N(t
0
) (3.16)

Let in length unit is defined as =
total
, so that (3.16) becomes

= + N (3.17)

N is called cycle ambiguity. By considering that the measurement is influenced by the
offset error of satellite clock and receiver clock, ionosphere error d
ion
, troposphere error
d
trop
, and ephemeris errors of satellite d, (3.17)

= + d + c (dt dT) d
ion
+ d
trop
+ N (3.18)

The eqn. (3.18) is basic equation for carrier phase measurement. The differences of this
equation with the pseudo-range equation are the cycle ambiguity N, and minus sign of
ionosphere effect. Further explanation about the basic equations may be found at Abidin
[2000}, Wells, at al., [1987].

- - 30 -
GPS has many applications, not only for military, geodesy, surveys & mapping
purposes, but also for research in geophysics, such as geodynamics and deformation
studies, meteorology and atmospheric studies, oceanography. GPS is also used for
aeroplane navigation, marine and on land transportation. This because of GPS can be
used independent of weather conditions, at static and kinematics modes, and can be used
at various platforms, such as car, train, vessel, aeroplane and even satellite. But we
should know that GPS has some disadvantages, because this system can not be used in
the place where GPS satellite signal can not reach GPS antenna, such as inside the room,
in tunnel or underneath the water.




















Figure 3.7: The IGS Tracking Network

To support geodetic and geophysical research activities the International Global
Positioning System (GPS) Service for Geodynamics (IGS) conducted three-months
campaign during June through September 1992, and continued through a Pilot-service
until the establishment of the IGS in 1993 by the IAG. The primary objective of the IGS
is to provide a service to support, through GPS data and data products, geodetic and
geophysical research activities. In January 1999 the name of the service was changed to
International GPS Service (IGS). To provide GPS data IIGS established IGS Tracking
Network, see fig. (3.7) At present (March 28, 2004) there are 366 stations over the world
[http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov, 2004].






http://igscb.jpl.nasa/goc
- - 31 -
4. LEAST SQUARES METHOD
Introduction
In previous subject, such as horizontal networks and vertical networks, we have
discussion about field measurements, which carried out for determination of horizontal
position of geodetic points or their heights from an initial point. In other words we have a
group of measurements for determining a group of unknown parameters.
A simple example of this problem is determination of horizontal distance between
two points from a series of repeated measurements. The horizontal distance is only one
unknown parameter should be determined from the series of repeated measurements.
Before doing field measurement, we should check that we have a calibrated instrument to
carry out distance measurements. After we have the series of measurements, then we
should check that the measurements are not influenced by mistakes or blunders. If there
are a measurement value has a big different from other values, this value may be
categorized as a mistake or a blunder, and then rejected from the measurement series. The
measurements values may be influenced by systematic errors. Systematic errors may be
occurred by observation method, and also by outside factor such as influencing
atmosphere to measurements. The systematic errors can be eliminated by method of
observation, or can be modeled for the case of atmospheric factor. Let blunders have been
rejected and the influence of systematic errors on our measurements have been eliminated.
If our measurements are free from errors, the measurement values will be equal, but they
are not exactly equal. It means that there is another kind of errors influence the
measurements, which is occurred randomly, and called random error. Although our
measurement values are not equal, but they show a trend value as the most probable value
or the expected value of the unknown parameter that is the distance between the two
points. It is make sense if we choose the average value of the repeated measurements as
the most probable value of the unknown parameter, and by assuming that the
measurements have of equal weight, the unknown parameter will be

X =
n
1
i
n
1
(4.1)

The average value X is also called sample mean or mean value of a set n-repeated
measurement. To determine the unknown parameter X , each measurement value
i

should be added by correction value v
i
,

X =
i
+ v
i
(4.2a)
or
v
i
= X -
i
(4.2b)

The statement should be added by correction value has the same meaning with should
be subtracted by error value, because

error = - correction

Substitution of (4.2b) to (4.1) yields
- - 32 -
=
n
1
i
0 v (4.3)

Let the true value of X is X

then we have true random error which is


simplified by true error that influence of each measurement is

. We have true
error variance , then we called as error variance of the measurements is

=
n
1
2
i
2
n
1
(4.4)

To obtain X

, we should subtract

from measurement value


i
,

X

=
i
-
i
(4.5a)

and because of (4.2), then the eqn (4.5a) becomes


i
= X - X

- v
i
(4.5b)

Summation of (4.5b) is
n -
n
1
i
n
1
i
= X

(4.6a)

and by considering (4.1), the eqn. (4.6a) becomes


n
1
i
= n ( X - X

) (4.6b)
Squaring (4.5b),
=
2
i
X
2
- 2 X X

- 2 v
i
X + X

2
+ 2 v
i
X

+
2
i
v

Because of (4.3), then we have


n
1
2
i
= n X
2
2 n X X

+ n X

2
+
2
i
v
= n ( X - X

)
2
+
n
1
2
i
v
Substituting (4.6b) to the above equation,


n
1
2
i
=

+
|
.
|

\
|

n
1
2
i
2
n
1
i
v
n
(4.7a)

The true errors are normally distributed,
j i
= 0 for i j , so that
- - 33 -
( )
2
i
=
n
1
2
i

thus (4.7a) becomes

n
1
2
i
=

n
1
2
i
n
1
i
v
n
(4.7b)
or
(n 1)
n
1
2
i
=
n
1
2
i
v (4.7c)

Finally the error variance (4.4)


1 n
v
n
1
2
i
2

(4.8)

This is formula for computation of error variance from correction values of n repeated
measurements.


Propagation Law of Variance-covariance and Cofactor
Let
0
is approximate value of a measurement value , so that we have


0
= (4.9a)

is a random variable as well as , but not
0
because it is a constant. The error
variance of should be the same as the error variance of ,


2 2

=

(4.9b)

We make the formula more general, if

X = a + a
0
(4.10a)
a and a
0
are constants

2 2 2
X
a

= (4.10b)

Then let X = | |
t
2 1
x x and L = | |
n 2 1
. .
t
are matrices of random variables,

X = A L + A
0
(4.11a)

A and A
0
are matrices of constants,

- - 34 -
A =
(

n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
a . . a a
a . . a a
and A
0
=
(

02
01
a
a



t
XX
A A = (4.11b)

XX
is matrix variance-covariance of X and is matrix variance of L


XX
=
(



2
2 x 1 x 2 x
2 x 11 x
2
1 x
and =
(
(
(
(
(
(

2
n
2
2
2
1
. . 0 0
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 . . 0
0 . . 0

XX
has

co-variance
x1x2
and
x2x1
elements, then it is called variance-covariance
matrix of X. These elements occur because the random parameters x
1
and x
2
are
correlated parameters due to each of them is obtained from the same set of L. Variance
matrix
LL
is a diagonal matrix, because L has independent random variables of
i
,
therefore does not have covariance elements. If matrix X has u elements x
1
,
x
2
, . . . . . . x
u
then variance-covariance matrix of X becomes a square matrix (u x u).
Let matrix X (u x 1) consists of two matrices Y (u
1
x 1) and Z (u
2
x 1), so u = u
1
+ u
2
.

X =
(

Z
Y
; A =
(

C
B
and A
0
=
(

0
0
C
B


Thus we have two correlated unknown parameters Y and Z that are obtained from L,

Y = B L + B
0
(4.14a)
and
Z = C L + C
0
(4.14b)
Variance-covariance matrix of X becomes


XX
=
(

ZZ ZY
YZ YY


=
(

C
B

| |
t t
C B
=
(



t t
t t
C C B C
C B B B


so that we have variance-covariance matrix


YZ
= B C
t
(4.14c)
and

Y
= C B
t
(4.14d)

- - 35 -
The unknown parameter X is obtained from L, it means that X and L are correlated or
dependent random matrices; therefore we may obtain their covariance matrix as shown
below

X = A L + A
0
(4.15a)
and
L = I L (4.15b)

I is identity matrix, and according to (4.14) we will have


XL
= A

(4.15c)
and

LX
=

A
t
(4.15d)


In the case of L has equal variance elements
2
i
, we call that all
i
(for i from 1 to n)
have equal weight, and

an identity matrix. If the variance elements are un-equal, then
the measurements have un-equal weight as illustrated below,

measurements
1

2

3
. . . . . . . . .
n


variances
2
1

2
2

2
3
. . . . . . . . .
2
n


weights p
1
p
2
p
3
p
n


Variance
2
i
shows the accuracy of
i
, if
2
j
<
2
k
then
j
more accurate than
k
, but
pj > p
k
. Therefore we may have relation between variance and weight as follow


k
2
k j
2
j
p p = = constant (4.16)

This constant value is called variance factor or reference variance, which is denoted by
2
o
. The variance factor may be defined as variance of a measurement that has weight is
equal 1. Inverse of weight is called cofactor which is denoted by q , so that


2
i
=
2
o
q
i
(4.17)

In matrix form, weight and cofactor of a set of measurement is a diagonal matrix, denoted
by P and Q respectively,

Q = P
-1
(4.18)


