Inr Histnrians and Histnrica! 5ncia!

5cicntists
A Gcngraphic InInrmatinn 5ystcms (GI5)
Training Manua!
J.B. Owcns
Andcrsnn 5andcs
Barbara 5tcphcnsnn
David Dixnn
Cathcrinc Za|anc
This wnrk is prnvidcd as part nI thc prn|cct
"Undcrstanding 5ncia! Nctwnrks within Cnmp!cx,
Nnn!incar 5ystcms: Gcngraphica!!y-Intcgratcd Histnry
and Dynamics GI5 |5OCNET{", which is suppnrtcd
by thc U.5. Natinna! 5cicncc Fnundatinn undcr Grants
No. 0941371 and No. 0941501. Any opinions, findings, and
cnnc!usinns nr rccnmmcndatinns cxprcsscd in this training
manua! arc thnsc nI thc authnrs and dn nnt ncccssari!y
reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.




















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Co¡yrighl Informalion



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2%,+(: 2,+$.1+414 by }. ß. Ovens, Anderson Sandes $1 (: is Iicensed under a Crealive
Commons Allribulion-NonCommerciaI-NoDerivs 3.0 Un¡orled License. To viev a
co¡y of lhis Iicense, visil hll¡://crealivecommons.org/Iicenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a
Ieller lo Crealive Commons, 171 Second Slreel, Suile 300, San Irancisco, CaIifornia,
94105, USA.

ßased on a vork al hll¡://idahoslale.academia.edu/}ß}ackOvens/ßooks.

Iermissions beyond lhe sco¡e of lhis Iicense may be avaiIabIe al
hll¡://geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com
or hll¡://vvv.isu.edu/hislory/
or from }. ß. Ovens (oven|ack+isu.edu).












Dedicaled lo lhe memory of Gary L. Walry (1953-2008),
Cenler for Ocean-Almos¡heric Irediclion Sludies (COAIS),
IIorida Slale Universily (ISU)





































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AddilionaI TooIs ReIaled lo Digilizing 177
IXIRCISI 9 178



"#$%&'() *+, "#$%&' (#%# 196
Hov is Rasler Dala Used by Hislorians and HisloricaI SociaI Scienlisls` 197
DigilaI IIevalion ModeIs 198
AeriaI Ihologra¡hy 199
Rasler Dala vs. Veclor Dala: A Com¡arison 200
IXIRCISI 10 202



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TUTORIAL I 219
TUTORIAL II 242
TUTORIAL III 260
TUTORIAL IV 289



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1
!"#$%&'(#!%"
The idea for lhis geogra¡hic informalion syslems (GIS) lraining manuaI for hislorians
and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls emerged during lhe crealion of lhe innovalive, GIS-based
masler's ¡rogram in hislory al Idaho Slale Universily (ISU).
1
Many hislorians vho vere
inleresled in lhe a¡¡Iicalion of GIS lo lheir research and leaching vere nonelheIess
inlimidaled by lhe slee¡ Iearning curve lhey faced lo masler lhe soflvare and by lhe
¡olenliaI cosls. We have ¡re¡ared lhe foIIoving cha¡lers and exercises lo ¡rovide an
accessibIe inlroduclion lo GIS for novices. Moreover, unliI readers reach some more
advanced cha¡lers al lhe end, aII of lhe exercises use Ma¡Windov GIS
(hll¡://vvv.Ma¡Windov.org/), vhich is a free, o¡en source ¡roducl avaiIabIe for
dovnIoad vilhoul cosl by anyone. The direcl ins¡iralion for crealing lhis book came
from lhe use of an earIier Ma¡Windov luloriaI, G. L. Walry, and D. I. Ames, D. I.
(2007), ! #$%&'(&%) )**+ %' ,%#-(./*0 123 (US, UK & CA: IuIu.com). Gary Walry died
shorlIy afler lhe ¡ubIicalion of lhis guide, and ve dedicale lhis lraining manuaI lo his
memory.

We have based lhe finaI four luloriaIs of lhe book on lhe use of ArcGIS, lhe ma|or
¡roducl of ISRI (vvv.esri.com), one of lhe ¡ioneering com¡anies in lhe deveIo¡menl
of GIS. Ior many of lhe lhings lhal hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls viII vanl lo
do vilh GIS, Ma¡Windov is loo Iimiled. Ior exam¡Ie, lhe Ma¡Windov soflvare does
nol su¡¡orl ¡rofessionaI quaIily carlogra¡hic visuaIizalions. Therefore, once
researchers and leachers have maslered lhe basics of GIS, lhey viII vanl lo lransilion lo
ArcGIS. When lhey become ¡arl of lhe ArcGIS communily, lhis grou¡ of users viII
have access lo a variely of resources. Il is lrue lhal ArcGIS is quile ex¡ensive, bul many
inslilulions aIready have sile Iicenses for lhe soflvare, vhich make ils use free for
individuaIs. AIso, ISRI has avaiIabIe severaI ¡rograms lhal su¡¡orl lhe educalionaI use
of lhe soflvare. ISRI ¡rovides a rich Iearning environmenl for ArcGIS users, bolh
onIine and during lhe huge users' convenlion, vhich is heId every year in }uIy.

1
}. ß. Ovens and Laura Woodvorlh-Ney, ´Invisioning a masler's degree ¡rogram in geogra¡hicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory,¨ 4*5$.%) *6 '78 !99*&(%'(*. 6*$ :(9'*$; %./ <*=#5'(.> 8/2 (Se¡lember 2005)
|hll¡://mceI.¡acificu.edu/|ahc/2005/issue2/arlicIes/ovensvoodvorlh.¡h¡j, ´Idaho Slale Universily
Creales Innovalive Irogram in Hislory and GIS,¨ !$&?809 (IaII 2005)
|hll¡://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/faII05arlicIes/idaho-slale-univ.hlmI, accessed 19 Augusl 2013j. }. ß.
Ovens, ¨Graduale Iducalion in Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory: A IersonaI Accounl,¨ 4*5$.%) *6 '78
!99*&(%'(*. 6*$ :(9'*$; %./ <*=#5'(.> 13/1 (May 2010) |hll¡://hdI.handIe.nel/2027/s¡o.3310410.0013.105,
hll¡://quod.Iib.umich.edu/cgi/l/lexl/lexl-idx`c·|ahc,viev·lexl,rgn·main,idno·3310410.0013.105, accessed
2 May 2014j.


2
AIlhough lhis convenlion is aIso ex¡ensive in lerms of individuaI regislralion, lhere is a
research segmenl lhal ¡ermils lhe ¡resenlalion of ¡a¡ers aboul hisloricaI research using
ArcGIS, vhich may encourage inslilulions lo subsidize lhe cosl of allending lhe
meelings.

Nole lhal ve have lied lhe exercises in lhe firsl len cha¡lers lo a slabIe version of
Ma¡Windov GIS. Hovever, ve couId nol design lhe finaI four exercises lo incIude a
slabIe version of ArcGIS 10.x, vhich means lhal users of lhis lraining manuaI may nole
some sIighl differences in lhe exercise ¡rocedures.

The crealion of lhis lraining manuaI vas ¡ro¡osed as ¡arl of lhe coIIaboralive ¡ro|ecl
´Underslanding SociaI Nelvorks vilhin Com¡Iex, NonIinear Syslems: Geogra¡hicaIIy-
Inlegraled Hislory and Dynamics GIS |SOCNITj¨, vhich is su¡¡orled by lhe U.S.
NalionaI Science Ioundalion under Granls No. 0941371 ($1,290.704, Iead ¡ro|ecl
Irinci¡aI Invesligalor Dr. }. ß. Ovens, Idaho Slale Universily) and No. 0941501
($471,193, Irinci¡aI Invesligalor Dr. May Yuan, Universily of OkIahoma), for a lolaI
avard of $1,761,897. The ¡ro|ecl vas funded lhrough an NSI ¡rogram caIIed ´Cyber-
InabIed Discovery and Innovalion¨ (CDI). CDI had lhree lhemes, aII of vhich are
reIevanl lo lhe SOCNIT ¡ro|ecl: Dala lo KnovIedge, Underslanding Com¡Iex Syslems,
and VirluaI Organizalions. Ior us, GIS is a key, inlegralive looI for moving from dala lo
knovIedge and for underslanding dynamic com¡Iexily.

Hovever, lhe avaiIabIe commerciaI GIS soflvare ¡roducls do nol serve hislorians veII
because lhey do nol Iend lhemseIves easiIy lo deaIing vilh lime.
2
We are hislorians vho
asserl lhal narralive is a dislincl and vaIuabIe source of knovIedge. To achieve
narralive knovIedge, ve vanled a GIS lhal vouId aIIov us lo ¡roduce more
com¡Iicaled narralives lhan hislorians have been ca¡abIe of crealing: narralives lhal
¡ay allenlion simuIlaneousIy lo aclivilies, evenls, and ¡rocesses vhiIe cou¡Iing naluraI
and human syslems. In order lo creale narralives lhal heI¡ us undersland com¡Iex
syslems, ¡olenliaIIy al a gIobaI scaIe, ve needed lo encourage more hislorians and

2
}. ß. Ovens, ´Whal hislorians vanl from GIS,¨ !"#$%&' 29/2 (summer 2007): 4-6, and
hll¡://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/summer07arlicIes/vhal-hislorians-vanl.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl
2013, }. ß. Ovens, ´HisloricaI Sludies, GIS for.¨ In Karen Kem¡ (ed.), ()#*#+,-%./0 ,2 3%,4"0-5/# 6)2,"708/,)
9#/%)#% (Thousand Oaks, CaIifornia: Sage, 2008), ¡¡. 220-21, May Yuan, ´Dynamics GIS: recognizing lhe
dynamic nalure of reaIily,¨ !"#$%&' 30/1 (s¡ring 2008): 1, 4-5, and
hll¡://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/s¡ring08arlicIes/dynamics-gis.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl 2013.

3
hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls lo organize lheir informalion vilhin a GIS soflvare
environmenl.
3
Whal did ve vanl lo do`

There is a Iong lradilion, es¡eciaIIy in lhe disci¡Iines of geogra¡hy and hislory, of
research done by lhose vho vish lo combine somehov hisloricaI deveIo¡menls and
geogra¡hy, bul lhe resuIls ¡resenl a confusing ¡iclure.
4
In order lo ¡rovide a more
coherenl framevork for lhe ¡raclilioners in lhis area, Ovens foIIoved a suggeslion
allribuled lo AIberl Iinslein: ´IrobIems cannol be soIved by lhe same IeveI of lhinking
lhal crealed lhem.¨ He crealed an inlegralive ¡aradigm, vhich he caIIs !"#$%&'()*&++,-
./0"$%&0"1 3)40#%,, lo gel lo a higher IeveI of lhoughl aboul lhe reIalionshi¡s of
geogra¡hy and hislory. As an inlerdisci¡Iinary research and leaching slralegy,
Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory is founded on lhe idea lhal lhe underslanding of
hisloricaI ¡rocesses requires an inlegralion of lhe naluraI, sociaI, and cuIluraI
environmenls on lhe basis of ¡Iace, s¡ace, and lime, and accom¡Iishing lhis inlegralion
¡oses a chaIIenge lhal can be mel vilh modern com¡ulalionaI looIs, es¡eciaIIy dynamic
forms of GIS and sociaI nelvork anaIysis, and visuaIizalion lechniques. Three
com¡onenls define lhe Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory inlegralive ¡aradigm: (1)
HisloricaI ¡eriods are com¡Iex, dynamic, nonIinear syslems lhal are s¡aliaIIy Iarge, and
in more recenl cenluries, gIobaI in exlension, and lhese syslems somelimes become
unslabIe, Ieading lo a ¡hase lransilion, bifurcalion, and lhe organizalion of nev
syslems. (2) Wilhin such syslems, ¡eo¡Ie and ¡Iaces are connecled by seIf-organizing
nelvorks, vhich are lhe sources of innovalion and lhe emergence of nev forms. And (3)
lhe hislory of any ¡Iace is sha¡ed in significanl vays by lhe vay lhe ¡Iace is connecled
lo olher ¡Iaces and by lhe changes in lhese conneclions over lime.

This ¡aradigm has im¡orlanl im¡Iicalions for lhe vay lhal hislorians frame lheir
research queslions, for lhe melhodoIogies lhey use in lheir vork, and for lhe vay lhal
hisloricaI ¡rocesses and ¡eriods are defined. Ior exam¡Ie, lhe nonIinear dynamics of
com¡Iex syslems ¡ermils onIy Iimiled ¡rediclabiIily, vhich means lhal allem¡ls lo
slring logelher Iong causaI chains ¡robabIy do a ¡oor |ob of re¡resenling hisloricaI
¡rocesses. The SOCNIT ¡ro|ecl focuses on lhe Iirsl GIobaI Age, roughIy 1400-1800, as a
syslem because lhere vas a ¡hase lransilion al lhe end of lhis ¡eriod, vhich means lhal

3
}. ß. Ovens, "Tovard a geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled, connecled vorId hislory: Im¡Ioying geogra¡hic
informalion syslems (GIS)," !"#$%&' )%*+,## 5/6 (Oclober 2007): 2014-2040, doi: 10.1111/|.1478-
0542.2007.00476.x.
4
AIan R. H. ßaker is ¡arlicuIarIy good al surveying lhis variely. See, A.R.H ßaker, ´RefIeclions on lhe
reIalions of hisloricaI geogra¡hy and lhe AnnaIes SchooI of hislory.¨ In S. CIark (ed.), -./ 011,2/# 34.%%25
4&"$"4,2 ,##/##*/1$#6 7%2899 (London: RoulIedge, 1999), 96-129, A. R.H. ßaker, ´On lhe ReIalions of Hislory
and Geogra¡hy,¨ !"#$%&"4,22' 3+/,:"1; 5/6 (}uIy/Augusl 2004): 27-29, A. R. H. ßaker, </%;&,+.' ,1= !"#$%&'5
>&"=;"1; $./ ?"7"=/ (Cambridge: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2003).
4
hislorians can say somelhing im¡orlanl aboul as¡ecls of lhis human syslem lhal cannol
be deaIl vilh veII by research on conlem¡orary scenarios. ßul ve are ¡roducls of lhe
cuIluraI and sociaI environmenls of a differenl syslem and, lherefore, ve have difficuIly
underslanding lhe ideas and aclions of ¡eo¡Ie vho Iived in an earIier hisloric ¡eriod,
even vhen lhey used our Ianguage and em¡Ioyed conce¡luaI lerms lhal a¡¡ear
famiIiar.

In order lo ex¡Iore lhese lhemes, ve musl have a Iol more quaIilalive and quanlilalive
informalion organized for anaIysis using GIS. Therefore, one of lhe main goaIs of lhis
GIS lraining manuaI for hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls is lo encourage you,
lhe researchers, lo ¡roduce such dala. Il viII aIso be im¡orlanl lhal you voIunleer your
dala sels lo ma|or re¡osilories for such resources.

Of course, il viII nol be sufficienl lo have a bunch of user-generaled informalion in
cenlraI re¡osilories. We viII need some vay lo inlegrale lhis informalion. This
inlegralion viII nol be an easy lask because lhe dala sels viII have been crealed on lhe
basis of differenl organizalionaI schemes and onloIogies. Therefore, a ¡orlion of our
fulure research viII concenlrale on hov user-generaled conlenl can be evaIualed and
inlegraled efficienlIy.

My coaulhor Anderson Sandes is unusuaI among researchers in lhe disci¡Iine lhis
lraining manuaI ¡romoles because he hoIds graduale degrees in bolh geogra¡hic
informalion science and hislory (M.A. in HisloricaI Resources Managemenl, M.S. in
Geogra¡hic Informalion Science). He is lhe aulhor of aII of lhe exercises, and he used his
considerabIe skiII as a lechnicaI vriler lo creale an allraclive and cIear finaI ¡roducl.
UnliI she Iefl lhe ¡ro|ecl in lhe summer of 2013, much of lhe manuaI's organizalion vas
done by Dr. ßarbara Sle¡henson, vho served as lhe ¡osldocloraI researcher for lhe
SOCNIT ¡ro|ecl al Idaho Slale Universily. She vas abIy assisled by David Dixon (M.A.
in HisloricaI Resources Managemenl) and Calherine Za|anc (M.S. in Geogra¡hic
Informalion Science), vho vorked as research assislanls for lhe ¡ro|ecl and vrole
im¡orlanl seclions of severaI cha¡lers. Dr. DanieI I. Ames, direclor of Ma¡Windov GIS
and nov al ßrigham Young Universily, ¡rovided us vilh im¡orlanl advice. We aIso
Iearned much from Dr. Sarah Hinman, nov of lhe sociaI sciences de¡arlmenl of Leiden
Universily CoIIege, The Hague, and Keilh T. Weber, founding direclor of lhe Idaho
Slale Universily GIS Training and Research Cenler. I ex¡ress my ¡ersonaI a¡¡recialion
for aII of lhis assislance.

}. ß. Ovens, Ih.D.
Research Irofessor of Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory
Idaho Slale Universily
5
!"#$%&' )* +,-./012340556!!"#$%&'#$( *+,#-&.
Wilh lhis lraining manuaI ve viII shov hov using GIS (geogra¡hic informalion
syslems) can conlribule lo hisloricaI sludies, and ve viII ¡rovide novice users vilh a
slruclured luloriaI lhal viII aIIov lhem lo Iearn GIS. To make Iearning GIS as accessibIe
as ¡ossibIe for hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls, lhe firsl len cha¡lers of lhis
book are based on Ma¡Windov GIS, a free, o¡en-source ¡rogram. This inslruclion viII
leach lhe basic lechniques. Hovever, once hislorians have gollen lhis far in lheir use of
GIS, lhey viII need lo make a lransilion lo a more advanced soflvare ¡ackage,
es¡eciaIIy for lhe ¡roduclion of so¡hislicaled carlogra¡hic visuaIizalions. Therefore,
lhis lraining manuaI viII cIose vilh four exercises based on lhe use of ArcGIS 10.x,
¡roduced by lhe com¡any ISRI.

The use of GIS for hisloricaI research has oflen been referred lo as hisloricaI GIS (HGIS).
We ¡refer lhe lerm geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled hislory lo avoid narroving lhe Iisl of
sub|ecls lhal can be lrealed in lhis fashion, as HGIS has somelimes done. Ior us, GIS is
lhe ma|or looI for a necessary inlegralion of ¡Iace, s¡ace, and lime. Geogra¡hicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory has deveIo¡ed over lhe ¡asl fev decades in order lo incor¡orale lhe
s¡aliaI and lem¡oraI eIemenls of hislory in a more so¡hislicaled manner. ßy ¡roviding
a s¡alio-lem¡oraI com¡onenl lo hisloricaI research, geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled hislory
can do much lo furlher research and anaIysis. The Ieader of lhe ¡ro|ecl lo ¡roduce lhis
manuaI, }. ß. Ovens, has ex¡Iained eIsevhere hov he came lo use GIS.
1
WhiIe Ovens
vas nol lhe firsl lo incor¡orale GIS inlo hisloricaI research, his slory is iIIuslralive of
hov doing so conlribules lo hisloricaI sludies by ¡roviding a visuaI means of anaIyzing
com¡Iicaled informalion. Ovens aIso recognized lhal GIS couId ¡Iay an im¡orlanl roIe
in changing hov lhe disci¡Iine of hislory incor¡orales nev lechnoIogy, Ieading him lo
focus on ¡ro|ecls of a much broader scaIe. GIS aIIovs schoIars lo vork vilh much Iarger
quanlilies of dala lhan in ¡re-soflvare days, vhich in lurn ¡ermils one lo ask, and
ansver, much broader queslions. Hislorians and hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls sludying
many differenl regions and lo¡ics have found using GIS heI¡fuI vilh lheir
melhodoIogy.


1
}. ß. Ovens, ´Whal hislorians vanl from GIS,¨ !"#$%&' 29/2 (summer 2007): 4-6, and
hll¡://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/summer07arlicIes/vhal-hislorians-vanl.hlmI, accessed on 19 Augusl
2013, and }. ß. Ovens, ´Whal Hislorians Wanl from GIS,¨ in ()* ,%'- ."/#-0#%'1 2''/3' 45 (%46"/783 /59
()* (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI, 2008), 35-46, and hll¡://vvv.esri.com/Iibrary/besl¡raclices/essays-on-
geogra¡hy-gis.¡df, accessed on 24 Se¡lember 2013, }. ß. Ovens, ´Tovard a Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled,
Connecled WorId Hislory: Im¡Ioying Geogra¡hic Informalion Syslems (GIS),¨ :0'-4"3 ;4<7/'' 5/6
(2007): 2014-2040.
6
AII human inleraclions, vilh olhers or vilh lheir environmenl, have inherenl s¡aliaI
characlerislics, aIlhough lhis is oflen im¡Iicil in hisloricaI vork ralher lhan ex¡IicilIy
addressed. ßul underslanding lhe geogra¡hicaI s¡ace in vhich human hislory occurred
is an im¡orlanl ¡arl of underslanding lhal hislory, and GIS aIIovs hislorians lo fiII in
lhal ga¡. Hislorian Loren Sieberl ¡oinled oul vhy lhe geogra¡hic com¡onenl of
hisloricaI sludies is so im¡orlanl.

There is a sim¡Ie, lvo-¡arl ansver. Iirsl, humans are s¡aliaI beings. IndividuaIs,
grou¡s, and inslilulions exisl and inleracl in naluraI and human environmenls
lhal occu¡y s¡ace over lime. Human hislory necessariIy incIudes a s¡aliaI
dimension, vhich hislorians oflen overIook. Second, geogra¡hic informalion
syslems are designed lo record s¡aliaI fealures and reIaled informalion, dis¡Iay
lhem, and anaIyze lheir condilions and s¡aliaI reIalionshi¡s. These ca¡acilies
enabIe s¡aliaI hisloricaI research and exlend ils anaIylicaI reach.
2


Ior lhese reasons, Sieberl used GIS as ¡arl of his melhodoIogy in his s¡aliaI hislory of
Tokyo. He seIecled vhich sources lo use based on inleresl, avaiIabiIily, and hov veII a
GIS ¡rogram handIed lhe dala, among olher faclors. The resuIling sources came from
lo¡ogra¡hic ma¡s, census ma¡s, census informalion, cor¡orale hislories, ¡Ianning
re¡orls and ma¡s, and agency records. These dala vere harvesled lo oblain informalion
regarding lrans¡orlalion, Iand ovnershi¡, Iand use, commerciaI and induslriaI
aclivilies, governmenlaI boundaries, economic condilions, and olher fealures.
3
He lhen
used lhis dala lo creale an eIeclronic hisloricaI alIas ´lhal can be queried and used for
anaIysis.¨
4
AIlhough enlering aII lhe dala inlo a GIS vas lime-inlensive, Sieberl
described lhe advanlages of GIS for an hislorian: ´ßy Iinking hisloricaI s¡aliaI
informalion lo corres¡onding geogra¡hic fealures in a com¡ulerized carlogra¡hic
dalabase, geogra¡hic informalion syslems make il ¡ossibIe lo record, dis¡Iay, and
evaIuale reIalionshi¡s belveen ly¡es of informalion lhal vere in hard-lo-com¡are
formals or s¡read over many sequenliaI hisloricaI ma¡s.¨
5
The resuIling ma¡ ¡rovides a
visuaI reference lhal can more easiIy convey lhe com¡Iicaled reIalionshi¡s belveen lhe
dala.


2
Loren Sieberl, ´Using GIS lo Documenl, VisuaIize, and Inler¡rel Tokyo's S¡aliaI Hislory,¨ !"#$%& !#$()#(
*$+,"-. 24/ 3 (2000): 538.
3
Ibid., 552-553.
4
Ibid., 541.
5
Ibid., 538.
7
!"#$ &' ()*+
In her inlroduclion lo an issue of !"#$%& !#$()#( *$+,"-. devoled lo HisloricaI GIS,
geogra¡her Anne KeIIy KnovIes defined GIS as ´a s¡aliaI dalabase lhal inlegrales ma¡-
based informalion aboul lhe hisloricaI Iocalion of cerlain enlilies (such as census
dislricls, induslriaI firms, or rivers) vilh quanlilalive or quaIilalive informalion aboul
lhose enlilies (such as ¡o¡uIalion, ¡roducl, or IeveI of ¡oIIulion).¨
6
DeIinealing belveen
GIS and HisloricaI GIS, KnovIes mainlained lhal ´lhe key difference belveen hisloricaI
GIS and lhe vasl ma|orily of GIS ¡racliced loday is lhal ils source dala ly¡icaIIy incIude
archivaI maleriaI lhal musl be converled from anaIog lo digilaI form.¨
7
Ierha¡s because
of lhese reasons, Ian Gregory, a Senior Leclurer in DigilaI Humanilies al Lancasler
Universily, and Richard HeaIey, a Geogra¡hy ¡rofessor al lhe Universily of Iorlsmoulh,
defined GIS as a ´dalabase lechnoIogy¨ ralher lhan a soflvare ¡rimariIy concerned
vilh ma¡¡ing:

A GIS is a s¡eciaIized form of dalabase because each ilem of dala, be il a rov of
slalislics, a slring of lexl, an image, or a movie, is Iinked lo a coordinale-based
re¡resenlalion of lhe Iocalion lhal lhe dala refer lo. Thus, GIS combines +/%,$%&
0%,% in lhe form of ¡oinls, Iines, ¡oIygons, or grid ceIIs, vilh lhe %,,-$12,( 0%,%
heId in convenlionaI dalabase form. This ¡rovides a slruclure lhal is abIe lo
ansver queries nol onIy aboul 34%, fealures are in lhe dalabase, bul aIso 34(-(
lhey are Iocaled. This is vhal makes a GIS unique.
8


More recenlIy, Gregory and IauI III, Direclor of lhe Cenlre for Dala Digilisalion and
AnaIysis in lhe SchooI of Geogra¡hy, ArcheoIogy and IaIaeoecoIogy al Queen's
Universily in ßeIfasl, slaled lhal in sim¡Iesl lerms, GIS is a ly¡e of soflvare, bul argued
lhal hislorians shouId lhink of il ´nol as a ly¡e of soflvare bul as looIs lhal soflvare
offers.¨
9
In lhis conlexl, lhey defined GIS using IngIand's De¡arlmenl of lhe
Invironmenl definilion: ´|aj syslem for ca¡luring, sloring, checking, inlegraling,
mani¡uIaling, anaIysing and dis¡Iaying dala vhich are s¡aliaIIy referenced lo lhe
Iarlh.¨
10
There are nov many exam¡Ies of hov geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled hislory has

6
Anne KeIIy KnovIes, ´Inlroduclion,¨ !"#$%& !#$()#( *$+,"-. 24/3 (IaII 2000): 452.
7
Ibid.
8
Ian N. Gregory and Richard G. HeaIey, ´HisloricaI GIS: Slrucluring, Ma¡¡ing, and AnaIysing
Geogra¡hies of lhe Iasl,¨ 5-"6-(++ $) *27%) 8("6-%/4. 31/5 (2007): 638-9.
9
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, *$+,"-$#%& 89!: ;(#4)"&"6$(+< =(,4"0"&"6$(+ %)0 !#4"&%-+4$/ (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007): 3.
10
De¡arlmenl of lhe Invironmenl, *%)0&$)6 8("6-%/4$# 9)>"-7%,$"): ?(/"-, "> ,4( @"77$,,(( "> A)B2$-.
@4%$-(0 1. C"-0 @4"-&(. *=!D (London, 1987), quoled in Gregory and III, *$+,"-$#%& 89!, 3-4.
8
been used lo enhance hisloricaI research and visuaIize hisloricaI informalion in nev
vays.
11


!"#$%&$'() +, -./ ,+0 12)&+02$%)
Wilh lhese definilions in mind, vhal can GIS do for hislorians` Iiona ßIack, ßerlrum
MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom ßIack em¡hasized lhe conlexl a GIS ¡ro|ecl can ¡rovide by
coIIecling various ly¡es of dala inlo an a¡¡ro¡riale Iocalion in lime and s¡ace.
12
Some
of lhese dala incIude numericaI, lexluaI, and visuaI sources. HighIighling lhe s¡ecific
areas in vhich GIS can assisl book hislorians, lhe aulhors noled lhal

GIS lechnoIogy offers book hislorians lhe o¡¡orlunily lo visuaIize, synlhesize,
and anaIyze a vide array of reIevanl demogra¡hic, economic, and bibIiogra¡hic
variabIes from dis¡arale source dalabases. Numerous ¡ossibiIilies exisl for
crealing nev knovIedge or al Ieasl examining more broadIy some of lhe issues
lhal concern us: for exam¡Ie, Iileracy rales affecling lhe numbers of readers,
numbers of readers affecling lhe markels ¡erceived by bookseIIers and
¡ubIishers, and nalionaI or elhnic background of sellIers affecling lhe ¡erce¡lion
of lhe im¡orlance of educalion and ¡rinl cuIlure generaIIy. Dala reIaling lo aII of
lhese faclors have been or viII be ¡ul inlo dalabase formal by schoIars, vhelher
or nol lhey are yel lhinking of GIS as an anaIylicaI looI.
13


Gregory and III ¡oinled oul lhal anolher advanlage of GIS for hislorians is lhal il can
chaIIenge ´exisling lheories or orlhodoxies.¨
14
Geoff Cunfer's !" $%& '(&)$ *+),"-.
/0(,12+$2(& )"3 4"5,(6"7&"$ ¡rovides a good exam¡Ie of hov lhis can be done.
15

Discussing lhe recenl hisloriogra¡hy on lhe inleraclions belveen ¡eo¡Ie and lhe Iand in
lhe Greal IIains area, Cunfer ex¡Iained lhal mosl hislorians have been fairIy ¡essimislic
aboul hov humans have lrealed nalure, ciling lhe vork of DonaId Worsler in
¡arlicuIar.
16
In 82-$ 96:+. ;%& <62$%&(" *+),"- ," $%& =>?@-,
17
Worsler argued lhal
ca¡ilaIisl forces drove farmers beyond ecoIogicaI suslainabiIily. Cunfer's anaIysis

11
Ior a robusl Iisl of hisloricaI sludies vhich incor¡orale GIS, see
hll¡://vvv.hgis.org.uk/bibIiogra¡hy.hlm, accessed on 24 Se¡lember 2013.
12
Iiona A. ßIack, ßerlrum H. MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom W. ßIack, ´Geogra¡hic Informalion Syslems: A
Nev Research melhod for ßook Hislory,¨ 966A B,-$6(C 1/1 (1998):11.
13
Ibid., 18.
14
Gregory and III, B,-$6(,1)+ 'D<, 16.
15
Geoff Cunfer, !" $%& '(&)$ *+),"-. /0(,12+$2(& )"3 4"5,(6"7&"$ (CoIIege Slalion: Texas A&M Universily
Iress, 2005), 9.
16
Ibid.
17
DonaId Worsler, 82-$ 96:+. ;%& <62$%&(" *+),"- ," $%& =>?@- (Nev York: Oxford Universily Iress, 2004
|1979j).
9
¡rovided a much more com¡Iicaled ex¡Ianalion, hovever. His book ´¡ro¡ose|dj lhal
lhe inleraclion belveen ¡eo¡Ie and lhe resl of nalure is much more com¡Iex and
ambiguous lhan eilher a ¡rogressive or a decIensionisl narralive aIIovs.¨
18
Cunfer vove
logelher dala from severaI decades and sources, inler¡oIaling lhem in a GIS. In
¡arlicuIar, he used ¡o¡uIalion dala, soiI dala, cIimale dala, agricuIluraI dala, and ma¡
dala in his anaIysis of lhe Dusl ßovI.
19
!" $%& '(&)$ *+),"- aIso demonslrales lhe vasl
amounl of dala a GIS can handIe, vhich makes ¡ossibIe ¡ro|ecls lhal are much Iarger in
sco¡e lhan vouId be feasibIe vilhoul lhis soflvare.

Any hislorian can benefil from using GIS, regardIess of fieId or sources, because of ils
incor¡oralion of bolh quanlilalive and quaIilalive dala, vhich reinlroduces lhe s¡aliaI
com¡onenl of lhe human ¡asl. Ior exam¡Ie, lhe |urisdiclionaI lerrilory of a sixleenlh-
cenlury Irench courl can be roughIy delermined by using lhe lovn names given in
courl records over lhe s¡an of one monarch's reign. Or lhe migralion of ¡o¡uIalion in
lhe Iale lvenlielh-cenlury Uniled Slales can be ¡Iolled by using federaI and slale census
records. The rise and faII of lhe AlIanlic sIave lrade can be ma¡¡ed from lhe African
¡orls lhal vere sources for sIaves, lhrough lhe various ¡orls of caII across lhe Caribbean,
lo lhe im¡orlanl sIavery de¡ols of Norlh America. Church records can be used lo lrack
lhe s¡read of Iroleslanlism across communilies or of Chrislianily across lhe Nev
WorId. These are |usl a fev of lhe many ly¡es of ¡ro|ecl for vhich GIS can be used lo
heI¡ visuaIize and ansver common hisloricaI research queslions.

"#$ $%&'()*+ ,)-.)/+0
Nov lhal ve have ¡rovided a IillIe background on hov hislorians can and have used
GIS, ve viII consider some of lhe GIS ¡rograms avaiIabIe. There are many o¡en-source
and commerciaI GIS ¡rograms,
20
vhich have differenl slrenglhs and veaknesses. The
mosl ¡o¡uIar commerciaI GIS soflvare is ArcGIS from ISRI, a com¡any lhal deveIo¡s
GIS ¡roducls and services and vhich has ¡Iayed a cruciaI roIe in selling induslry
slandards. This soflvare nol onIy aIIovs for dala managemenl and anaIysis regarding
geogra¡hic ¡Iaces, bul has lhe ¡olenliaI for ma¡ visuaIizalion in 2D as veII as 3D.
ModeI ßuiIder vilhin ArcGIS aIIovs a user lo run a series of looIs on an area of a ma¡
and lhen a¡¡Iy lhose same looIs lo olher geogra¡hic Iocalions on lhe ma¡. ArcGIS aIso
¡rovides ¡roducls such as deveIo¡er looIs, mobiIe GIS, and servers for GIS. Many
governmenl agencies and ¡rivale cor¡oralions em¡Ioy ArcGIS for uses such as

18
Cunfer 2005, 10.
19
Ibid., 241-262.
20
O¡en-source ¡rograms are ones lhal are nol onIy free, bul aIIov lhe user lo access lhe acluaI ¡rogram
source code. This means lhal com¡uler-savvy users can vrile lheir ovn funclions lo cuslomize lhe
¡rogram lo beller suil lheir needs.
10
conservalion, Iand deveIo¡menl, and educalion. Hovever, lhere are severaI dravbacks
lo ArcGIS, incIuding ils slee¡ Iearning curve, high ¡rice (around $3,000.00), and lhe
co¡yrighl issues inherenl in non-o¡en source soflvare.

GoogIe Iarlh is a free ¡rogram lhal de¡icls a virluaI gIobe, vilh geogra¡hicaI and
ma¡¡ing informalion, aIlhough il is nol a com¡Iele GIS ¡rogram. The free version
¡rovides Iimiled funclionaIily, aIlhough GoogIe Iarlh Iro can be ¡urchased and does
¡rovide more funclions. GoogIe Iarlh uses saleIIile images lo offer im¡eccabIe 3D
images of lhe Iarlh, bul il is difficuIl lo add dala lo lhose images. Therefore, ils biggesl
dravback is lhe inabiIily lo use il lo generale cuslomized ma¡s for dala anaIysis.

Wikima¡ia is simiIar lo GoogIe Ma¡s in lhal il is an onIine ma¡ and saleIIile imagery
sile. Hovever, il aIso aIIovs users lo add informalion, such as noles or ¡iclures, lo any
Iocalion. Users can aIso add fealures such as roads and rivers. Thus, Wikima¡ia offers a
bil more funclionaIily lhan GoogIe Iarlh. ßolh of lhese ¡rograms aIIov one lo Iocale
s¡ecific ¡oinls on lhe gIobe, bul do nol aIIov for lhe user lo enler quaIilalive dala or
creale a ma¡ using lhal dala, making lhem unsuilabIe for any sorl of geogra¡hicaIIy-
inlegraled hislory. There are many olher commerciaI and o¡en-source GIS ¡rograms
avaiIabIe. Hovever, lhey lend lo faII inlo lhe same calegories: loo ex¡ensive for
educalionaI use, or loo Iimiled for hisloricaI dala anaIysis.

Ma¡Windov GIS is an o¡en source ¡rogram lhal offers greal ¡olenliaI for hisloricaI
geogra¡hic dala anaIysis, and il is free for aII users. Hovever, due lo lhe com¡Iicaled
nalure of fuIIy-funclionaI geogra¡hic informalion syslems, vhich is lheir grealesl
benefil, lhere is a slee¡ Iearning curve a user musl overcome lo em¡Ioy any of lhese
¡rograms. Our goaI vilh lhis lraining manuaI is lo heI¡ users manage lhis curve by
¡resenling lhe essenliaI conce¡ls and lechniques of Ma¡Windov GIS in len shorl
cha¡lers vilh hands-on exercises. We have aIso focused onIy on lhose as¡ecls of GIS
lhal are usefuI for hislorians and olher sociaI science and humanilies schoIars, omilling
lhe looIs designed more for researchers in lhe naluraI sciences. We ho¡e lhal even a
busy educalor or a cIass of inleresled sludenls can masler lhe basics of GIS in one
semesler by com¡Ieling a cha¡ler each veek, aIIoving lhe user lo a¡¡Iy GIS lo
hisloricaI source maleriaIs.

!"#$ &' (#)!&*+,- ./01
Ma¡Windov GIS is an o¡en-source GIS ¡rogram used by GIS anaIysls, lechnicians, and
¡rogrammers vorIdvide. Ma¡Windov is free lo bolh users and deveIo¡ers, and lhe
source code for lhe ¡rogram can be acquired by anyone and added lo or aIlered lo suil
lheir ¡ur¡oses. Il is lhe mosl videIy used o¡en-source GIS for lhe Windovs o¡eraling
11
syslem, vilh over 6000 dovnIoads ¡er monlh from lhe Ma¡Windov vebsile,
vvv.ma¡vindov.org. Ma¡Windov can ¡erform many of lhe same lasks as a
commerciaI GIS ¡rogram, such as ArcGIS. Thus, Ma¡Windov ¡rovides an exceIIenl
o¡¡orlunily for lhose inleresled in Iearning aboul GIS vilhoul having lo s¡end money
on a commerciaI GIS suile. The exercise for lhis cha¡ler viII be lo dovnIoad and inslaII
lhis ¡rogram.

CurrenlIy lhere are lvo versions of Ma¡Windov. Ma¡Windov 4 is a highIy slabIe
¡rogram lhal has been around in one form or anolher since 2005. Il is currenlIy in slage
4.8 of deveIo¡menl and, by aII eslimalions, viII conlinue lo be used and im¡roved u¡on
for years lo come. Ma¡Windov 6 vas reIeased in ils Ialer lesling slages in lhe s¡ring of
2011. WhiIe Ma¡Windov 6 re¡resenls lhe fulure of lhe Ma¡Windov ¡ro|ecl,
Ma¡Windov 4 vas chosen for lhis manuaI because il is a more slabIe version, and
version 6 is sliII being debugged and deveIo¡ed. In lhis manuaI, ve viII be using lhe
Ma¡Windov 4.8.6 reIease, vhich ve viII make avaiIabIe aIong vilh lhe lraining
manuaI ilseIf.

"#$%&' () *%)+ ,-).( .'$%& , /01 23)&3,4
IiIe organizalion is a key com¡onenl of any GIS ¡ro|ecl. A GIS ¡ro|ecl is made u¡ of
severaI fiIes of differenl ly¡es, aII of vhich musl be found easiIy by lhe soflvare, lhese
fiIes are aulomalicaIIy generaled vhen a GIS ¡ro|ecl is crealed and saved. ßecause each
GIS ¡ro|ecl is made u¡ of many fiIes, ve !"#$%&'( #*+$,,*%- lhal you designale a foIder
on your com¡uler desklo¡ for aII fiIes associaled vilh Ma¡Windov. This viII ensure
lhal aII lhe necessary fiIes are in lhe same Iocalion and lhal Ma¡Windov can find lhe
necessary fiIes as you vork on a ¡ro|ecl. As you vork lhrough lhe exercises in lhis
manuaI, you shouId creale a nev subfoIder vilhin your Ma¡Windov foIder for each
GIS ¡ro|ecl crealed by lhe exercises. As hislorians are veII avare, managing fiIes in an
organized fashion can save a greal deaI of lime on a ¡ro|ecl. This organizalion is
¡arlicuIarIy im¡orlanl because of lhe lime-inlensive nalure of a GIS ¡ro|ecl. Much of lhe
lime lhal goes inlo a GIS sludy is devoled lo lhe ¡re¡aralion of lhe dala needed for
resuIls.
21
Many schoIars eslimale lhal as much as 80% of lhe lime s¡enl on a ¡ro|ecl viII
be s¡enl on dala ¡re¡aralion. If dala musl be ¡rocessed from anaIog lo digilaI form,
¡re¡aralion lime couId be even more inlensive. Moreover, no GIS ¡rogram can o¡en a
¡ro|ecl unIess il can Iocale aII of lhe affiIialed fiIes, vhich musl be in lhe same Iocalion.
Therefore, organizalion in GIS is vilaI for saving lime and for overaII efficiency.


21
Anne KeIIy KnovIes, ´Inlroduclion,¨ .$+/0' .+/*%+* 1/!"$#( 24/ 3 (IaII 2000), 463.

12
!"#$%&$%'()"* ,)-($%)#'. %/-/'%#, )"($ ' 0!1 ,'- 2)-()"#( '23'"('*/-4 5$"3/%()"*6
&.7**)"* )"6 '"2 '"'.89)"* ,)-($%)#'. 2'(' #'" ./'2 ($ "/: (8&/- $; %/-/'%#, <7/-()$"-
'"2 2)-#$3/%)/-4 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 &%$3)2/- '" $&&$%(7")(8 ;$% ,)-($%)'"- ($ )"#.72/ '
&$:/%;7. */$-&'()'. #$?&$"/"( )" (,/)% %/-/'%#, '( "$ #$-(6 7".)@/ #$??/%#)'. 0!1
-7)(/-4 A,7-6 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 $;;/%- ?7#, ($ ,)-($%)'"- -//@)"* ($ )"#$%&$%'(/ ' B/((/%
-/"-/ $; ()?/ '"2 -&'#/ )" (,/)% %/-/'%#,4 !" (,)- ;)%-( /C/%#)-/6 8$7 :).. ./'%" ($
2$:".$'2 ='&>)"2$: 0!1 ($ 8$7% &/%-$"'. #$?&7(/%4 A,/ "/C( #,'&(/% :).. ;$#7- $"
-$?/ $; (,/ "7(- '"2 B$.(- $; 0!1 '"2 :).. -,$: 8$7 $"/ $; (,/ :'8- )" :,)#, 0!1 #'"
2/'. :)(, &$&7.'()$" 2'('4































13
!!"#$%&" !
Our firsl exercise viII shov you hov lo dovnIoad and inslaII Ma¡Windov GIS version
4.8.6, so lhal you can become famiIiarized vilh lhe soflvare inlerface before Iearning
hov lo use lhe ¡rogram.

"#$%&
Our lask for lhis exercise is lo dovnIoad and inslaII Ma¡Windov, and lo become
famiIiarized vilh ils Iayoul.

'()* +&
ßefore dovnIoading lhe soflvare, you shouId cIose any olher ¡rograms you may have
running on your com¡uler, such as MSWord. O¡en your brovser (Ix¡Iorer, Iirefox,
elc.), and go lo hll¡://vvv.ma¡vindov.org/dovnIoads/Ma¡Windovx86IuII-v48IinaI-
inslaIIer.exe.

,-()&
Ralher lhan co¡ying and ¡asling lhe URL inlo your brovser, (.*) lhe URL described in
$()* + inlo your brovser, and ¡ress ´Inler.¨ This viII enabIe you lo dovnIoad
Ma¡Windov 4.8.6.

We caulion our users lhal co¡ying any URL from a IDI documenl and ¡asling il
direclIy inlo a veb brovser mighl Iead lhem lo dovnIoading inaccurale dala.
















14
!"#$ &'
When lhe dovnIoad is finished, cIick on lhe bullon ´Run¨ lo inslaII Ma¡Windov
|Iigure 1.1j.


()*+,# -.-' /01234156 718$4#"#9 8#::5*#.

;1"#:
If you are running Windovs 7, you viII need lo cIose your brovser once lhe dovnIoad
is finished. There viII nov be a Ma¡Windov icon on your desklo¡ for lhe inslaIIalion
¡rogram. CIick on lhis icon lo run lhe inslaIIalion.















!"
!"#$ &'
$%&%'()'* +' ,+-. /%.0)+' +1 2)'(+304 ,+- 56, 0%% 6 78%9-.):, 26.')'*; 0:6:)'* :<6:
): 5)*<: '+: =% 061% :+ )'0:6>> :<% 0+1:36.% ?@)*-.% !ABCA $)0.%*6.( :<)0 36.')'* 6'( 9>)9D
+' :<% 7E-'; =-::+'A


()*+,# -./' 0!#1+,)"2 34,5)5*.6

!"#$ 7'
F+- 3)>> =% 60D%( :+ 0%>%9: :<% 0%:-& >6'*-6*% ?@)*-.% !AGCA 8%>%9: :<% >6'*-6*% +1 ,+-.
9<+)9% 6'( :<%' 9>)9D +' 7HIA;


()*+,# -.&' 0!#8#1" !#"+$ 945*+4*#.6









16
!"#$ &'
The finaI sle¡ is lhe ´Ma¡Windov GIS Selu¡ Wizard¨ |Iigure 1.4j. CIick on ´Nexl.¨ Il
may lake a fev seconds for lhe foIIoving screen lo a¡¡ear:


()*+,# -./' 012$3)4567 89! !#"+$ 3):2,5.;

!"#$ <'
The Ma¡Windov's ´License Agreemenl¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 1.5j. Choose lhe
o¡lion ´I acce¡l lhe agreemenl¨ and lhen cIick on ´Nexl.¨


()*+,# -.&' 0=)>#4?# @*,##A#4".;

!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '&() *+,&&' -.// *%0- *01& .'20,13).0' 4&*+,.5.'6 -%3) .* '&- .' )%.* 7&,*.0' 02
839:.'40-; </.+= 0' >?&();@


()*+,# -./' 0123" )4 5#6 )5 73$1)5896.:

!"#$ ;'
?&()A B0C -.// 5& 3*=&4 .2 B0C -0C/4 /.=& )0 40'3)& *01& 10'&B )0 )%& 839:.'40-
9,0D&+) EF.6C,& !;"G; H/&3*& +0'*.4&, %&/9.'6 )0 2C'4 )%& 839:.'40- 9,0D&+)A 3/)%0C6%
B0C 3,& C'4&, '0 05/.63).0' )0 40 *0A 3'4 )%&' +/.+= 0' >?&();@


()*+,# -.&' 0<953"# "9 73$1)5896.:

18
!"#$ &'
!"# %#&' ()*##% +,-- .(/ +"#*# 012 +12-3 -,/# 4.56,%31+ '1 7# ,%('.--#3 89,:2*# ;<=><
?-,)/ 1% @A#&'B '1 ,%('.-- '"# 5*1:*.C ,% ,'( 1+% D1-3#*<


()*+,# -./' 0!#1#2" 3#4")56")75 8726")75.9

!"#$ -:'
E12 +,-- %1+ 7# .(/#3 '1 @F#-#)' )1C51%#%'(B '1 7# ,%('.--#3 89,:2*# ;<G>< ?"11(# @92--
,%('.--.',1%B .%3 )-,)/ 1% @A#&'<B


()*+,# -.&' 0!#1#2" ;7<$75#5"49 42,##5.


19
!"#$ &&'
Afler lhe seIeclion is done, you viII be asked if you vouId Iike Ma¡Windov lo be Iisled
as a ¡rogram in your ´Slarl Menu¨ |Iigure 1.10j. If you vouId Iike Ma¡Windov lo be
in your ´Slarl Menu,¨ cIick on ´Nexl.¨ If you do nol vanl a shorlcul in lhe Slarl Menu,
seIecl lhe box in lhe bollom Iefl marked ´Don'l creale a Slarl Menu foIder¨ and lhen
cIick on ´Nexl.¨


()*+,# &-&.' /!#0#1" !"2," 3#4+ (506#,-7

!"#$ &8'
Nov lhal you have chosen your inslaIIalion o¡lions, you are ready lo inslaII
Ma¡Windov. CIick on ´InslaII¨ lo begin |Iigure 1.11j:


()*+,# &-&&' /9#26: "5 ;4<"2007 =)465=-
20
!"#$ &'(
!"# %&'' ()) *+) ,-"./')*&01 *+) 23/4&05"% 678 8)*#/ 4&93:5; (<:))0 =>&1#:) ?@?AB@
!"# <30 ')3C) 3'' *+:)) "/*&"0( ()')<*)5D ": E#(* <+""() ,8*3:* 23/4&05"% 678@; 4+)0
F"# +3C) <+"()0 F"#: "/*&"0(D <'&<G "0 ,>&0&(+@;


)*+,-# &.&/( 0123$4#"*5+ "6# !#",$ 7*89-:.;

!"#$ &<(
23/4&05"% %&'' "/)0 305 F"# (+"#'5 ()) *+) 23/4&05"% .3&0 /31)D %&*+ *+)
,4)'<".) *" 23/4&05"%; (<:))0 =>&1#:) ?@?HB@ -'"() *+) ,4)'<".); (<:))0 305 *3G)
(".) *&.) *" )I3.&0) *+) ("J*%3:)@


)*+,-# &.&'( =9$7*5:2> 623# ?@-##5.
21
!"#$ &'(
Afler you cIose lhe ´WeIcome¨ screen, you viII see lhe basic Ma¡Windov screen. There
are some as¡ecls of lhis screen lhal you shouId be famiIiar vilh. The firsl lhing lo knov
is lhal lhe Iarge vindov lhal lakes u¡ mosl of lhe screen is caIIed lhe ´Ma¡¨ ¡ane. The
smaIIer vindov on lhe u¡¡er Iefl is lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane. This ¡ane is used for many of
lhe basic o¡eralions in Ma¡Windov, and you viII become very used lo using il. ßeIov
lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane is lhe ´Ireviev¨ ¡ane. This ¡ane is nol used very oflen for our
¡ur¡oses, aIlhough il is good for you lo recognize vhal and vhere il is.

!"#$ &)(
You shouId feeI free lo ¡Iay vilh lhe bullons across lhe lo¡ of lhe screen, and lo o¡en
lhe dro¡-dovn menus. Ma¡Windov incIudes some sam¡Ie dala you can ¡Iay vilh, if
you vouId Iike.


*+,-.# &/&0( 12# 34$5+6789 :4+6 ;<.##6= <86"4+6+6, "2# >34$=? >@#,#67=? 467
>A.#B+#9? $46#;/

CongraluIalions! You have successfuIIy dovnIoaded and inslaIIed Ma¡Windov GIS.
You are nov ready lo move onlo Cha¡ler 2, vhich viII leach you hov lo (1) add Iayers,
(2) change Iayer coIors, and (3) creale a choro¡Ielh ma¡ of lhe Uniled Slales.

!!
!"#$%&' )* +,--./0 1-23-,4 5.-6 7289./4:5 +;1
#$% &'(& %) '(*) +,-./--)+ '$% $0) .(0 ,0.$12$1(&) 345 ,0&$ ',-&$1,.(6 1)-)(1.'7 %)
.(0 8)9,0 &$ ):26$1) '$% ;(2<,0+$% 345 (66$%- &') /-)1 &$ -=0&')-,>) *,-/(6 (0+
-2(&,(6 +(&( ?$1 (0(6=-,-@ A,1-&7 '$%)*)17 %) %,66 ):26(,0 ( ?)% 8(-,. &)1B- ,0 $1+)1 &$
')62 =$/ /0+)1-&(0+ '$% 345 21$91(B- ?/0.&,$0@ C',- ):26(0(&,$0 %,66 B(D) ,& )(-,)1
?$1 =$/ &$ /0+)1-&(0+ '$% &') -$?&%(1) ,- /-)+ (0+ &$ .$B26)&) &') ):)1.,-)- (& &') )0+
$? )(.' .'(2&)1@

# <,5 =,>./.-.:/?
4& ,- ,B2$1&(0& &$ /0+)1-&(0+ .)1&(,0 &)1B- 1)6(&)+ &$ 9)$91(2',. ,0?$1B(&,$0 (0+ 345
8)?$1) -&(1&,09 &$ /-) ;(2<,0+$%@ A$1 B/.' $? &',- B(0/(67 %) %,66 8) %$1D,09 ,0 (
@,A-:3 42-2 B:4,C@ E *).&$1 +(&( B$+)6 /-)- 9)$91(2',.(6 .$$1+,0(&)- &$ 1)21)-)0&
-2(&,(6 +(&(@ C') -2(&,(6 +(&( (1) 1)21)-)0&)+ (- 9)$B)&1,. 8:./-?7 C./,?7 (0+ 8:CD0:/?@
$:./-? ,0 345 '(*) 0$ -,>)7 (1)(7 $1 %,+&'7 &'$/9' ( -=B8$6 ?$1 ( 2$,0& +$)-@ E 2$,0&
-=B8$6 -'$%- ( *)1&): (& %',.' &') 6,0)- $? C:/0.-E4, FGH (0+ C2-.-E4, FDH .1$--@ F$,0&-
(66$% ( /-)1 &$ (--,90 ( 21).,-) 9)$91(2',.(6 6$.(&,$0 &$ &') B(2 GA,9/1) !@HI@ C')= .(0
1)21)-)0& (0=&',09 ?1$B .,&,)- &$ ?,1) '=+1(0&-7 &$ +)(&'- .(/-)+ 8= =)66$% ?)*)1@

<.0E3, )IJ* $:3- K:E.?L -6, A28.-2C :> 72E3.-.E?L .? 3,83,?,/-,4 2? 2 8:./-I

K./,? (1) B(+) /2 $? ( -)1,)- $? *)1&,.)-7 $1 .$00).&)+ 2$,0&-7 &'(& B(= 8)
1)21)-)0&(&,*) $? 6)09&'7 8/& &=2,.(66= 0$& %,+&' GA,9/1) !@!I@ J,0)- B(= 1)21)-)0& 1,*)1-
$1 -&1))&-7 &'$/9' &')= (1) 0$& 6,B,&)+ &$ &')-) &',09-@

23

!"#$%& ()(* +,& -".& /"0&% "1 2&3"45&2 67 8 ."9& 4:;3:1&2 :< 1&0&%8. 0&%5"4&1 :<
4::%2"985&1= %&3%&1&95&2 81 3:"951)

>:.7#:91 are a grou¡ of connecled Iines and are, lherefore, sha¡es lhal re¡resenl an
area, vhelher lhal area is geogra¡hicaI or ¡oIilicaI in nalure |Iigure 2.3j. Ixam¡Ies of
¡oIygons are slales, counlries, conlinenls, geogra¡hicaI regions, elc. A com¡Iele ma¡ in
GIS is com¡osed of some combinalion of ¡oinls, Iines, and ¡oIygons, aII of vhich can be
user-defined or dovnIoaded from various onIine Iibraries.


!"#$%& ()?* @$15%8."8 "1 89 &A8;3.& :< 8 3:.7#:9)

These various ly¡es of geogra¡hic dala are ¡orlrayed in Ma¡Windov GIS as .87&%1. A
Iayer in GIS re¡resenls one ly¡e of geogra¡hic dalum. In olher vords, using Iayers is
simiIar lo ¡Iacing severaI overhead ¡ro|eclor lrans¡arencies over each olher, and each
Iayer can onIy conlain one ly¡e of informalion (¡oinls, Iines, or ¡oIygons). To move a

24
Iayer on lo¡ of anolher Iayer, lhe user can cIick and drag lhe Iayer name lo lhe desired
Iocalion in lhe ´Dala Layers¨ area of lhe !"#"$% '($". The )(' '($" is vhere lhe dala
Iayers are dravn. Iigure 2.4 shovs a ma¡ of lhe Uniled Slales made u¡ of a ¡oIygon
Iayer conlaining lhe slales, a Iine Iayer of lhe rivers, and a ¡oinl Iayer vilh cily dala.


*+#,-" ./01 2 3(' 45 67" 8/9/ :+67 ;(<"-= =6(>?"% 4$ 64' 45 4$" ($467"-/

AIong vilh ¡oinls, Iines, and ¡oIygons, veclor dala can slore (66-+@,6"= lhal are
associaled vilh s¡ecific coordinales. 266-+@,6"= in a GIS couId be names, ¡o¡uIalion
informalion, homes, cro¡s, or any number of lhings. An exam¡Ie of allribule dala is
seen in Iigure 2.5. In lhis exam¡Ie, ve can see lhe allribules Iisled for various counlries,
incIuding cilies, counlry name, geogra¡hicaI sub-region, geogra¡hicaI region, and
ca¡ilaI cilies.


!"

"#$%&' ()*+ ,- .//&#0%/' /.01' #- 2.34#-567 89:)

$%& '()*&++ ), -.&/.012 *(&34.012 305 6+.01 -3(.)6+ 7.05+ ), +89:);+ .0 <=> .+ *3;;&5
;<=0616$<? @4 4%& &05 ), 4%& *%3'4&(2 4%& &A&(*.+& /.;; 4&3*% 8)6 %)/ 4) 6+& +89:);)18
4));+ 4) *(&34& 3 >?6&631'/? =.3? @ *%)()';&4% 93' .+ 3 4%&934.* 93' .0 /%.*% 3(&3+
3(& +%35&5 .0 '()')(4.)0 4) 4%& 9&3+6(&9&04 ), 4%& 5343 -3(.3:;& :&.01 5&'.*4&5
BC.16(& !?DE?


"#$%&' ()@+ A?#; >?6&631'/? =.3 ;?.5'; '.>? ;/./' 0.;'5 6- #/; B6&'#$-C06&-
363%1./#6- .>>6&5#-$ /6 /?' DEFF G):) H'-;%;)

!"
$ %&'()* +,(, -)+&. /*)0&'( 12 2,%&+ 13 , 43154& 61.& 6)*-,( 73)83 ,2 , !"#$%&'(%9 $
/*)0&'( ',3 :& 2,%&+ ,( ,3; 2(,<&= 81(>)4( :&13< ,3 &3+ *&24.(9 ?( 12 1-/)*(,3( () 3)(& (>&
+12(13'(1)3 :&(8&&3 , .,;&* ,3+ , 2>,/&61.&9 @>1.& (#)%* 61.&2 ,*& 42&+ () %124,.1A&
2>,/&61.&2= , .,;&* 12 3)( , +,(, 6)*-,(9 $ !"#$%&'(% 12 ')-/*12&+ )6 2&%&*,. +166&*&3(
61.&2= 13'.4+13< .,;&* 61.&29 B&541*&+ 61.&2 ')3(,13&+ 81(>13 , 2>,/&61.& 13'.4+& (>& 9+:6
61.& C+,(,:,2& 61.&D= ,3+ , 92>E 61.& C2>,/& 13+&E 6)*-,(D9 $3; <1%&3 2>,/&61.& -,; >,%&
-,3; )(>&* 61.& &E(&321)32 ,22)'1,(&+ 81(> 1(9 F)-& )6 (>&2& 61.&2 13 G,/@13+)8 -,;
13'.4+& 9-82* C*&3+&*13< 61.&D= 9/*0 C/*)0&'( 61.&D= 92:3 C2/,(1,. 13+&E )6 6&,(4*&2D= 92:E
C,.2) , 2/,(1,. 13+&E )6 6&,(4*&2D= ,3+ , 92>/9E-. 61.& C/*)%1+&2 -&(,+,(, 13 ,3 9E-.
6)*-,(D9 $ 2>,/&61.& 81.. )3.; )/&3 13 , H?F /*)<*,- 16 ,.. )6 (>&2& ,22)'1,(&+ 61.&2 ,*&
.),+&+ /*)/&*.;9 I)4 ',3 <4,*,3(&& (>,( ,.. )6 (>& *&541*&+ 61.&2 81.. :& .),+&+ ()<&(>&*9
J)* 132(,3'&= 16 ;)4 ,*& 8)*713< 81(> , *),+2 2>,/&61.&= , ')43(*; 2>,/&61.&= ,3+ , '1(1&2
2>,/&61.& 13 G,/@13+)8= ,3+ ;)4 8)4.+ .17& () 2,%& ,.. )6 (>&2& 2>,/&61.&2 ()<&(>&*=
(>12 ',3 :& +)3& :; 2,%13< &%&*;(>13< ()<&(>&* ,2 , /*)0&'( KJ1<4*& !9LM9 $ /*)0&'( 13
G,/@13+)8 12 2,%&+ ,2 , 9-8/*0 61.&9 F,%13< ,3 &3(1*& /*)0&'( /&*-1(2 42&*2 () /1'7 4/
, /*)0&'( 8>&*& (>&; .&6( 1( +4*13< (>& /*&%1)42 8)*7 2&221)3= ,3+ 1( ,..)82 (>& /*)<*,-
() +) (>& 61.& -,3,<&-&3(9


+',-*% /012 3#4'5, # $*67%890

N3'& '*&,(&+ )* .),+&+ 13() G,/@13+)8= (>& .,;&*2 ',3 :& ,221<3&+ , $*67%89'659 $
/*)0&'(1)3 (,7&2 , 2/>&*1',. /)*(1)3 )6 (>& O,*(>P2 24*6,'&= .,*<& )* 2-,..= ,3+ ,((&-/(2
() /.,'& (>,( ,*&, )3 , 6.,( 24*6,'&= 24'> ,2 , ')-/4(&* 2'*&&3 )* , /1&'& )6 /,/&*= 8>1.&
7&&/13< (>& 6&,(4*&2 )6 (>,( ,*&, ,2 13(,'( ,2 /)221:.&9 @& 81.. +12'422 /*)0&'(1)3 13
<*&,(&* +&(,1. 13 '>,/(&* Q9 R>&*& ,*& -,3; )(>&* <&)<*,/>1' ,3+ H?F ')3'&/(2 ,3+
(&*-2 (>,( 81.. 3&&+ () :& +&613&+ ,2 ;)4 :&')-& /*)61'1&3( 13 G,/@13+)89 R>&2& 81..
:& +&613&+ ,2 (>&; ,*12& 13 64(4*& '>,/(&*2= ,3+ 8>&3 ;)4 613+ 1( 3&'&22,*; () *&-&-:&*
,3; )6 (>& ')3'&/(2 ,3+ (&*-2= ;)4 -,; ')324.( (>& <.)22,*;9

27
!"!#$%&! (
Oflen hislorians are inleresled nol onIy in lhe size of a ¡o¡uIalion, bul in ils makeu¡:
for inslance, lhe ¡ercenlage of immigranls in lhe ¡o¡uIalion. GIS can aIIov us lo convey
such dala in a visuaI vay vilh a choro¡Ielh ma¡.

)*+,-
Ior lhis exercise, ve viII creale a choro¡Ielh ma¡ lhal dis¡Iays lhe ¡ercenlage of lhe
¡o¡uIalion lhal vas foreign-born for each slale in lhe Uniled Slales in 1900.

&./0 1-
Remember lhal for good fiIe managemenl, each ¡ro|ecl (lhus, each exercise) shouId be
saved lo ils ovn subfoIder. Therefore, lhe firsl lhing lo do is lo creale a foIder on your
desklo¡ lo slore your Ma¡Windov fiIes, ve recommend lhal you name lhis foIder
´Ixercises.¨

Ior each exercise, you shouId creale a subfoIder for lhe dala used in lhal exercise and
for lhe resuIls of lhe exercise. Ior lhis exercise, lhal subfoIder shouId be IabeIed
´Ixercise 2.¨

23./-
If you are using Windovs 7, lhis subfoIder viII be crealed vhen you unzi¡ lhe
sha¡efiIes foIder.

&./0 (-
Nexl, ve are going lo dovnIoad a foIder conlaining lhree sha¡efiIes: lhe Uniled Slales
vilh lhe ¡ercenlage of lhe foreign-born ¡o¡uIalion in 1900, lhe ma|or rivers of lhe
Uniled Slales, and lhe ma|or cilies of lhe Uniled Slales. We viII be Ioading lhese fiIes
inlo Ma¡Windov so lhal ve can see and modify lhe ma¡.

Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise2.zi¡

You viII be asked if you vanl lo save lhe foIder conlaining lhe sha¡efiIes. CIick ´Save¨
lo slarl lhe dovnIoad of lhe foIder.

23./-
This Iink viII nol o¡en a veb ¡age. Il viII o¡en a vindov asking you if you vanl lo
save lhe foIder. The fiIes for lhis exercise are zi¡¡ed. If you are running Windovs 7, you

28
can exlracl lhe fiIes from lhis foIder by righl-cIicking on lhe foIder and choosing
´Ixlracl aII..¨ If you are nol using Windovs 7, and you do nol have a ¡rogram lhal
viII o¡en zi¡¡ed fiIes, ¡Iease go lo hll¡://vvv.vinzi¡.com lo gel WinZi¡, and foIIov
lhe inslruclions lo exlracl lhe fiIes.

Once you have unzi¡¡ed lhe sha¡efiIe, lhe foIIoving fiIes shouId a¡¡ear in your
´Ixercise 2¨ subfoIder: USrivers.sh¡, UScilies.sh¡, UniledSlales1900.sh¡. You may see
olher fiIes vilh differenl exlensions in lhe foIder, de¡ending on vhich o¡eraling syslem
you used. Nov you are ready lo use lhe nev dala in Ma¡Windov.

!"#$ &'
O¡en lhe Ma¡Windov a¡¡Iicalion. Ma¡Windov is a Iarge ¡rogram, so il may lake
severaI seconds for il lo o¡en.

!"#$ ('
CIick lhe bullon.

Navigale lo lhe foIder vhere you saved lhe ´UniledSlales1900¨ sha¡efiIe. This shouId
be your "Ixercise 2¨ foIder.

SeIecl lhe sha¡efiIe ´UniledSlales1900.sh¡¨ and o¡en il, lhis o¡ens lhe Iayer in
Ma¡Windov. You shouId be abIe lo see a ma¡ de¡icling lhe Uniled Slales on your
screen.

!"#$ )'
Use lhe ´Ian¨ bullon lo move your ma¡, and lhe ´In¨ and ´Oul¨
bullons lo zoom in and zoom oul.

*+"#'
Do nol vorry if lhe coIors of lhe Uniled Slales are nol lhe same coIors lhal you see
de¡icled in lhis exercise. GIS soflvare randomIy assigns coIors vhen a Iayer is firsl
o¡ened.