- - 36 -
P =
(
(
(
(
(
(

n
2
1
p . . 0 0
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 . . p 0
0 . . 0 p
and Q =
(
(
(
(
(
(

n
2
1
q . . 0 0
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 . . q 0
0 . . 0 q


From eqn (4.17) we have
=
2
o
Q (4.20)

and we will have similar form for propagation of cofactor as propagation of variance-
covariance which is shown in the table below

Table1: Propagation Law

X = AL + A
0
Y = BL + B
0


Variance-covariance

Cofactor

XX
= A A
t
Q
XX
= A Q A
t

YY
= B B
t
Q
YY
= B Q B
t

XY
= A B
t
Q
XY
= A Q B
t

YX
= B A
t
Q
YX
= B Q A
t


XL
= A Q
XL
= A Q

LX
= A
t
Q
LX
= Q A
t


YL
= B Q
YL
= B Q

LY
= B
t
Q
LY
= Q B
t


The average value as unknown parameter used at the eqn (4.1) is computed from a set
of repeated equal weight measurements, so that the sample variance at eqn (4.8) is also
the sample variance factor
2
o
,
X =
n 2 1
n
1
. . . . .
n
1
n
1
+ + +

The error variance of X that is computed from the propagation law of variance is


2
X
=
2
o
n
1

(4.21)

The number of sample is the weight of X as found from (4.16),

p
X
= n (4.22)
- - 37 -
This equation tell us that the weight of the average value of a set of equal weight
measurements is the same to the number of repeated measurements. It means that we
will get more accurate result if we measure with a large number of repeated
measurements. Theoretically it is true, but practically it is not efficient and we should we
investigate this matter statistically.


Least Squares Principle
The problem in geodesy or in some other disciplines is how to get accurate unknown
parameters from many set measurements. In the previous discussion we have variance
factor as accuracy measures. We will have accurate parameters when we have smallest
variance factor that is obtained from the measurements. The smallest variance factor is
obtained from the smallest summation result of the square of corrections, or we should
have

n
1
2
i
v is minimum for equal weight measurements, and

n
1
2
i i
v p is minimum for unequal weight measurements.

This is called least squares principle. We may also say that the least squares principle is
how to obtained minimum value of variance.
Is the average value or the mean value of repeated measurements agree with least
squares principle? To answer this question let n is the number of unequal weight
repeated measurements, and we have correction v
i
for each
i
,

v
i
= X -
i


n
1
2
i i
v p = X
2

n
1
i
p - 2 X
n
1
i i
p +
n
1
i i
p
Let =
n
1
2
i i
v p is a function of X , and if its first derivation = 0, then is
minimum.
= 2X
n
1
i
p - 2
n
1
i i
p = 0

X =

n
1
i
n
1
i i
p
p
(4.23a)

The eqn (4.23) is mean value of unequal weight of repeated measurements which is
determined from least squares principle. If the repeated measurements are equal weight,
we may put p
i
= 1, and then insert this value to (4.23), then we will have mean value for
repeated measurements of equal weight,


- - 38 -
X =
n
n
1
i

(4.23b)

The eqn (4.23b) is exactly the same with the eqn (4.1), therefore the average value of
equal weight of repeated measurements agree with the least squares principle.
Variance factor of the unequal repeated measurements is


1 n
v p
n
1
2
i i
2
o

(4.24)

and variance of X is

2
X
=
2
o
n
1
i
p
1

(4.25)

In matrix form
n
1
2
i i
v p = V
t
P V, where V = | |
n 2 1
v . . v v
t

Least Squares Adjustment
Let unknown parameters X (u x 1) will be determined from L (n x 1) measurements,
V is matrix correction should be added to L to obtain corrected value L
~


) X , L
~
( F = 0 (4.26)

And let X
o
is approximate value of X, so that we have

L
~
= L + V and X = X
o
+ x

Then we have
( ) ( )
( )
( )
o L , X ) L , X (
X , L F x X , L
~
F
X
V X , L
~
F
L
~
o o
+

= 0

or
AV + Bx + C = 0 (4.27)

We follow Mikhail [1976, p. 112]:

A is matrix (c x n) ; B is matrix (c x u) ; C is matrix (c x 1)

V is matrix (n x 1) ; x is matrix (u x 1) ; 0 is matrix (c x 1)

X
o
is a non-random matrix and x is a random unknown parameter as well is X. The
random unknown parameter x and correction V will be determined least squares principle,
- - 39 -
thus V
t
P V should be minimum. Let transpose of Lagrange multiplicator K , multiply to
(4.27) and we have

V
t
P V + 2 K
t
(AV + Bx + C ) = (4.28)

is function of V and x; the minimum of V
t
P V is also the minimum of , and it
will be minimum if its derivation to V and to x are zero.

2 V
t
P + 2 K
t
A = 0
t
(4.29a)

K
t
B = 0
t
(4.29b)

From (4.29a) we have
V = - P
-1
A
t
K (4.30)

K is matrix (c x 1)

Subtitution of (4.30) into (4.27)

(A P
-1
A
t
) K = B x + C (4.31)

This a set of linear equations with unknown of K (c x 1)

K = (A P
-1
A
t
)
-1
(B x + C) (4.32)

Substitution of (4.32) into (4.29b)

{B
t
(A P
-1
A
t
)
1
B} x + {B
t
(A P
-1
A
t
)
1
C} = 0 (4.33a)

This a set of linear equations with unknown x (u x 1).
According to Kahar [2001], this equation becomes

(B
t
P
C
B)
-1
x + B
t
P
C
C = 0 (4.33b)

because weight of C is P
C
=
1
CC
Q = (A P
-1
A
t
)
1


x = - (B
t
P
C
B)
-1
(B
t
P
C
C) (4.34)

From (4.30), (4.31) and (4.34) we obtain

V
t
P V = C
t
P
C
B x + C
t
P
C
C (4.35)
And variance factor

u - n

2
0
V P V
t
= (4.36)

- - 40 -
Derivation of (4.36) is found in Kahar [2001]. Cofactor Q
XX
is obtained by using
propagation of cofactor to (4.34), and because of cofactor Q
CC
=
1
C
P then we have

Q
XX
= (B
t
P
C
B)
-1
(4.37)
so that variance of x

XX
=
2
o
Q
XX
(4.38)

A special case of this problem is A is identity matrix I, it means P
C
= P , the weight of L,
so that notation C at (4.27) may be written as

V + Bx + L = 0 (4..39)

V
t
P V = (x
t
B
t
+ L
t
) P (B x + L)
= x
t
B
t
P B x + 2 L
t
P B x + L
t
P L

Let V
t
P V = is a function of x, will be minimum if

, its derivative to x is zero,


thus

(B
t
P B ) x + B
t
P L

= 0 (4.40a)
and
x = - (B
t
P B)
-1
B
t
P L (4.40b)

This matrix represents u linear equations with u unknown parameters of x . We may
notice that F in (4.27) is L so that the equation becomes

L + V = - B x

and P is weight matrix of L.

Now let

AV = V
C
(4.41)

so that the original form in (4.27) becomes

V
C
+ B x + C = 0 (4.42)

The unknown parameter x is obtained by minimizing
C C
t
C
V P V where P
C
is weight
matrix of C . In original form C is

C = F (L , X
o
) (4.43)

Let L
o
is approximate value of L, so that

L = L + L
o

- - 41 -

Linearization of (4.31)

C = ( ) ) , ( ,
o o o
X L F L X L F
L
+



= A L + F(L
o
, X
o
)

From propagation of cofactor we obtain Q
CC
= A Q A
t
because cofactor of L is also
cofactor of L , that is Q . Then weight of C becomes

P
C
= (A Q A
t
)
-1
(4.44)



Cofactor of adjusted measurements L
~
and parameter x may be obtained by
implementing the propagation law of cofactor. From (4.40b) cofactor of x, and see also
(4.37)

Q
xx
= (B
t
P B)
-1
(4.45a)
or
Q
xx
= (B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
(4.45b)

Before determination of
L
~
L
~ Q we should determine Q
VV
, because

L
~
= L + V
and from (4.39)
V = - (L + Bx)
or

V = [ B ( B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
B
t
Q
-1
- I ] L (4.46)
so that
Q
VV
= Q - B ( B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
B
t
(4.47a)

or

Q
VV
= Q B Q
XX
B
t
(4.47b)
Then we have
L
~
= B ( B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
B
t
Q
-1
L (4.48)
so that

L
~
L
~ Q = B ( B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
B
t
(4.49a)

or


L
~
L
~ Q = Q Q
VV
(4.49b)

- - 42 -
Least Squares Prediction
A measured distance between two points does not have correlation with other
measured distance between others two points. A measured angle at certain point does not
have correlation with other measured angle at other point. Therefore we only have
variance matrix for a set measured values in our pervious discussion, it is a diagonal
matrix variance. Determination of gravimetric geoid undulation requires gravity anomaly
data over the whole earth. Gravity anomaly is the difference between actual gravity value
and theoretical gravity value of the earth ellipsoid. If the earth ellipsoid is the good
representative of the geoid, the mean of gravity value will be zero, and then certainly the
mean of the geoid undulation over the whole earth is also zero. Let us use terminology
signal for gravity anomaly, geoid undulation because this value will give information
about mass density of the earth crust. Each individual gravity anomaly in a set of gravity
anomalies at certain area that are obtained from gravity measurements has correlation to
other gravity anomaly data of that area This correlation is shown by its correlation
function or by its covariance function. The function depends on distance between two
values, thus it does not depend on direction between the two values and also it is not
depend on position of each gravity value. In this case we call that gravity anomaly is a
homogenous signal.
Two closest signals have strong correlation than another two distant signals, or
covariance between two closest signals will be larger than the other two distant signals. If
the distance of two signals is very distant, we may assume that covariance between the
two signals is closed to zero. Gaussian function is a simple model of covariance function.
Let a measured signal
i
is disturbed by noise n
i
, so that we find relation among signal
s
i
, noise n
i
, and measured signal
i
, as shown in figure (4.1)














Figure 4.1: (a) relation among
i
, s
i
and n
i

(b) a predicted signal P among measured signals


i
= s
i
+ n
i
(4.50)

Signal s
i
and noise n
i
are independent random variables, so that we do not have
covariance between signal and noise, then variance of
i

2
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. .
. .
k-1
k
. P
1
2
.
.
.
.
.
.