29
!"#$ &'
Nov lhal lhe Uniled Slales Iayer has been Ioaded, ve viII add lhe ma|or cilies and
rivers as addilionaI Iayers.

CIick lhe ´Add¨ bullon . Go lo lhe foIder vhere lhe ´USrivers¨ and ´UScilies¨
sha¡efiIes are saved. This shouId be your ´Ixercise 2¨ subfoIder.

O¡en lhe ´UScilies¨ and ´USrivers¨ sha¡efiIes by re¡ealing lhe ¡rocedure used lo o¡en
lhe ´UniledSlales1900¨ sha¡efiIe.

Your screen shouId Iook Iike |Iigure 2.1j:


()*+,# -./' 01$ 23 "4# 56)"#7 !"1"#8.

!"#$ 9'
Nov ve viII lurn off lhe rivers and cilies Iayers. Go lo lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane in lhe Iefl-
hand corner of your screen and Iocale lhe ´Dala Layers¨ Iisl |Iigure 2.2j. Uncheck lhe
´Usrivers¨ and ´Uscilies¨ Iayers lo lurn lhem off.


!"

!"#$%& ()(* +,-.&/"0& 0-1&%23 4"5, "6782 "89"6-5"8# 5,& .7"853 0"8&3 -89 .701#78 0-1&%2)

$%&'() &*+& &*) '(%,- -*%., /)0%. &*) 0+1)2 &'&0)- ', 3'452) 676 2)82)-),& 8%',&9 0',)9 +,:
8%014%, 0+1)2-9 +,: &*+& /%&* ;<=('&')-> +,: ;<=2'?)2-> +2) 5,(*)(@):9 ',:'(+&',4 &*+&
&*)1 +2) &52,): %AA7

BA&)2 1%5 *+?) &52,): %AA &*) <=('&')- +,: <=2'?)2- 0+1)2-9 0%%@ +& 1%52 C+8 D3'452)
67!E7 F%5 -*%50: -)) + C+8 %A &*) <,'&): =&+&)- .'&* )+(* -&+&) %5&0',):9 /5& .'&* ,%
%&*)2 :)&+'0-7


!"#$%& ():* ;-. 7/ 5,& <8"5&9 +5-5&2 4"5, 5,& =%">&%2? -89 =6"5"&2? 0-1&%2 5$%8&9 7//)

+5&. @*
$%. &*+& .) *+?) 0)+2,): &% 0%+: 0+1)2- +,: &% &52, &*)C %, +,: %AA9 .) .'00 0)+2, *%.
&% -&%2) +,: C+,'850+&) &*) :+&+ +--%('+&): .'&* + 0+1)27 G% :% &*'-9 .) .'00 )H+C',) &*)
+&&2'/5&) ',A%2C+&'%, -&%2): ', &*) <,'&):=&+&)-IJ"" -*+8)A'0)7



31
Go lo ´Dala Layers¨ in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane.

Righl-cIick lhe ´UniledSlales1900¨ Iayer.

SeIecl ´Allribule TabIe Idilor.¨

This viII o¡en lhe ´Allribule TabIe Idilor¨ vindov |Iigure 2.4j. Nolice lhal lhere are
horizonlaI and verlicaI scroII bars you can use lo see more of lhe fiIe. Locale lhe fieId
coIumn IabeIed ´Iß1900.¨ This coIumn conlains lhe ¡ercenlage of lhe ¡o¡uIalion lhal
vas foreign born for each slale in lhe year 1900.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-..%"/$.& 01/2& 34".5%)6 07& 8"&24 ,!9:;<<6 =75>= .7& ?&%@&A.1#& 58
85%&"#AB/5%A @"."C&A= "A &1@7 =.1.&)

D.&? ;+
To de¡icl lhe ¡ercenlages of foreign-born individuaIs in lhe U.S. in 1900, ve need lo
a¡¡Iy coIors lo de¡icl lhe various ¡ercenlages. We can do lhis by using a ´coIor ram¡,¨
vhich assigns a coIor vaIue based on lhe ¡ercenlage vaIue of lhe chosen allribule.

CIose lhe Allribule TabIe Idilor.

Go lo lhe ´Layers¨ lab in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane.

32
Righl-cIick lhe ´UniledSlales1900¨ Iayer.

Choose "Iro¡erlies" from lhe dro¡-dovn menu. You viII see lhe ´Layer ¡ro¡erlies¨
vindov |Iigure 2.5j:


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&% 0%10&%2"&34 5"6715)

















!!
#$ %$ %&' ()*%'+$,-'.( %*/0 *. .''1 -1 2-+3,' 4565 7&-. %*/ 8'%. 3. .'8'9% :&-9& ;*%* <-'8;
:' :*1% %$ /,'*= -1%$ 9*%'+$,-'.0 *1; %$ *..-+1 * 9$8$, .9&'>' %$ %&$.' 9*%'+$,-'.5


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&#0%"&12 03/"04 $45&% ,6%03&%/"&1)2
















34
!"#$ &'(
In "Numeric IieIds," choose ´Iß1900¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu. This leIIs
Ma¡Windov lo use lhis dala in lhe coIoring scheme. In ´CoIor scheme,¨ cIick lhe
bullon. The ´CoIor schemes Iisl¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear |Iigure 2.7j.


)*+,-# ./0( 12343- 567#8#5 4*5"/9

CIick ´Idil.¨ The ´coIor scheme ediling¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. Choose vhile for ´CoIor
1¨ and bIue for ´CoIor 2,¨ as shovn in Iigure 2.8, and cIick ´Ok.¨


)*+,-# ./:( 12343- 567#8# #;*"*<+9 =*<;3=/



!"
$%& '()) *++ ,%&- ./%*+0 .%)%-(01 *./+2+ (0 3/+ 45%)%- *./+2+* )(*367 5)(.8 49867 :/+
'(0;%' '()) .)%*+ <0; ,%& '()) =+ =<.8 <3 3/+ 45<3+1%-(+*7 '(0;%'6


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./.% 012&3&0 /"04)5























36
!"#$ &&'
In lhe ´Calegories¨ vindov, go lo ´CoIor scheme.¨ In ´CoIor scheme,¨ choose lhe bIue
and vhile coIoring scheme lhal you crealed, as Iigure 2.10 shovs. In ´Calegories,¨
under ´CIassificalion,¨ seIecl lhe vaIue ´5.¨ Make sure lhal ´Iß1900¨ is seIecled in lhe
Numeric IieIds coIumn. IinaIIy, cIick ´Generale¨ in lhe u¡¡er-righl corner, and lhen
cIick ´Ok.¨


()*+,# -.&/' 0123#, 4,5$#,")#67 8)9:58.















37
Nov your ma¡ shouId Iook Iike |Iigure 2.11j.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,-.%./0&1- 23/ 4"1- 5.0.%"6# 75-&2& 3//0"&8 1. "1)

91&/ *(+
Nov, lo viev lhe ¡ercenlage of foreign-born ¡o¡uIalion in any slale, cIick lhe
bullon on Ma¡Windov's menu bar, and lhen cIick lhe slale.












!"
!"#$ &'(
$% &'() *%+, -,%.)/01 2% 0% 34,%.)/015 '67 86 34,%.)/015 /9%%&) 3:'() ;&5 <=82+,) >?@>A


)*+,-# ./&.( 0!12# 345 6$"*67 *7 "8# 9-6:#;" <#7,/

B'C) *%+, -,%.)/0 3DE),/8&) >5 '67 /F8/G 3:'()5 <=82+,) >?@!A?


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12# 345 =*7>6=/

39
If you vouId Iike lo check and make sure lhal your ¡ro|ecl has saved ¡ro¡erIy, cIose
Ma¡Windov and lhen reo¡en il. On lhe enlry screen, you shouId nov see ´Ixercise
2.m¡v¡r|¨ under lhe ´O¡en a ¡ro|ecl¨ icon |Iigure 2.14j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.&%/"0& ( 123 04230 $15&% 678&1 9 8%2:&/;)<

CongraluIalions! You have generaled a choro¡Ielh ma¡ and used a coIor ram¡ lo
highIighl as¡ecls of lhe dala associaled vilh lhe ma¡. You shouId nov feeI comforlabIe
vilh lhe Ma¡Windov inlerface. IeeI free lo re¡eal any ¡orlion of lhis exercise vilh
vhich you vouId Iike more ¡raclice, incIuding changing lhe coIors used lo re¡resenl
lhe foreign-born ¡o¡uIalion ¡ercenlages.

You are nov ready lo move lo Cha¡ler 3. In lhal cha¡ler, you viII Iearn some of lhe
basics of carlogra¡hy, incIuding lhe im¡orlance of seIecling lhe correcl ¡ro|eclion, and
you viII a¡¡Iy lhis knovIedge lo a ma¡ of Irance.



40
!"#$%&' )* +,-./ ,01 2,3 $45678-950
AII ma¡s, vhelher of your homelovn or of lhe universe, are lvo-dimensionaI
re¡resenlalions of a lhree-dimensionaI s¡ace, vhich means lhal aII ma¡s have a cerlain
IeveI of dislorlion. This dislorlion may nol maller much vhen lhe ma¡ is of lhe
universe or even of our gaIaxy, bul vhen lhe ma¡ de¡icls lhe Iarlh or any region of lhe
Iarlh, lhe issue is more im¡orlanl. ßecause lhe Iarlh is an irreguIar s¡here÷more
s¡ecificaIIy, lhe Iarlh's sha¡e is described as an irreguIar eIIi¡soid÷a lransformalion
musl occur lo ¡Iace a lhree-dimensionaI area of lhe Iarlh on a fIal surface. This
lransformalion is caIIed 345678-950. Many differenl ¡ro|eclions exisl, and vhich
¡ro|eclion is chosen by a carlogra¡her de¡ends on lhe ¡ur¡ose for vhich lhe
geogra¡hic dala are dis¡Iayed.

Longilude and Ialilude vere deveIo¡ed in order lo delermine lhe Iocalion of s¡ecific
¡osilions on lhe earlh's surface. :50;9-.17 is anchored by lhe ¡rime meridian, an
imaginary Iine vhich is delermined lo be 0° and vhich circIes lhe earlh from lhe Norlh
IoIe lo lhe Soulh IoIe, dividing lhe earlh inlo lhe Iaslern and Weslern hemis¡heres.
Longilude is measured by degrees, from 0 lo 180, vilh eilher a Wesl or an Iasl direclion.
Lines of <,-9-.17 cross Iines of Iongilude. The equalor is lhe equivaIenl of lhe IaleraI
¡rime meridian, and il divides lhe vorId inlo lhe Norlhern and Soulhern hemis¡heres.
Hence, lhe Ialilude of a ¡Iace on lhe earlh viII be belveen 0° and 90°, vilh eilher a
Norlh or a Soulh direclion. Degrees can be divided furlher inlo minules and seconds.
CaIcuIaling an exacl Iocalion on lhe earlh's surface requires delermining lhe Iocalion's
Iongilude and Ialilude lo an exacl degree, minule, and second. If you have ever used a
GIS, you have seen lhe nine-digil nolalion used for geogra¡hic Iocalions. A GIS dravs
on Iibraries of GIS dala lo caIcuIale differenl ma¡ ¡ro|eclions for you.

The Iines of Iongilude and Ialilude essenliaIIy creale a grid of lhe Iarlh's surface, vhich
is im¡orlanl for ma¡making because il ¡rovides a vay for users lo assign geogra¡hic
coordinales lo lheir dala. This grid musl be maled lo an eslimale of lhe sha¡e and size
of lhe Iarlh, and lhis eslimale is referred lo as a 1,-./. A dalum ¡rovides a modeI of
lhe Iarlh as an eIIi¡soid, because lhe Iarlh is nol a ¡erfecl eIIi¡soid, lhere are many
differenl dalums (correcl ¡IuraI for lhis use of lhe vord dalum, nol ´dala¨) lo ex¡ress
ils irreguIar sha¡e. When lhe dalum modeI is ex¡ressed in Iongilude and Ialilude (and
oflen eIevalion) dala, lhe resuIl is commonIy caIIed, in lhe GIS vorId, a ;75;4,3=98
8554190,-7 >?>-7/. Among lhe mosl common dalums are lhe WorId Geodelic Syslem
1984 (WGS 1984), lhe Norlh American Dalum 83 (NAD83), lhe Norlh American Dalum
27 (NAD27), and lhe Iuro¡ean TerreslriaI Reference Syslem 1989 (ITRS89). When
crealing a ma¡, il is im¡orlanl firsl lo assign a dalum lo give meaning lo lhe Iocalion of
your dala. Hundreds of dalums have been crealed, and each of lhem viII inlroduce a

41
measure of dislorlion lo lhe finaI ma¡, de¡ending on lhe area of lhe Iarlh's surface in
vhich lhe carlogra¡her is inleresled. IorlunaleIy, you do nol have lo vorry aboul lhe
malhemalicaI basis of dalums, you |usl have lo remember lo ¡ick one al lhe beginning
of any ¡ro|ecl, before you slarl vorking on a ma¡. Once a dalum has been seIecled for a
¡ro|ecl, lhe second slage is lo assign a ly¡e of ma¡ ¡ro|eclion. Differenl ¡ro|eclions are
seIecled for differenl communicalion ¡ur¡oses.

!"#$%# '( )"* +,'-.%/$'0
ßecause lhe Iarlh cannol be re¡resenled accuraleIy on a fIal surface, such as a ¡iece of
¡a¡er or a com¡uler screen, every ma¡ ¡ro|eclion ¡resenls some sorl of dislorlion. A
¡ro|eclion may seek lo ¡reserve various ¡ro¡erlies of a ma¡, such as area, sha¡e, or
dislance, bul a ¡ro|eclion cannol ¡reserve aII of lhese lhings al once. Oflen, a ¡ro|eclion
viII seek a baIance lo ¡reserve as much of lhe area, sha¡e, and dislance as ¡ossibIe, lhus
making each of lhem sIighlIy dislorled.

AIlhough il is difficuIl lo cIassify lhe differenl ly¡es of ¡ro|eclion, }udilh Tyner has
se¡araled ¡ro|eclion ¡ro¡erlies inlo four ly¡es: a) equivaIence of an area, b)
¡reservalion of angIes or of lhe sha¡e of smaII areas, c) Iinear scaIe, and d) direclion.
1

IquivaIence of area or equaI area ma¡s ¡reserve area scaIe. ConformaI or orlhomor¡hic
¡ro|eclions ¡reserve angIes or lhe sha¡e of smaII areas. These ¡ro|eclions are besl al
¡reserving smaII fealures, such as a bay or ¡eninsuIa.
2
Linear scaIe, aIso caIIed
equidislanl ¡ro|eclion, shovs dislances correclIy. Direclion ¡ro|eclions are aIso caIIed
azimulhaI or zenilhaI ¡ro|eclions, lhey viII re¡resenl lhe correcl dislances belveen
¡Iaces vhen lhe caIcuIalions are made from lhe cenler ¡oinl of lhe ma¡. Of lhe many
¡ro|eclions avaiIabIe, each has dislinclive advanlages and disadvanlages de¡ending on
lhe scaIe and ¡ur¡ose of your ma¡. To visuaIize lhe difference a ¡ro|eclion can make,
see Iigure 3.1. Nole lhe slrelch lhal occurs in lhe image on lhe righl vhen lhe ma¡
¡ro|eclion used for lhe image on lhe Iefl is changed lo anolher ¡ro|eclion.





1
}udilh Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$ (Nev York: The GuiIford Iress, 2010), 101-122.
2
Ibid., 102.

42

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& "./#& 01 2-& 3&42 "5 / 60%2- 7.&%"8/ 739&%5 :;$/3 7%&/ <%0=&82"01) >1
2-& %"#-2? 2-& "./#& @/5 %&A%0=&82&B "120 / 67C *DE( F,G H01& IJ6)

KL3"1B%"8/3? K01"8/3? /1B 7M".$2-/3 <%0=&82"015
AII ¡ro|eclions lake a lhree-dimensionaI image and ma¡ il onlo a lvo-dimensionaI ma¡.
The lhree mosl common vays of doing lhis ma¡¡ing are by using cyIindricaI, conicaI,
and azimulhaI ¡ro|eclions. A 8L3"1B%"8/3 ¡ro|eclion, in essence, vra¡s a geomelric ¡Iane
around lhe Iarlh: in lhis exam¡Ie, onIy louching around lhe equalor (see Iigure 3.2).
3

The resuIl is a ¡Ianar re¡resenlalion of lhe Iarlh. Wilh lhis cyIindricaI ¡ro|eclion, lhere
is Iess dislorlion around lhe equalor and more around lhe IoIar Regions.


!"#$%& ()I+ ,-"5 "./#& B&.0152%/2&5 -0@ 8L3"1B%"8/3 A%0=&82"015 /%& 8%&/2&B)

If lhe ¡Iane vas vra¡¡ed around lhe ¡oIes, ralher lhan lhe equalor, lhe dislorlion lo lhe
ma¡ vouId be Iess al lhe ¡oIes, and il vouId increase cIoser lo lhe equalor.

A 801"8/3 ¡ro|eclion ¡Iaces a cone over a ¡arl of lhe earlh. A conicaI ¡ro|eclion, laken
from lhe vanlage ¡oinl of lhe Norlh IoIe, can be seen in Iigure 3.3.
4
Wilh a conicaI
¡ro|eclion, area is ¡reserved, bul nol scaIe and sha¡e.

3
MiIIer CyIindricaI Iro|eclion, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org).
4
IoIar ConicaI Iro|eclion, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org).

!"

!"#$%& ()(* + ,-.",/0 1%-2&,3"-.)

$% /4"5$36/0 &'()*+,-(% ./*/ 0 &10%0' /.'20+* 0%3 &10+*/ -, 0+'(// 0 /-%41* &(-%, (2 ,5*
60',57/ /.'20+*8 $9-:.,501 &'()*+,-(%/ &'*/*';* 3-'*+,-(% 2'(: 0 +*',0-% &(-%,8
$3(&,-%4 ,5-/ 4(01 :*0%/ ,50, /50&* 0%3 0'*0 0'* -%+'*0/-%41< 3-/,(',*3 2'(: ,5* +*%,*'
&(-%, (2 0 :0&8 =5* >0:?*', 09-:.,501 &'()*+,-(% -/ /5(@% -% A-4.'* "8!8
B
=5* &(-%, 0,
@5-+5 ,5* &10%0' /.'20+* ,(.+5*/ ,5* 60',5 -% ,5* >0:?*', 09-:.,501 &'()*+,-(% -/ CD E
0%3 CD 6F /(.,5 (2 ,5* G*/, $2'-+0% +(.%,'< (2 H50%08 E(,-+* 5(@ :.+5 :('* 3-/,(',*3
?(,5 ,5* I(10' J*4-(%/ 0%3 ,5* *K.0,('-01 *34*/ 0'* -% ,5-/ :0&8

B
>0:?*', $9-:.,501 I'()*+,-(%F 2'(: ,5* G-L-:*3-0 M(::(%/ N+(::(%/8@-L-:*3-08('4O8

44

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". "/0#& 12%3%04. 05 06"/$3-07 1%28&93"25 :"3- "3. 9&53&% 12"53 8$.3
.2$3- 2; <-050)

The =5">&%.07 ,%05.>&%.& ?&%9032% (UTM) is a ¡ro|ecled coordinale syslem lhal
divides lhe earlh inlo 60 zones. UTM a¡¡Iies lhe Transverse Mercalor ma¡ ¡ro|eclion, is
based on a s¡ecific cyIindricaI ¡ro|eclion. UTM coordinale syslems seek a baIance
belveen ¡reserving sha¡e, area, dislance, and direclion. As hislorians are inleresled in
differenl ¡arls of lhe vorId, il is good lo Iearn vhich UTM(s) faII inside of your
region(s) of inleresl. UTM ¡ro|eclions can be a good fil for many GIS users if lheir area
of concern faIIs enlireIy vilhin a UTM zone. Iigure 3.5 Iisls aII 60 of lhese UTM zones.
6

One of lhe benefils of using UTM ¡ro|eclions is lhal each zone is fairIy smaII, making il
easier lo minimize dislorlions.

6
UTM 60 Zones, from lhe Wikimedia Commons (commons.vikimedia.org), via lhe Wiki¡edia arlicIe
´UniversaI Transverse Mercalor coordinale syslem,¨
hll¡://en.viki¡edia.org/viki/UniversaI_Transverse_Mercalor_coordinale_syslem, accessed on 9 }anuary
2014.

!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./"0&%123 ,%2/10&%1& 4&%5267% 8.,49 1:16&; 7< ="0"="/# 6-& >2%6-
"/67 ?@ A%7B&56"7/1)

C6-&% ,:A&1 7< D26$;1
$%&'( )*+( ,-.() */ 01,2+ 13( 3(4&*51'6 51,&*51'6 *3 4'*71' &5 )8*.(6 ,%(3( 13( 1')*
+28% +*3( '*81'&9(0 *5(): ;*3 (<1+.'(6 &5 ,%( =5&,(0 >,1,()6 ,%( ),1,( .'15( 8**30&51,(
)-),(+ &) ?&0('- 2)(06 150 @(&A&546 B%&516 1')* %1) &,) *?5 8**30&51,( )-),(+: C%()(
8**30&51,( )-),(+) ?(3( 0(D('*.(0 &5 *30(3 ,* .3()(3D( 1) +28% 13(16 0&),158(6 150
)%1.( 1882318- 1) .*))&7'(: ;*3 +15- %&),*3&15) 150 *,%(3 )*8&1' )8&(58( 150 %2+15&,&()
)8%*'13)6 ,%( $E>F! 01,2+ ?&'' 7( ,%( 7(), 8%*&8(: G*?(D(36 &/ -*23 3()(138% ,*.&8 &)
/*82)(0 *5 1 D(3- )+1'' 13(16 '&H( 1 )&54'( 8&,-6 *3 *5 1 D(3- '134( 13(16 )28% 1) 15 (5,&3(
8*5,&5(5,6 1 0&//(3(5, 01,2+ +1- ?*3H 7(,,(3 /*3 ,%( 813,*431.%&8 D&)21'&91,&*5 */ -*23
&5/*3+1,&*5:

I5 ,%( /*''*?&54 (<(38&)(6 ?( ?&'' 1..'- ?%1, -*2 %1D( '(135(0 3(4130&54 01,2+) 150
+1. .3*A(8,&*5): $%&'( 4*&54 ,%3*24% ,%&) (<(38&)(6 &, &) &+.*3,15, ,* 3(+(+7(3 ,%1, &5
,(3+) */ +1.+1H&546 ,%(3( &) 5*, 1 )&54'( 8*33(8, .3*A(8,&*5: C%( .3*.(3 .3*A(8,&*5
0(.(50) 2.*5 ,%( .23.*)( */ (18% &50&D&021' +1.: B13,*431.%- &) 1 /*3+ */
8*++25&81,&*56 150 ,%( .3*A(8,&*5 -*2 )('(8, ?&'' 0(.(50 *5 ?%1, -*2 ?&)% ,*
8*++25&81,( ?&,% -*23 +1.: J*), */ ,%( (<(38&)() &5 ,%&) +1521' ?&'' 2)( 1 =CJ
.3*A(8,(0 8**30&51,( )-),(+ /*3 813,*431.%&8 .3*A(8,):


46
!"!#$%&! (
Of lhe hundreds of digilaI ma¡s avaiIabIe onIine, many have nol been ¡ro|ecled, and
olhers may have been assigned a ¡ro|eclion lhal is nol lhe besl one for a ¡arlicuIar use.
Therefore, il is im¡orlanl lo knov hov lo a¡¡Iy a ¡ro|eclion lo a digilaI ma¡.

)*+,-
Ior lhis exercise, ve are going lo lake an un¡ro|ecled ma¡ of Irance and a¡¡Iy an
a¡¡ro¡riale ¡ro|eclion lo il.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise3.zi¡

Save lhis sha¡efiIe in your ´Sha¡efiIes¨ foIder in a subfoIder IabeIed ´Ixercise 3,¨ and
unzi¡ lhe sha¡efiIe. You viII see lhe ´Irance.sh¡¨ fiIe in your Ixercise 3 subfoIder.

23./:
If you are using Windovs 7, lhe subfoIder viII be crealed for you vhen you unzi¡ lhe
fiIe.

&./0 4-
To Ioad lhis sha¡efiIe, o¡en lhe Ma¡Windov a¡¡Iicalion.

CIick lhe bullon.

Navigale lo your "Ixercise 3¨ subfoIder.

SeIecl lhe sha¡efiIe ´Irance.sh¡¨ and o¡en il as a Iayer in Ma¡Windov |Iigure 3.1j. The
coIors of your ma¡ may be differenl from lhose in lhe ma¡ used lo iIIuslrale lhis
exercise. As you can see, lhe ma¡ of Irance is dislorled. We need lo a¡¡Iy a ¡ro|eclion
lo correcl lhal dislorlion.


!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-. /0 !%-12& 3"45/$4 .%/6&24"/1)

74&. (+
$% &'( )*+, -,*./,01 2),., *., 3*/& 0*2(3% */0 4.'5,62,0 6''.07/*2, %&%2,3% 8.'3
9)76) 2' 6)''%,1 */0 %'3, '8 2),%, 8*+'. 0788,.,/2 *.,*% '8 2), :-';,< ='. =.*/6,1 9,
%)'(-0 (%, 2), >?@ ABC! D>'.-0 ?,'0,276 @&%2,3 ABC!E 0*2(3 */0 2), >?@ ABC!
FGH I'/, JKL 4.'5,627'/< $% 9, ,M4-*7/,0 7/ 2), 6)*42,.1 FGH %2*/0% 8'. NF/7+,.%*-
G.*/%+,.%, H,.6*2'.<O >, *., (%7/: P'/, JKL ;,6*(%, =.*/6, 8*--% 972)7/ P'/, JK '8 2),
L'.2),./ ),37%4),.,<

G' ;, *;-, 2' 6)''%, * 4.'5,627'/1 &'( 97-- /,,0 2' %9726) 8.'3 2), NQ*&,.%O +7,9 2' 2),
NG''-;'MO +7,9 7/ 2), NQ,:,/0O 4*/, '/ 2), -,82 %70, '8 2), %6.,,/ R=7:(., J<ST<


48

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-../0.1, 2"&3 "4 56& 7&#&48 9:4&)

;5&9 <+
To delermine if a dalum or a geogra¡hic coordinale syslem has been a¡¡Iied lo lhe
sha¡efiIe of Irance, go lo ´Iro|eclions,¨ in lhe TooIbox menu, and in ´Iro|eclions,¨
doubIe-cIick ´Idenlify Iro|eclion.¨ This viII o¡en lhe ´Idenlify Iro|eclion¨ vindov
|Iigure 3.3j.


49

!"#$%& ()(* +,-&./"01 2%34&5/"3.+ 6".-36)

In ´SeIecl Iayer,¨ choose ´Irance,¨ and lhen cIick lhe ´Idenlify¨ bullon. You viII see
lhal lhe ´Iro|eclion slring¨ vindov is bIank because a ¡ro|eclion has nol been a¡¡Iied
lo lhe sha¡efiIe.

To assign lhe WGS 1984 dalum, cIick ´CanceI¨ lo go back lo ´Iro|eclions,¨ and doubIe-
cIick ´Assign Iro|eclion lo Sha¡efiIe¨ lo o¡en lhe ´Assign Iro|eclion¨ vindov |Iigure
3.4j.


!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.."#/ 0%12&34"1/, 5"/615)

$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0))12 34*152 12 )*+ /1))16 17 )*+ 8&9*) *:%7 17 )*+ 4'8++2; )1 1<+2 )*+
,=+%+') %:>+84. 5&2?15@ =+%+') )*+ ,A8:2'+. %:>+8B :4 4*152 &2 A&908+ C@!B :2? '%&'(
,D(@.


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!"
$%& '()' '(* +,-)./*0 1)2*- ()3 4**. 3*1*/'*56 '(73 &7.5%& &711 /1%3* ).5 2%8 &711
-*'8-. '% '(* +9337:. ;-%<*/'7%.0 3/-**.=

>*1*/' '(* +?*%:-)@(7/)10 A%15*- 7. '(* A71* 173' %. '(* 1*A' 375* %A '(* 3/-**.= B. '(*
+?*%:-)@(7/)10 A%15*-6 /17/C +D?> EF60 ).5 '(*. /17/C '(* +9337:.0 48''%. G,7:8-* H=IJ=


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K%8 &711 3** ) L*33):* 3')'7.: '()' +'(* @-%<*/'7%. &)3 38//*33A8112 )337:.*5 '% '(* A71*0
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!"#$%& ()=+ /$99&>>;$: 8%6?&94"63 @&>>7#&)



52
!"#$ &'
Nov lhal ve have a¡¡Iied lhe WGS84 dalum, ve need lo seIecl lhe correcl UTM zone
lo give us a ma¡ ¡ro|eclion, lhe one for Irance is UTM zone 30N.

CIose lhe ´Assign Iro|eclion¨ vindov and in lhe ´Iro|eclions¨ looIbox, doubIe-cIick
´Re¡ro|ecl Sha¡efiIe.¨ This viII o¡en lhe ´Re¡ro|ecl Layers¨ vindov |Iigure 3.8j.


()*+,# -./' 01#$,23#4" 567#,80 9):;29.















!"
$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0))12 324 5+%+') )*+ ,6732'+. %38+79 35 810 4&4 &2 5)+: ;< =2 )*+ >1%4+7
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!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./ 01, 2$34567&%)

















!"
$%&'( )*+ ,-. /0123% 4+5) )3 )*+ ,678 9". )3 +5:;4< )*+ /=2>3%<+? ;4< /'?3%% <3@4 )3
)*+ >3%<+? %;2+%+< ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+F. ;4< )*+4 '%&'( )*+ ,-. /0123% )3
+5:;4< )*+ ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+. /=2>3%<+?G H4 ,ABC D3?)*+?4 E+1&/:*+?+F.
'*33/+ ,678 9" I ABC J34+ KL D. MN&O=?+ KGPLQF ;4< '%&'( )*+ ,R+:?3S+'). 2=))34G


!"#$%& ()*+, -./0 123456 789& (+ :- ;%8<&=>"89)

T3= @&%% /++ ; @&4<3@ <&/:%;0&4O )*+ :?3S+')&34 ?+/=%)/ MN&O=?+ KGPPQG U4'+ 03= *;V+
'34>&?1+< )*+ ?+/=%)/F '%&'( ,$%3/+G.


!"#$%& ()**, -?%8<&=>"89 =@&=A"9# %&B$C>B)-


!!
!"#$ &'
#$%&' ()* +,-& ./)0&1 %+& 23')4&.%5)6 .+&.7568 '&0*/%09 :561):; ()* :5// 0&& , <&00,8&
0%,%568 %+,% %+& =')4&.%&1 /,(&' .)*/1 6)% >& ,11&1 %) %+& <,= ?@58*'& ABCDEB ()*+"
,)--. F %+50 4*0% <&,60 %+,% ()* :5// +,-& %) <,6*,//( ,11 %+& '&=')4&.%&1 /,(&' %)
G,=H561):B


/012-# 3456' 7-)8#9"0)* :#;;<1#4

I/)0& %+& 23')4&.%5)6 <&00,8&9 :561):; ,61 %+&6 ./)0& %+& 2J&=')4&.% /,(&'09 :561):B

I/5.7 %+& 2#119 >*%%)6 %) )=&6 %+& 2#11 G,= K,(&'9 :561):; ,61 6,-58,%& %)
()*' 2LM&'.50& A9 0*>$)/1&'B N)* 0+)*/1 0&& , 6&: 0+,=&$5/& 6,<&1 2@',6.&BHOP QR F
STG U)6& AVW;9 ,0 0+):6 56 @58*'& ABCAB P&/&.% %+50 0+,=&$5/& ,61 ./5.7 %+& 2X=&69
>*%%)6B


56

!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-.. /01 203&%, 4"5.64)

You viII nolice lhal lhe nev ma¡ does nol a¡¡ear on lhe screen. Thal is because ve
need lo leII Ma¡Windov lo shov lhe nev one.

In lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, svilch lo lhe ´Layers¨ viev, righl-cIick lhe nevIy added Iayer,
and choose ´Zoom lo Layer¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu |Iigure 3.14j.


!"#$%& ()*7+ 8966: ;6 203&%< "5 ;=& 203&%> :&5$)

57
Nov you viII see lhal you have a nev ma¡ of Irance vilh a ¡ro|ecled geogra¡hic
coordinale syslem added lo il |Iigure 3.15j:


!"#$%& ()*+, -.%%&/012 3%.4&/0&5 673 .8 !%79/&)

CongraluIalions! You nov have a correclIy ¡ro|ecled lhe ma¡ of Irance. Save lhis nev
fiIe lo your ´Ixercise 3¨ subfoIder, ve viII be using il for fulure exercises.

If you do nol yel feeI comforlabIe vilh dalums and ¡ro|eclions, ve suggesl lhal you
save lhis ma¡, and lhen re¡eal lhis exercise choosing olher dalums and ¡ro|eclions.
This re¡elilion viII give you a sense of hov lhe various ¡ro|eclion syslems viII redrav
lhe ma¡, and famiIiarize you vilh lhe ¡rocess of ¡ro|ecling a coordinale syslem.

When you are ready lo conlinue, move on lo lhe nexl cha¡ler, vhich viII inlroduce you
lo lhe basics of carlogra¡hy so lhal you can ¡roduce informalive, easy-lo-read ma¡s.

58
!"#$%&' )* !+,-./,+012
Wilh lhis cha¡ler, ve ¡Iace in your hands a ¡arlicuIarIy ¡overfuI vay lo communicale
your ideas. !+,-./,+012 is lhe sludy and ¡raclice of ¡roducing ma¡s. Il is ¡ossibIe lhal
lhe ma|orily of lhe human brain has evoIved lo deaI vilh lhe visuaI. This cenlraIily of
visuaI ¡erce¡lion makes carlogra¡hy a su¡erb form of communicalion among humans.
Indeed, carlogra¡hic communicalion is so ¡overfuI lhal lhose ¡roducing ma¡s musl
lake care lhal lhey do nol convey faIse informalion.
1


Ma¡ ¡roduclion combines eIemenls of arl, science, and lechnoIogy. ßecause ma¡-
making generaIIy invoIves scaIing dovn a re¡resenlalion of lhe Iarlh's surface, lhe
¡rocess comes vilh inherenl Iimilalions. Good carlogra¡hy seeks lo minimize lhose
Iimilalions as much as ¡ossibIe. Hovever, il is im¡orlanl lo reaIize lhal no ma¡ can
shov everylhing. Whal lhe carlogra¡her decides lo incIude in a ma¡ shouId IargeIy
de¡end u¡on lhe scaIe and ¡ur¡ose of lhe ma¡. WhiIe lhere is nol a hard and fasl sel of
ruIes for carlogra¡hic design, lhere are some generaI guideIines lhal ve can discuss.
Much of lhis discussion is based on }udilh Tyner's !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$.
2


&34546-7 .8 + 9+0
Mosl ma¡s incIude ilems lo make il easier for lhe reader lo undersland lhe meaning of
lhe ma¡. Such ilems incIude lilIes, Iegends, a norlh arrov or com¡ass rose, and some
indicalion of lhe size of lhe region shovn on lhe ma¡, usuaIIy by incIuding a scaIe bar.
The -:-34 of a ma¡ shouId be concise bul descri¡live of lhe sub|ecl of lhe ma¡. A 34/46;
shouId ex¡Iain lhe symboIs used on lhe ma¡. If a Iegend lilIe is deemed necessary, il
shouId be differenl from, bul a concise and effeclive com¡Iemenl lo lhe ma¡ lilIe. The
Iegend shouId incIude aII symboIs on lhe ma¡, aIong vilh lheir meanings. A <.50+77
,.74 or 6.,-1 +,,.= ¡rovides a direclionaI ´orienlalion¨ for lhe ma¡. Using a com¡ass
rose or norlh arrov is ¡arlicuIarIy heI¡fuI vhen deaIing vilh a geogra¡hic area lhal
may nol be famiIiar lo your ma¡ readers. As aIvays, your design decisions shouId be
delermined by lhe ¡ur¡ose, audience, inlended use of your ma¡. ><+34 shovs lhe
re¡resenlalive unils of measuremenl of lhe ma¡. There are lhree vays lo shov scaIe:
vilh a ralio, in vords, or by a bar scaIe, and Ma¡Windov can shov scaIe in aII of lhese
vays. An exam¡Ie of a scaIe based u¡on ,+-:. is lhis ex¡ression: 1:250,000. This ly¡e of
scaIe is ¡arlicuIarIy usefuI because a ralio lranscends unils. The scaIe of a ma¡ can aIso

1
Idvard R. Tufle, 1$2#)#+$#$0 3$,+"4.5#+$ (Cheshire, CT: Gra¡hics Iress, 1990). As soon as ¡ossibIe, you
shouId read lvo inex¡ensive books by Mark Monmonier, ¡ubIished by lhe Universily of Chicago Iress:
6+7 5+ 8#( 7#59 -.&) (1996), and -.&&#$0 35 :;5< 1=&+)#5+"> ?."5+0".&9> ,+" 59( 6;4.$#5#() .$@ A+%#.'
A%#($%() (1993).
2
}udilh Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$ (Nev York: The GuiIford Iress, 2010).
59
be ex¡ressed in vords: one inch re¡resenls len miIes. A scaIe bar de¡icls ma¡ unils
gra¡hicaIIy, such as:


You musl undersland hov carlogra¡hers em¡Ioy lhe lerms !"#$% '("!% and ')"!! '("!%,
because lhe conce¡ls are oflen confused. Ior exam¡Ie, vhen com¡aring ma¡s vilh
ralios of 1:250,000 and 1:1,000, one mighl assume lhal lhe 1:1,000 scaIe is smaIIer and lhe
1:250,000 is Iarger, hovever, lhe o¡¡osile hoIds lrue. If lhe ma¡ unil re¡resenls one/one-
lhousandlhs of lhe area of lhe ma¡, il is Iarger lhan a unil re¡resenling one/lvo
hundred fifly-lhousandlhs of lhal area. Thus, a scaIe of 1:1,000 is Iarger lhan a scaIe of
1:250,000. The carlogra¡hic slandard is lhal lhe Iarger lhe area re¡resenled by lhe ma¡,
lhe smaIIer lhe scaIe. To see lhis conce¡l visuaIIy, com¡are Iigures 4.1 and 4.2.


*+$,#% -./0 12+' ')"!!3'("!% +)"$% '245' " !"#$% "#%".

60

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". /0%#& .10/& 203 .-45. 0 .20//&% 0%&0 6-07 "7 8"#$%& ()9)

:0;4$6 07< =/077"7#
AIong vilh lhe Iegend, com¡ass rose, and scaIe, lhere are olher as¡ecls lo a good ma¡
lhal can make lhe ma¡ easier lo read for lhe viever. When designing a ma¡, il is
im¡orlanl lo consider lhese various eIemenls. ObviousIy, lhe geogra¡hic com¡onenl of
your ma¡ shouId make u¡ lhe Iargesl ¡orlion, bul lhere are olher com¡onenls of a ma¡
lhal can make lhe informalion more easiIy underslood by lhe viever. Tyner suggesled
lhal carlogra¡hers ¡ay ¡arlicuIar allenlion lo lhe design eIemenls of lhe ma¡, incIuding
cIarily, order, baIance, conlrasl, unily, and harmony. She noled lhal aII lhe eIemenls of a
ma¡ are inlerde¡endenl, incIuding lo¡ic, audience, Iellering, ¡ur¡ose, scaIe, coIor, and
symboIs.
3
Imagine lhal each ma¡ eIemenl carries vilh il a veighl, based u¡on ils size
and coIor. Iach veighl shouId be baIanced in such a vay lhal lhe ma¡ incIudes aII lhe
informalion needed, vilhoul lhese olher eIemenls overshadoving lhe gra¡hic ma¡
ilseIf. Iigures 4.3 and 4.4 iIIuslrale lhe difference belveen a baIanced ma¡ and an
unbaIanced one.


3
Ibid., 19-23.
!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-". /01 -0. 203045&6 033 78 9-& /01 &3&/&49. 05%7.. 9-& 10#&)



!"#$%& ()(+ ,-& 30:7$9 78 9-". /01 ". 479 ;&33<203045&6 046 ". 6"88"5$39 97 %&06)
62
Lcttcring
Texl in a ma¡ serves severaI ¡ur¡oses: lo IabeI, lo ex¡Iain, lo direcl lhe user lo s¡ecific
fealures, lo eslabIish a hierarchy, or lo shov size. Here are some generaI guideIines for
formalling and ¡Iacing lexl on a ma¡:
1) Waler fealures, such as rivers and Iakes, are IabeIed in ilaIics. Wilh rivers, lhe
name shouId foIIov lhe Iine re¡resenling lhe river and be re¡ealed lhroughoul
lhe ma¡ if lhe river is a Iong one. Lakes and olher bodies of valer shouId have
lhe name inside if il fils, if nol, il shouId be ¡Iaced com¡IeleIy oulside lhe body
of valer.
2) Roads, raiIroads, and olher Iinear fealures are IabeIed Iike rivers, exce¡l lhey
are nnt ilaIicized.
3) Mounlain ranges, regions, and olher areas ly¡icaIIy have lexl lhal is s¡read
lhroughoul lhe res¡eclive s¡ace.
4) When ¡oinl symboIs are used lo re¡resenl Iocalions of ¡Iaces, such as cilies,
lhere is a hierarchy of o¡limaI ¡Iaces lo Iocale lhe name in reIalion lo lhe ¡oinl.
The besl ¡Iace is off lhe lo¡-righl of lhe ¡oinl, lhe nexl besl is lhe bollom righl,
lhen lo¡-Iefl, or if none of lhese is ¡ossibIe, lhe bollom-Iefl. If olher fealures in
lhe ma¡ do nol aIIov for lhe besl convenlion, ¡Iace lhe IabeI in lhe besl Iocalion
¡ossibIe |see Iigure 4.5j. As aIvays, you are concerned aboul achieving cIarily
and IegibiIily.


Figurc 4.5: In this cxamp!c, bccausc nI thc path nI thc rivcr, thc bcst !ncatinn Inr thc
city namc is tnp-!cIt, rathcr than tnp-right.

WhiIe lhe sim¡Iesl soIulion may be lo ¡Iace lexl near a ¡oinl fealure on a ma¡,
carlogra¡hic guideIines suggesl lhal if lhe lexl can be ¡Iaced in lhe o¡limaI ¡osilion
63
using !"#$%&#"'()! +",-).&, lhe carlogra¡her shouId do so. If ve Iook al Iigure 4.5, ve
can see lhal if ve |usl ¡ul lhe lexl ´Sl. IauI¨ lo lhe lo¡-righl of lhe ¡oinl re¡resenling
lhe cily, ve vouId obscure ¡arls of bolh lhe Iine indicaling lhe river and lhe one
indicaling lhe slale border. Carlogra¡hic masking aIIovs lhe ma¡-maker lo creale a
smaII ¡oIygon across lhose fealures in such a vay lhal lhe cily name can be Iocaled in
lhe ¡ro¡er ¡osilion vilhoul obscuring lhe Iine fealures. Ior exam¡Ie, in Iigure 4.6, a
carlogra¡hic mask vas ¡Iaced lhrough lhe Mississi¡¡i River in order lo ¡rovide a s¡ace
for lhe name Sl. IauI.


/)&0#1 2345 6"' 71')!$).& $(1 8"918 :%# ;$3 <"08 0,).& !"#$%&#"'()! +",-).&3

Masks can be ¡erformed vilh many differenl coIors, if necessary, by crealing as many
differenl coIored ¡oIygons as needed. We used lhe same fiII coIor for lhe background of
our IabeI, and sel lhe border coIor lo cIear, so lhal lhe IabeI box around lhe lexl vouId
disa¡¡ear. In lhis vay, carlogra¡hic masking enabIes users lo dis¡Iay Iellering in a Iess-
cIullered manner. Any decision lo em¡Ioy carlogra¡hic masking musl be based on lhe
¡ur¡ose of lhe ma¡. Ior exam¡Ie, if lhe Mississi¡¡i River vere lhe main sub|ecl of lhe
ma¡, ve vouId ¡robabIy nol vish lo cul u¡ lhal fealure vilh re¡ealed carlogra¡hic
masking.

=%8%#
When used ¡ro¡erIy, coIor can enhance carlogra¡hic visuaIizalion, hovever, ¡oor coIor
choices can obscure im¡orlanl as¡ecls of a ma¡. Arlhur Robinson
4
suggesled lhree

4
Arlhur H. Robinson (1915-2004), of lhe Universily of Wisconsin-Madison, inlroduced Ovens lo
carlogra¡hic design and lhe hislory of carlogra¡hy. ßefore Robinson's dealh, Ovens vas abIe lo leII him
64
reasons for using coIor in carlogra¡hy: firsl, il can cIarify and sim¡Iify lhe informalion
on lhe ma¡ by increasing lhe number of visuaI IeveIs and unifying lhe eIemenls on lhe
ma¡, second, coIor choices can slrongIy infIuence lhe reaclions of lhe ma¡ reader, and
finaIIy, coIor can markedIy affecl hov lhe reader ¡erceives lhe ma¡.
5
CoIor aIso allracls
allenlion and Ieads lhe eye lo lhe mosl reIevanl areas of lhe ma¡. Ior lhis reason, ma¡-
makers shouId choose coIors lhal are nol overIy shovy and lhal share lhe same lonaI
vaIues. Il is aIso a good idea lo use onIy as many coIors as are needed lo highIighl lhe
informalion you vanl your ma¡ lo convey, loo many coIors can dislracl lhe eye and
make il more difficuIl for lhe user lo com¡rehend lhe ¡ur¡ose of lhe ma¡. CoIor oflen
carries cuIluraI ¡erce¡lions, loo, for exam¡Ie, among mosl Iinguislic grou¡s, red is
generaIIy recognized lo indicale heal, vhiIe bIue is usuaIIy inler¡reled as cooI.
Therefore, il is im¡orlanl lhal your coIor choices be made vilh lhese ¡erce¡lions in
mind. Unvise coIor choices can Iead lhe ma¡ viever lo misundersland lhe ma¡'s
¡ur¡ose and lhe informalion lhe ma¡ is meanl lo convey.

AIso, you shouId communicale lo your audience informalion aboul lhe crealor of your
ma¡ (you) and lhe decisions you made aboul ¡ro|eclion. In olher vords, ¡ul your name
on your ma¡ vilh some indicalion of your affiIialion. TeII your audience lhe dalum and
¡ro|eclion you used in crealing lhe ma¡. Remember lhal your choices of dalum and
¡ro|eclion viII have an im¡acl on lhe vay lhal your ma¡ a¡¡ears, and so¡hislicaled
vievers viII vanl lo knov vhal choices Iay behind lhe ma¡ lhey see. AIso, de¡ending
on lhe nalure of your ma¡, you may vish lo incIude a concise indicalion of lhe sources
of lhe informalion on vhich lhe ma¡ is based.

AIlhough il is im¡ossibIe lo discuss in delaiI every as¡ecl of carlogra¡hy in one cha¡ler
(see nole 1 on lhe books of Mark Monmonier), lhose ve have discussed viII heI¡ you
add meaning lo your ma¡. As you become more famiIiar vilh ma¡making and lhe use
of Ma¡Windov, il viII become easier for you lo kee¡ lhese eIemenls in mind as you
design your ma¡s. AIso, |usl as you vouId do vilh a vrillen lexl, you shouId have
coIIeagues read your ma¡ lo make sure lhal ils ¡ur¡ose and meaning are
communicaled cIearIy. They can aIso evaIuale if your ma¡ is inleresling and originaI,
lhese are im¡orlanl issues in making use of a ¡overfuI form of communicalion. Our
exercise for lhis cha¡ler viII lake lhe correclIy ¡ro|ecled ma¡ of Irance ve crealed in
Ixercise 3, and leach you hov lo lurn il inlo a ¡ro¡erIy-baIanced finished ma¡.


aboul lhe ¡ro¡osed GIS-based graduale ¡rogram al Idaho Slale Universily and aboul lhe ´Carlogra¡hy:
Hislory and Design¨ course Ovens vas crealing. He vas lhe aulhor of lhe infIuenliaI Robinson
¡ro|eclion for a vorId ma¡.
5
As summarized in Tyner, !"#$%#&'() +, -.& /()#0$, 62.
65
!"!#$%&! (
We have aIready crealed a ¡ro¡erIy ¡ro|ecled ma¡ of Irance. Hovever, lhal ma¡
conveys no informalion besides lhe basic sha¡e and ¡ro¡orlion of lhe counlry, vilh ils
ma|or regions oulIined. Hovever, lhis ma¡ is incom¡Iele and unbaIanced because il
Iacks lhe carlogra¡hic fealures, such as a Iegend and lilIe, lhal ¡rovide crilicaI
informalion lo lhe ma¡ reader.

)*+,:
This exercise viII leach you hov lo creale a baIanced ma¡ of lhe adminislralive regions
of Irance by using coIor lo differenliale lhe regions and by adding a Iegend, com¡ass
rose, and scaIe indicalor. We viII aIso use Ma¡Windov's Irinl Layoul fealure lo ¡rinl
lhe finished ma¡.

&-./ 01
O¡en Ma¡Windov. CIick on lhe add bullon and add as a Iayer in Ma¡Windov lhe
´Irance.WGS 84 ÷ UTM zone 30N¨ sha¡efiIe of Irance |Iigure 4.1j, vhich you crealed
in exercise 3 as a Iayer in Ma¡Windov.


23456. (701 826*9:. ;<&=( > ?)@ AB9. CDE8 F*G.6 :6.*-.H 39 !I.6:3+. C7




66
!"#$ &'
Ma¡Windov ¡rovides many carlogra¡hic looIs in lhe ´Iro¡erlies¨ of a given Iayer.
These incIude looIs lo change lhe coIor of a ma¡. To ex¡Iore lhese looIs, go lo ´Layers¨
in lhe Legend ¡ane. Righl-cIick on lhe ´Irance¨ Iayer and seIecl ´Iro¡erlies¨ from lhe
dro¡-dovn menu lo o¡en lhe ´Layer ¡ro¡erlies¨ vindov |Iigure 4.2j.


()*+,# -.&' /012#, $,3$#,")#4/ 5)6735 83, 3+, (,169# :12#,.














!"
$% &'( )*+,(- .-/.(-&0(12 30%4/35 1(6(7& &'( )8+&(9/-0(12 &+: ;<09=-( >?@A? B%4(-
)86+110C07+&0/%52 7'(7D &'( :/E )B%0F=( G+6=(1?2 $% )<0(64152 1(6(7& )HIJK2 &/ 7'//1(
&'( %+L(1 /C &'( +4L0%01&-+&0G( -(90/%1 /C <-+%7(5 +%4 7607D )M(%(-+&(?2 H/&07( &'( 601&
/C -(90/%1 &'+& %/3 +..(+-1 =%4(- )8+&(9/-0(1?2


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&#0%"&12 3"4503 .6/&% /7& .58"4"1/%./"9& %&#"041 .%& 1&:&;/&5)















68
Nov ve vanl lo use coIor lo differenliale belveen lhe adminislralive regions. In ´CoIor
scheme,¨ check lhe box ´Random CoIors,¨ vhich viII o¡en a dro¡-dovn Iisl of coIor
schemes, and seIecl lhe sevenlh coIor scheme |Iigure 4.4j. CIick ´Generale,¨ lhen
´A¡¡Iy,¨ and lhen ´Ok.¨


!"#$%& ()(* +",- ./ 0.1.% ,23&4&,)













!"
$%&' ()* +,%&-. -%%/ +%(01,234 -2/0 524&'0 6787 !" $"% &"''( 29 :%&' ;%-%'+
)**0)' .2990'0317 <)*=23.%> >2-- &+0 1,0 +)(0 ;%-%'+ +;,0(0? @&1 (): )++243
.2990'031 ;%-%' A)-&0+ 9'%( 217


)*+,-. /012 345 67 )-489. :*;< ;<. 4=>*8*?;-4;*@. -.+*68? =.A*8.4;.= BC 96A6-0



















!"
!"#$ &'
$% &'( )*+,-+. &'(* /,01 2,0345.'6 7,% )*+,-+. , 8+9+5.1 , %),8+ :,*1 ,5. , 5'*-7
,**'6; <'6+=+*1 :+),(%+ 2,0345.'6 .'+% 5'- 5+)+%%,*48& 08,)+ -7+%+ 4-+/% 45 -7+
:+%- 8'),-4'5% '5 -7+ /,01 4- 4% 4/0'*-,5- -' *+,%%495 -7+/ ,))'*.459 -' &'(* /,0
.+%495; >5 -7+ 2,0345.'6 /+5( :,*1 9' -' ?@*'A+)-1B ,5. -7+5 )7''%+ ?@*45-;B


()*+,# -./' 01$2)3456 7#3+ 81,.













71
The ´Ma¡Windov Irinl Layoul¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 4.7j. Nolice lhal lhere is a
¡ane on lhe u¡¡er righl-hand side vilh a Iisl of ma¡ com¡onenls. We can edil lhe ma¡
by choosing lhe reIevanl com¡onenls from lhis Iisl.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-%"./ 0123$/, 4".534)

Iirsl, ve vanl lo cenler lhe ¡osilion of lhe ma¡ on our ¡rinl Iayoul. To do lhis, in lhe
u¡¡er righl hand ¡ane, scroII dovn unliI you see lhe o¡lion ´Ma¡ 1¨ and cIick on il.
This choice gives you lhe abiIily lo move lhe ma¡ on lhe main ¡ane. IIace your ma¡ in
lhe visuaI cenler of lhe ¡age |Iigure 4.8j.

63/&+
To increase or decrease lhe size of your ma¡, you can use lhe and bullons.
IIease nole lhal lhese bullons are aclivaled 3.72 vhen lhe o¡lion ´Ma¡ 1¨ is seIecled.

!"

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./"0# 12& 3.4 "0 12& 5"6$.- /&01&% 78 12& 4.#&)

91&4 (+
$% &'( )*+ %,, -.'/ 012(., 3456 '(. /*7 %8199 +,,:% ;'.<= ;>19, ?*7@1+:'; >*%
2,+,.*8,: 8>, %)*9, A*. -'. (%6 79*),: 8>, :*8, '+ 8>, /*76 *+: 7.'B1:,: * 9,2,+:6 8>,
/*7 .,/*1+% (+A*9*+),:4 C,)*(%, 8>, 9,2,+: *+: 8>, ?*7@1+:'; 9'2' *., 1+ 8>,
;.'+2 79*),%6 ;, *., 2'1+2 8' /'B, 8>,/ 8' A,88,. 9')*81'+%4

D+ 8>, (77,. .12>8 7*+,6 %).'99 8' 8>, '781'+ EF,2,+: GH *+: )91)< '+ 18= 8>1% *99';% (% 8'
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/*74



73
Irom lhe Iisl of eIemenls in lhe u¡¡er-righl, scroII lo and seIecl ´Ma¡WindovLogo.¨
Drag lhe Ma¡Windov Iogo lo lhe righl cenler of lhe ¡age |Iigure 4.9j:


!"#$%& ()*+ ,%-.&%/0 ./12& /&#&34 134 /-#-)

56&. 7+
Our ma¡ is beginning lo Iook more baIanced, bul il is sliII incom¡Iele. We need lo add a
lilIe lo lhe ma¡. In lhe u¡¡er righl ¡ane, scroII lo and seIecl ´Iro|eclName.¨ Nov Iook
al lhe informalion ¡ane beIov lhe com¡onenl Iisl, on lhe bollom righl. You viII see a
Iisl vilh lhe lo¡ ilem caIIed ´Layoul.¨ These are fieIds lhal you can change lo add or
edil lexl informalion on lhe ma¡.

Ma¡ lilIes shouId be shorl bul effeclive in leIIing lhe viever exaclIy vhal lhe ma¡
de¡icls. ßecause our ma¡ is of lhe adminislralive regions of Irance, lhal is vhal our lilIe
shouId be. Once a lilIe is chosen, ve vanl lo add il lo lhe ma¡ in a cIear, easiIy-readabIe
fonl. Avoid ´fancy¨ fonls for ma¡ lilIes because lhose fonls viII drav allenlion avay
from lhe ma¡ lo lhe lilIe. We are going lo use lhe Verdana fonl, and ve vanl il Iarge
enough lo be read easiIy, bul nol so Iarge lhal il overvheIms lhe ma¡.

74
In lhe ´Layoul¨ Iisl, Iocale lhe fieId IabeIed ´Ionl,¨ and cIick on il. Then cIick lhe
bullon lhal viII a¡¡ear, vhich viII aIIov you lo seIecl and cuslomize lhe fonl. Choose
´Verdana,¨ ´ReguIar,¨ and ´28 ¡oinl.¨ CIick ´OK.¨ Nov move your cursor lo lhe
´Texl¨ box beIov lhe ´Layoul¨ Iisl, and ly¡e ´Adminislralive Regions of Irance.¨

The lilIe viII nov shov u¡ on lhe ma¡. To cenler lhe lilIe, drag lhe box lo lhe desired
Iocalion ÷ generaIIy, lhe lilIe viII be cenlered above lhe ma¡ |Iigure 4.10j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./ 0"12 1"13&)

Nolice lhal lhe ma¡ of Irance lakes cenler ¡Iace, vilh lhe lilIe, Iegend, com¡ass rose,
scaIe bar, dale crealed, and Ma¡Windov Iogo aII easiIy readabIe vilhoul inlerfering
vilh lhe ma¡. Those are lhe haIImarks of a veII-baIanced ma¡.

To save lhe ma¡, go lo lhe ´Iro|ecls¨ menu and lhen seIecl lhe ´Save as¨ o¡lion. We
recommend lhal you aIso ¡rinl your ma¡ if you vouId Iike lo save il as a baIanced ma¡.


75
!"#$:
%& !&( )*+, -.&/ (0, 1.2!( 3*4&5( 62!%&67 The ´Save¨ o¡lion in lhe
Irinl Layoul vindov viII save lhe !"#$%&, vhich viII cause ¡robIems vhen you use lhe
fealure on a differenl ma¡. This lroubIesome issue viII be addressed in a never version
of Ma¡Windov.

CongraluIalions! This exercise has laughl you hov lo creale a baIanced ma¡ using
coIors and Ma¡Windov's Irinl Layoul fealure. As aIvays, if you feeI lhal you need
more ¡raclice, you can do lhis exercise again. IIay vilh using differenl coIor schemes,
fonls, and ¡Iacemenls lo gel a feeI for hov ma¡ baIance is besl achieved. You can aIso
go beyond lhis exercise lo add your name and inslilulionaI affiIialion, as veII as
informalion aboul lhe dalum and ma¡ ¡ro|eclion you used lo creale lhe ma¡. This
addilionaI lexl viII require more lhoughl aboul hov lo baIance lhe ma¡.

In lhe nexl cha¡ler, ve viII ex¡Iore hov lo refine our ma¡ even more, lo be abIe lo
creale ma¡s lruIy laiIored for one's research. We viII aIso ex¡Iain hov lo add dala lo a
ma¡ Iayer or Ma¡Windov ¡ro|ecl. We slrongIy recommend lhal from lhis ¡oinl on, you
o¡en Ma¡Windov as you read a nev cha¡ler, lo see and use lhe looIs as ve inlroduce
lhem.

76
!"#$%&' )* +,-./0/1, 234 5262 723218-836
+,-./0/1,
SymboIogy in Ma¡Windov GIS aIIovs lhe user lo change lhe symboIs and a¡¡earance
of various dala Iayers lo enhance lhe communicalion im¡acl of lhe ¡ro|ecl. Ior exam¡Ie,
one can change lhe coIor of lhe fiII vilhin lhe sha¡e of an area, lhe lrans¡arency of lhe
coIor, or lhe design of lhe fiII in a ¡oIygon. Or one mighl vish lo change lhe coIor or
vidlh of Iines or of lhe border around an area. The sha¡es, sizes, and coIors of ¡oinls
can aII be changed, as veII. Changing lhese fealures on lhe ma¡, vhiIe nol changing lhe
acluaI dala of a ¡ro|ecl, conlribules lo lhe finaI Iook of lhe ma¡ and can dramalicaIIy
im¡rove ils readabiIily. The vide variely of looIs avaiIabIe merils a cIoser Iook before
ve begin lo use lhem vilh a ma¡.

As ve sav in lhe ¡revious cha¡ler, Ma¡Windov offers an easy vay lo change lhe
symboIogy of any as¡ecl of a ma¡ in lhe ´Iro¡erlies¨ of lhe dala Iayer, vhich is o¡ened
by righl-cIicking on lhe dala Iayer in lhe Legend ¡ane, and lhen seIecling lhe
´Iro¡erlies¨ o¡lion |Iigure 5.1j.


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84
lo slore and inlegrale dala from a variely of sources.
1
Dala can range from lhe Iocalions
of hisloricaI evenls, lo lhe number of acres of farmIand in a medievaI lovnshi¡, lo
disease oulbreaks, lo reIigious affiIialion, lo ¡o¡uIalion drifl, lo dielary sla¡Ies such as
fish and herd animaIs, lo anylhing eIse a user vanls lo incIude. Thus, lhe dala lhal can
be slored in lhe allribule labIe of a sha¡efiIe goes far beyond geogra¡hic informalion
such as ¡ubIic buiIdings, roads, rivers, adminislralive unils, and voodIands.
2
VaIuabIe
¡rimary sources aIso can be slored in an allribule labIe and be eilher visuaIized or ¡ul
lo use in a s¡aliaI anaIysis. In a sludy conducled by Roberl ChurchiII and Amy HiIIier,
lhe aulhors used ¡oIice arresls, birlh and dealh records, cily, church, and slale
direclories, morlgage records, and census informalion, aII of vhich vas managed in a
GIS.
3
There are lvo vays lo add dala lo a Ma¡Windov ¡ro|ecl: by crealing a nev
sha¡efiIe or by crealing or modifying an allribule labIe of a dala Iayer.

!"#$%&'( $ *#+ ,-$.#/&0#
One vay lo add dala lo a GIS is by crealing a nev sha¡efiIe. As ve discussed in
Cha¡ler 2, a sha¡efiIe is com¡rised of severaI differenl fiIes, bul ve can lhink of a singIe
sha¡efiIe as a dala Iayer. The combinalion of ¡oinl, Iine, and ¡oIygon sha¡efiIes, aIong
vilh any olher dala, make u¡ a Ma¡Windov ¡ro|ecl (.mv¡r|). ßefore ve can creale a
nev sha¡efiIe, ve need lo lurn on lhe sha¡efiIe edilor. To do lhis, o¡en Ma¡Windov
and cIick ´IIug-Ins¨ in lhe main menu, and lhen seIecl ´Sha¡efiIe Idilor¨ |Iigure 5.9j.

1
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, !"#$%&"'() +,-. /0'12%)%3"0#4 50$1%6%)%3"0# (26 -'1%)(&#1"7 (Cambridge,
Nev York: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2008), 37.
2
Ibid.
3
Roberl ChurchiII and Amy HiIIier, ´Teaching vilh GIS,¨ in 8)('"23 !"#$%&9. !%: 5(7#4 -7($"() ;($(4 (26
+,- (&0 <1(23"23 !"#$%&"'() -'1%)(&#1"7, eds. Anne K. KnovIes and Amy HiIIier (RedIands: ISRI Iress,
2008), 79.
85

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-&.".# /0& 1203-&4"5& 67"/8%9 -5$#:".)

This viII creale a nev looI bar across lhe lo¡ of lhe Ma¡Windov ¡anes, and add a nev
menu o¡lion on lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe main menu |Iigure 5.10j.


!"#$%& ();<+ =&> 1203-&4"5& 67"/8%9 /885 ?3%)
86

To creale a nev sha¡efiIe, cIick on lhe ´Creale nev sha¡efiIe¨ bullon , vhich is
nov Iocaled in lhe u¡¡er Iefl corner of lhe screen under lhe main menu. A diaIog box
viII a¡¡ear, as seen in |Iigure 5.11j. CIick lhe bullon lo seIecl lhe Iocalion vhere
you vish lo save lhe nev sha¡efiIe.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,&- ./01&2"3& 415"46.)

Remember lhal vhen saving a GIS ¡ro|ecl, fiIe managemenl is im¡orlanl. You may
vanl lo creale a nev subfoIder vilhin your Ixercise foIder and caII il ´Sha¡efiIe
Iraclice.¨ Afler designaling lhe Iocalion vhere il viII be saved, name lhe nev sha¡efiIe
´Iraclice_Ioinl.¨ Under ´Sha¡efiIe Ty¡e,¨ seIecl ´Ioinl,¨ and cIick OK. The nev
sha¡efiIe viII a¡¡ear under ´Dala Layers¨ on lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe screen, and a
vindov viII o¡en lo varn you lhal an em¡ly sha¡efiIe has been crealed |Iigure 5.12j.
CIick ´OK.¨


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#$%$&' '($ %)&*'+), -($.$ /)0 -)0%1 %+2$ ') *11 * 3)+,'4 *,1 &%+&2 /)0. 5)06$7 8 ,$-
3)+,' -+%% *33$*. +, '($ 9*3 3*,$ :;+<0.$ =7>=?7


!"#$%& ()*(+ ,&- ./"01 2%&31&4 "0 15& &6.17 853.&9":&)

@(+6 5$'()1 )A *11+,< 3)+,'6 -).26 -$%% +A /)0 ),%/ ,$$1 ') *11 * A$- 3)+,'6 ') '($
6(*3$A+%$B ()-$C$.4 +' 1)$6 ,)' -).2 *6 -$%% +A /)0 (*C$ * <.$*' 1$*% )A 1*'* ') *117 8
5).$ $AA+&+$,' -*/ ') *11 5*,/ 3)+,'64 .*'($. '(*, &%+&2+,< '($ D811 E$- #(*3$ ')
F0..$,' #(*3$A+%$G $C$./ '+5$4 +6 ') &%+&2 ), '($ D#(*3$A+%$ H1+').G +, '($ 5*+, 5$,0
*,1 &())6$ D#'*/ +, 811 9)1$ -($, 811+,<G :;+<0.$ =7>I?4 *,1 '($, &%+&2 '($ D811
E$- #(*3$ ') F0..$,' #(*3$A+%$G J0''),7 @(+6 $,*J%$6 /)0 ') *11 50%'+3%$ 3)+,'6
&),6$&0'+C$%/7
89

!"#$%& ()*+, -./01&2"3& 45"67%8 9":579)

;66%"<$6& =0<3&>
The dala used in a GIS is slored in a s¡readsheel caIIed an allribule labIe. Iach Iine, or
rov, in lhe s¡readsheel can conlain dala heId in a number of coIumns, lhe number of
coIumns and lhe ly¡e of dala each coIumn hoIds is user-defined, making lhe
s¡readsheel accommodaling enough lo hoId aImosl any ly¡e of informalion. Microsofl
IxceI and O¡enOffice are lhe lvo mosl commonIy used soflvare ¡ackages for crealing
s¡readsheels. If you do nol have eilher of lhese ¡rograms, you viII need lo dovnIoad
lhe free O¡enOffice soflvare lo be abIe lo creale lhe necessary allribule labIes for fulure
exercises.