1
n
1

s
1

2
n
2
s
2

.
.
.
3
n
3
s
3

3
(a) (b)
- - 43 -

d
2
o
2
i
+ = (4.51)

2
o
is variance of signal s
i
and d is variance of noise n
i


Let L (k x 1) is a set of measured signals and s (k x 1) is a set of signals that will be
filtered from a set of noise n (k x 1), so that (4.50) in matrix form.

L = s + n (4.52)

Variance-covariance matriks of measured signal will be

= C + D (4.53)

Variance-covariance matrix of signal s is

C =
(
(
(
(
(
(

o 2 k 1 k
k 2 o 21
k 1 12 o
C . . C C
. . . . .
. . . . .
C . . C C
C . . C C
(4.54)

Because we have a set of homogenous signals, the variance value of the all signals are the
same, C
o
. Noise n has variance matrix, because n
i
and n
j
are uncorrelated noise, and if
variance of individual noise is the same as d, so that variance matrix of noise is

D = d I (4.55)

Covariance elements of (4.54) is a function distance between two signals i and j (d
ij
) for i
is not equal j, so C
ij
= C(d
ij
). Therefore variance of each signal becomes, see also (4.51)


2
= C(0) = C
0


Then variance-covariance matrix of measured signals L becomes

C =
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
+
+
d C . . C C
. . . . .
. . . . .
C . . d C C
C . . C d C
o 2 k 1 k
k 2 o 21
k 1 12 o
(4.56)

A predicted signal P, see fig (4.1) is computed as follow
- - 44 -

s
P
= h
1

1
+ h
2

2
+ . . . . . . . + h
k

k


= h
t
L

The true signal at P is
P
s , so that s
P
has a true error
P
and variance of the error is
2
P
=
2
P
. We should minimize this variance for obtaining h.


P
= s
P
-
P
s = h
t
L -
P
s = | |
(

P
t
s
L
I h

By using propagation law of variance-covariance


2
P
= h
t
C h - 2
o
t
LP
C h C + (4.57)

Its derivative to h is zero, so that


-1 t
LP
t
C C h = (4.58)

And predicted signal at P

s
P
= L C C
-1 t
LP
(4.59a)

If we have m predicted signals so that s
P
is (m x 1) matrix

s
P
= L C C
-1 t
LP
(4.59b)

C
LP
is covariance matrix (k x m) between measured signal L and predicted signal s
P
.
The accuracy of each predicted signal is obtained from (4.57); it is a diagonal element of
matrix


LP
-1 t
LP o P
C C C - C = (4.60)

The predicted signals s
P
at (4.59) are predicted by filtering measured signals L from
noise n . C is used for filtering noise n from L , and together with C
LP
predicting the
predicted signals. C
LP
is covariance matrix between measured signal L and predicted
signals s
P
. Because we minimizing the variance of the predicted signal error, therefore
we call this solution as least square filtering and least squares prediction techniques.
In the previous problem the measured signal L only be influenced by random noise
n; now let the measurements are influenced by systematic part Bx, where unknown
parameter of the systematic part and B is coefficient matrix, so that to get signal s, the
systematic part Bx should be subtracted from measured signal (4.52)

- - 45 -
s = L Bx - n (4.61a)

Thus, to get signal s the measured signal L should be subtracted by systematic part Bx
and random noise n as shown in (4.61a). This equation is identical with (4.39) as shown
at (4.61b)

s + n + Bx L = 0 (4.61b)

by changing s + n by v, and according to (4.40), the parameter x will be

x = (B
t
C
-1
B)
-1
B
t
C
-1
L (4.62)

because P is replaced by C
-1
; and covariance of x is , see (4.37)

C
xx
= (B
t
C
-1
B)
-1
(4.63)

According to (4.56) signal s is obtained after filtering of noise n and L is subtracted by
Bx, so that predicted signals s
P
at (4.59) becomes

s
P
= Bx) - (L C C
-1 t
LP
(4.64)
Substitute (4.62) into (4.64),

s
P
= ( ) L C B B C B B - I C C
1 t
1
1 t 1 - t
LP
(


= H
t
L
where
H
t
= ( ) L C B B C B B - I C C
1 t
1
1 t 1 - t
LP
(



Similar to (4.56) then we obtain the accuracy matrix of predicted signal s
P



LP
-1 t
LP o P
C C C - C = +
LP
t t t
LP
C C B ) B C (B B C C
1 1 1 1
(4.65)

If B = 0 we will obtain (4.57).
The eqn. (4.62) shows that parameter x is determined from measured signal L, and
the eqn. (4.64) is the equation for predict signal outside of observation point. The
determination of parameter x and predicted signal s
P
is conducted by filtering the
measured signal by utilizing covariance model of signals and estimated variance of noise
by using least squares principle. Least squares solution which is used for determination of
parameter x and predicted signal s
P
from filtered measured signal L is called least
squares collocation. More detailed explanation of this technique is described in Moritz
[1973].

- - 46 -


Adjustment in Steps
Recall (4.39):
V + Bx + L = 0 (4..39)
Parameter x from (4,40)
x = - (B
t
P B)
-1
B
t
P L (4.40)
and Q
xx
from (4.45)
Q
xx
= (B
t
P B)
-1
(4.45a)
or
Q
xx
= (B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
(4.45b)

and finally
L
~
L
~ Q from (4.49a)

L
~
L
~ Q = B ( B
t
Q
-1
B)
-1
B
t
(4.49a)

Let (4.39) devided becomes two parts

0
L
L
x
B
B
V
2
1
2
1
=
(
(
(

+
(
(
(

+ (4.66)

where
B
1
= matrix (n
1
x u) and B
2
= matrix n
2
x u
L
1
= matrix n
1
x 1 and L
2
= matrix n
2
x 1
n = n
1
+ n
2


From (4.66)
= L
(
(
(


2
1
L
L

we have cofactor

(

=
2
1
Q 0
0 Q
Q

If use only the set of n
1
data of L
2
we will get x
1
from

V
1
+ B
1
x
1
+ L
1
= 0 (4.67a)

or we use only the set of n
2
data of L
2
we will get x
2
from

V
2
+ B
2
x
2
+ L
2
= 0 (4.67b)
The parameters are
- - 47 -
x
1
= - Q
x1x1

1
1
1
t
1
L Q B

(4.68a)
and
x
2
= - Q
x2x2

2
1
1
t
2
L Q B

(4.68b)

( )
1
1
1 -
1
t
1 1 x 1 x
B Q B Q

= and ( )
1
2
1 -
2
t
2 2 x 2 x
B Q B Q

=

Let the firdt step we use the eqn (4.67a) which give result (4.68a). To obtain parameter
of x, we should add x to x
1
,

x = x
1
+ x (4.69a)
or
x = x x
1
(4.69b)

In the second step we use the n
2
data of L
2
and coefficient B
2
from (4.66), and then
combine with (4.69b), to obtain x,

V
2
= B
2
x + L
2


x
1
= x x
1


We grouping that equation in matrix form,


(

+
(

=
(

1
2 2 2
x -
L
x
I
B

x
V
(4.70a)
or
L x B V
) ) )
+ = (4.70b)
so that
) L Q B ( Q x
-1 t
xx
) ) )
= (4.71)


(

=
1 x 1 x
2
Q 0
0 Q
Q
)
(4.72)


-1 1 t
xx
) B Q B ( Q
) ) )

= (4.73)

| |
(

= =

I
B

Q 0
0 Q
I B ) B Q B ( Q
2
1 -
x1x1
-1
2 t
2
1 - t 1
xx
) ) )

=
-1
1 x 1 x 2
1
2
t
2
Q B Q B +


=
-1
1 x 1 x
1
2 x 2 x
Q Q +

(4.74a)
or

-1 -1
x2x2
1
1 x 1 x xx
) Q Q ( Q + =

(4.74b)
- - 48 -
) L Q B (
-1 t
) ) )
in (4.71) is
| |
(

(
(

=
1
2
1 -
X X
-1
2 t
2
1 - t
x -
L

Q 0
0 Q
I B ) L Q B (
1 1
) ) )