The allribule labIe nol onIy slores lhe coordinale dala for ¡oinls, Iines, and ¡oIygons,
bul aIso any olher dala lhe user vanls lo have associaled vilh lhem. Ior exam¡Ie, for a
ma¡ of lhe Uniled Slales lhal dis¡Iays ¡o¡uIalion densily and elhnic diversily, lhe
allribule labIe can conlain U.S. Census dala on ¡o¡uIalion and elhnicily |Iigure 5.17j.
The user can define vhal ly¡es of allribules and hov many fieIds are used lo slore lhe
dala. This fIexibiIily is one of lhe reasons GIS can be usefuI for any hisloricaI ¡ro|ecl.
90

!"#$%& ()*+, -..%"/$.& .0/1& 23 0 456 107&% 829.0"9"9# :)6) 8&9;$; <0.0)

Throughoul lhis seclion, ve viII demonslrale various vays lo add dala lo an allribule
labIe in Ma¡Windov. In order lo foIIov aIong, ¡Iease o¡en lhe re¡ro|ecled sha¡efiIe of
Irance crealed in lhe exercise for Cha¡ler 3, IabeIed ´Irance.WGS84-UTM30N.¨ O¡en
lhe allribule labIe of lhe dala Iayer by righl-cIicking on lhe dala Iayer and lhen cIicking
´Viev Allribule TabIe Idilor¨ |Iigure 5.18j.


!"#$%& ()*=, >-..%"/$.& ?0/1& @<".2%A 2B."29)
91
Nov you shouId be abIe lo see aII of lhe allribule dala associaled vilh lhis ma¡ Iayer
|Iigure 5.19j. In lhis allribule labIe, lhe NAMI fieId Iisls lhe name of each
adminislralive region of Irance, vhiIe lhe olher fieIds conlain many olher ly¡es of dala
associaled vilh lhis Iayer.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.//%"0$/& 1203& 45"/6%7 8"9568)

Ma¡Windov gives users lhe abiIily lo add nev fieIds lo lhese exisling ones, vhich
¡ermils us lo add hisloricaI dala. This dala can lhen be synlhesized vilh lhe coordinale
dala in lhe allribule labIe. Hovever, enlering lhis dala is exlremeIy lime-consuming, so
il is vorlh s¡ending some lime lo lhink aboul vhal kinds of informalion shouId be
incIuded lo give addilionaI vaIue lo your GIS ¡ro|ecl.











92
!""#$% ' (#)*"
The firsl sle¡ in adding nev informalion lo an allribule labIe is crealing a nev coIumn,
or fieId, vilhin lhe allribule labIe lo hoId lhe nev dala. To add a nev fieId, go lo lhe
´Idil¨ menu in lhe u¡¡er Iefl corner of lhe ´Allribule TabIe Idilor¨ and cIick ´Add
IieId¨ |Iigure 5.20j:


(#%+,) -./01 !""#$% ' 2#)*" 34 35) '33,#6+3) 3'6*).

This viII o¡en lhe ´Creale IieId¨ diaIog box |Iigure 5.21j. Inler lhe name of your nev
fieId inlo lhe ´Name¨ box, for our ¡ur¡oses, ve can caII il ´lesl.¨ Nov ve need lo seIecl
vhich ly¡e of dala ve viII be enlering.


(#%+,) -./71 89,)'3) (#)*": "#'*4% 64;.

´Ty¡e¨ refers lo lhe kind of informalion lhe fieId viII conlain. In Ma¡Windov, lhere
are lhree o¡lions. The firsl ly¡e in lhe dro¡-dovn menu is ´DoubIe.¨ This dala ly¡e is
used lo in¡ul a number lhal conlains a decimaI, such as 123.456. The ´Irecision¨ o¡lion
is grayed oul unIess ´DoubIe¨ is chosen under dala ly¡e. ´Irecision¨ viII lhen be
aclivaled lo aIIov lhe user lo s¡ecify lhe number of decimaI ¡oinls aIIoved in lhe
associaled fieId. ´Inleger¨ dala is a ¡osilive or negalive vhoIe number, such as 100 or -
47. IinaIIy, ´Slring¨ dala is a sequence of characlers encIosed by quolalion marks ´such
as lhis¨, lhis ly¡e of fieId can conlain vords, ¡hrases, or aI¡hanumeric slrings. The
´Widlh¨ fieId delermines hov Iong a lexl slring can be, vilh lhe defauIl sel lo 10. Ior
93
Ionger lexl slrings, il is necessary lo increase lhe corres¡onding vidlh. ßecause
hislorians oflen vork vilh quaIilalive informalion ralher lhan quanlilalive dala, lhe
slring fieId fealure lakes on greal im¡orlance.
4


To reca¡, lo add dala lo an allribule labIe, you musl creale lhe nev fieId and seIecl ils
ly¡e, and vidlh if necessary. Ior lhis demonslralion, seIecl ´Inleger¨ and cIick ´OK.¨
As ve can see in Iigure 5.22, vhen a nev fieId is added lo an exisling allribule labIe,
lhe nev fieId is fiIIed vilh a ´NuII¨ vaIue, vhich lhe user musl re¡Iace vilh lhe
reIevanl dala by enlering lhe informalion inlo each Iine of lhe fieId. You can add and fiII
as many fieIds as needed for your ¡arlicuIar research ¡ur¡oses.


!"#$%& ()**+ ,&- ."&/0 100&0 23 122%"4$2& 214/&)

Nov ve viII Iook al a s¡ecific exam¡Ie lo cIarify lhis ¡rocedure. One of our aulhors,
ßarbara Sle¡henson, is sludying lhe records of a sixleenlh-cenlury Irench royaI Iav
courl over one king's reign, a 32-year ¡eriod. The source maleriaIs come from lhe daiIy
records of lhe courl and incIude informalion such as lhe number of lhe foIio on vhich
lhe maleriaI is found, lhe dale of lhe evenl, lhe ly¡e of evenl (leslimony, commission,
|udgmenl, elc.), lhe Iocalion of lhe evenl, and lhe names of lhe individuaIs invoIved. Al
firsl gIance, il mighl a¡¡ear lhal lhe onIy reIevanl informalion for a ma¡ vouId be lhe
Iocalions of lhe evenls. Hovever, using addilionaI dala can aIIov lhe researcher lo

4
Il is vorlh noling lhal Lolfi A. Zadeh has eslabIished ´fuzzy sel lheory¨ or ´fuzzy Iogic¨ lo ¡rovide a
viabIe means of eslabIishing numericaI vaIues for quaIilalive informalion, vhen lhal is necessary because
of lhe ´inherenl com¡Iexily of reaIily.¨ See, }. ß. Ovens and Imery A. Co¡¡oIa, }r., ´Iuzzy Sel Theory (or
Iuzzy Logic) lo Re¡resenl lhe Messy Dala of Com¡Iex Human (and olher) Syslems¨
hll¡s://vvv.academia.edu/1100044/Iuzzy_Sel_Theory_or_Iuzzy_Logic_lo_Re¡resenl_lhe_Messy_Dala_
of_Com¡Iex_Human_and_olher_Syslems, accessed 21 December 2013.
94
idenlify, for exam¡Ie, vhich lovns vere more IikeIy lo have reIigious confIicls lhal
required courl inlervenlion. Il is im¡orlanl, lherefore, lo kee¡ lhe name and evenl ly¡e
dala associaled vilh lhe ¡Iace dala. The archivaI Iocalion of lhe source maleriaI (in lhis
case, lhe foIio number of a courl record) and lhe dale of lhe evenl are aIso reIevanl and
shouId be associaled vilh lhe evenl and ¡Iace dala. Iurlhermore, because an im¡orlanl
as¡ecl of lhe sludy is lhe anaIysis of sociaI inleraclions, lhe names of lhe individuaIs
invoIved in each evenl aIso need lo be associaled vilh lhe evenl. In shorl, aII lhe dala in
lhe source are reIevanl and shouId be incIuded in lhe s¡readsheel, vilh a se¡arale fieId,
or coIumn, for each ly¡e. In a GIS ¡ro|ecl, lhe incIusion of aII lhe dala associaled vilh
lhe research aIso makes il easier for Ialer schoIars lo buiId u¡on lhal research, even if
lhey are inleresled in differenl as¡ecls of lhe dala. One of lhe good lhings aboul using
GIS for hisloricaI research is lhal a ¡ro|ecl can be exlended and correcled lhrough
subsequenl research.

GIS ¡rograms viII ly¡icaIIy incor¡orale allribule labIes ¡roduced using s¡readsheel
soflvare. In Ma¡Windov, ve can eilher enler dala direclIy inlo lhe nev fieId ve
crealed, or ve can use some ly¡e of s¡readsheel soflvare, such as Microsofl IxceI. We
have aIready discussed hov lo enler your ovn informalion manuaIIy inlo nev fieIds
vilhin Ma¡Windov. Hovever, vhen deaIing vilh a Iarge quanlily of dala, a more
efficienl vay lo incor¡orale your ovn dala inlo Ma¡Windov is by crealing a nev
s¡readsheel, fiIIing in lhe dala, and lhen adding il lo lhe exisling allribule labIe. The
exercise al lhe end of lhis cha¡ler viII guide you lhrough lhe ¡rocess of in¡ulling dala
inlo a s¡readsheel and lhen lransferring lhe dala inlo lhe allribule labIe of a given Iayer.
If you do nol have lhe s¡readsheel ¡rogram you need, O¡en-Office ¡rovides a free,
o¡en-source o¡lion. This suile aIso incIudes documenl, ¡resenlalion, dalabase, draving,
and olher soflvare.

95
!"!#$%&! (
We have Iearned hov lo use allribule labIes lo slore dala in a sha¡efiIe, and hov lo add
dala lo a Ma¡Windov sha¡efiIe. Nov ve are going lo Iearn hov lo mine, or exlracl
vaIuabIe hisloricaI informalion from narralives and documenls and slore lhis
informalion in lhe allribule labIe of a sha¡efiIe. Then ve viII Iearn hov lo add lhis dala
lo a ma¡. As usuaI, you viII vanl lo creale a subfoIder for lhis exercise, IabeIed
´Ixercise5.¨

)*+,-
We viII use acluaI ¡rimary source dala from our aulhor's research on a sixleenlh-
cenlury Irench Iav courl and add il lo our ma¡ of Irance from Ixercise 3. We viII lhen
¡Iol lhe Iocalion dala on lhe ma¡.

&./0 1-
The informalion lhal ve are going lo use lo creale our allribule labIe comes from lhe
foIIoving excer¡ls from lhe ¡rimary sources being used for a research ¡ro|ecl by one of
our aulhors. The ilaIicized informalion indicales lhe evenl ly¡e and lhe evenl Iocalion.

23453 (16 17 8/9 1(:7
On lhe said day, ¡ermission vas given lo Monsieur de Casaux lo go and execule lhe
arrêl of Monsieur de CouiIIard, and lo bring lhe said de CouiIIard lo lhe courl, lo be
made lo ¡ay for his damages lo inleresls in ßerbigueres. !"#$%&'() +&,-.$"/,&01

23453 ;;6 1; 2/< 1(:7
The said day vere ¡resenled by Monsieur de Ia Chassaigne cerlain Iellers ¡alenl given
al Lyon on lhe 28 of Iasl Iebruary. ßy vhich lhe said de Ia Chassaigne is commissioned
lo raise lhe deniers of lhe generaIily of Guyenne for lhis year, requiring lhal he vacale
his ¡osilion in lhe courl for lhis ¡eriod. ,2345 4662.'(%&'() 732'1

23453 :=16 >1 8/9 1(:;
The said day ¡ermission vas granled lo Monsieur de ßouchier lo be absenl unliI lhe
Ieasl of Kings, lo go lo La ReoIIe. 6&,%.00.2') 74 8925&.

23453 (1=6 1? 8/9 1(:?
The said day ¡ermission vas given lo Monsieur lhe Iirsl Iresidenl lo go on commission
lo lhe inhabilanls of Mon¡ezac, unliI a forlnighl afler lhe Ieasl of Kings. :2%%.00.2')
;2'6&<4(1

96
5tcp 2:
We need lo o¡en a nev s¡readsheel in IxceI or O¡enOffice and enler lhe dala as
shovn, adding Iongilude and Ialilude for each Iocalion |Iigure 5.1j. You shouId define
lhe coIumn ly¡es for lhe dale, Iongilude, and Ialilude as ´number.¨

P!acc Mndcrn Evcnt Datc Lnng Lat F typc
Bcrbigucrcs Bcrbigucrcs |udgmcnt 17/12/1537 1.03 44.83 tnwn
Lynn Lynn rnya!
appnintmcnt
23/1/1537 4.83 45.76 tnwn
La Rcn!!c La Rén!c pcrmissinn 21/12/1538 -0.03 44.58 tnwn
Mnnpczac Mnnpczat cnmmissinn 19/12/1539 0.52 44.35 tnwn
Figurc 5.1: 5nurcc data in a sprcadshcct Inrmat.

As you can see by Iooking al lhe ¡Iace names in our labIe, lhe modern ¡Iace name can
differ from lhe name in lhe hisloricaI record. ßecause sources for geogra¡hic
coordinales use modern ¡Iace names, il essenliaI for lhe success of your ma¡ ¡ro|ecl lo
make sure you are searching for lhe coordinales under lhe correcl name.

Nntc:
Ior lhis exercise, ve have ¡rovided lhe Iongilude and Ialilude for each lovn. As you
become more ¡roficienl vilh Ma¡Windov and begin lo use il vilh your ovn dala, you
viII need lo find lhe necessary geogra¡hic coordinales for yourseIf. There are many
sources avaiIabIe for lhis onIine, such as GoogIe Ma¡s.

AIlhough ve have onIy incIuded four lovns in our s¡readsheel for lhis exercise, il is
¡ossibIe lo add as many lovns or olher ¡oinl dala as needed for your ovn ¡ro|ecl,
vhelher lhal is a dozen Iocalions or lhousands. This as¡ecl of using a GIS can be very
lime-consuming, de¡ending on lhe size of your dala sel.

Nov lhal ve have crealed lhe allribule labIe, ve need lo save il as an ´.xIs¨ fiIe. In
IxceI or O¡en Office, name your fiIe ´Irance_Iocalions,¨ and save il as an ´.xIs¨ fiIe in
your ´Ixercise 5¨ subfoIder. !" $%& '() &*+,- ' .)(*+%, %" /01)2 34'3 +* 5%() ()1),3 34', 67789
5':) *&() $%& *'.) 34) "+2) '* ', ;<02*= "+2)9 ,%3 '* 34) >)"'&23 ;<02*0= "+2)9 ?$ *'.+,- +3 +, 34)
;/01)2 @AB6778= "%(5'3< Once you have saved your s¡readsheel, cIose IxceI or
O¡enOffice.



97
!"#$ &'
To com¡Iele lhis exercise, ve viII use lhe sha¡efiIe of Irance lhal vas crealed in
Ixercise 3. O¡en Ma¡Windov, and go lo your ´Ixercise3¨ subfoIder lo Ioad lhe
´Irance.WGS 84 ÷ UTM zone 30N¨ sha¡efiIe |Iigure 5.2j.


()*+,# -./' 0(,123#.45!67 8 9:; <=2# &>?@ AB1$#C)D#.

!"#$ 7'
To add lhe dala from lhe s¡readsheel ve |usl crealed lo a sha¡efiIe and lhen ¡Iol lhe
Iocalions, ve need lo add lhe ´S¡aliaI Converler¨ funclion lo Ma¡Windov. Go lo lhe
´IIug-ins¨ o¡lions in lhe lo¡ menu and cIick on ´S¡aliaI Converler,¨ as shovn in
Iigure 5.3:


()*+,# -.&' !$1")1D E=2F#,"#, $D+*8)2.
!"
$% &'()*+), -.%/01*0123 4,+45 &$6(.1* *. ) 78)(09+,03: *80% 4,+45 &$6(.1* 91.6 0;40,<3
=80 &$6(.1*>?'3 @+%A.@ *80% @+,, )((0)1 BC+DE10 F<GH<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./0%1234, 5"6705)

-,+45 *80 IE**.% %0;* *. *80 &$%(E* 9+,03 ,+%02 %)/+D)*0 *. J.E1 &K;014+70 F3
7EI9.,A012 )%A 48..70 *80 &C1)%40L,.4)*+.%7<;,73 9+,0 *8)* J.E 7)/0A +% 7*0( M<










!!
#$ %&' ()*+,-**,. -*/0 1'2'3% (4&''%5. 6$7 3283, %&' (9:'$ ;82'<. -=%%*$ >;8?=+' @A@BA


!"#$%& ()(* +,-./&0&1 23-.,%04562 7"81,7)

C*$D8+E %&6% (:*8$%1. 81 1'2'3%'7 8$ (F6%6 GH:'0. %&'$ 3283, %&' (C*$I'+%. -=%%*$ 6% %&'
-*%%*E *D %&' 13+''$A J'6I' %&' *%&'+ *:%8*$1 61 1'%A

K6:)8$7*L L822 61, L&'+' H*= L*=27 28,' %* 16I' %&' $'L 1&6:'D82'A C&**1' H*=+
(M/'+381' @. 1=-D*27'+ 6$7 32*1' %&' (#E:*+%NJ4. L8$7*LA






100
!"#$ &'
Ma¡Windov viII ask if you vanl lo assign a ¡ro|eclion lo lhe nev sha¡efiIe |Iigure
5.6j. Choose ´Ignore lhe absence,¨ and cIick ´Ok.¨ We viII manuaIIy assign a ¡ro|eclion
lo lhe sha¡efiIe.


()*+,# &-.' /0,12#3")14 567#43#/ 8)4918-

If you Iook al lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, you shouId see a nev Iayer caIIed ´Irance_Iocalions,¨
vhich is a ¡oinl dala Iayer. Righl-cIick on il and seIecl ´Zoom lo Iayer.¨ The four ¡oinls
from lhe s¡readsheel shouId nov shov on your screen as a Iayer |Iigure 5.7j.


()*+,# &-:' 01)4" ;5<#, =,1> "?# )>$1,"#9 7$,#597?##"-
101
ObviousIy, lhis ¡oinl Iayer does nol indicale anylhing meaningfuI, because lhere is no
olher informalion associaled vilh il. We need lo assign a ¡ro|eclion lo lhe dala Iayer so
lhal Ma¡Windov knovs vhere lo ¡Iace lhese ¡oinls.

!"#$ &'
To assign a ¡ro|eclion lo lhe sha¡efiIe so lhal lhe four ¡oinls are aIigned vilh our
´Irance.WGS 84 ÷ UTM zone 30N¨ sha¡efiIe, svilch lo ´TooIbox¨ in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane.
In ´Iro|eclions,¨ doubIe-cIick on ´Assign Iro|eclion lo Sha¡efiIe¨ |Iigure 5.8j.


()*+,# -./' 01,23#4")2567 2$")256 )5 "8# 0922:;2<7 =#5+.

The ´Assign Iro|eclion¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 5.9j. CIick lhe ´+¨ bullon in lhe
righl-hand ¡ane. Check lhe ´Irance_Iocalions¨ Iayer, and cIick ´Ok.¨


()*+,# -.>' ?@66)*5 1,23#4")25? A)5B2A.
102
In lhe Iefl-hand ¡ane, seIecl lhe ´Geogra¡hicaI¨ foIder and choose ´WGS 84.¨ CIick lhe
bullon ´Assign,¨ and lhen cIick ´CIose.¨ You shouId see lhe message lhal lhe ¡ro|eclion
assignmenl vas successfuI |Iigure 5.10j.


!"#$%& ()*+, -$..&//0$1 2%34&.5"36 7&//8#&)

Nov lhal ve have added a ¡ro|eclion, ve need lo re¡ro|ecl il vilh lhe correcl UTM
zone, |usl as ve did in Ixercise 3. Go back lo ´Iro|eclions¨ and choose ´Re¡ro|ecl
Iayers¨ |Iigure 5.11j.


!"#$%& ()**, 9:&2%34&.5 18;&%/9 <"6=3<)

CIick lhe ´+¨ bullon in lhe bollom righl-hand ¡ane and seIecl lhe ´Irance_Iocalions¨
Iayer. In lhe foIder Iisl in lhe Iefl-hand ¡ane, seIecl ´WorId¨ ! ´WGS84¨! ´UTM
Norlhern Hemis¡here,¨ and choose ´WGS 84/ UTM zone 30 N.¨

CIick ´Re¡ro|ecl,¨ and lhen ´CIose.¨


103
You viII be asked if you vanl lo add Iayers lo lhe ¡ro|ecl |Iigure 5.12j. CIick ´Yes¨:


!"#$%& ()*+, -.. /01&%2 3$&24"56 27%&&6)

84&9 :,
We can nov see in lhe ´Layers¨ Iisl a nev Iayer lhal conlains a ma¡ of Irance vilh our
four ¡oinls. Go lo lhe ´Layers¨ viev in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, vhich nov conlains lhe
nev Iayer ´Irance_Iocalions. WGS84 ÷ UTM zone30N.¨ Righl-cIick lhis nev Iayer and
choose ´Zoom lo Iayer¨ lo see lhis nev Iayer |Iigure 5.13j.

You can idenlify each ¡oinl using lhe ´Idenlify¨ bullon.


!"#$%& ()*;, <09 5= !%067& >"4? 95"642 %&9%&2&64"6# 5$% 45>62)
104
CongraluIalions! You have successfuIIy added informalion lo a ma¡ by crealing an
allribule labIe (s¡readsheel) lo hoId lhe dala, im¡orling il inlo Ma¡Windov, adding lhe
correcl ¡ro|eclion lo il, and adding il lo a ¡re-exisling ma¡! Nov you can save lhis nev
ma¡ lo your ´Ixercise 5¨ foIder, ve named il ´NevIrance_Iocalions,¨ bul you can give
il a differenl name if you choose.

As aIvays, if you do nol feeI comforlabIe vilh lhe sle¡s in lhe exercise, you shouId redo
lhe exercise unliI you are comforlabIe, before moving on lo lhe nexl cha¡ler.

Nov lhal you have Iearned lhe basics of Ioading and ediling sha¡efiIes and adding dala
lo a ¡ro|ecl, you are ready lo slarl using Ma¡Windov lo do basic anaIysis of s¡aliaI
dala.


105
!"#$%&' )* +,-./ 01,2.,3 #4,35-.-
Ma¡Windov ¡rovides a variely of vays lo anaIyze geogra¡hic dala. This ly¡e of
anaIysis is knovn as -1,2.,3 ,4,35-.-. A fundamenlaI vay lo do so is lo creale and
mani¡uIale ¡oinl and Iine dala. This cha¡ler viII discuss lhe geocoding, cIi¡¡ing,
buffering, and inlersecl looIs in Ma¡Windov. We viII aIso discuss hov lhese looIs can
assisl you in anaIyzing hisloricaI dala.

678/89.4:
678/89.4: assigns X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and Ialilude vaIues, lo addresses,
cilies, or olher dala lhal can be re¡resenled vilh ¡oinls. This ¡rocess aIIovs lhe
ma¡maker lo ¡Iace buiIdings, lovns, or virluaIIy any dala lhal couId be re¡resenled as
¡oinls in lheir exacl geogra¡hic Iocalion on lhe ma¡. As ve have seen, lhe more
accurale a ma¡ is, lhe more usefuI il viII be. Mosl of us do nol knov vhal lhe X and Y
coordinales are for a given Iocalion, hovever, lhere are various onIine looIs lo find
lhese coordinales. In Ma¡Windov, a ¡Iug-in can be added lhal aIIovs lhe carlogra¡her
lo use GoogIe Geocoder. To sel u¡ lhis looI, cIick ´IIug-ins¨ in lhe main menu bar
|Iigure 6.1j.


;.:<=7 )>?* %@7 $3<:AB4- C74<>

106
Choose lhe ´GoogIe Geocoder¨ o¡lion, vhich viII add a nev choice lo lhe main menu
|Iigure 6.2j. Nov cIick on lhe GoogIe Geocoder o¡lion, vhich viII be nexl lo lhe ´HeI¡¨
o¡lion on lhe lo¡ menu.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./00#1& /&0203&%4 567 08 5-& 96"8 9&8$ 76%)

The vindov lhal o¡ens viII offer lhree o¡lions: ´Iind an address,¨ ´Geocode
address(es),¨ or ´Aboul IIug-in¨ |Iigure 6.3j.


!"#$%& ():+ /00#1& /&0203&% ;"830;)

Ior our ¡ur¡oses here, cIick ´Geocode address(es).¨ A message box viII a¡¡ear
informing you lhal lhere is a ´Key missing,¨ and leIIing you lhal ´You musl enler a
GoogIe AII key in lhe aboul ¡Iug-in menu¨ |Iigure 6.4j.


!"#$%& ()<+ =>? @&A ;6%8"8#)

CIick ´OK¨ lo o¡en lhe aboul ¡Iug-in menu |Iigure 6.5j, vhich viII aIIov you lo Iocale
lhe correcl AII key. An AII key is an ´a¡¡Iicalion ¡rogramming inlerface¨ key. Il
aIIovs ¡eo¡Ie lo access a vebsile's a¡¡Iicalion ¡rogramming inlerface, and in lhis case,
il ¡ermils you lo enler your inslilulionaI affiIialion, vhich viII be used lo caIcuIale your
geogra¡hic Iocalion and lo lrack hov many Iocalions you geocode vilh lhe GoogIe
¡Iug-in.

107

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./%01 2#34/2 5/& 6//$7' 6'/8/4'&)

To oblain an AII key, and lherefore lhe righl lo use lhe GoogIe Geocoder looI, sim¡Iy
enler lhe URL of lhe inslilulion of vhich you are affiIialed, for exam¡Ie
hll¡://vvv.isu.edu, in lhe ´Your AII key¨ box. U¡on enlering lhe URL, a vindov viII
o¡en in vhich you can enler Iandmarks or addresses you may vish lo geocode.

Once you have gone lhrough lhese sle¡s, you are ready lo use lhe GoogIe Geocoder. To
lesl ils funclionaIily, go lo ´Geocode Addresses,¨ and ly¡e a series of Iandmark names
or addresses |Iigure 6.6j.


!"#

!"#$%& ()(* +&,-,.& /"01 ,2 3..%&00&0 4"56,#$& 7,8)

%&'()*+',-(&./ 0+12,*345 +&&456 .47 '4 +33 + &4*8 &,6' 49 +33)(66(6 :. 71&4+3,*8 +
'(;' 9,&( 49 '<( +33)(66(6 '4 '<( 8(4=43()> ?*=( .47 <+-( +33(3 '<( +33)(66(6/ @+A(
67)( '<( :7''4* BC)(+'( *(5 14,*' &+.()D ,6 6(&(='(3/ +*3 '<(* =&,=A '<( BE(4=43(D
:7''4*> F<( BG(),9. E(4=43,*8 H(67&'6D 6=)((* 5,&& 41(* IJ,87)( K>LM> C&,=A (+=<
+33)(66 '4 6(( '<( +==7)+=. 49 '<( )(67&'6> H(67&'6 6<47&3 :( 8,-(* +* +==7)+=. &(-(&
:('5((* 4*( +*3 *,*(/ 5<()( *,*( ,6 '<( @46' +==7)+'(> N9 '<( +==7)+=. =4&7@* )(14)'6 +
K"" 4) <,8<()/ '<( E448&( E(4=43() <+6 :((* 7*+:&( '4 &4=+'( '<+' +33)(66> O4'( '<+' '<(
&+6' '54 9,(&36 ,* '<( )45 6<45 '<( &+','73( +*3 &4*8,'73( 49 + 8,-(* +33)(66 4)
&+*3@+)A>


109

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& .&%"/0 1&2324"5# 6&7$897 :3%&&5)

When you are salisfied vilh your resuIls, cIick ´Done.¨ You viII be asked lo save your
nev ¡oinls as a sha¡efiIe. Name lhe sha¡efiIe somelhing easiIy remembered, such as
´WorIdLandmarks¨ or ´ResearchCilies.¨

;2< 92 !"54 => ? @22%4"5A9&7
AIlhough lhe GoogIe Geocoder viII ¡rovide lhe Iongilude and Ialilude of mosl
addresses or Iandmarks, il viII yieId an accuracy raling of 600 lo indicale if il does nol
recognize lhe Iocalion. In some cases, GoogIe Geocoder cannol differenliale belveen lhe
address being geocoded and simiIar addresses if lhere are muIli¡Ie occurrences of lhe
address in differenl Iocalions (e.g., 123 Main Slreel, vilh no lovn informalion). This
inabiIily lo differenliale can be a reaI ¡robIem for hislorians, es¡eciaIIy for lhose
vorking on ¡re-lvenlielh-cenlury hislory. Therefore, il can be cruciaI lo delermine lhe
modern names of lhe Iocalions in vhich you are inleresled.

If you ever need coordinale dala for addresses, lhere are olher ¡Iaces onIine lhal can
¡rovide lhis informalion. We viII use GoogIe Ma¡s lo discover lhe coordinales of
cerlain Iocalions, in ¡arl because GoogIe Ma¡s vorks vilh Ma¡Windov, and in ¡arl
because il is so easy lo use. To oblain coordinales from GoogIe Ma¡s, in¡ul eilher an
address or lhe name of a ¡Iace, such as Tucume, Ieru, home of severaI ¡re-His¡anic
¡yramids. Once GoogIe Ma¡s has come u¡ vilh lhe correcl Iocalion, a ¡in¡oinl viII
a¡¡ear on lhe ma¡. To discover lhe coordinales of lhal Iocalion, righl cIick on lhe

110
¡in¡oinl and seIecl ´Whal's Here.¨ The coordinales viII a¡¡ear in lhe search bar,
shoving Ialilude firsl, and lhen Iongilude.

Afler lhe ma¡maker has added lhe dala ¡oinls lhrough geocoding, or lhrough using a
ma¡ acquired from a differenl source, il is oflen necessary lo edil lhal ma¡ lo eIiminale
exlraneous dala. We viII nov lurn lo various vays lo edil lhe visuaI dala of a ma¡.

"#$%%$&'
There are limes vhen a ma¡maker needs lo excise unnecessary dala lo cuslomize a
ma¡: for exam¡Ie, vhen Iine dala such as roads, rivers, or raiIroads exlend beyond lhe
borders of lhe ¡oIygon vilh vhich you are vorking, you mighl vanl lo cul, or (#$%) lhe
Iine dala. In Iigure 6.8, lhe oulIine of Idaho indicales lhe area of lhe ma¡ in vhich ve
are inleresled, bul river dala for lhe enlire area of lhe conliguous Uniled Slales obscures
lhis area. To access lhe cIi¡¡ing looI, cIick ´TooIbox¨ in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, o¡en lhe
´OverIay¨ foIder, and seIecl lhe cIi¡¡ing looI. This looI aIIovs Iine dala lo be lruncaled
so lhal il is dis¡Iayed onIy vilhin lhe s¡ecified ¡oIygon |Iigure 6.9j.


*$'+,- ./01 23% 4$56 +&43&5-7 #$&- 7353/

!!!

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& .-/0&1"2& 32"00"4# 5"/26# 768)

#$ %&'($( )*$ +*',$-.%$ /0.1$0+2 .3 )*$ /4567$8) +*',$-.%$2 6&9 6$8'5+$ )*') .+ )*$ %':$0
)& 6$ 8%.,,$(; #$ +$%$8)$( /<('*&2 '+ )*$ /=%.,,.3> +*',$-.%$2 6$8'5+$ .) .+ )*$ %':$0 )&
?*.8* ?$ ?'3) )& @', )*$ 0.1$0+A '3( )*$3 ?$ 8%.8B$( /CD;2 E.>50$ F;!G +*&?+ )*$
0$+5%) &- )*$ 8%.,,.3> &,$0').&3;


!"#$%& ()9:+ ,-& %&;$2< 61 =2"00"4# <-& %">&%; <6 <-& 6$<2"4& 61 <-& ;</<& 61 ?@/-6)

112
!""#$% '$" ()*#$% +,-.#/,0
Olher lechniques for ediling Iayers in Ma¡Windov incIude adding or moving lhe
verlices of a Iine or ¡oIygon. This lechnique has ¡arlicuIar reIevance for hislorians, vho
oflen musl recreale ma¡s in digilaI form lo a¡¡Iy lhe anaIylicaI ca¡abiIilies of GIS. To
¡raclice, o¡en lhe ´Nev Sha¡efiIe¨ IIug-in in lhe ´IIug-ins¨ menu and cIick lhe ´Nev¨
bullon Iocaled on lhe far Iefl side of lhe screen. To add verlices lo a ¡oIygon, cIick lhe
´Add verlices¨ bullon. Lefl-cIick around lhe edges of lhe ¡oIygon vherever you vish lo
add verlices. The more verlices a ¡oIygon has, lhe more delaiI il can have. When you
are finished adding verlices, cIick lhe ´Move verlices¨ bullon. Hover lhe mouse over
one of lhe verlices you have |usl added and Iefl-cIick, lhis aclion viII aIIov you lo drag
lhe verlex lo a nev Iocalion. This ¡rocedure viII Iel you drav a nev Iine exaclIy vhere
il is needed, or lo move an exisling Iine lo a correcl Iocalion. If you are moving a Iine,
once you have ¡Iaced lhe nev verlices in lhe ¡ro¡er Iocalions, you can deIele lhe oId,
inaccurale or unneeded ones by using lhe ´Remove verlices¨ bullon.