=
1
-1
X X 2
-1
2
t
2
x Q - L Q B
1 1
(4.75)

Multiplication of Q
xx
to
1
xx
Q

at (4.74a) yields


-1
2 x 2 x xx
-1
1 x 1 x xx
Q Q Q Q I + = (4.76a)
or

-1
2 x 2 x xx
-1
1 x 1 x xx
Q Q I Q Q = (4.76b)

Insert (4.75) into (4.71),
) x Q - L Q B ( Q x
1
-1
x1x1 2
-1
2
t
2 xx
=

And by considering (4.76b),


1
-1
2 x 2 x xx 2
-1
2
t
2 xx
x ) Q Q - I ( ) L Q B ( Q x + =

= x
1
{ }
1 2 2
-1
2
t
2 xx
x B L Q B Q +
or
x = x
1
{ }
1 2 2
x B L K +
)
(4.77)

and correction (4.69) will be

{ }
1 2 2
x B L K - x + =
)
(4.78)

Q B Q K
-1
2
t
2 xx
=
)
(4.79)
K
)
is called Kalman gain

We can do least squares adjustment in k steps, so that at each steps we have n
i
data set
of L
i
for i = 1 to k, so that n
1
+ n
2
+ . . . n
k
= n and the measurements L consists of k
groups, where

(
(
(
(
(
(

=
k
2
1
L
.
.
L
L
L and
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
k
2
1
Q . . 0 0
. . . . .
. . . . .
0 . . Q 0
0 . . 0 Q
Q

- - 49 -
For k steps adjustment, we modify notation which shown in the above equations,

x
k
= x
k - 1
{ }
1 - k k k
x B L K +
)
eqn (4.77)

Q B Q K
-1
k
t
k xkxk
) )
=

( ) Q Q Q
xkxk 1) - 1)x(k - x(k xkxk
+ =
) )


( )
1
k
1 -
k
t
k xkxk
B Q B Q

=

If we only doing the adjustment for one step, than B
2
= 0, so that we do not have Kalman
gain. For the first step, k = 1, Q Q
x1x1 1 x 1 x
=
)
.
































- - 50 -
5. PHYSICAL GEODESY
Earths Gravity Field
The previous subjects we have already discussed briefly about gravity, gravitational
and centrifugal acceleration of the earth as well their forces. These forces are gradient of
their potential. Let V
g
, a scalar is gravity potential energy of the earth, relation with
gravitational potential energy and centrifugal potential energy is

V
g
= V
N
+ V
c
(5.1)

Gravity force vector is gradient of gravity potential energy


g
F

= grad V
g

m g

= grad V
g

Let W is gravity acceleration potential and for simplicity we omit acceleration.

g

= grad W (5.2a)
or
g = -
H
W

(5.2b)

The positive direction of gravity is opposite direction of positive direction of H, therefore
(5.2) has minus sign. Here we change notation for gravity acceleration from a
g
becomes
g. Equivalent to (5.1) and (5.2), then we have


N
a

= grad V (5.3)
and

c
a

= grad (5.3)

where V and are called gravitational and centrifugal potentials after we omit
acceleration as well for gravity. From (5.2), (5.3) and (5.4) we have a scalar summation

W (x, y, z) = V(x, y, z) + (x, y, z) (5.4)

Let a Cartesian coordinate has origin at center of the earth, and Z-axis is rotational axis of
the earth. Centrifugal acceleration of a point P (x,y,z) according to (1.6) is

a
c
=
2
p

p =
2 2
y x + (5.5)

From (5.3) and (5.5) we have

- - 51 -
= ) y x (
2
1
2 2 2
+ (5.6)

Gravitational potential for solid body, which can be applied, to the earth [Heiskanen &
Moritz,1967, p. 3]
V = G

v
dv
r
(5.7)

then gravity potential (5.4) becomes

W (x, y, z) = G

v
dv
r
+ ) y x (
2
1
2 2 2
+ (5.8)

By introducing Laplacian operator


2
2
2
2
2
2
z y x

=
then according to (5.4) we have

W = V + (5.9)

Apply to the earth as a rotational solid body we have the generalized Poisson equation
[Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 47]

W = - 4G + 2
2
(5.10)

Outside the earth which is assumed as vacuum space

W = 2
2
(5.11)

because
V = 0 (5.12)

The eqn (5.12) is called Laplace equation. Thus, outside of the earth gravitational
potential satisfies Laplace equation, so that V can be expressed into a spherical harmonic
series. We refer to Heiskanen & Moritz [1967, p. 21 to 32] the gravitational potential of
the earth as unit sphere (radius is equal R = 1) is for a point in spherical coordinate (r, ,
), see the eqn (2.14), in this case R is replaced by r,

| | ) (cos P m sin b m cos a
r
1
) , , r ( V
0 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
1 n

= =
+
+ = (5.13)


nm
a and
nm
b are spherical harmonic coefficients and
nm
P is a Legendre functions; n
is degree and m is order of Legendre functions. Now let an ellipsoid revolution is a
- - 52 -
normal figure of the earth. Talking about a normal figure of the earth means we talk
about Geodetic Reference System which is defined by

a = equatorial radius of the earth
GM = geocentric gravitational constant
J
2
= dynamical form factor
= angular velocity of the earth

By inserting of equatorial radius of the earth and the geocentric gravitational constant,
(5.13) becomes

( ) ) (cos P m sin K m cos J
r
a
- 1
r
GM
) , , r ( V
1 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
n
(
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
=

= =
(5.14)

For an ellipsoid of revolution as geodetic reference system, expansion of the normal
gravitational potential V into a series of spherical harmonics have only even degree, in
the other words the series does not odd degree harmonics and order m , so that (5.14)
becomes,
) ( cos P
r
a
J - . . - ) (cos P
r
a
J - ) (cos P
r
a
J - 1
r
GM
) , , r ( ' V
2n
2n
'
2n 4
4
'
4 2
2
'
2
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
or
) ( cos P
r
a
J - 1
r
GM
) , , r ( ' V
2n
2n
1 - n
'
2n
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=

(5.15)

Coefficients
'
n 2
J can be computed from
'
2
J as explained in Heiskanen & Moritz [1967.
p.73]. Thus by taking
'
2
J = J
2
the gravitational normal potential (5.15) can be computed
from the parameters of geodetic reference system a, GM, J
2
. Normal gravity potential U
that refers to the normal earth, see also (5.4)

U (x, y, z) = V(x, y, z) + (x, y, z)

(5.16)

As shown in (5.2), the actual gravity is the actual gravity potential gradient, and similar
with this, the normal gravity is the normal gravity potential gradient,

= grad U (5.17a)
or
= -
h
U

(5.17b)

Again, the positive direction of normal gravity is opposite direction of positive direction
of h, therefore (5.2) has minus sign. The normal centrifugal potential has the same
- - 53 -
value with the actual centrifugal , because the angular velocity of the normal earth is
also the angular velocity of the actual earth, = and = .
Let T, the anomalous potential

T (x, y, z) = W (x, y, z) - U (x, y, z) (5.18)
and
T (x, y, z) = V (x, y, z) V (x, y, z) (5.19)

Because V and V satisfy Laplace equation, therefore the anomalous potential T also
satisfies Laplace equation for the case of outside of the earth, and from (5.14), (5.15) and
(5.19),

( ) ) (cos P m sin K m cos J
r
a

r
GM
) , , r ( T
0 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
n
(
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
=

= =
(5.20)


Geoid Undulation: Stokes Integral
We know that the geoid is a level surface or a gravity equipotential surface, which is
closed to global mean sea level. Thus gravity potential of the geoid is constant, W = W
o
.
The normal figure of the geoid is represented by an ellipsoid revolution, so that the
ellipsoid revolution is also a level surface, which has normal gravity potential as the same
as the gravity potential of the geoid,

U = U
o
= W
o



Figure 5.1: Geoid-ellipsoid separation N

Actual gravity potential of P at the geoid, see fig. (5.1), W
P
= W
o
, and normal gravity
potential of Q at the surface of ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
, so that

U
Q
= W
P
.

Normal gravity potential at P is obtained by a simple Taylor series

U
P
= U
Q
+
P
Q
N
h
U
|
.
|

\
|


P
Q
ellipsoid, U = U
o
= W
o
geoid, W = W
o
N
P
g
P

Q
P
Q
ellipsoid, U = U
o
= W
o
geoid, W = W
o
N
P
g
P

Q
P
Q
ellipsoid, U = U
o
= W
o
geoid, W = W
o
N
P
g
P

Q
P
Q
ellipsoid, U = U
o
= W
o
geoid, W = W
o
N
P
g
P

Q
- - 54 -

Ellipsoidal height h is positive outward, but normal gravity positive inward of ellipsoid so
that
U
P
= U
Q
-
Q
N
P


Because U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
= W
P
so that

U
P
= W
P
-
Q
N
P


W
P
U
P
= T
P
=
Q
N
P

and finally

T
N
Q
P
P

= (5.21)

This is Bruns formula, basic equation for determination of geoid undulation N from
anomalous potential T. The eqn (5.21) shows that geoid undulation N satisfies Laplace
equation as well as anomalous potential T.
Gravity anomaly g and gravity disturbance g are defined as, see fig (5.1)

g
P
= g
P
-
Q
and g
P
= g
P
-
P


Normal gravity at point P may be obtained from normal gravity at point Q by using a
simple Taylor series

P
=
Q
+
Q
h
|
.
|

\
|


N
P


P
=
Q
+
Q
P
Q
T
h
|
.
|

\
|




From the above equation we obtain relation between gravity anomaly and gravity
disturbance
g
P
= g
P
-
P
= g
P
-
Q
-
Q
P
Q
T
h
|
.
|

\
|




g
P
= g
P
-
Q
P
Q
T
h
|
.
|

\
|


(5.22)

By using spherical approximation, the normal gravity at the surface of the spherical earth
of radius R is
2
o
R
GM
= we have

h

=
r

= - 2
3
R
GM
= -
R
2
o



- - 55 -

o
is gravity value for the spherical earth, and it is gravity value without centrifugal
acceleration, therefore
o
has magnitude as the same as gravitational acceleration
magnitude. According to (5.2) and (5.17) that gravity disturbance may be concluded as
anomalous potential gradient,

g = grad T (5.23a)

g = -
h
T

(5.23b)

The direction of H and h has a very small direction, which is called the deflection of the
vertical. Therefore in this case we may assume that H and h is has the same direction. By
using spherical approximation in (5.22),
Q
may be replaced by
o
, so that at the surface
of spherical earth the equation becomes

g = g +
R
T 2
(5.24a)
or
0 g
R
T 2
h
T
= + +

(5.24b)

This is the fundamental boundary condition in the form of the spherical approximation.
The anomalous potential T in the form of spherical harmonics expansions as shown in
(5.20) can be written for a point outside of the earth as [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p.88]

T(r,,) =

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
0 n
n
1 n
) , ( T
r
R
(5.25)

T
n
(,) is a surface spherical harmonics. For a point outside the spherical earth of radius
R, so that r is > R. Because
h
T

=
r
T

, then we have

h
T

= -

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
0 n
n
1 n
) , ( T
r
R
) 1 n (
r
1
(5.26)

Gravity anomaly for a point outside of the earth is obtained from (5.24)

g = -
h
T

-
r
T 2

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
0 n
n
1 n
) , ( T
r
R
) 1 n (
r
1
g (5.27)

This is expression of gravity anomaly in the form of spherical harmonics series in term of
T
n
(,). The gravity anomaly in the form of spherical harmonics series of g
n
(,) is
- - 56 -
g (r,,) =

=
+
|
.
|

\
|
0 n
n
1 n
) , ( g
r
R
(5.28)
so that we have
) , ( g
1 n
R
) , ( T
n n

= (5.29)

For n =1, the eqn. (5.27) becomes zero, and (5.29) becomes infinity. Therefore gravity
anomaly can never have a first-degree spherical harmonics. Substitution of (5.29) into
(5.25) for any point at the geoid (r = R)

T(,) =

=

2 n
n
) , ( g
1 - n
1
R (5.30)

The surface harmonics of g
n
(,) is obtained from the integration of g over spherical
earth by using formula

g
n
(,) =

+
2
0 0
n
d d sin ) (cos P ) , ( g
4
1 n 2
(5.31)

Insert (5.31) into (5.30) then we obtain T(,) at the geoid, which is approximated by the
spherical earth of radius R

T(,) =

=

+

2
0 0
n
2 n
d d sin ) (cos P
1 - n
1 2n
) , ( g
4
R
(5.32)

+
2 n
n
) (cos P
1 n
1 n 2
is Stokes function which is denoted by S() so that

T(,) =

2
0 0
d d sin ) S( ) , ( g
4
R
(5.33)

Then geoid undulation N is obtained by inserting (5.33) into Bruns formula (5.20)


=
2
0 0
o
d d sin ) S( ) , ( g
4
R
) , ( N (5.34)

P
is replaced by
o
because we use spherical approximation approach in obtaining (5.31).
If we use polar coordinate for the position of d (,), see fig. (5.2) the eqn (5.34)
becomes


=
2
0 0
o
d d sin ) S( ) , ( g
4
R
) , ( N (5.34b)

- - 57 -
The eqns (5.31) and (5.32) is Stokes integral or Stokes formula for the determination of
anomalous potential and geoid undulation respectively. Stokes function S() is

S() = |
.
|

\
|
+

+

2
sin
2
sin ln cos 3 - cos 5 - 1
2
sin 6 -
2
cosec
2
(5.35)
and is computed from

cos = sin sin + cos cos cos (- ) (5.36)



Because d = sin d d = cos d d , see fig. (5.2) then the equations (5.33) and
(5.34) can be written more simple

T(,) =

d ) ( S ) , ( g
4
R
(5.37)

N(,) =

d ) ( S ) , ( g
4
R
o
(5.38a)
or
N(,) =

d ) ( S ) , ( g
4
R
o
(5.38b)

The equation (5.38) tells us that to determine geoid undulation at a certain point P at the
geoid requires gravity anomaly at d, which are well distributed over the whole of the
geoid . The Stokes integral (5.33) is the solution of the geodetic boundary problem by
considering boundary condition at the geoid is shown by (5.24).


Determination of the Geoid from Surface Data and Geopotential Coefficients
Anomalous potential at the surface of the geoid (r = a = R) in spherical harmonic
series, see (5.20) is

=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|

d
Figure 5.2: Geographical coordinates
in spherical triangle
=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|

d
=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|

=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|
=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|

-
P
NP
=|/2-|
-
P
NP
=|/2-|
P
NP
=|/2-|

d d
Figure 5.2: Geographical coordinates
in spherical triangle
- - 58 -
( ) ) (sin P m sin K m cos J
R
GM
) , ( T
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
(

+ =

= =
(5.39)

and geoid undulation is

( ) ) (sin P m sin K m cos J R ) , ( N
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
(

+ =

= =
(5.40)

and gravity anomaly at the surface of the geoid, see the eqn (5.27) for r = R

( ) ) (sin P m sin K m cos J
1 - n
1
) , ( g
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm o (

+ |
.
|

\
|
=

= =
(5.41)

To eliminate minus sign in the right side of the eqns (5.39), (5.40) and (5.41) and for the
most convenient and the most widely used these, equations are expressed in the form of
fully normalized harmonics , so that

) (sin P ) m sin S m cos C (
R
GM
) , ( T
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
(

+ =

= =
(5.42)

) (sin P ) m sin S m cos C ( R ) , ( N
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm
(

+ =

= =
(5.43)

) (sin P ) m sin S m cos C (
1 - n
1
) , ( g
2 n
n
0 m
nm nm nm o (

+ |
.
|

\
|
=

= =
(5.44)


'
nm nm nm
C - C C = and
'
nm nm nm
S - S S =

For parameter geodetic reference system J
2
is changed becomes
0 , 2
C ,

J
2
= J
2,0
= -
0 , 2
C 5
In general

nm nm
C - J = and
nm nm
S - K =

A detailed explanation about conventional harmonic functions and coefficients related to
the fully harmonic functions and coefficients can be found in Heiskanen & Moritz,
[1967,p. 23 60].
The geoid undulation can be determined by using Stokes integral and spherical
harmonic series as shown in (5.39) and (5.40). When we use Stokes integral, we should
have one gravity anomaly value at d, which represents gravity value of d. Stokes
function in the Stokes integral is closed to infinity if closed to zero, or d very near to
computation point P. Therefore for the nearest area to the computation we should have
- - 59 -
small size of d with one gravity anomaly value at the d. Heiskanen & Moritz [1967. p.
120] shows a practical approach to determine effect of the nearest zone on the geoid
computation using Stokes integral It means, when we use Stokes integral, we should
have gravity anomaly data in different size of d over the whole earth. Geoid undulation,
which is determined by using spherical harmonic series, is depending on the degree of
harmonic n. At present geopotential coefficients C
nm
and
nm
S such as for Earth
Gravitational Model 1996 (EGM96) completed to degree n = 360. It means, that geoid
undulation at any point P will represent the geoid undulation in the area by the size of
0.5
o
x 0.5
o
(0.5
o
= 180
o
/degreen n with n = 360), with the P is the center of the angular
grid area. The geoid, which is obtained from geopotential data, is usually called global
geoid. A global geoid which is obtained from n = m = 360 is more detailed than the geoid
undulation that is obtained from n = m = 180. There is another model which is called
GPM98 model completed to degree n = 1800. The global geoid which is computed by
using this model may be called 0.1
o
global geoid.
To determine a detailed geoid in a certain area requires surface gravity anomaly data,
which can be organized in a small grid, for example 0.1
o
x 0.1
o
angular grid. Then Stokes
integral is devided into

= d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
) , ( N
o
=


1
S
o
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R

+


2
H
o
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
= N
1
+ N
2


N
1
is computed from surface gravity anomaly data, g
s
and N
2
computed from
geopotential coefficients data. The geoid undulation that is obtained from geopotential
coefficients data N
H
, see (5.43) written in integral form

= d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
) , ( N
H
o
H
= N
H1
+ N
H2
g
H
is gravity anomaly that is computed from geopotential coefficients data, see (5.44).