1233,-#$%4 52,-6#$%4 '$" 7$.,-0,/.#$%
There are olher vays lo anaIyze lhe ma¡ dala once you have crealed your hisloricaI
ma¡. Hovever, lo use some of lhese looIs, you need a com¡Ieled, saved ma¡ ¡ro|ecl lo
vhich Ma¡Windov has aIIocaled a scaIe bar. One ¡overfuI looI is 8233,-#$%, vhich
¡Iaces a buffer zone around user-defined ¡oinls on lhe ma¡9 This looI aIIovs lhe user
lo creale a ¡oIygon lhal encom¡asses a defined ¡orlion of lhe ma¡, and lo delermine
lhe dislances belveen lhe cenler of lhis nev ¡oIygon and olher Iocalions on lhe ma¡.
The nev ¡oIygon, or 8233,-, can be ¡Iaced al a dislance delermined by lhe user around
a ¡oinl, Iine, or ¡oIygon. Irior lo buffering a ¡oinl, Iine, or ¡oIygon, you musl firsl
¡ro|ecl lhe dala vilh vhich you are vorking, if you do nol do so, lhe size of lhe buffer
viII be defined in uns¡ecified ´ma¡ unils.¨ Therefore, il is beller lo knov lhe ly¡e of
unil vilh vhich you are vorking ¡rior lo buffering dala. If necessary, you can change
lhe measuremenl unils associaled vilh your ma¡ by righl-cIicking lhe scaIe bar, lhen
cIicking ´Change Dis¡Iay Unils¨ |Iigure 6.11j. This ¡rocedure ¡ermils you lo be sure
vhich unil of measuremenl is being used on lhe ma¡, and for lhe buffer.


113

Figurc 6.11: "Changc Disp!ay Units" tnn!, which appcars whcn right-c!icking nn thc
map's sca!c bar.

The buffering looI heI¡s visuaIize ¡roximily and can aIso heI¡ lo ansver hisloricaI
queslions. Ior exam¡Ie, imagine lhal you are sludying lhe oulbreak and s¡read of a
valerborne disease. Il may be usefuI lo lrack cases of lhal disease by using buffers
around lhree knovn veIIs. To a¡¡Iy a buffer, go lo ´TooIbox¨ in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane,
o¡en lhe ´Slandard¨ foIder, and lhen doubIe-cIick ´ßuffer Sha¡es.¨ In lhe vindov lhal
o¡ens, choose lhe Iayer you vish lo buffer, aIong vilh lhe dislance and ma¡ unils you
vish lo use |Iigure 6.12j.

Figurc 6.12: This buIIcr nvcr!aps at thrcc pnints.

Oflen vhen buffering, as in our veII exam¡Ie, you may vanl lo shov vhere lhings
overIa¡. To achieve lhis visuaIizalion, ve can use lhe intcrscctinn looI Iocaled in lhe
´OverIays¨ foIder of lhe ´TooIbox.¨ This ¡rocedure vorks ¡arlicuIarIy veII vhen
combining muIli¡Ie ¡ieces of informalion. Ior exam¡Ie, su¡¡ose ve are lrying lo Iocale
vhere a hisloricaI evenl occurred using lhe evidence of lvo vilnesses. ßased u¡on lheir

!!"
$%%&'()*+ ,- .(&, ,/-0- -$%/ &1 )/- 2(32423'$5* ,$* 6&*2)2&(-3 ,2)/ 0-5$)2&( )& )/-
-4-()7 82)/ )/2* 2(1&09$)2&(+ ,- %$( 3-3'%- $660&:29$)-5; ,/-0- )/- -4-() &%%'00-37
<( )/- =>/$6-125-* <()-0*-%)2&(? ,2(3&,+ ,- 2(6') )/- ),& */$6-125-* 0-60-*-()2(@ &'0
,2)(-**-* $(3 -()-0 $ 125-($9- )& *$4- )/- 0-*'5) AB2@'0- C7!DE7


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /0.12&3"4&5 678&%5&98":7; <:=)

















115
If each buffer re¡resenls hov much of lhe scene an eyevilness couId see, lhe evenl musl
have occurred vilhin lhe inlerseclion of lhe buffers. The resuIling sha¡efiIe yieIds lhe
area over vhich lhe lvo buffers overIa¡ |Iigure 6.14j, vhich Ma¡Windov has
darkened for us.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /0%1&% 23%4"35 6&47&&5 4.&8& 6$99&%8 8.378 4.& "54&%8&:4"35)

Anolher im¡orlanl anaIylicaI looI is ;$&%<"5#, vhich aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl dala lhal
fil a cerlain crilerion. To vrile a query, lhe user musl buiId a IogicaI ex¡ression using
ßooIean o¡eralors and define lhe informalion lo be used lo ansver lhe query. Il is
im¡orlanl lo nole lhal lhe IogicaI ex¡ression of lhe query musl be enlered ¡reciseIy or
lhe query viII nol run.
1
To o¡en lhe query looI, you musl righl-cIick on lhe desired
Iayer and seIecl lhe ´Allribule TabIe Idilor.¨ Nexl, cIick ´SeIeclion.¨ In lhe ´SeIeclion¨
vindov, choose ´Query.¨ In lhe ´Query¨ vindov, aII lhe fieIds of lhe sha¡efiIe viII
a¡¡ear, aIong vilh a caIcuIalor lhal enabIes lhe user lo buiId a ßooIean equalion |Iigure
6.15j. The caIcuIalor Iels us buiId query ex¡ressions, such as ´AND¨ and ´OR,¨ as veII
as delermining reIalive vaIues such as ´Iess lhan¨ or ´equaI lo¨ or ´grealer lhan.¨


1
If you are nol famiIiar vilh ßooIean Iogic, you shouId consuIl Wiki¡edia or olher sources for an
ex¡Ianalion.

!!"

!"#$%& ()*+, -."/ 0$&%1 &23%&//"45 6"77 "8&59":1 /9;9&/ 6."<. .;8 ;9 7&;/9 *= >"77"45
;<%&/ 4: <%43/ $58&% <$79"?;9"45 "5 *@AB)

$% &'(% )*+,,%- ' ./%*0 ,1 +2%-,+30 )&+4& 5,',%5 &'2 ', 6%'5, !7 8+66+1- '4*%5 /-2%*
4/6,+(',+1- +- !9:;< =&% 3+%62 >?@ABCD?@:;E 41-,'+-5 ,&% -/8F%* 13 '4*%5 /-2%*
4/6,+(',+1- 31* %'4& 5,',%< A/* ./%*0 '5G5 H'I$+-21) 31* '66 5,',%5 31* )&+4&
>?@ABCD?:;E +5 %./'6 ,1 1* J*%',%* ,&'- !7 8+66+1-< K1,+4% ,&', )% &'(% -1, /5%2 '-0
4188'5 +- >!7777777EL ,&+5 +5 21-% F%4'/5% H'I$+-21) 21%5 -1, I%*8+, 4188'5 +-
-/8F%*5 +- M116%'- %NI*%55+1-5< D3,%* %N%4/,+-J ' 5I%4+3+4 ./%*0O )% 4'- %NI1*, ,&%
5%6%4,%2 3%',/*%5 '-2 5'(% ,&%8 '5 ' -%) 5&'I%3+6% F0 46+4G+-J 1- >P%6%4,+1-E '-2 ,&%-
>QNI1*, P%6%4,%2 R%',/*%5E )+,&+- ,&% >D,,*+F/,% ='F6% Q2+,1*E SR+J/*% "<!"T<


!"#$%& ()*(, C:9&% /&7&<9"5# :&;9$%&/ $/"5# 9.& 0$&%1 9447D 9.&1 <;5 E& &234%9&8 ;/ ;
5&6 /.;3&:"7&)

$% 4'- 5%% ,&% *%5/6,5 13 1/* ./%*0 +- R+J/*% "<!;< =&% 5&'2%2 5,',%5 &'2 ', 6%'5, !7
8+66+1- '4*%5 /-2%* 4/6,+(',+1- +- !9:;< A/* ./%*0 )'5 ' (%*0 5+8I6% 1-%O F/, +, +5
I155+F6% ,1 41-5,*/4, 81*% 418I6%N ./%*+%5 +- H'I$+-21)< H1*%1(%*O F%4'/5% ,&%

117
user can save lhe resuIls of a query, il is ¡ossibIe lo do ileralive queries on lhe dala, lo
narrov lhe dala being anaIyzed based on user-defined crileria.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.& %&/$01 23 2$% 4$&%5 672$1 8$01"961&: 68%&6#&)

;2<80$/"2<
In lhis cha¡ler ve have discussed a variely of melhods lhal can be used lo anaIyze
s¡aliaI dala. ßy using lhe geocoding, buffering, inlerseclion, and querying looIs, you
can ¡erform differenl ly¡es of s¡aliaI anaIysis on lhe dala you are using. In Ixercise 6,
ve viII a¡¡Iy each of lhese lechniques lo a reaIislic scenario using hisloricaI dala.

118
!"!#$%&! (
This exercise viII demonslrale hov lo use Ma¡Windov lo ¡erform basic s¡aliaI
anaIysis lo ansver a s¡ecific queslion by adding ¡oinls, cIi¡¡ing a Iayer, and using a
buffer. We viII use GoogIe Geocoder lo ¡Iol our ¡oinls, and lhe ´Inlerseclion¨ looI lo
delermine vhich ¡oinls are Iocaled vilhin lhe buffer.

)*+,-
Imagine lhal you are a Irench hislorian vho vanls lo find oul vhich of lhe lovns
menlioned in your ¡rimary sources aboul lhe !"#$%"&'( of Irance are Iocaled vilhin
10,000 melers of a river. To ansver lhis queslion, ve need lo ¡Iol lhose lovns on a ma¡
of lhal region, lhen add lhe rivers, and use a buffer lo delermine vhich lovns are
vilhin lhe desired area. We viII use lhe ma¡ of Irance again, used in earIier exercises,
aIlhough you viII need lo dovnIoad a nev sha¡efiIe.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise6.zi¡

When lhe fiIe has dovnIoaded, exlracl lhe fiIes lo your Ma¡Windov Ixercises foIder.

&./0 2-
O¡en Ma¡Windov and using lhe ´Add¨ bullon, navigale lo your ´Ixercise 6¨ foIder.
SeIecl lhe ´fra_area_re¡ro|ecled¨ sha¡efiIe, vhich is lhe same sha¡efiIe lhal you crealed
in Ixercise 3 |Iigure 6.1j.


34567/ (81- 9:7*;*7/*;7/07<=/>./?@ +A*0/:4B/8

!!"
!"#$ &'
$%&'()% *% '+% ,-./ 0-1%+%)1%2 0- 13% !"#$%"&'( ,4 5+'-&%6 *% '+% 7,0-7 1, %89,+1 :()1
13'1 '+%' ') ' -%* )3'9%40.%; <.0&= 13% >?%.%&1@ A(11,- 0- 13% B'9C0-2,*D)
E%-( A'+; F3%- &.0&= ,- 13% '+%' ,4 13% E'9 13'1 &,++%)9,-2) 1, 13% !"#$%"&'( ,4 5+'-&%;
F3% '+%' 13'1 /,( )%.%&1 *0.. A% 3073.0731%2 G507(+% H;IJ;


()*+,# -./' 01# !"#$%"&'( 23 (,456# 47 4 7#8#6"#9 4,#4.








!"#
%& '() *+),)&-. /0&)1 234'5( '6 '() *766896:. ;4)3 0&- 6/)& '() *<)5'6= >/)=0'46&2.
?68-)=@ %& *<)5'6= >/)=0'46&21. 5(662) '() *A'0&-0=-. ?68-)= 0&- '()& 2)8)5' *B:/6='
A)8)5'46&. CD4,E=) F@GH@ 7() *B:/6=' A)8)5'46&. 6/)=0'46& 3488 08863 E2 '6 ):/6=' '()
0=)0 3) 2)8)5')- 02 0 &)3 I0/ 80J)=@


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./01231%34 5673&% "2 .8&906% :;&%10"62<4 "2 0-& .,667=6>)4




121
The ´Ix¡orl seIecled sha¡es¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 6.4j. In lhe ´Sha¡efiIe¨ box,
choose lhe ´fra_area_re¡ro|ecled¨ sha¡efiIe, and make sure lhal lhe ´IiIe lo Save
ResuIls To:¨ is named ´fra_area_re¡ro|ecled_seIecl1.sh¡.¨ CIick ´Ok.¨


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-& ./012%3 4&5&63&7 4-81&49 :";72:)

You viII be asked if you vanl lo add lhe nev Iayer lo lhe ma¡. Choose ´Yes.¨

In lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, seIecl ´Layers¨ and uncheck lhe ´fra_area_re¡ro|ecled¨ Iayer lo
see our seIecled region |Iigure 6.5j.


!"#$%& ()<+ =&: 58>&% 4-2:";# 2$% 4&5&63&7 %&#"2; 2? !%8;6&)

122
!"#$ &'
Nov ve need lo add lhe lovns in vhich ve are inleresled lo our ma¡ using lhe
´GoogIe Geocoder.¨ Go lo ´IIug-ins¨ in lhe menu bar, and seIecl ´GoogIe Geocoder¨
|Iigure 6.6j.


()*+,# -.-' /011*2# 0#1314#,5 )6 "7# /82+*9)6:5 ;#6+.

<1"#'
If you did nol enler an AII key for lhe GoogIe Geocoder ¡Iug-in as you read lhe cha¡ler,
you viII be asked lo inserl an AII key in lhe syslem before you can use lhe ´GoogIe
Geocoder¨ ¡Iug-in for lhe firsl lime. Inler your inslilulion's veb address (URL) inlo lhe
AII key box (for exam¡Ie, hll¡://vvv.isu.edu).

123
SeIecl ´GoogIe Geocoder¨ from lhe menu bar, and lhen seIecl ´Geocode addresses.¨ We
have chosen 21 lovns and cilies Iocaled in our region lo geocode, given in TabIe 6.1.

Rochechouarl
Limoges
ßeIIac
Guerel
Aubusson
UsseI
TuIIe
ßrive-Ia-GaiIIarde
SarIal-Ia-Caneda
Ierigueux
Nonlron
Libourne
ßergerac
Les¡arre-Medoc
ßIaye
ßordeaux
ViIIeneuve-sur-
Lol
Nerac
Marmande
Agen
Gourdon
!"#$% '()* +,-. /0 ./12- "23 4,.,%- ,2 .5% !"#$%"&'( "6%" /0 76"24% ./ #% 8%/4/3%3(

In lhe ´Geocode Iisl of addresses¨ vindov, ly¡e lhe name of a lovn from lhe labIe and
lhen cIick lhe ´Add¨ bullon, as shovn in Iigure 6.7. Re¡eal lhis ¡rocedure unliI aII 21
lovns and cilies are Iisled. You can aIso hil lhe ´Inler¨ key inslead of lhe ´Add¨ bullon
afler each name, if you ¡refer.

9/.%*
The diacrilicaI marks in lhe names of some of lhe cilies musl be inserled correclIy. You
can use lhe vebsile hll¡://french.ly¡eil.org lo ly¡e lhe name of lhe cilies correclIy, and
lhen ¡asle lhose names inlo lhe address fieId in lhe ´GoogIe Geocoder¨ vindov as
needed.


!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-&./.0& 1"23 .4 500%&22&26 7"80.7)

%&'() *+, -./( &0102-(3 (1'()014 '-( '+51 .13 60'* 1.7(28 9++: &+) '-( ;<.)4(' =.*()>
+?'0+1 .' '-( @+''+7 +& '-( 5013+5 AB04,)( CDEFD G(9(6' '-( ;H)(.'( 1(5 ?+01' 9.*()>
@,''+18 '-(1 6906: ;I(+6+3(> '+ 2'.)' 4(+6+3014 '-( 9+6.'0+12D

<-( ;J()0&* I(+6+3014 K(2,9'2> 5013+5 5099 .??(.)D L& *+, 502-8 *+, 7.* .22(22 '-(
.66,).6* +& '-( 4(+6+3014 ?)+6(22 '+ (12,)( '-.' '-( 9+6.'0+12 &+) '-( '+512 .13 60'0(2
.99 &.99 50'-01 +,) 2(9(6'(3 )(40+1D H906: ;M+1(> 5-(1 *+, .)( 2.'02&0(3 50'- '-( )(2,9'2D
% ;G./( .2> 5013+5 5099 +?(1 '+ .99+5 *+, '+ 2./( '-( 4(+6+3(3 ?9.6(2 .2 . ?+01' 9.*()
01 N.?O013+5D P.7( '-02 &09( ;H0'0(2> .13 2./( 0' 01 *+,) ;QR()602( C> &+93()D <-(1
.33 '-( 1(5 ;H0'0(2> 9.*() 01 N.?O013+5D








!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-&'./ 0&1 .&&2 .324 536'(4 7898


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-. /0 !"#$%"&'( !%-12& 3"45 /$% #&/2/6&6 4/317 -16 2"4"&7)















!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' '( )*+ ,(( -.( /&)*-0&+ &1 &23 "! -&'+, *+4 )0-0(,5 62- -.*- 4&(, +&- *+,'(3 &23
72(,-0&+ *6&2- '.0). 82+0)09*/0-0(, *3( '0-.0+ !:5::: 8(-(3, &1 * 30;(3< =& 3(,9&+4 -&
-.*- 72(,-0&+5 '( +((4 -& *44 -.( 30;(3, -.*- 1/&' -.3&2>. -.0, 9*3- &1 ?3*+)(< @9(+ -.(
A13*30;(3B3(93&C()-(4D ,.*9(10/( 13&8 E&23 FG(3)0,( # 1&/4(3< H&23 ,)3((+ ,.&2/4 /&&I
/0I( ?0>23( #<J<


()*+,# -./' 01)2#,34 356$#7)8# 699#9 ": :+, ;6$.

K, E&2 )*+ ,((5 &23 AL0;(3,D /*E(3 ,.&', *// -.( 30;(3, 0+ ?3*+)(5 +&- C2,- -.( &+(, 0+ -.(
!"#$%"&'(< M( *3( >&0+> -& 2,( -.( <8)$$)=* 12+)-0&+ -& )/09 *// &1 -.( /0+( 4*-* -.*- 4&(,
+&- 1*// '0-.0+ -.( 9&/E>&+ 4(90)-0+> -.( !"#$%"&'( &1 ?3*+)(<


N+ -.( AO(>(+4D 9*+(5 ,'0-). -& -.( A=&&/6&GD ;0('5D *+4 2+4(3 AP()-&3 @9(3*-0&+,5D
&9(+ -.( A@;(3/*E,D 1&/4(35 *+4 ).&&,( AQ/0990+>D R?0>23( #<!:S<

!"#

!"#$%& ()*+, -.& /01"22"3#4 526"53 "3 6.& /78&%19:;4 <&3$)

%&' ()&*+',-.' /.-++-012 3-0453 3-.. 5+'06 /&557' (,8*8-9'8:8'+85;'<='42 *7 >5?8
()?@;'<= 7&*+',-.'2 *04 (,8*:*8'*:8'+85;'<='4:7'.'<=!2 *7 >5?8 (/.-++-01 7&*+',-.'2
AB-1?8' C6!!D6 /.-<E (FEG2 *04 *44 =&' 8'7?.= =5 H*+I-0453 *7 * 0'3 .*>'8 3&'0 *7E'46
H*+I-0453 3-.. +859-4' =&' <588'<= .5<*=-50 *04 * 0*J' ,58 =&-7 0'3 ,-.'6


!"#$%& ()**, /=.92&>"1& 01"22"3#4 ?"3@5?)


!"#
%& '() *+,-)./0 1,&)2 3&4()45 '() *6.,.78).9.)1.:;)4')<0 /(,1)67=)> ?:3 /(:3=< /)) '()
.)/3=' :6 '() 4=7117&@ :1).,'7:& AB7@3.) C>!"D>


!"#$%& ()*+, -&.$/0 12 3/"44"5# 06& 7-"8&%.9 /:;&% 01 2:// <"06"5 06& !"#$%"&'( 12
!%:53&)















!"#
!"#$ &'
%& '() *&& +,(+ -(). /0 /12 +/3)* ()4 '5+5&* 65& (6/)7 +,& 258&2* 5) +,& 2&75/)9 :1+ )/3
3& )&&4 +/ 05)4 /1+ ,/3 '6/*& +,&. (2& +/ +,& 258&2*;

<35+', +/ +,& =>//6:/?@ 85&39 ()4 5) =<+()4(249@ ',//*& +,& 01)'+5/) =A100&2 <,(B&*@
CD5712& E;!FG;

()*+,# &-./' 01+22#, !34$#56 2+78")97 )7 "3# 0!"47:4,:6 "99;<9=-









!"#
%&'( )&*')+ ,'-- *.+/ 0&+ 12344+5 (&6.+(7 ,'/8*, 9:';35+ <=!>?=


!"#$%& ()*+, -.$//&% 0123&04 5"6785)

@/ 1A+)0*5 B6C+5D7 )&**(+ 0&+ 14565'E+5F5+.5*G+)0+8F)-'.!7 (&6.+4'-+D 6/8 '/ 12344+5
H'(06/)+D7 '/(+50 0&+ E6-3+ *4 !#### I,'0&*30 6 )*JJ6K= L6M+ (35+ 0&60 0&+
J+6(35+J+/0 0C.+ '( (+0 4*5 1J+0+5(D7 6/8 0&60 0&+ 1L+5;+ 5+(3-0'/; (&6.+(7 N*O '(
)&+)M+8=

P-')M 1QR7 0* E6-'860+ 0&+ )&6/;+(D 6/8 688 0&+ /+, -6C+5 0* C*35 J6.=














!"!
!"#$ &'
$%& &' ()* +'' &,-(, .%-*/+ 0)11 (1%+' /% %23 4200'3 %0 !56555 7'/'3+6 42/ &' &)*/ /%
+'' !"#$ /,%+' /%&*+ )*8 (-/-'+ /,)/ 0)11 &-/,-* %23 4200'3 /% )*+&'3 %23 92'+/-%*:
;3<)*-=' >%23 1)>'3+ 2*8'3 /,' ?@)>'3+A .)*' +% /,)/ /,'> )3' 1-+/'8 'B)(/1> )+ -*
C-<23' D:!E:


()*+,# -./0' 12# "3456 758 9+::#,6 35 3+, ;7$ 3: !"#$%"&'( (,75<#.













!"#
%& '&()*+ ,-.(- *&,/0 )/1 (.*.+0 )2+ ./0.1+ &3 &42 !56555 7+*+2 8433+2 )2&4/1 *-+ 2.9+206
,+ /++1 *& 3./1 *-+ &9+2'):06 &2 ./*+20+(*.&/06 &3 &42 ');+2 1)*)< =+ ,.'' 40+ *-+
>?/*+20+(*.&/@ *&&' *& '&()*+ *-+0+ &9+2');0<

A,.*(- *& *-+ >%&&'8&B@ 9.+,6 )/1 (-&&0+ *-+ 34/(*.&/ >?/*+20+(*.&/@ 4/1+2 >C9+2');0@
DE.F42+ G<!GH<


!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-./&%0&1/"2.3 4$.1/"2.)


133
The ´Sha¡efiIes Inlerseclion¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 6.17j. You shouId seIecl
´Cilies¨ as ´Sha¡efiIe 1¨ and ´frariver_re¡ro|ecled_cIi¡1_buffer1¨ as ´Sha¡efiIe 2.¨
CIick ´Ok,¨ and lhen add lhe nev Iayer lo lhe ma¡.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./01&2"3&4 567&%4&87"96: ;"6<9;)

This ¡rocedure viII lake lhe ´cilies¨ Iayer and lhe buffer Iayer and caIcuIale lhe overIa¡,
or inlerseclion, of lhe Iayers, reveaIing vhich lovns and cilies are inside our 10,000-
meler buffer.














!"#
%& '& '() *+),)-./ 01-) 1-. 2)3)4' *+15)627/ 896- &:: '() *;<'<)2/ 315)6 '& 2)) '()
6)293'2 &: &96 *=-')62)4'<&-/ &0)61'<&- >?<,96) @7!AB7


!"#$%& ()*+, -./01 203 4"5"&1 1&6&45&3 78 59& :;05&%1&45".0< =$045".0)

;&-,61'931'<&-2C D&9 (1E) -&F 2944)22:9335 1..). -)F 0&<-' .1'1 '& 1 G10 92<-,
%&&,3) %)&4&.)6H '6<GG). 9--)).). 3<-) .1'1 92<-, '() 43<00<-, :9-4'<&-H 1-. 92). 1
I9::)6 '& 3&41') F(<4( '&F-2 <- &96 3<2' 16) F<'(<- 1 .):<-). .<2'1-4) :6&G 1 6<E)67 =: 5&9
F&93. 3<J) '& J-&F '() -1G)2 &: '() '&F-2 '(1' 16) F<'(<- &96 <-')62)4'<&-H 5&9 41- 92)
'() *=.)-'<:5/ :9-4'<&- :6&G '() G)-9 I16 '& 2)3)4' 1 0&<-' 1-. 2)) '() .1'1 6)31'). '& <'7

K&F '(1' F) (1E) 92). ,)&4&.<-, '& 1.. .1'1 '& 1 G10H 1-. 0)6:&6G). 2&G) I12<4
201'<13 1-1352<2 &- '(1' .1'1H F) 41- .<24922 '() -&6G13<L1'<&- &: <-:&6G1'<&-7 M1'1
-&6G13<L1'<&- 133&F2 92 '& 92) G&6) 4&66)4' <-:&6G1'<&- <- &96 1-1352)2H 1-. 0)6G<'2 92
'& 92) .1'1 <- G&6) 4&G03<41'). F1527
135
!"#$%&' )* +,-, ./01,234,-3/5
When vorking vilh dala in an allribule labIe, vhich is essenliaIIy a ly¡e of dalabase, il
is im¡orlanl lo make sure lhal your dala are normaIized, or veII-organized and as
error-free as ¡ossibIe. Ior lhis reason, vhen buiIding an allribule labIe vilh your dala,
you musl lhink carefuIIy aboul hov lhal dala shouId be organized before il is used in
Ma¡Windov or any GIS syslem. An allribule labIe can slore a greal deaI of dala, even if
much of il viII never be shovn on lhe ma¡. Ior dala lhal viII be de¡icled on lhe ma¡, il
is even more cruciaI lo make sure lhal lhe dala sel is as error-free as ¡ossibIe. ßasic
¡recaulions, such as ensuring lhal vords are s¡eIIed consislenlIy and correclIy and lhal
numbers are correcl, viII save a greal deaI of lime and fruslralion once lhe dala are
im¡orled inlo Ma¡Windov.

Hovever, lhere are olher forms of normaIizalion lhal are more com¡Iicaled. Ior
exam¡Ie, one ly¡e of 5/01,234,-3/5 aIIovs us lo lake muIli¡Ie sels of dala lhal have a
common variabIe and divide lhem by lhal variabIe, lo uncover olher characlerislics of
lhe dala sels. Or, ve can lake one allribule of a dala sel and divide il by anolher
allribule. Ior inslance, if ve Iook al census dala for lhe Uniled Slales in 1990, lhe
allribule labIe conlains severaI ly¡es of dala lhal can be normaIized. We couId
normaIize lhe overaII ¡o¡uIalion by lhe ¡o¡uIalion of His¡anics, Asians, African
Americans, or Nalive Americans lo delermine vhich elhnicilies vere minorilies, and
vhich minorilies made u¡ a Iarger ¡orlion of lhe ¡o¡uIalion lhan olhers. We couId aIso
normaIize lhe number of vacanl houses by lhe lolaI number of houses, vhich couId
demonslrale lhe im¡acl of a ¡o¡uIalion shifl, an economic disru¡lion, or a naluraI
disasler. There are aIso socio-economic dala, such as age, marriage, househoId income,
and number of chiIdren lhal couId be normaIized. Of course, il is aIso ¡ossibIe lo
normaIize severaI differenl dala fieIds, lo ¡rovide a more nuanced anaIysis. Ior inslance,
ve couId normaIize ¡o¡uIalion dala by elhnicily, househoId income, !"# number of
chiIdren lo eslimale vhich elhnicily is mosl ¡ros¡erous. We couId lhen normaIize
househoId Iocalion lo delermine vhelher ruraI or urban famiIies vere Iarger or had
Iarger incomes, or vhelher minorilies lend lo be concenlraled in cilies ralher lhan lhe
counlry.

This normaIizalion ¡rocess may be cIearer if ve Iook al an exam¡Ie: a choro¡Ielh ma¡
based of maIes in Idaho ¡er counly vouId Iook quile differenl from a ma¡ lhal
"$%&!'()*# lhe maIes of each counly by examining hov lhe number of maIes reIales lo
lhe lolaI ¡o¡uIalion. Iigure 7.1 is a choro¡Ielh ma¡ lhal Iooks soIeIy al lhe lolaI number
of maIes, vhiIe Iigure 7.2 shovs a choro¡Ielh ma¡ lhal "$%&!'()*, lhe number of maIes
by dividing il by lhe lolaI ¡o¡uIalion. As one mighl ex¡ecl, lhese lvo ma¡s ¡roduce
differenl resuIls.
!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 *99:; -664%2"0# 74 73& *99: <)=) 6&0/$/; $/"0#
2-7- 73-7 3->& 047 ?&&0 04%@-."A&2)

137
If ve com¡are lhis ma¡ lo lhe ma¡ in Iigure 7.2, ve can see cIear differences. When ve
dislinguish belveen absoIule numbers and lolaI ¡o¡uIalion, ve can anaIyze lhe dala
differenlIy, or ask differenl queslions of il. Ior exam¡Ie, if ve vanl lo ex¡Iore lhe
effecliveness of disasler ¡re¡aredness in Iov-Iying coaslaI areas, ¡o¡uIalion densily is a
cruciaI faclor. Or, if ve vanl lo examine hov minorily grou¡s have moved from one
seclion of a melro¡oIilan area lo anolher, knoving overaII ¡o¡uIalion densily and lhe
¡ercenlage of a given minorily in lhe ¡o¡uIalion of each neighborhood vouId be usefuI.
To gel lhis informalion, ve vouId firsl caIcuIale ¡o¡uIalion densily overaII, lhen lhe
¡ercenlages for each minorily in lhal ¡o¡uIalion.
!"#

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-.'/ #0 12-34 5'& 64%078 #0 9::;< -664&2#0$ 74 73' 9::; =)>) 6'0/%/<
%/#0$ 2-7- 73-7 3-?' @''0 04&A-.#B'2 74 &'C.'67 73' 5'&6'07-$' 4C A-.'/ #0 '-63
64%078)

!"#
%&'(' )(' *'+'(), -).* /0 10(2),34' 5)/)6 7&3,' /&' 86 96 5)/) )(' 1)/301), 31 *:0;'< 3/ 3*
=')*3>,' /0 10(2),34' 5)/) 01 ) =31'( *:),'< *?:& )* ) :3/.< :0?1/.< 0( :'1*?* /():/6 @)1.
/.;'* 0= 5)/) )(' (')53,. )+)3,)>,' /&(0?A& A0+'(12'1/ )A'1:3'* ):(0** /&' -0(,56 B=
:0?(*'< -0(C31A -3/& &3*/0(3:), 5)/)< .0? 2). -3*& /0 ?*' .0?( 0-1 5)/) *'/* 31 0(5'(
/0 10(2),34' 5)/) 0= 32;0(/)1:' /0 .0?( =3',5 0= */?5. *0 /&)/ .0? ;(05?:' (','+)1/
2);*6

D0(2* 0= 10(2),34)/301 /&)/ A0 >'.015 /&' 0(A)134)/301 0= /&' 5)/) )15 /&' ',3231)/301
0= ('5?15)1:3'* ('E?3(' ) ,'+', 0= ;(?5'1:' )15 :02;'/'1:' =(02 /&' ?*'(6 F0?( 5)/)
:)1 +)(. A(')/,. 5';'1531A 01 &0- .0? 2)13;?,)/' 3/6 @);* /&)/ *&0- 10(2),34'5
5)/) :0?,5 :01+'. *02'/&31A :02;,'/',. 53=='('1/ /&)1 31/'15'56 G1 'H)2;,' 0= /&3*
:01=?*301 -0?,5 >' ?*31A ;'( :);3/) 31:02' 5)/) /&)/ 50'* 10/ /)C' 31/0 )::0?1/ /&'
:0*/ 0= ,3+31A -&'1 .0? )(' /(.31A /0 5'/'(231' -&3:& ('A301 0= ) :0?1/(. 3* 20('
;(0*;'(0?*6 7&3,' /&' ;'0;,' 0= 01' ('A301 2). ')(1 20(' 201'. 0+'( ) ;'(305 0= /32'<
3/ 50'* 10/ 1':'**)(3,. 2')1 /&)/ /&'. &)+' 20(' *;'1531A ;0-'( -3/& /&)/ 201'.6
G1. )1*-'( /&)/ 50'* 10/ =):/0( 31 /&' :0*/ 0= ,3+31A -3,, >' 31)::?()/' 0( 23*,')531A6
I3*/0(3)1* )(' ?*'5 /0 ,00C31A )/ /&'*' /.;'* 0= +)(3)>,'< )15 J?53:30?* ?*' 0=
10(2),34)/301 :)1 &',; ?* '1&)1:' 0?( *:&0,)(*&3; >. :(')/31A +3*?),,. */?1131A 2);*<
-&3:& :01+'. 31=0(2)/301 31 ) -). /&)/ -0(5* *02'/32'* :)110/6

G10/&'( -). /0 32;(0+' 5)/) 0(A)134)/301 )15 )1),.*3* 3* /0 >(')C 1?2'(3:), 5)/)
50-1 31/0 *2),,'( ;3':'*< 0( :,)**'*6 D3A?('* K6" )15 K6L 5'201*/()/' &0- ) 2); :)1
:&)1A' -&'1 -' ?*' /&' *)2' 5)/) >?/ 53=='('1/ 1?2>'(* 0= :,)**'*6 G* .0? :)1 *''< >.
?*31A 53=='('1/ 1?2>'(* 0= :,)**'* 31 2);*< /&' :)(/0A();&'( :)1 A'/ E?3/' 53=='('1/
('*?,/*6 %&'('=0('< .0? 2?*/ >' /&0?A&/=?, -&'1 2)C31A /&'*' :&03:'*6 %00 2)1. 0( /00
='- :,)**'* :)1 ,')5 /0 /&' 53*/0(/301 0= /&' 5)/) 0( /0 23*,')531A ('*?,/*M /&'('=0('<
10(2),34' )15 53+35' .0?( 5)/) 31/0 :,)**'* -3/& :)('6
!"#


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 9::;< -664%2"0# 74 73& 9::; =)>) 6&0/$/<
?%4@&0 "074 A4$% 6.-//&/)
!"!