=
1
H
o
H1
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
N and

=
12
H
o
H2
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
N

Because N
2
= N
H2
then we have

N = N
1
+ N
H2
= N
1
N
H1
+ N
H1
+ N
H2
= N
1
N
H1
+ N
H


N
1
- N
H1
=

1
S
o
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R
-


1
H
o
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( g
4
R


N
1
- N
H1
=

1
H S
o
d ) ( S ) ' , ' ( ) g - g (
4
R
(5.45)
- - 60 -

N
1
- N
H1
= N
Stokes

Finally we have geoid undulation obtained from combination of surface data and
geopotential coefficients data as

N = N
Stokes
+ N
H
(5.46)

To apply (5.45) we should have gravity anomaly data, which is obtained geopotential
coefficients in the same grid with the surface gravity anomaly data. In the grid where
the surface gravity data is not available, g
S
is taken equal to g
H
. For integral Stokes
(5..38) we may use R = 6371 km and
o
= 9.797 6 m s
-2


Geodetic Reference System 1980
To obtain surface gravity anomaly value at any point P at the geoid, see fig. (5.1) the
gravity value at that point should be subtracted by the normal gravity value of point Q at
reference ellipsoid. The normal gravity value is computed by using the formula adopted
IAG for Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS 1980). The GRS has been adopted at the
XVII General Assembly of the IUGG in Canberra 1979 replacing GRS 1967 adopted at
the General Assembly of the IUGG, Lucerne, 1967 [Moritz, 2000] . The parameter
constants that is defined the GRS 1908 is,
equatorial radius or the earth: a = 6 378 137 m,
geocentric gravitational constant of the earth (including atmosphere):
GM = 3 986 005 x 10
8
m
3
s
-2
,
dynamical form factor of the earth, excluding the permanent tidal
deformation: J
2
= 108 263 x 10
-8
,
angular velocity of the earth: = 7 292 115 x 10
-11
rad s
-1
.
Based on the parameters, some derived geometric constants is
semi minor axis: b = 6 356 752.3141 m,
first eccentricity (e): e
2
= 0.006 694 380 022 90,
second extensity (e): e
2
= 0.006 739 496 775 48,
flattening: f = 0.003 352 810 681 18
reciprocal flattening: f
-1
= 298.257 222 101
mean radius: R
1
= 6 371 008.7714 m
radius of sphere of same surface: R
2
= 6 371 007.1810 m
radius of sphere of same volume: R
3
= 6 3712 007.7900 m.
Derived physical constants is
normal potential at ellipsoid: U
o
= 6 263 686.0850 x 10 m
2
s
-2

normal gravity at equator:
e
= 9.780 326 7715 m s
-2

normal gravity at pole:
p
= 9.832 186 3785 m s
-2
mean value of normal gravity
o
= 9.797 644 656 m s
-2

Normal gravity at latitude

= 9.780 326 77 (1 + 0.005 3045 sin
2
- 0.000 0058 sin
2
2 ) (5.47)
- - 61 -

Molodenskys Approach


Gravity g is measured at the physical surface of the earth. The use of Stokes integral
for the determination of the geoid undulation requires gravity anomaly at the geoid and
there must be no masses outside of the geoid. Therefore, to obtain gravity anomaly at the
geoid, the measured gravity must be reduced to mean sea level as approximate surface of
the geoid and masses outside of the geoid must be completely shifted below the mean sea
level. The gravity reduction and masses shifting into the geoid will affect or change the
geoid itself, which is called indirect effect. Thus the geoid that is computed by Stokes
integral is slightly difference than the geoid itself, but we will obtain a surface, which
called cogeoid.
To solve the problem of gravity reduction, Molodensky proposed an approach that the
geoid undulation is determined using gravity anomalies data at the earths surface. If
normal figure of the geoid is the level ellipsoid, a normal gravity equipotential surface,
then Molodensky introduced a normal figure if the earths surface which is called by
Hirvonen as telluroid [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 292], as shown in figure 5.3.
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
spherop of Q, U
Q
= W
P
geop of P, W
P
spherrop of P, U
P
spherop of P
o
U
Po
Figure 5.3: Geoid, earths surface,
ellipsoid and telluroid
N = geoid undulaation
= height anomaly
H = orthometric height
H
n
= normal height
h = ellipsoidal heght
h = N + H = + H
n

Qo
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
spherop of Q, U
Q
= W
P
geop of P, W
P
spherrop of P, U
P
spherop of P
o
U
Po
Figure 5.3: Geoid, earths surface,
ellipsoid and telluroid
N = geoid undulaation
= height anomaly
H = orthometric height
H
n
= normal height
h = ellipsoidal heght
h = N + H = + H
n
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
spherop of Q, U
Q
= W
P
geop of P, W
P
spherrop of P, U
P
spherop of P
o
U
Po
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
spherop of Q, U
Q
= W
P
geop of P, W
P
spherrop of P, U
P
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
P
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
geoid, W
P
=W
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n
N
H
h
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
g
P
P

o
Q
g
P
P

o
Q
g
P
P

o
Q
g
P
P

o
Q
g
Po
Q
o

H
n

H
n
N
H
N N
H
hh
earths surface
telluroid
ellipsoid, U
Q
= U
o
= W
o
sea surface
spherop of Q, U
Q
= W
P
geop of P, W
P
spherrop of P, U
P
spherop of P
o
U
Po
Figure 5.3: Geoid, earths surface,
ellipsoid and telluroid
N = geoid undulaation
= height anomaly
H = orthometric height
H
n
= normal height
h = ellipsoidal heght
h = N + H = + H
n
N = geoid undulaation
= height anomaly
H = orthometric height
H
n
= normal height
h = ellipsoidal heght
N = geoid undulaation
= height anomaly
H = orthometric height
H
n
= normal height
h = ellipsoidal heght
h = N + H = + H
n

Qo
- - 62 -
Because the earths surface is not level surface, therefore the telluroid obviously is not a
level surface. Height of the earth surface above the geoid is orthometric height, which is
denoted by H, see also fig. (2.4), and the height of the telluroid above the level ellipsoid
is normal height, denoted by H
n
. If the geoid is separated from ellipsoid by the geoid
undulation, which usually denoted by N, the telluroid is separated from the earths
surface by height anomaly, denoted by . Because the height of the earths surface
above the ellipsoid is ellipsoidal height, denoted by h, then we have

h = H + N
and
h = H
n
+
then we have
N = + H
n
H (5.48)

It is shown in Heiskanen & Moritz [1967, p. 327], that

H
n
H = H
g
o
B

(5.49)
Therefore geoid undulation can be obtained from height anomaly

N = + H
g
o
B

(5.50)
Where g
B
is Bouguer gravity anomaly.
Height anomaly is determined by using free air gravity anomalies data at the earth
surface. Gravity anomaly of any point P at the earths surface is

g
P
= g
P
-
Q
(5.51)

where Q is a point at the telluroid and a normal gravity equipotensial, which is also called
spheropotential surface (spherop) of Q. This spheropotensial (spherop) has potential
value U
Q
that is equal to potential value of P, which is also located at an actual gravity
equipotential, which is also called geopotential surface (geop) of P. Gravity value at Q is
obtained from [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 123],


2
n
n
Q
2
Q
a
H
3 H ) sin f 2 m f 1 (
a
2
- 1 [
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + = (5.52)
is normal gravity value at Q
o
which has latitude , and computed from normal gravity
formula (5.47). Normal height H
n
is obtained from spirit leveling which will be discussed
later. Other values a and f are the semi-major axis and flattening of reference ellipsoid
respectively; the value of m is [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 69]


GM
) f 1 ( a
m
3 2

= (5.53)

- - 63 -
GRS value for m is m = 0.003 449 786 003 08 m s
-2
[Moritz, 2000].