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&/ "0 12-34 5&% 64$078 "0 9::;< -664%2"0# 74 73& 9::; =)>) 6&0/$/<
?%4@&0 "074 7A4 6.-//&/)

142
!"#$$%&%'#(%)* ,-.#/$
A¡arl from lhe number of cIasses used in a ma¡, you can aIso choose differenl vays lo
break u¡ lhe dala inlo cIasses.
1
ßecause of lhis ca¡acily, you musl ensure lhal your ma¡
dala are anaIyzed ¡ro¡erIy, according lo lhe ¡ur¡oses of your ma¡. There are severaI
vays lo break your dala u¡ inlo cIasses and each one vorks besl for cerlain ly¡es of
dala or cerlain forms of anaIysis. One melhod of breaking u¡ cIasses of dala is #-0%(-#-1.
This melhod, as lhe name indicales, means lhal breaks are seIecled by lhe carlogra¡her
for no anaIylicaI ¡ur¡ose olher lhan lo break lhe dala inlo usabIe ¡ieces. Oflen, lhis
division viII mean se¡araling your dala by numbers ending in zero, such as 1-10, 11-20,
and so on. The arbilrary melhod is used moslIy because il breaks u¡ lhe dala inlo
numbers vilh vhich lhe ma¡ readers are famiIiar.

234#" 5*(.-6#" cIassificalion divides lhe dala cIasses inlo equaI ¡arls, for exam¡Ie 0-7, 8-
15, elc. The inlervaIs are defined by delermining lhe range of vaIues and dividing il by
lhe number of cIasses you vish lo use. An advanlage of lhis cIassificalion slyIe is lhal il
is reIaliveIy easy for lhe carlogra¡her lo em¡Ioy and easy for lhe reader of lhe ma¡ lo
undersland. This melhod may be lhe one lo choose vhen lhe cIassificalion sle¡s, or dala
cIasses, vilh vhich you are vorking are nearIy equaI in size.

74#-(%". or 74%*(%". breaks means lhal lhe dala are broken u¡ inlo four or five cIasses,
res¡ecliveIy. This a¡¡roach has more lo do vilh rank lhan vaIue. A choro¡Ielh ma¡
lhal uses eilher lhe quarliIe or quinliIe a¡¡roach viII !"# highIighl lhe differences in a
dalasel because, regardIess of lhe vaIues, lhey are dislribuled equaIIy inlo cIasses.
Hovever, lhese lvo ly¡es of dala cIassificalion can be usefuI if lhe ¡ur¡ose of your ma¡
is sim¡Iy lo order your dala. Ior exam¡Ie, if you vere ma¡¡ing dala from a survey
queslion lhal broke u¡ lhe dala inlo 1) SlrongIy Disagree, 2) Disagree, 3) NeulraI, 4)
Agree, and 5) SlrongIy Agree, lhen lhe quinliIe melhod vouId vork veII.

Using lhe 8(#*9#-9 :.6%#(%)* melhod of eslabIishing cIassificalion breaks is a good
vay lo shov exlremes in a dala sel, eilher high or Iov. The ¡rocedure vorks besl vhen
dala naluraIIy form a beII-sha¡ed curve vhen ¡Iolled. Anolher melhod is ;#(4-#"
,-.#/$, vilh vhich one examines lhe dala eilher numericaIIy or gra¡hicaIIy÷for
exam¡Ie, in a hislogram÷lo delermine vhere lhe dala lend lo break naluraIIy |Iigure
7.5j. ßy examining lhe dala and considering vhal informalion you vanl lo convey vilh
your ma¡, you can delermine vhich melhod and lhe number of breaks lo use.
Calegories can lhen be delermined, and lhese viII resuIl in lhe grou¡ing of dala vilh
simiIar vaIues. This melhod is oflen lhe defauIl for GIS soflvare. Hovever, nole lhal

1
Ior an exlended discussion on cIassificalion breaks, see }udilh Tyner, $%&!'&()*+ "- ./( 0*+&1! (Nev
York: The GuiIford Iress), 165-168.
143
vhen deaIing vilh a monochromalic choro¡Ielh ma¡, four or five cIass breaks generaIIy
vorks besl. Iever breaks viII usuaIIy nol convey meaningfuI informalion, vhiIe lhe
visuaI syslems of ma¡ users viII nol be abIe lo recognize dislinclions invoIving more
lhan five calegories.


!"#$%& ()*+ , -"./0#%12 .$3- 1. /-". 04& 314 -&56 70$ 8".$1557 9&/&%2"4& :-&%&
41/$%15 ;%&1<. 033$% "4 70$% 91/1)

=0435$."04
When using Ma¡Windov or any olher soflvare ¡rogram lo heI¡ visuaIize and anaIyze
your dala, you musl ensure lhal lhe dala are as error-free as ¡ossibIe, and lhal any
redundancies in lhe dala are reconciIed. This reviev of lhe informalion is lhe mosl basic
form of dala normaIizalion. Hovever, more advanced melhods of normaIizalion viII
aIIov you lo uncover and highIighl as¡ecls of your maleriaI lhal vouId olhervise be
difficuIl lo idenlify. As is aIvays lhe case, you need lo ask lhe righl queslions and lo
normaIize lhe dala in lhe vays lhal viII uncover lhe nuances of your informalion.
ßefore you use any form of normaIizalion, you musl carefuIIy seIecl lhe besl melhod lo
ansver lhe research queslions you are asking, a ¡oor choice can Iead lo dislorled resuIls,
vhich in lurn can Iead lo misIeading or erroneous concIusions. Hovever, vilh carefuI
use, dala normaIizalion can be a ¡overfuI anaIylicaI looI, vhich aIIovs you lo ¡resenl
cruciaI informalion in an easiIy-underslood visuaI formal.

We are going lo a¡¡Iy some of lhese lechniques in our exercise lo creale a ma¡ lhal
accuraleIy de¡icls lhe ¡ercenlage of Asian Americans in lhe Uniled Slales in 2005, by
slale.


144
!"!#$%&! (
Dala normaIizalion is a ¡overfuI looI for anaIyzing ma¡ dala, aIlhough il musl be used
carefuIIy. We viII add dala lo an allribule labIe, normaIize lhe dala sel, and ma¡ lhe
resuIls.

)*+,-
Hislorians are oflen inleresled in a subseclion of a given ¡o¡uIalion, and lhe U.S.
Census lracks seIf-idenlified elhnic grou¡s in lhe Uniled Slales. We are going lo
normaIize lhe ¡o¡uIalion dala in lhe allribule labIe of our ma¡ lo de¡icl lhe ¡ercenlage
of Asian Americans in lhe ¡o¡uIalion of each slale in 2005.

&./0 1-
This exercise viII use lhe sha¡efiIe of lhe Uniled Slales lhal you dovnIoaded for
exercise 2, vhich shouId be in your ´Ixercise 2¨ subfoIder.

O¡en lhe Ma¡Windov a¡¡Iicalion, and cIick lhe ´Add¨ bullon in lhe menu bar.
Navigale lo your ´Ixercise 2¨ subfoIder and o¡en lhe ´UniledSlales1900.sh¡¨ fiIe as a
Iayer |Iigure 7.1j.


23456/ (71- 8*0 9: .;/ <=3./> &.*./+7




145
!"#$ &'
In lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane, go lo ´Layers¨ and righl-cIick ´UniledSlales1900.sh¡,¨ and seIecl
´Allribule TabIe Idilor¨ |Iigure 7.2j. As ve have seen in earIier exercises, lhe allribule
labIe for a dala Iayer can conlain any informalion lhal lhe user vanls lo have associaled
vilh lhe ma¡. In lhis case, lhe allribule labIe conlains a greal deaI of census informalion
from lhe 1990 census, as veII as ¡o¡uIalion dala lhal vas added Ialer.


()*+,# -.&' /0"",)1+"# 2314# 56)"7,8 9):679.

The dala shovn in Iigure 7.2 are in lheir ´rav¨ formal, ve need lo normaIize lhe dala
ve vanl lo use on our ma¡. The firsl sle¡ is lo add a nev fieId, or coIumn, lo lhe
allribule labIe lo slore our normaIized dala.











!"#
%& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,6 7-&4578 92-9: *34-'6 1&4 ;)2)9' *+44 <-)246 '5 5=)& '()
*+44 <-)246 7-&457> ?1@) '() &)7 A-)24 +B%+?C?DEF G<-H/,) I>JK> <5, *0L=)86
9(55;) M5/.2)> N()9: '() *O-4'(6 1&4 *P,)9-;-5&6 A-)24; '5 @1:) ;/,) '(1' '() Q12/);
1,) !R 1&4 J8 1&4 92-9: *DS>6


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-.. "#'/.0 1#2.31)

435'+
0() &)7 A-)24 &1@) 7-22 .) ',/&91')4 -& ;5@) 7-&457; '5 +B%+?C?DE T '(-; -; &5' 1&
),,5,U

%& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,86 ;9,522 '5 '() ,-H(' '5 2591') '() A-)24 '(1' L5/ V/;' 9,)1')4>
0(-; &)7 9,)1'-5& ;(5/24 .) '() 21;' A-)24 -& '() *+'',-./') 01.2) 34-'5,6 7-&457
G<-H/,) I>"K>


"#$%&' ()6+ 4'1/7 8..'. 9#'/. #2 5:' ,-55&#;%5' <8;/' =.#53&0 1#2.31)

147
!"#$ &'
We can see lhal Ma¡Windov assigned nuII vaIues lo lhe fieId lhal ve |usl crealed.
Righl-cIick lhe coIumn header ´ASIAN_NORM,¨ and choose ´CaIcuIale VaIues (AII
Records)¨ |Iigure 7.5j


()*+,# -./' 01# 23456+54")7* 845+#9: ;#7+ 61<)6#.

The ´IieId CaIcuIalor¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear on lhe screen, vhich viII Iel us leII
Ma¡Windov lo assign numeric vaIues lo lhe fieId ve crealed. We need lo give
Ma¡Windov an equalion lhal viII derive lhe numeric vaIues for lhe ´ASIAN_NORM¨
fieId, by dividing lhe fieId ´ASIANS¨ by lhe lolaI ¡o¡uIalion fieId ´IOI2005.¨

To do lhis division, ve firsl leII Ma¡Windov inlo vhich fieId lhe resuIls need lo go.
Thus, in lhe ´Deslinalion TabIe IieId,¨ seIecl our nev fieId, ASIAN_NORM. Nexl, ve
need lo vrile our equalion in lhe Iarge, em¡ly vindov beIov lhal box.

To buiId lhe equalion, seIecl ´ASIANS¨ in lhe ´TabIe IieIds¨ Iisl. Irom lhe rov of
o¡eralions undernealh lhe ´Iunclions¨ vindov, seIecl lhe division bullon (´/¨), and
lhen doubIe-cIick ´IOI2005¨ |Iigure 7.6j.

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+ ,-' '.%/0#12 %3'4 01 5/65%6/0' 0-' 21&7/6#8'4 919%6/0#12 1: ;3#/2
;7'&#5/23)

%&'() *%+&(,&+-./ +01 2+34'0156 6'&& 7,0 -8. .9,+-'50 +01 3,- -8. 7.:,&-: '0-5 -8.
;<=;>?>@A2 B'.&1C @0(. 0,D.7'( E+&,.: 8+E. F..0 +::'G0.1 -5 -8. B'.&1H
2+34'0156 6'&& +:) 'B I5, 65,&1 &'). -5 (&5:. -8. *J'.&1 %+&(,&+-57 4'0156C/ %855:.
*K.:C/

=0 -8. +--7'F,-. -+F&.H :(75&& 7'G8- +G+'0 -5 -8. ;<=;>?>@A2 B'.&1 +01 I5, 6'&& :.. -8+-
0,D.7'( E+&,.: 8+E. F..0 +::'G0.1 LJ'G,7. MCMNC O8.:. E+&,.: 7.37.:.0- -8. 057D+&'P.1
1+-+H 7.357-.1 '0 3.7(.0-+G.H B57 -8. ;:'+0 353,&+-'50 &'E'0G '0 -8. Q0'-.1 <-+-.: '0 RSSTC

149

"#$%&' ()(* +%,'&#- ./0%'1 /11#$2'3 45 2'6 7#'03)

To save lhe nev informalion, go lo lhe bollom of lhe screen and cIick ´A¡¡Iy,¨ and
lhen cIose lhe ´Allribule TabIe Idilor¨ vindov.

84'9 :*
Nov ve vanl lo assign a coIoring scheme on our ma¡ of lhe Uniled Slales for lhe
ASIAN_NORM fieId lo make a more readabIe choro¡Ielh ma¡. Go lo ´Layers,¨ righl-
cIick lhe ´UniledSlales1900¨ Iayer and seIecl ´Iro¡erlies,¨ and lhen choose lhe
´Calegories¨ lab.


"#$%&' ();* <=/4'$5&#'1> 6#2356 6#4? 4?' 9&59'& ./0%'1 1'0'-4'3)
150
In ´Numeric fieIds,¨ seIecl ASIAN_NORM, and lhen seIecl ´3¨ for lhe ´Calegories¨
vaIue in lhe ´CIassificalion¨ box |Iigure 7.9j. Under ´CoIor scheme,¨ check lhe
´Gradienl¨ box, and lhen cIick lhe dovn arrov lo see lhe coIor choices. SeIecl lhe
second coIor scheme choice. IinaIIy, cIick ´Generale,¨ lhen ´A¡¡Iy,¨ and lhen ´OK.¨

Your finaI ma¡ shouId Iook Iike Iigure 7.9, vilh lhe coIor of each slale indicaling lhe
¡ercenlage of Asian-Americans Iiving in lhal slale in 2005.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,'&-'./0$' 12 34#0.4 5#6#.$ #. /7' 8.#/'9 :/0/'4 #. ;<<=)

CongraluIalions! You have crealed a nev fieId (or coIumn) in an allribule labIe, by
using lhe fieId caIcuIalor looI, you normaIized rav ¡o¡uIalion dala lo caIcuIale vhal
¡ercenlage of lhe ¡o¡uIalion of lhe Uniled Slales in 2005 vas Asian American, and you
¡roduced a choro¡Ielh ma¡ de¡icling lhe normaIized ¡o¡uIalion dala. These looIs can
be a¡¡Iied lo any, or aII, of lhe numeric dala conlained in an allribule labIe. One couId
use lhis formuIa lo ¡roduce severaI ma¡s de¡icling differenl elhnic grou¡ ¡o¡uIalions
al a given lime, or generale severaI ma¡s for one grou¡ using dala coIIecled al differenl
limes in order lo lrack ¡o¡uIalion grovlh or movemenl vilhin lhal grou¡ in lhal
limeframe.

Nov lhal you have Iearned hov lo do some basic s¡aliaI anaIysis and hov lo use some
dala anaIysis looIs, ve viII Iook al hov lo use for research lhe hisloricaI ma¡s lhal have
nol been digilized. We viII lurn lhem inlo ma¡s lhal are usabIe in Ma¡Windov.
151
!"#$%&' )* +,-. / $/01, "234-,25/6 7/0 4- / 82924/6 :;1
HisloricaI ma¡s de¡icl lhe ¡hysicaI Iandsca¡e in vhich im¡orlanl human aclions,
evenls, and ¡rocesses vere sha¡ed and look ¡Iace. These ma¡s heI¡ hislorians visuaIize
hov lhe Iandsca¡e of an area changed over lime and hov lhose lransformalions refIecl
lhe human slory. ßul because hisloricaI ma¡s vere crealed by lhose vho underslood
lhe vorId and ils geogra¡hy in lhe lerms of lheir lime, nol ours, lhese ma¡s oflen
conlain informalion nol found on more recenl ma¡s. This informalion mighl be lhe
former names for regions of lhe ma¡ lhal have since become ¡arl of a differenl counlry,
or for lovns lhal have since disa¡¡eared, or for coaslIines lhal vere dravn based on
second- or lhird-hand knovIedge, vhich has since been shovn lo be inaccurale. This
dala, even if nol accurale, can convey im¡orlanl informalion for lhe hisloricaI lo¡ic
under sludy, vhich lhe researcher viII, lherefore, vish lo mainlain. David Rumsey and
Meredilh WiIIiams recognized lhal mosl geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled hislory vouId be
im¡ossibIe vilhoul hisloricaI ma¡s. They mainlained lhal one can use hisloricaI ma¡s
lo examine hov fealures have changed over lime, and lhal GIS is freeing ma¡s from lhe
´slalic confines of lheir originaI ¡rinl form.¨
1
Hovever, before one can use an hisloricaI
ma¡ vilhin GIS, il is necessary lo lurn lhal ¡hysicaI ma¡ inlo a digilaI one, vhich can
lhen become a Iayer in a GIS ¡ro|ecl. The ¡rocess of laking a ¡a¡er ma¡ and lurning il
inlo a usabIe digilaI ma¡ is a form of 91-,1<1,1;52;9, and il is a cruciaI looI for any
hislorian using GIS.
2


ßecause hislorians generaIIy do nol lake inlo accounl images as sources of evidence,
lhose inleresled in a¡¡Iying GIS lo hisloricaI research face a ma|or chaIIenge vhen
seeking recognilion for lheir vork, as Anne K. KnovIes observed.
3
Once one has
recognized lhe vaIue of ma¡s as ¡rimary sources and has decided lo inlegrale an
hisloricaI ma¡ inlo a GIS, one needs lo georeference lhe ma¡. Rumsey and WiIIiams
defined georeferencing a carlogra¡hic ¡roducl as ´aIigning a scanned ma¡ vilh |ilsj
acluaI geogra¡hicaI Iocalion by assigning geogra¡hicaI coordinales lo each ¡oinl, or by
Iinking each ¡oinl lo ils equivaIenl on a modern, accurale digilaI ma¡.¨
4
In olher vords,
lo georeference a ma¡, one musl scan lhe ma¡ lo creale a digilaI image, vhich can be
read in a GIS ¡rogram, Iocale lhe correcl coordinales for severaI ¡oinls on lhe ma¡, and
lhen connecl lhose ¡oinls lo lhe ma¡ lo ensure lhal il is ¡ro¡erIy ¡ro|ecled.

1
David Rumsey and Meredilh WiIIiams, ´HisloricaI Ma¡s in GIS,¨ in !"#$ &'()* !"#$ !+",)- ./0 123 4'#$235,
ed. Anne K. KnovIes (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI Iress, 2002), 2.
2
Ior a ¡ro¡er inlroduclion lo georeferencing, you musl read, Linda L. HiII, .)23)1)3)6,'67- &8) .)273"98',
:##2,'"$'26# 21 /6123("$'26 (Cambridge, Massachusells, and London: MIT Iress, 2006 |¡a¡er 2009j).
3
Anne K. KnovIes, ´GIS and Hislory,¨ in !+",'67 4'#$235- 42; <"9#* 09"$'"+ ="$"* "6> ./0 :3) ?8"67'67
4'#$23',"+ 0,82+"3#8'9, ed. Anne K. KnovIes and Anne HiIIier (RedIands, CaIifornia: ISRI Iress, 2008), 2.
4
Rumsey and WiIIiams, ´HisloricaI Ma¡s in GIS,¨ 4-5.
152
!"#$$%$&
Once you have idenlified a ma¡ lhal you vanl lo use in Ma¡Windov, you musl scan il
(or ¡hologra¡h il, de¡ending on ils ¡hysicaI condilion) so lhal lhe resuIling digilaI
image can be used vilh a com¡uler. Ma¡Windov viII Ioad scanned images
in .bm¡, .¡ng, .¡df, .lif, .gif, .img, and .|¡g formals. Mosl, if nol aII, scanner soflvare
¡ackages offer users lhe o¡lion lo save fiIes in more lhan one of lhese formals. Wilh lhe
increasing accuracy of modern scanners, even a smaII desklo¡ scanner can be used lo
digilize your ma¡s and images, aIlhough Iarger ma¡s may need a Iarge-formal scanner.
ßefore scanning your ma¡, hovever, you shouId check onIine lo see if digilaI versions
of il are aIready avaiIabIe. Ior exam¡Ie, for lhe U.S. you viII find lhe im¡orlanl Sanborn
insurance ma¡s, vhich have been scanned and are accessibIe lo GIS users. The Sanborn
com¡any originaIIy made lhese ma¡s of ma|or cilies lo ¡rovide insurance undervrilers
vilh fire vuInerabiIily dala in lhe Iale nineleenlh- and earIy lvenlielh cenluries. They
¡rovide a bird's eye viev of various cilies al s¡ecific limes, lhey de¡icl ¡arceIs of Iand,
shov lhe buiIdings on lhe ¡arceIs, and nole lhe ¡ur¡oses lhose buiIdings served. Many
of lhese ma¡s are avaiIabIe for differenl areas of lhe Uniled Slales and cover muIli¡Ie
years. WhiIe lhere are no anaIogous ma¡s for olher counlries, because lhe number of
digilized ma¡s avaiIabIe onIine grovs daiIy, you musl check lo see if a ma¡ lhal suils
your research needs is avaiIabIe onIine before digilizing your ovn. Hovever, for lhose
vho need lo digilize lheir ovn ma¡s, or for onIine ma¡s lhal have been scanned bul nol
¡ro¡erIy ¡ro|ecled, Ma¡Windov can be used lo ¡roduce correcl and usabIe digilized
ma¡s.

()*+),)+)$"%$& -%./ 0#12%$3*-
Georeferencing a digilized or scanned version of a ma¡ consisls of laking and a¡¡Iying
reaI-vorId coordinales lo il, in lhis case using Ma¡Windov. Irimary source ma¡s may
nol incIude your enlire research area, lherefore, you may need lo |oin severaI digilized
ma¡s logelher lo creale a singIe ma¡. Ian Gregory and IauI III Iisled lhree slages in lhe
¡rocess of laking anaIog geogra¡hic informalion and digilizing il: ´georeferencing lo
converl from digilizer lo reaI-vorId coordinales, ¡ro|ecling lo add a ma¡ ¡ro|eclion,
and |oining ad|acenl ma¡ sheels logelher, ¡robabIy vilh lhe heI¡ of !"##$!%&'$$()*+, lo
creale a singIe Iayer re¡resenling severaI ma¡ sheels.¨
5
Whelher you are vorking vilh a
singIe ma¡ or need lo |oin severaI ma¡s inlo one, lhe ¡rocess of georeferencing lhe ma¡
in Ma¡Windov makes il reIaliveIy easy lo do.



5
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, ,)&(-!)./0 2345 6$.'*-0-+)$&7 8$('-9-0-+)$& /*9 4.'-0/!&'): (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress), 47.
153
Using a ¡Iug-in looI caIIed ´Image lo Ma¡,¨ Ma¡Windov aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl
!"#$%"& (")#$* lo aIign lhe hisloricaI ma¡ lo an aIready ¡ro|ecled sha¡efiIe of lhe same
area. The conlroI ¡oinls are reference ¡oinls lhal leII lhe ¡rogram lhal lhe ¡oinl on lhe
hisloricaI ma¡ needs lo be Iocaled al lhe same ¡osilion on lhe sha¡efiIe Iayer. Ior
exam¡Ie, if ve needed lo georeference a ma¡ of CoIorado, ve vouId use lhe corners of
lhe slale as conlroI ¡oinls, and Ma¡Windov vouId slack lhe sha¡efiIe and lhe
hisloricaI ma¡ so lhal lhose four corner ¡oinls vere on lo¡ of each olher. Anolher vay
lo lhink aboul lhe ¡rocess is lo imagine lhal you have lvo ¡ieces of fabric, one vilh an
image of lhe IiffeI Tover on il, and lhe olher vilh a cul-oul of lhe IiffeI Tover. If you
vanl lo ¡in lhe cul-oul ¡iece on lo¡ of lhe image of lhe IiffeI Tover, you vouId need lo
¡in il so lhal lhe cul-oul vas aIigned vilh lhe image. The ´Image lo Ma¡¨ looI aIIovs
us lo leII Ma¡Windov vhere lhe ¡ins shouId go, so lhal lhe resuIling ma¡ viII be
¡ro¡erIy aIigned. Once ve have used lhis looI lo aIign our digilized hisloricaI ma¡, ve
can em¡Ioy olher looIs lo enhance ils usabiIily.

+,-&&.#/.* -#0 1)2)$-$)"#*
Digilizing and georeferencing ma¡s can be chaIIenging for severaI reasons: scanning
Iarge ma¡s lhal require a Iarge-formal scanner can be ex¡ensive and ledious, scanning
errors can make il more difficuIl lo Iocale lhe correcl coordinales for lhe ma¡, and il can
be difficuIl lo find good conlroI ¡oinls lo georeference lhe ma¡ correclIy. Hovever,
georeferencing and digilizing hisloricaI ma¡s aIIovs hislorians bolh lo uncover
hislories of vhich hislorians lhemseIves mighl be unavare and lo ¡reserve lhe
knovIedge and lhe memories of ¡hysicaI and sociaI Iandsca¡es from lhe ¡asl. We viII
see hov a ma¡ of lhe ßraziIian ¡orl of Recife |Iigure 8.1j can serve bolh of lhese
¡ur¡oses.
6











6
!"# %&' () #*+(+,#-. /0,&*1 -1 '12+1 # '2&3!! #$ %$&'!()*+, -,& .,/0 1$&'!'#$/ %,&2*3!I. IiIolo que
serviu n'armada ReaI. Anno 1808.¨ Il is in lhe ¡ubIic domain. A ¡holoco¡y can be found in
GiIberlo Ierrez, !"#"$ & '#&()*$"$ +)$,"$ & '"-*#"."$ /* !&()0&1 2344 5 2644 !"#$%&#' !"#$%&!!" $%&'"(%) *+,-
!"#$%&' " )*+,-./01 234561 7&89:;8 <'=" number.
154
When lhis ma¡ vas found by one of our aulhors, Anderson Sandes, he aIso Iearned
somelhing aboul lhe ¡reviousIy unknovn ma¡maker: }ose Iernandes IorlugaI. The
aulhor of lhe ma¡ acliveIy su¡¡orled lhe revoIulion lhal broke oul in ßraziI in 1817,
during vhich individuaIs allem¡led lo eslabIish an inde¡endenl governmenl lhal
vouId free ßraziI from conlroI by lhe Iorluguese crovn.


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./ 01 23& 40%2 01 5&6"1&7 *(8(7 9: ;0<= !&%/./>&< ,0%2$#.-7
0?&%-."> 0/ @A5BC< D%6E-09&)

UnforlunaleIy, he vas arresled and died in ¡rison from slarvalion.
7
ßy inlegraling
Iernandes IorlugaI's 1808 ma¡ of lhe ¡orl of Recife inlo his GIS, Sandes vas abIe lo
visuaIize lhe Iandsca¡e of Recife al lhal lime. AIso, he connecled fealures de¡icled on
lhe ma¡, such as buiIdings and slreels, vilh dala exlracled from lraveI accounls of lhe
lime in order lo buiId a more com¡Iele, geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled narralive of lhe
munici¡aIily's roIe in lhe revoIulion. Thus, lhe discovery of lhis ma¡ and lhe
inlegralion of dala from lhe lraveI narralives aIIoved Sandes lo reveaI ¡reviousIy
unknovn informalion aboul an im¡orlanl member of lhe revoIulionary movemenl and
lhe cily's roIe in earIy nineleenlh-cenlury ßraziI.

ßecause oId ma¡s oflen conlain informalion nol found on more modern ma¡s, a
hislorian mighl vanl lo georeference an hisloricaI ma¡ lo make beller use of lhal dala.
Ior exam¡Ie, an hisloricaI ma¡ mighl conlain nol onIy lhe rivers and mounlains in a

7
Inslilulo Hislórico e Geografico ßrasiIeiro, !"#$%&' )*$+",%'- ./ 0,%&$&1&/ 2$%&/*$3/4 5"/6*'78$3/4 "
9&,/6*'78$3/ ./ :*'%$- (Rio de }aneiro: ß. L. Gardiner, 1867), 363.
!""
$%&'()* $+,*'&-. /,' (01+ 2,*)$)3(0)')%1 '4(' 4(5% 1)*$% 6)1(33%(&%6. +& &%7)+*(0 *(2%1
'4(' (&% *+ 0+*7%& )* ,1%. +& /+&6%&1 '4(' 4(5% 1)*$% 14)8'%6 (1 ( &%1,0' +8 ( 9(&: ;('4%&
'4(* (''%23')*7 '+ &%$&%('% '4)1 )*8+&2(')+* ($$,&('%0- +* ( </0(*=> 2(3 $&%('%6 )*
?(3@)*6+9 +& (*+'4%& ABC. 7%+&%8%&%*$)*7 (00+91 ,1 '+ 3&+6,$% (* ($$,&('% 2(3 +8
'4% $+,*'&- +& &%7)+* 94)0% 2()*'()*)*7 )23+&'(*' 4)1'+&)$(0 )*8+&2(')+*: B* %11%*$%.
+*$% 9% 4(5% $+&&%$'0- 7%+&%8%&%*$%6 1,$4 ( 2(3. 9% $(* 2(*)3,0('% '4% 2(3 0(-%& 1+
'4(' '4+1% 4)1'+&)$(0 6%'()01 (&% 5)1)/0% +* '4% *%9. 7%+7&(34)$(00- ($$,&('% 2(3: @% 9)00
*+9 0%(&* 4+9 '+ $(&&- +,' 1,$4 ( 2(*)3,0(')+*. ,1)*7 +,& 2(3 +8 D&(*$% 8&+2 (*
%(&0)%& %E%&$)1%:

















156
!"!#$%&! (
We have Iearned in lhis cha¡ler lhal ve can do more lhan add dala lo a ma¡ or ils
allribule labIe, ve can aIso lake a hisloricaI ma¡ lhal is nol a sha¡efiIe Iayer and
reference il lo a sha¡efiIe. This referencing aIIovs us lo seIecl ma¡s lhal ve vanl lo use
in our research and lurn lhem inlo digilaI ma¡s lhal can lhen be anaIyzed. This exercise
viII Iel you ¡raclice lhis skiII, vhich is one of lhe mosl im¡orlanl ones necessary for
doing Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory vilh a GIS.

)*+,-
We are going lo lake a hisloric ma¡ of Irance
8
and digilize il, lo creale a Iayer vilh an
accurale ¡ro|eclion and de¡iclion of scaIe, vilhoul Iosing lhe delaiIs of lhe originaI ma¡.
The resuIl viII be a correclIy ¡ro|ecled ma¡ of Irance, vilh lhe munici¡aI names and
olher informalion from lhe originaI ma¡ visibIe and usabIe for anaIysis.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise8.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe foIder vilh lhe dala required for lhe com¡Ielion of lhe exercise. Inside
lhe foIder, you viII find a ma¡ of Irance from lhe David Rumsey coIIeclion, shovn in
Iigure 8.1, and lhe sha¡efiIe Iayer of Irance, vhich viII be used as our reference Iayer,
shovn in Iigure 8.2.


8
The ma¡ vas crealed by Aaron Arrovsmilh and SamueI Levis and ¡ubIished in lheir vorId alIas
(ßoslon: Thomas & Andrevs, 1812). We have used lhe ma¡ from lhe David Rumsey Ma¡ CoIIeclion
(vvv.DavidRumsey.com), Iisl no. 0028.006. Il is described as an engraved ma¡, uncoIored, vilh lhe
reIief shovn by hachures.
!"#

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"#$%&' ()4+ A8-.'0#@' @->'& 78-7 B#@@ C' /%& &'0'&'12' @->'&)



158
!"#$%
AIvays make sure lhal your sha¡efiIe is ¡ro|ecled before aIigning il vilh an image. You
musl eslabIish lhe sha¡efiIe ¡ro|eclion because you viII assign lhe ¡ro|eclion of lhe
sha¡efiIe lo lhe image. The sha¡efiIe you are using is aIready ¡ro|ecled, under WGS-
84/UTM zone 30 Norlh (Irance).