Let
o
is approximate value of height anomaly, which is computed from

= d ) ( S ) , ( g
4
R

Q
o
(5.54)
Gravity anomaly in (5.54) is the gravity anomalies data at the earth surface, which is not
a level surface. We will obtain height anomaly after we use gravity anomalies value at the
geopotential surface or level surface belongs to the computation point. Therefore the any
gravity anomaly at the earth surface must be added by the correction G
1
[Heiskanen &
Moritz, 1967, pp. 300 - 307],

|
.
|

\
|

= d
R 2
3
g
H H

2
R
G
o
o
3
o
P
2
1

(5.55)

2
sin R 2
o

=
H
P
= height of computation P above sea level
H = height of d above sea level

If we put G
1
into Stokes integral we will obtain
1
that is correction should be added to
the approximate height anomaly

= d ) ( S ) , ( G
4
R

1
Q
1
(5.56)
so that
=

+
1
(5.57)


Height Systems and Spirit Leveling
The eqn. (5.2) shows that from gradient potential as shown at (5.2), we will obtain
potential difference between P
o
at the geoid and P at the earth surface, see fig. (5.3)

=
P
P
P P
o
o
dH g W W (5.58a)
Because orthometric of P
o
is zero and of P is H, and
o
P
W = W
o
then (5.58a) may be
written

=
H
0
o P
dH g W W (5.58b)

- - 64 -

Figure 5.4: Spirit Leveling Measurement

In the case of spirit leveling measurement as shown in fig. (5.4), the distance between
points P
o
and P
1
are between 50 to 150 meters, so that gravity direction at these points
may be assumed parallel short. Thus the height difference between these points dn
1

yielded from the spirit leveling measurement may be assumed as orthometric height
difference between these points, and potential difference between P
1
and P
o
is


1 1 P P
dn g W W
o 1
=
where g
1
is average value of gravity values of P
o
and P
1
. Let point P
k
and P
o
at fig.
(3.2) is the point P and P
o
at fig. (5.3), so that we have

=
k
1
i 1 o P
dn g W W (5.59)
The eqn (4.59) shows that potential difference between two points can be obtained by
combination of leveling and gravity measurements. Let C
P
is geopotential number of
point P defined as

C
P
= W
o
- W
P
(5.60a)
or, because (5.58)
C
P
=

H
0
dH g (5.60b)

Measuring unit for geopotential number C is geopotential unit (gpu) , where 1 gpu is
equal to 1 kgal meter. The eqns. (5.59) and (5.60) shows that potential of point at the
earth surface points, which is related to the potential of the geoid, and geopotential
f1
P
o
P
1
P
k
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
P
k-1
P
3
dn
1
dn
2
dn
k
f1
P
o
P
1
P
k
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
P
k-1
P
3
dn
1
dn
2
dn
k
f1
P
o
P
1
P
k
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
P
k-1
P
3
dn
1
dn
2
dn
k
P
o
P
1
P
k
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
P
k-1
P
3
P
o
P
1
P
k
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
b1
fk
f2
b2
bk
P
k-1
P
3
dn
1
dn
2
dn
k
- - 65 -
number of that point can be obtained by combination of leveling and gravity
measurements. The eqn (5.60b) can be modified as

C
P
=
P
H
g H
P
(5.61)

because the average gravity value between P
o
and P, see fig. (5.3)


P
H
g =

H
0
dH g
H
1
(5.62)

or
P
H
g = g + 0.0424 H, where g in gals and H in km [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 167].
Because U
Q
= W
P
and U
Qo
= U
o
= W
o
then equivalent with (5.61) and (5.63) we have

C
P
=
n
H
H
n
(5.63)

and the average normal value between Q
o
and Q is


n
H
=

n
H
0
n
n
dH
H
1
(5.64)
or
n
H
is computed from the formula [Heiskanen & Moritz, 1967, p. 170],

n
H
= ( )
2
2
n n
2
a
H
a
H
sin 2f - m f 1 - 1
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +



In the fig. (5.3) we have two height systems, they are orthometric height and normal
height. There is another height system that is dynamic height. This system is defined as


r
dyn
C
H

= (5.65)

r
is normal gravity at reference parallel; internationally the parallel at the latitude of 45
o

is chosen as reference parallel. Two points, which are located at the same level surface,
have the same dynamic height, so that dynamic height system has no geometrical
meaning. Height dynamic difference between two arbitrary points P and Q is

) C C (
1
H H H
P Q
r
dyn
P
dyn
Q
dyn
PQ

= =
According to the eqns. (5.59) and (5.60a) the height dynamic different become

dn g
1
H
Q
P
r
dyn
PQ

= (5.66)

The eqn. (5.66) shows determination of dynamic height difference between two points
- - 66 -
from combination of spirit leveling and gravity measurements, where g is the average
gravity value between two leveling stations, which the distance between the two stations
(P
i
and P
2
) is not more than 150 meters, see fig. (5.4).



Figure (5.5) shows two different lines of spirit leveling. Because the eqn. (5.66)

=
Q
P
2 2 1
Q
P
1
dn g dn g (5.67)
therefore

Q
P
2
Q
P
1
dn dn (5.68)


This is the evidence that combination of spirit leveling and gravity measurements
between two points which is conducted through two or more different lines must give
same results, but not for spirit leveling measurements without gravity measurements.
Therefore leveling measurements should be added by dynamic height difference
correction Dc
PQ
. The eqn (5.66) may be written as

PQ
Q
P
dyn
PQ
Dc dn H + =

so that difference dynamic height correction between P and Q that should be added to
leveling measurements,

Dc
PQ
=

Q
P
r
r
dn ) g (
1
(5.69)

Dynamic height of arbitrary point P may be obtained from orthometric height H
P
by
giving dynamic correction Dc to the orthometric height,


P P
dyn
P
Dc H H + =
P
Q
1
2
Figure 5.5: Two different lines
of spirit leveling
P
Q
1
2
P
Q
1
2
Figure 5.5: Two different lines
of spirit leveling
- - 67 -
From (5.61) we have
H
P
=
P
H
P
g
C

so that, because (5.61) and (5.65)
Dc
P
=
P
r
P
H
C


then
Dc
P
=
P r H
r
H ) g (
1
P

(5.70)

Orthometric height difference between P and Q is


P
din
P Q
dyn
Q P Q PQ
Dc H Dc H H H H + = =
or
H
PQ

Q P
dyn
PQ
Dc Dc H + = (5.71)

To obtain orthometric height, leveling measurements should be given orthometric height
difference correction, thus

PQ
Q
P
PQ
Oc dn H + =

From (6.69), (5.70) and (5.71)
Oc
PQ
=
PQ
Q
P
Dc dn + + Dc
P
- Dc
Q
Oc
PQ
=

Q
P
r
r
dn ) g (
1
+
P r H
r
H ) g (
1
P


Q r H
r
H ) g (
1
Q

(5.72)

Equivalent with the orthometric height difference correction, to obtain normal height
difference, we should add normal height difference correction to spirit leveling
measurements,
Nc
PQ
=

Q
P
r
r
dn ) g (
1
+
n
P r
H
r
H ) (
1
n
P


n
Q r
H
r
H ) (
1
n
Q

(5.73)



- - 68 -
6. GEODESY APPLICATIONS FOR GEOPHYSICS

There are many countries are located at volcanic and seismic active area, such as
Japan and Indonesia, see fig. (6.1). Natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions and tsunamis are occurred quite often in these countries.
GPS technology to monitor crustal deformation, which is caused by the dynamic
activities of the earth interior, GSI, the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan established
the nationwide continuous GPS network, called GPS Earth Observation Network
(GEONET) in 1993. According to Takemoto [2003], more than one thousands
observation sites were established in 2002, and GEONET data became available to
researches on line at the GSI web. Hori, et al. [2000] used GEONET data to predict
stress field in Japan using GEONET data.
In 2000 there were six active volcanoes eruptions in Japan. One of the eruptions was
known 2000 Miyakejima eruption. A lot of buildings were destroyed by the eruption.
Many volcanologists and seismologists in Japan investigate the occurrence of the
eruptions using GEONET data. Furuya, et al. [2003] studied mass budget of the magma
flow at Izu-islands regarding the 2000 volcano-seismic activity in this region, see fig. 6.2.
They analyzed gravity and elevation changes which were obtained from leveling
measurements and microgravity measurements. By combining the results with ground
displacements were obtained from GEONET, magma behavior during 2000 Miyake-
Kozu volcano seismic activity was detected. Irwan [2004] detected magma behavior of
the Miyakejima volcano on June26 27, 2000 by analyzing ground deformation obtained
from kinematic GPS. Immediately after the large eruption of the 2000 Miyakejima,
Ukawa, et al. [2000] studied subsurface magma movement by analyzing the National
Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) GPS Observation
Network constructed at Miyakejima 1995 1999 combined with 2-component tiltmeter
and 3-component short-period seismometer installed at each GPS station. This
investigation succeed to detect magma movement of Miyakejima, which has good
agreement with the later investigation done by Furuya, et al. [2003] and Irwan, et al.
[2003].

Figure 6.1: Seismicity Map of the World
http://wwwrses.anu.edu.au/seismology/quakes/seimogram.html
- - 69 -






















Ground deformation was detected accompanying an earthquake swarm at Hachijo
Island (100 km at the south of Miyakejima) during the period of 13 16 August 2002 by
analyzing continuous GPS measurements at four sites on the island combined with
GEONET data. Eastward ground displacements of 2 6 cm were succeeded to detect
[Kimata, et al. 2004]. Analysis of 1-Hz GPS data observed at 14 stations of GEONET,
associated with the 2003 M
JMA
8.1 Tokachi-oki earthquake was conducted by Irwan, et
al. [2004]. The analysis yielded that GPS data clearly captured rapid co-seismic ground
displacements. The data shown that co-seismic displacements started 15 seconds after the
origin time at the station 70 km away from the epicenter, and 40 seconds at the station
240 km away.
The Indonesian Archipelago is located in three major plates systems, Eurasia plate,
Australia plate and Pacific-Philippine Sea plates. The region, which is closed to a plate
boundary and triple junction of the plates, is a tectonic active region. Subduction of the
Australia plate into Eurasian plate, as well as the motion of the Pacific-Philippine Sea
plate make this region is surrounded by some ocean trenches such as Sunda trench,
Banda trench, New Guinea trench, North Sulawesi trench, Palawan trench and Philippine
trench. There are many active fault systems in this region such as Sumatra fault, Palu-
Mentano fault, and Sorong fault. Close to plate boundaries there is a volcanic arc along
Bukit Barisan in Sumatra island, continue to Sunda Strait (where Krakatau volcano is
located), to the islands of Java, Bali, and to Sunda Lesser islands, cross to Banda arc, and
continue to the North Sulawesi, Halmahera and Philippine. These plate tectonic, volcanic
and trenches systems make the Indonesian Archipelago is a geological and geophysical
complex system. Related to this complex system, this region is located in the highest
gravity anomaly variations in the world. These are presented by the range of the geoid
Figure 6.2:
Miyakejima and
Kozushima
in Izu Islands
Behavour of magma can be
detected between Miyakejima
and Kozuma which is located
at shaded area


- - 70 -
undulations in this region around 45 m at Indian Ocean to + 80 m in Papua. Therefore
geodynamics of Indonesia is an interesting subject to be investigated by many earth
scientists.
In 1989, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National
Coordination Agency for Surveys and Mapping (abbr.: BAKOSURTANAL in the
Indonesian language) and US National Science Foundation (US-NSF) was signed; US
side were represented by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the California
University, San Diego, and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), New York. In
1992 the MOU was renewed in 1992 where the Institute of Technology in Bandung (ITB)
took a part to sign MOU for the Indonesia side. The main objective of the MOU was to
investigate crustal movements along the Sumatra fault by using GPS technique. In the
first GPS campaign, a GPS team from Japan led by the Earthquake Research Institute, the
University of Tokyo was also participated. Then the campaign was expanded to the East
part of Indonesia. A report of this study may be found in Bock et al. [2003].























Figure 6.3: A Preliminary Result of Sulawesi GPS Campaign
after Sarsito et al. [2002]


Tectonic motions at Sulawesi island which is closed to triple junction of Eurasia,
Australia and Pacific-Philippine Sea plates are being studied since 1997, under
cooperation of DEOS (Delft Institute for Earth Oriented Space Research) and the
Department of Geodetic Engineering, the Institute of Technology, Bandung. A
preliminary result was reported by Sarsito et al, 2002].
- - 71 -
In 1991, under the program of the International Decade for Natural Disaster
Reduction (IDNDR), the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) of the Kyoto
University established research cooperation with some Indonesian Institutions.
Implementing Agreements between DPRI and each institution carried implementation of
the cooperation. One of the Implementing Agreement was between DPRI and the
Research and Development Center for Geotechnology (RDCG), of the Indonesian
Institute of Science (LIPI) on Crustal movements monitoring by GPS and gravity
change measurements around volcanoes and active fault system by the period of 1991
1993. In 1994, DPRI and the Directorate General of Geology and Mineral Resources
(DGGMR) signed an Implementing Agreement for research on Volcanoes deformation
monitoring by GPS measurements by the period of 1994 1998. Technically, the
implementation of the above mentioned researches were carried out by Research Center
of Earthquake Prediction (RCEP) of DPRI and the Department of Geodetic Engineering,
the Institute of Technology in Bandung [Kahar, 1998].



Figure 6.4: Major Volcanoes of Indonesia

Beside GPS survey for crustal motions study, some others natural hazard mitigation
in Indonesia for volcano deformation, land subsidence, and land slide studies using GPS
technique are also conducted. Monitoring volcano deformation have been conducted at
several volcanoes in Indonesia. Department of Geodetic Engineering, Institute of
Technology Bandung in cooperation with Directorate of Vulcanology and Geological
Hazard Mitigation has conducted GPS surveys in Guntur, Papandayan, Galunggung,
Tangkubanperahu, Kelut, Bromo, Ijen, and Batur volcanoes since 1997. Location of these
volcanoes can be seen in the following fig. (6.4). The studies have provided not only the
deformation characteristics of the corresponding volcanoes, but also the understanding on
strengths and weaknesses of GPS survey technique for volcano deformation study and
monitoring [Abidin, 2003]. Combination of GPS and INSAR techniques for studying the
deformation of Indonesian volcanoes was also conducted under cooperation of the

- - 72 -
Department of Geodetic Engineering of ITB and Research Center for Seismology,
Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation, Nagoya University [Abidin, 2001].



Figure 6.5: PWV in Bandung City on September 02, 2001

It has been discussed briefly that GPS data are influenced by atmospheric conditions,
so that GPS observations equations should consider ionosphere and troposphere effects as
shown in (3.13) and (3.18). Inversion of this problem is that GPS data at some fixed
locations can be used to determine integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) of the
region. This solution is known as GPS Meteorology, that is the application of GPS data to
the monitoring and analysis of atmospheric conditions. Figure (6.5) shows PWV in
Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia on September 02, 2001 [Kuntjoro, et al., 2002].
Gravity field information which is obtained from geopotential coefficients depend on
degree of harmonics n. Figure (6.6) shows the gravity anomaly information in Japan
region which is obtained from n = 30 and n = 90 from GPM98 potential coefficients.
Information which is given by degree n = 90 more detail than degree n = 30. By
analyzing the information combined with tomography, land and sea bottom topography
data might be used for study the interior of the earth surface at certain depth.

-11.3 -9.9 -8.6 -7.2 -5.8 -4.5 -3.1 -1.8 -1.1 0.3 1.7 3.0 4.4 5.7 7.0 8.4 9.8
1A01
1C01
1D01
1E01 2A01
2C01
2D01
2E01
3A01
3C01
3D01
3E01 RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
4A01
4C01
4D01
3A02
3C02
3D02
3E02
2A02
2C02
2D02
2E02
RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
1A02
1C02
1D02
1E02
2A03
2C03
2D03
2E03
3A03
3E03 RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
4A03
4C03
4D03
4E03
3A04
3C04
3D04
3E04
2A04
2C04
2D04
2E04
RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
1A04
1C04
1D04
1E04
2A05
2C05
2D05
2E05
3A05
3C05
3E05 RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
4A05
4C05
4E05
3A06
3C06
3E06
2A06
2D06
2E06
RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
1A06
1D06
1E06
2A07
2C07
2D07
2E07
3A07
3C07
3D07
3E07 RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
4A07
4C07
4D07
4E07
3A08
3C08
3D08
3E08
2A08
2C08
2D08
2E08
1A08
1C08
1D08
1E08
RSDN
PASC
4C01
1A55
3A22 784000 786000 788000 790000 792000 794000 796000 798000 800000
PETA PWV KOTA BANDUNG
13 J uni 2001
Relatif Terhadap Titik Residen (RSDN)
(04) (12.00 - 13.00 WIB)
(03) (11.00 - 12.00 WIB)
(02) (10.00 - 11.00 WIB)
(07) (15.00 - 16.00 WIB) (08) (16.00 - 17.00 WIB)
(05) (13.00 - 14.00 WIB) (06) (14.00 - 15.00 WIB)
(01) (09.00 - 10.00 WIB)
X min = 782726.319 ; X max = 800353.876
Y min = 9230406.770 ; Y max = 9237836.553
Maksimum = 9.75 mm
Minimum = -11.25 mm
SKALA KEABUAN PWV
Dalam Satuan Milimeter (mm)
SISTEM KOORDINAT UTM ZONA 48 S
INFORMASI KONTUR
Interval = 0.45 mm
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
Ujung Berung
Cicaheum
Pasteur
Tegal Lega Buah Batu
Antapani
Cibiru
- - 73 -

Figure 6.6: Gravity anomaly in Japan Region derived
from GPM98 [Prijatna, 2004]

n
max
= 30 n
max
= 30
n
max
= 90 n
max
= 90
- - 74 -
Above briefly description tells the application of geodesy to geophysics study. But
the development of geodesy also requires the knowledge from other disciplines. We have
started from Phythagoras 2500 yeas ago that had brilliant opinion that the earth must be a
sphere. Aristotle supported this opinion by a reason that God created the earth as an ideal
and completed form that is a sphere. Eratosthenes taught us that by a simple technology
at his time he succeed measure the size of the earth. By idea of Newton 350 years ago,
we learned that the surface of the spherical earth is a gravitational equipotential surface.
Then we learned from the earth is a rotational body, therefore we think that the ideal form
of the earth is ellipsoid of revolution. The angular velocity of the earth rotation influences
the shape of the earth. But the earth is not a homogenous body, therefore the figure of the
earth must be deviated from the ellipsoid of revolution that is the geoid, which is known
as a gravity equipotential surface. To study the geoid, the knowledge about the interior of
the earth is required. By interpreting information given by geodesists, then geophysicists
studying the earth interior. We know that this investigation is also required advanced
technology. Therefore we may have conclusion that to study about the earth, which was
created by God, require thousands of years by collaboration of many disciplines.




























- - 75 -
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Websites:
http://www.zianet.com/globalcogo/ge002.pdf
http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR614/MR614.appb.pdf
http://igscb.jpl.nasa
http://wwwrses.anu.edu.au/seismology/quakes/seismogram.html