'#$( )%
O¡en Ma¡Windov. ßecause you musl Ioad lhe reference Iayer firsl, add lhe
´france_re¡ro|ecled¨ sha¡efiIe lhal you have dovnIoaded. Then Ioad lhe ´Irance¨ ma¡.
Refer lo exercise 2, sle¡ 4, if you need lo reviev hov lo Ioad dala.

'#$( *%
Once lhe ma¡ has been Ioaded, lhe ´Iro|eclion absence¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear |Iigure
8.3j. You viII receive lhis nolificalion because lhe ma¡ is an image vilh no ¡ro|eclion
assigned lo il. Choose ´Assign ¡ro|eclion from ¡ro|ecl,¨ and cIick ´Ok.¨ Nov your ma¡
has lhe same ¡ro|eclion as lhe ´france_re¡ro|ecled¨ sha¡efiIe.


+,-./$ 01*% 23/"4$5#,"6 789$65$: ;,6<";1






159
A nev vindov viII a¡¡ear, lhe ´Iro|eclion checking resuIls¨ |Iigure 8.4j, slaling lhal a
¡ro|eclion has been assigned. CIick ´CIose¨ lo ¡roceed vilh lhe exercise.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-&./'01#.2 03'04#2$ &'5%6157 8#29.8)

Look al lhe ´Layers¨ Iisl in lhe ´Legend¨ ¡ane. The Iayers shouId be dis¡Iayed as
shovn in Iigure 8.5. If necessary, move lhe ´france¨ image so il is above lhe
´france_re¡ro|ecled¨ Iayer.


"#$%&' ():+ ,;<1< 6<='&57 ><2')

?1'> *+
Nov ve vanl lo gel bolh images lo be dis¡Iayed al a¡¡roximaleIy lhe same size. Righl-
cIick on each Iayer and choose lhe o¡lion ´Zoom lo Layer¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu.
Iach Iayer viII shov as il is zoomed, bul you viII nol see bolh images al lhe same lime.
You see lhe Iayers se¡araleIy because lhey are nol aIigned yel. When ve georeference
lhe lvo Iayers, lhen ve viII see onIy a singIe Iayer.



160
To georeference our Iayers, ve musl firsl lurn on lhe ´Image lo Ma¡¨ ¡Iug-in. Go lo
´IIug-ins¨ in lhe main menu bar, and scroII dovn lo ´Image lo Ma¡.¨ CIick ´Image lo
Ma¡¨ |Iigure 8.6j. When you have lurned on lhe ¡Iug-in, you viII see a nev o¡lion on
lhe main menu bar, enlilIed ´Image lo Ma¡.¨


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./$' 01 2/34 35%$6#7)

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163
To creale lhe firsl conlroI ¡oinl, cIick on lhe bullon in lhe Iefl-hand ¡ane of lhe
´Image lo Ma¡ Regislralion by Leasl Squares¨ vindov, and move lhe vindov oul of
lhe vay. Nolice lhal your cursor has changed.

As soon as you cIick on lhe ¡oinl on lhe ma¡ Iayer |Iigure 8.10j, lhe ma¡ of Irance
Iayer shouId disa¡¡ear and lhe sha¡efiIe Iayer shouId a¡¡ear.


"#$%&' ()*+, "#&-. /01.&02 30#1. 01 .4' 563)









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/6%&( 2( G25.,' H3!I3

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8B =%. +-((%* B2() *6' 789-5' *% :-1 ;'52/*,-*2%( <= >'-/* ?@.-,'/A &2()%&C )% (%*
1-(2+J :2(292K' :-1L2()%& -() -(= %*6', &2()%&/ *6-* =%. 6-E' %1'( %( =%.,
+%91.*',3 :-1L2()%& 9-= 6-E' 1./6') *6' 789-5' ;'52/*,-*2%( <= >'-/* ?@.-,'/A
&2()%& *% *6' <-+D5,%.()3


*+,-.# &/01' 23# 4#5)67 5)6".)8 $)+6" )6 "3# 9:$ 8:;#./

F(+' =%. +02+D *62/ 1%2(* %( *6' 9-1C *6' 62/*%,2+-0 9-1 &200 )2/-11'-,3 $%&C <'+-./'
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-&./')01' 9:0;<(' =4!#>4


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?) 26< 36<1, 107' 86 -8.(8 8&' '@'(+0-' 6A'(B 26< +.* ,6 -6 .8 .*2 80C'4 D63'A'(B 26<
3011 &.A' 86 <-' 8&' 6(0;0*.1 )01'- /1.+', 0* 8&' E0//', )61,'( )6( F@'(+0-' =4 G6< C<-8
<-' 8&6-' )01'- H'+.<-'B .8 8&0- /60*8B 26<( 0C.;' 0- .1('.,2 ;'6(')'('*+', 86 . +'(8.0*
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</'7 =+
%& '()& *+,,&*-./ 0&+,&1&,&2*&3 -'& '45-+,4* 6(7 +1 8,(2*&9 :+;&)&,< ;& *(22+- =5&
-'45 ,&5=.- >&*(=5& 4- +>5*=,&5 -'& 3(-( 1,+6 -'& +,4042(. 6(79 %& 2&&3 -+ *+67.&-& -'&
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6(7 (,& )454>.& (23 =5(>.&9 %& *(2 3+ -'45 >/ 14,5- '()420 @(7%423+; *+67=-& -'&
2&; 6(7 =5420 +=, *+2-,+. 7+42-59

A+ >(*B -+ -'& CD6(0& -+ @(7 E&045-,(-4+2 >/ F&(5- GH=(,&5I ;423+; (23 .++B (- -'&
.&1- 7(2& (0(429

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)-:/ 4('- 0: /6- ,&'.0,;

171

"#$%&' ()*+, -./0$' 1'23#4#203#567 82&''6)

In lhe ´SeIecl Image lo Reclify¨ box, choose ´france.¨ CIick ´Reclify,¨ and lhen cIick
´Iinish.¨ 9:' ;&52'88 54 &'23#4<#6$ 3:' #/0$' /#$:3 30=' 0 4'> /#6%3'8)

When lhe image reclificalion has finished, go back lo lhe ´Layers¨ Iisl in lhe Legend
¡ane. Righl-cIick on lhe ´france_re¡ro|ecled¨ Iayer and choose ´Iro¡erlies¨ from lhe
dro¡-dovn menu |Iigure 8.21j.


"#$%&' ()*?, 9:' -@&5;'&3#'87 5;3#56 45& 3:' -4&062'A&';&5B'23'C7 D0<'&)

172
In lhe ´Layer ¡ro¡erlies¨ vindov, go lo lhe ´A¡¡earance¨ lab, and in lhe box nexl lo
´Trans¡arency,¨ ly¡e in lhe vaIue of 150. CIick ´A¡¡Iy,¨ and lhen cIick ´Ok.¨


"#$%&' ()**+ ,&-./0-&'.12 #. 34' 5600'-&-.1'7 3-8 %.9'& 5:&;0'&3#'/)7

Your screen shouId nov Iook Iike Iigure 8.23:


"#$%&' ()*<+ =';&'>'&'.1'9 ?-0 ;> "&-.1')

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%&'()*+,-*+.&'/0 1&, 2*34 /,554//6,--7 (4&)464)4'548 * 2./+&).5*- 9*: ,/.'(
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&' +24 =4/+4)' 48(4 *'8 &'4 &' +24 4*/+4)' A&)84)? &) &'4 .' +24 '&)+2 *'8 &'4 .' +24
/&,+2EC 1&, 5*' *-/& :-*7 =.+2 8.664)4'+ 3*-,4/ 6&) +24 +)*'/:*)4'57 /4++.'(C F24)4 *)4
3*-.8 )4*/&'/ 6&) 9*G.'( +24 )464)4'54 -*74) 434' 9&)4 +)*'/:*)4'+H 6&) 4@*9:-4? 7&,
9*7 =./2 +& 9*G4 .+ 4*/.4) +& )4*8 +24 &).(.'*- .'6&)9*+.&' &' +24 9*:C

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8&'4 /&E *'8 )48& +2./ 4@4)5./4 ,/.'( 7&,) &=' 9*:/C J4949A4) +2*+ 7&, ;KLF 2*34
* 5&))45+-7 :)&M45+48 /2*:46.-4 +2*+ 5&))4/:&'8/ +& 7&,) 9*: +& A4 *A-4 +& (4&)464)4'54
.+0

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%2*:+4) N? =2.52 =.-- +4*52 7&, /&94 9&)4 *83*'548 8.(.+*-.O*+.&' /G.--/C F24/4 /G.--/
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)4/4*)52C
174
!"#$%&' )* +,-,.,/,0-
In order lo make s¡aliaI conneclions vilh hisloricaI dala in a GIS, you mighl need lo
1,-,.,/2 much of your dala. Digilizing, in generaI lerms, means laking dala from an
anaIog formal and lransferring lhem inlo a digilaI formal. In lhis sense, scanning is a
form of digilizing. Hovever, vilh GIS, digilizing s¡ecificaIIy refers lo laking ¡a¡er or
olher hardco¡y ma¡s and ¡Iacing aII lhe informalion from lhose ma¡s inlo a formal
com¡alibIe vilh GIS soflvare. This may mean digilaIIy lracing such fealures as roads,
¡arceIs, buiIdings, rivers, elc., inlo ¡oinls, Iines, or ¡oIygons. In olher vords, ve can
creale nev ¡oinls, Iines, or ¡oIygons on our ma¡ lhal exaclIy lrace lhe fealures found
on lhe originaI ma¡. Nov lhal you have Iearned hov lo georeference and digilize a
ma¡ in Cha¡ler 8, lhe nexl sle¡ is lo Iearn hov lo ¡Iace evenls, conneclions, or olher
informalion on your ma¡.

The mosl usefuI melhod of ¡Iacing such dala on your ma¡ is 32415678 1,-,.,/,0-,
vhich refers lo ¡Iolling a ¡oinl, Iine, or ¡oIygon manuaIIy in GIS. Once you have
georeferenced an image (as you did in Ixercise 8), you viII need lo assign geogra¡hic
meaning lo lhe slreels, ¡arceIs, or olher fealures of your hisloricaI ma¡. Digilizing
¡ermils lhis enhancemenl. Ior exam¡Ie, Iigure 9.1 is a Sanborn insurance ma¡,
1
vhich
de¡icls every road and buiIding in a seclion of ßoise, Idaho, USA, in 1912. In order lo
define lhis area in geogra¡hic s¡ace, ve can manuaIIy digilize lhe roads, cily bIocks,
¡ro¡erlies, and even individuaI buiIdings. We can lhen enler as much informalion as
¡ossibIe aboul each of lhese ilems, incIuding sources such as digilized ¡hologra¡hs,
inlo an allribule labIe so lhal ve can a¡¡Iy s¡aliaI anaIysis lo lhal dala. When deaIing
vilh cilies, 894. :485 Iike lhe Sanborn ma¡s÷ma¡s vhich Iocale individuaI ¡ro¡erly
boundaries lo scaIe÷can be digilized dovn lo each individuaI ¡arceI. Using
digilizalion, ve can do lhe same lhing vilh olher hisloricaI ma¡s, once lhey have been
georeferenced. Once our GIS ¡rogram knovs lhe exacl geocoordinales of our ma¡
fealures, ve can begin lo anaIyze lhose fealures, such as delermining lhe dislance
belveen lvo roads or buiIdings, or hov many are Iocaled in lhe cily, or hov house size
correIales lo neighborhood, for exam¡Ie.


1
Many of lhe Sanborn Iire Insurance Ma¡s can be found in lhe hoIdings of lhe U.S. Library of Congress
Geogra¡hy and Ma¡ Reading Room: hll¡://vvv.Ioc.gov/rr/geogma¡/sanborn/. UsefuI informalion is
avaiIabIe in lhe Wiki¡edia arlicIe ´Sanborn Ma¡s¨: hll¡://en.viki¡edia.org/viki/Sanborn_Ma¡s.
!"#

!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./0%. 1-2 03 - 20%4"0. 03 50"6&7 89-:07 ;,<7 ". *(*=)




176
!"# !%&'"(%)*& +&, -%.%'%/%*. %* 01,%( 2,&,)(31
A good exam¡Ie of hov a hislorian has used digilizing in his research is ßrian
Donahue's !"# %&#'( )#'*+,- .'&/#&0 '1* ("# 2'1* 31 4+5+13'5 4+16+&*. Donahue soughl
lo demonslrale lhal ´coIoniaI Concord vas an ecoIogicaIIy suslainabIe ada¡lion of
IngIish mixed husbandry lo a nev, chaIIenging environmenl.¨
2
To iIIuslrale lhis,
Donahue digilized ¡arceIs of Iand described in deeds, by Iandovner, across Concord,
Massachusells, s¡anning lhree cenluries (a¡¡roximaleIy 1600-1900) and covering
roughIy 2,000 acres. Tracking Iand ovnershi¡ vilh reIalion lo Iand-ly¡e Ied Donahue lo
asserl lhal ´coIoniaI farming in Nev IngIand vas more environmenlaIIy sound lhan is
generaIIy su¡¡osed.¨
3
Using digilized informalion in his hisloricaI sludy aIIoved
Donahue lo anaIyze his dala more easiIy and accuraleIy lhan vouId have been ¡ossibIe
vilhoul GIS, and lo anaIyze a Ionger ¡eriod lhan couId have been done ¡raclicaIIy
vilhoul a dalabase.

Anolher vay lo use digilized informalion can be seen in lhe vork of Sarah Hinman,
}ason ßIackburn, and Andrev Curlis, vho vanled lo see if lhere vere any s¡aliaI
correIalions for ly¡hoid oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., belveen 1906 and 1909.
4
In
order lo carry oul lhis invesligalion, lhey enlered hisloricaI dala aboul each
neighborhood and each recorded case of lhe disease inlo a GIS dalabase and a¡¡Iied a
slalislicaI melhod caIIed Ri¡Iey's K-funclion lo anaIyze lhe ma¡¡ed ¡oinl dala. Afler
running lheir anaIysis, lhey delermined lhal lhere vere no significanl s¡aliaI ¡allerns.
Hovever, lhe same anaIysis ¡roved lhal lhere vere lem¡oraI ¡allerns of ly¡hoid
oulbreaks in lhe area during lhe s¡ecified ¡eriod.
5


There are many olher vays in vhich digilized informalion can enhance hisloricaI
anaIysis, such as: lracing ¡o¡uIalion shifls, lracking archilecluraI, ¡oIilicaI, reIigious, or
inleIIecluaI movemenls, deIinealing |urisdiclionaI boundaries, or correIaling veaIlh and
Iocalion, lo name a fev. The more one lhinks aboul lhe conneclions belveen
geogra¡hicaI Iocalion or fealures and hisloricaI evenls, lhe more one sees lhe
lremendous ¡ossibiIilies of using GIS for geogra¡hicaIIy-inlegraled hislory.

2
ßrian Donahue, !"# %&#'( )#'*+,- .'&/#&0 '1* ("# 2'1* 31 4+5+13'5 4+16+&* (Nev Haven: YaIe Universily
Iress, 2004), xv.
3
ßrian Donahue, ´Ma¡¡ing Husbandry in Concord: GIS as a TooI for InvironmenlaI Hislory,¨ in 75'6318
930(+&:- 9+, )';0< =;'(3'5 >'('< '1* %?= '&# 4"'18318 930(+&36'5 =6"+5'&0"3;, ed. Anne K. KnovIes
(RedIands: ISRI Iress, 2008), 174.
4
Sarah I. Hinman, }ason K ßIackburn, and Andrev Curlis, ´S¡aliaI and Tem¡oraI Slruclure of Ty¡hoid
Oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., 1906-1909: IvaIualing LocaI CIuslering vilh lhe Gi® Slalislic,¨
?1(#&1'(3+1'5 @+A&1'5 +B 9#'5(" %#+8&';"360 5/13 (March, 2006), hll¡://vvv.i|-
heaIlhgeogra¡hics.com/conlenl/5/1/13 (accessed 6 Se¡lember 2011).
5
Ibid.
!""
!""#$#%&'( *%%(+ ,-('$-" $% .#/#$#0#&/
$% &' ()*' +'),-'./ 01 0% 23%%04+' 13 '.01 ) +)5', 0- 678 45 )..0-9 -'& 230-1%: ;('-
'.010-9 ) +)5',/ 0< 53= >+0>? 1(' @3=%' )1 ) 90*'- +3>)103-/ 53= >,')1' ) *',1'A/ 3, -'&
230-1: 71 0% 23%%04+' 13 3=1+0-' 23+593-% )-. .,)& +0-'% 0- 1(' %)@' &)5/ )+1(3=9( 1('
-=@4', 3< *',10>'% -'>'%%),5 &0++ *),5/ .'2'-.0-9 3- 1(' %()2' 3< 1(' 23+593-: B3,
'A)@2+'/ 0< 53= ),' 1,)>0-9 ) ,'>1)-9=+), 43=-.),5/ %=>( )% 1(' %1)1' 3< ;53@0-9/ C8$/
3-+5 <3=, *',10>'% &0++ 4' ,'D=0,'.: E=1 0< 53= ),' 1,)>0-9 ) >3)%1+0-'/ %=>( )% 1()1 3<
$=%1,)+0)/ @)-5 @3,' 230-1% @=%1 4' =%'.: F)2;0-.3& 2',@01% =%',% 13 )../ .'+'1'/
3, @3*' *',10>'% 0- )- 'A0%10-9 +0-' 3, 23+593-/ &(0>( )++3&% =%',% 13 ).. 3, ,'@3*'
.'1)0+ 0- 1(' .0901)+ 0@)9':

G<1'- &('- .09010H0-9 0-<3,@)103- 0- F)2;0-.3& 678/ 53= &0++ &0%( 13 93 4)>? )-.
@)?' >()-9'% 13 ) +0-' 3, 23+593- 13 0@2,3*' 01% )>>=,)>5: I(0% 0@2,3*'@'-1 >)- 4'
.3-' =%0-9 1(' J+)5', '.010-9 @'-=/K &(0>( )+%3 >3-1)0-% 133+% 1()1 ),' =%'<=+ <3,
.09010H0-9 .)1): G-' '.010-9 0%%=' 0% 1()1 .09010H0-9 @)2% >)- )+%3 0-*3+*' >,')10-9 +0-'%
3, 23+593-% 1()1 %01 -'A1 13 ')>( 31(', )-. ),' %3 >+3%' 1()1 01 >)- 4' .0<<0>=+1 13 .09010H'
-'09(43,0-9 ),')%: B3, 'A)@2+'/ 0- 1(' 8)-43,- @)2 0- B09=,' L:!/ 3-+5 3-' +0-' %',*'%
)% 1(' 43=-.),5 @),?', 4'1&''- 1&3 2),>'+% 3< +)-./ 4=1 0< &' .09010H' 1(' @)2/ ')>(
2),>'+ @=%1 ()*' <3=, +0-'% 13 <3,@ 1(' 2,32', 23+593-: I(0% ,'D=0,'@'-1 @')-% 1()1
1(' +0-'% .'20>10-9 1(' 43=-.),5 4'1&''- 1&3 2),>'+% @=%1 4' <+=%( &01( 1('
-'09(43,0-9 +0-'%: 7- 31(', &3,.%/ &()1 +33?% +0?' ) %0-9+' +0-' 3- 1(' @)2 @=%1 4'
0.'-10<0'. )% 1&3 +0-'% 13 F)2;0-.3&: F)2;0-.3& 2,3*0.'% 1(' +&'11#&/ 133+ 13
)>>3@2+0%( &()1 &3=+. 31(',&0%' 4' *',5 .0<<0>=+1 13 .3 45 ()-.: I(0% 133+ &0++
)=13@)10>)++5 %-)2 ) +0-' 13 *',10>'% 1()1 ),' >+3%'%1 13 1(' >=,%3,: 8-)220-9 @)?'% 01
23%%04+' 13 )+09- 1&3 %'2),)1' +0-'% 13 1(' %)@' *',10>'%/ 3, 13 +0-' =2 ),')% 3< *),03=%
%()2'%/ %3 1()1 1('5 ),' <+=%( &01( ')>( 31(',:

$<1', 9'3,'<','->0-9 )-. .09010H0-9 ) (0%13,0>)+ @)2/ )-31(', 0@23,1)-1 133+ 13 <=,1(',
53=, %2)10)+ )-)+5%0% 0% 1(' 2344-5 +6'1-+ 133+/ &(0>( )++3&% 53= 13 .,)& ) 4=<<',/ 3,
%()2'/ 3*', ) .'<0-'. 23,103- 3< 53=, @)2: B3, 'A)@2+'/ 53= @)5 &0%( 13 .'1',@0-'
(3& @)-5 (3=%'% ),' &01(0- :M @0+' 3< 1(' >3=,1(3=%': ;' ()*' )+,').5 =%'. ) 4=<<',
&('- &' +3>)1'. 1(' 13&-% 0- !"#$%"&'( B,)->' 1()1 &',' &01(0- !N/NNN @'1',% 3< )
,0*',O -3& &' &0++ +'),- (3& 13 =%' 4=<<',% <3, @3,' %32(0%10>)1'. 2=,23%'%:

G=, 'A',>0%' &0++ 1)?' ) (0%13,0>)+ @)2 1()1 ()% )+,').5 4''- 9'3,'<','->'./ 3< P'>0<'/
E,)H0+/ )-. 01 &0++ 1')>( 53= (3& 13 .09010H' @)-5 3< 01% <')1=,'%:



178
!"!#$%&! (
This exercise viII leach you hov lo ¡erform a more advanced s¡aliaI anaIysis using lhe
´ßuffer Sha¡es¨ looI, as veII as hov lo creale a sha¡efiIe and lo digilize ¡oIygons, lo
deIimil a ¡arlicuIar ¡orlion of a cily and lhe buiIdings vilhin lhal seclion.

)*+,-
Imagine lhal you are a lraveI vriler visiling lhe cily of Recife, ßraziI, and you are lrying
lo find a ¡Iace lo Iive. IdeaIIy, you vanl lo seIecl a buiIding lhal is vilhin 0.5 miIes of
lhe ´Iarge slone forl of Cinco Ionlas,¨ as described by ßrilish lraveI vriler Henry
Kosler in his book !"#$%&' )* +"#,)&, ¡ubIished in 1816. Due lo lrans¡orlalion issues, you
aIso vanl a buiIding lhal is vilhin 0.4 miIes of lhe lvo main bridges in Recife.

&./0 1-
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise9.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe foIder vilh lhe dala required for lhe com¡Ielion of lhis exercise, and lhen
exlracl lhese fiIes inlo your ´exercise 9¨ foIder.

O¡en Ma¡Windov and add lhe 1808 ma¡ of Recife |Iigure 9.1j, and lhen add lhe
´ßridges¨ and ´forl¨ sha¡efiIes.


23456/ (71- 8*0 9: 1;<; #/=3:/> ?6*@3A> B3.C 093D. E*.* E/03=.3D4 .C/ =3.FG+ .B9 H*3D
I63E4/+ *DE .C/ :96. 9: $3D=9 J9D.*+7
!"#
%&' ()*( '+ )*,+ * -*. &/ 0+12/+ '2() ()+ 34256+7 *85 ()+ /&4( 28521*(+5 &8 2(9 '+ 8++5
(& *..:; 3<//+47 (& :&1*(+ ()+ .&4(2&87 &/ ()+ 12(; ()*( *4+ '2()28 =>? -2:+7 &/ ()+ /&4( *85
'2()28 =>@ -2:+7 &/ ()+ 34256+7> A)27 3<//+4286 '2:: )+:. <7 :&1*(+ ()&7+ *4+*7 &/ ()+ 12(;
5++-+5 7*/+7(>

"#$% &'
B247(9 '+ '2:: *..:; * 3<//+4 &/ =>? -2:+7 *4&<85 ()+ /&4(> C8 ()+ DE+6+85F .*8+9 7'2(1)
(& ()+ DA&&:3&GF ,2+' *85 6& (& DH+1(&4 I.+4*(2&87>F C8 DH+1(&4 I.+4*(2&879F 7+:+1( ()+
DJ(*85*45F /&:5+4 *85 1)&&7+ ()+ DK<//+4 7)*.+7F /<81(2&8 LB26<4+ #>MN>


()*+,$ -.&' /0+11$, "23%$45 )6 #2$ /"#3673,75 1897$, +67$, /:$;#8, <%$,3#)8645 )6
#2$ /=889>8?5 @)$A.
180
To a¡¡Iy a buffer of 0.5 miIes around lhe forl, in lhe ´ßuffer sha¡es¨ vindov, in lhe
´Veclor Layer¨ box, choose ´forl.¨ In lhe ´ßuffer dislance¨ fieId, ly¡e in lhe vaIue of 0.5.
Irom lhe dro¡-dovn menu nexl lo ´ßuffer dislance,¨ choose ´MiIes,¨ and cIick ´Ok¨
|Iigure 9.3j. Confirm lhal lhe ¡rogram viII save lhe resuIls lo lhe ¡ro¡er fiIe,
´forl_buffer1.sh¡.¨


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-$..&% /012&/3 4"5674 4"80 80& 97%%&98 "5.7%:18"75 &58&%&6)

Afler you cIick ´OK,¨ your screen shouId Iook Iike Iigure 9.4.


!"#$%& ();+ <12 7. =&9".& 4"80 1 >$..&% 7. ?)@ :"A&/ 1%7$56 80& .7%8)
!"!
!"#$ &'
$%& &' ('') *% +','-* *./0 ,+%1')2+' *% -,,34 - 5266'+ %6 789 :/3'0 -+%2() *.' 5+/);'0
%6 <'1/6'= 20/(; *.' >?+/);'0@ 0.-,'6/3'8 A-B' 02+' 4%2 0'3'1* *.' >?+/);'0@ 3-4'+ -()
*.-* *.' )/0*-(1' /0 0*/33 :'-02+') /( >A/3'0@ CD/;2+' E8FG8


()*+,# -./' 01+22#, 345$#36 7)89:7 ": ;,#5"# 5 <+22#, :2 =.> ?)@#3 5,:+89 "4# ?5)8
<,)9*#3 :2 A#;)2#.

H6*'+ -,,34/(; *.' 0'1%() 5266'+ -+%2() *.' 5+/);'0= 4%2+ :-, %6 <'1/6' 0.%23) 3%%B
3/B' D/;2+' E8I8


()*+,# -.B' C5$ :2 A#;)2# 7)"4 <+22#,3 5,:+89 "4# 2:," 589 <:"4 <,)9*#3.
!"#
%&' ()*+,*-./ 0&10 23)+, (' 1445345*10' 635 73)5 +*8*-. 1993::3,10*3-/ +*' *- 0&' 15'1
*- 2&*9& 0&'/' ()66'5/ 38'5+14;

!"#$ &'
%3 +3910' 0&' *-0'5/'90*3-< .3 (19= 03 0&' >%33+(3?@ 8*'2; A-,'5 >B'9035 C4'510*3-/<@
/'+'90 0&' >C8'5+17@ 63+,'5< 0&'- 9&33/' 0&' >D-0'5/'90*3-@ 033+; E&'- 0&' >F&14'6*+'/
D-0'5/'90*3-@ 2*-,32 34'-/< /'+'90 73)5 6350 ()66'5 635 F&14'6*+' ! 1-, 0&' (5*,.'/ 635
F&14'6*+' #< 1/ *- G*.)5' H;I; J1=' /)5' 0&10 0&' 5'/)+0 2*++ (' /18', 03 0&' 9355'90 6*+'<
1-, 9+*9= >CK;@


()*+,# -./' 01,,#2"34 5)33#6 7!89$#5)3# :;"#,<#2")1;= >);61>.













!"#
%&' ()** +, -./,0 )1 2&' (-34 4& -00 45, 3,( *-2,6 4& 2&'6 7-89 :*):/ ;%,.<= >&( 2&'6
7-8 .5&'*0 *&&/ *)/, ?)@'6, A<"<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.&%/&0."1- 2&3"0.&2 .4& 31%."1- 15 .4& 0".6 15 7&0"5& .48. "/ 9".4"- :);
<"=&/ 15 .4& 51%. 8-2 :)> <"=&/ 15 .4& ?%"2#&/)

@.&3 ;+
B, 5-C, )0,34)1),0 45, -6,- &1 )34,6.,:4)&3 &1 &'6 +'11,6.D +'4 (, 3,,0 4& .,, 45, -:4'-*
+')*0)3@. 45-4 -6, ()45)3 &'6 )34,6.,:4)&3 -30 0)@)4)E, 45,7< F'6 1)6.4 .4,8 ). 4& @& +-:/
4& 45, ;G-2,6.= C),( )3 45, ;G,@,30= 8-3, -30 4'63 &11 +&45 45, ;H6)0@,.I+'11,6!= -30
;1&64I+'11,6!= *-2,6. J?)@'6, A<AK 4& .,, L'.4 45, -6,- &1 )34,6.,:4)&3<


!"#$%& ()(+ A4& /&0."1- 15 7&0"5& .48. 01-.8"-/ ?$"=2"-#/ %&=&B8-. .1 1$% 8%&8 15
"-.&%&/.)
184
Nov ve need lo make our seIecled area lrans¡arenl so lhal ve can see lhe buiIdings
vilhin il. In lhe ´Layers¨ ¡ane, righl-cIick lhe ´forl_buffer1_inlsc1¨ Iayer and choose
´Iro¡erlies¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu.

In lhe ´Layer ¡ro¡erlies¨ vindov, go lo lhe ´A¡¡earance¨ lab. On lhe righl side of lhe
vindov, in lhe middIe, is a scaIe bar IabeIed ´Trans¡arency,¨ vilh a vaIue box nexl lo il
|Iigure 9.10j. Ty¡e lhe vaIue of 100 in lhe box and cIick ´Ok.¨


"#$%&' ()*+, -.' /-&01230&'1456 7#1897 #1 /:05'& 3&93'&;#'2)6














!"#
%&' '( )*+ ,(( -.( /01231+4, -.*- 5*22 '1-.1+ -.( *667&671*-( *7(* 891407( :;!!< &5 -.(
)1-=;


"#$%&' ()**) +,,&-,&#./' 0%#12#3$4 5#/6#3 -%& 2'4#&'2 .&'. -7 8'9#7')















186
!"#$ &'
Our nexl sle¡ is lo digilize lhe buiIdings lhal faII vilhin our area of inleresl.

To ¡erform lhis digilizalion, ve need lo creale a nev ¡oIygon sha¡efiIe. In lhe main
menu bar, go lo ´IIug-ins¨ and add lhe ´Sha¡efiIe Idilor¨ |Iigure 9.12j.


()*+,# -./0' 1!23$#4)5# 67)"8,9 $5+*:);.
187
This seIeclion viII add severaI icons lo lhe Iefl-hand side of lhe looI menu across lhe lo¡
of your screen.
CIick lhe bullon lhal viII a¡¡ear under Ma¡Windov's menu bar lo o¡en lhe
´Nev Sha¡efiIe O¡lions¨ vindov |Iigure 9.13j. Nolice lhal lhe defauIl sha¡efiIe ly¡e is
¡oinl.


!"#$%& ()*+, -.&/ 0123&4"5& 637"89:);

07&3 <,
We vanl lo add lhe nev sha¡efiIe lo our ´Ixercise 9¨ foIder. To do add lhe sha¡efiIe,
cIick lhe bullon. The ´Choose Iocalion for nev sha¡efiIe¨ vindov viII o¡en
|Iigure 9.14j. Navigale lo lhe correcl foIder, if necessary, and name lhe nev sha¡efiIe
´IoIygons.¨ Then cIick ´Save.¨


!"#$%& ()*=, ->188:& 58?27"89 48% 9&/ :123&4"5&; /"9@8/)
188
Afler you cIick ´Save,¨ lhe ´Choose Iocalion¨ vindov viII cIose and you viII be back al
lhe ´Nev Sha¡efiIe O¡lions¨ vindov |Iigure 9.15j. In ´Sha¡efiIe Ty¡e,¨ choose
´IoIygon¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu, and cIick ´OK.¨


"#$%&' ()*+, -./01$/23 4'0'56'7 84 -9:8;'<#0' 61;'3 #2 6:' -='> 9:8;'<#0' ?;6#/243
>#27/>)

The ´Im¡orlanl Informalion!¨ vindov viII o¡en lo inform you lhal an em¡ly ¡oIygon
sha¡efiIe has been crealed |Iigure 9.16j. The message viII varn you lo make sure your
exlenls are ¡ro¡erIy sel. CIick ´OK¨ lo cIose lhe vindov.


"#$%&' ()*@, -AB;/&6826 A2</&B86#/2C3 >#27/>)












!"#
%&'()* '+,' -&./ 0*1 2+,3*4(5* (2 0&1 5(2'*6 (0 '+* 78,-*/29 3,0* :;(<./* #=!>?@ ,' '+*
'&3 &4 '+* 5(2' &4 5,-*/2=


"#$%&' ()*+, -'. /012$03 142'& #3 56' 78454 942'&:; /43')

<5'/ =,
%&1 '+,' 1* +,A* , 0*1 3&5-<&0 5,-*/@ 1* ),0 2',/' 6(<('(B(0< '+* C.(56(0<2 (0 &./
(0'*/2*)'(&0 &0 '+* D,3=

E5()F '+* C.''&0 '& 2',/' 6(<('(B(0< -&./ 3&5-<&0=

G& 6(<('(B* , 3&5-<&0@ 35,)* -&./ D&.2* )./2&/ &0 '+* )&/0*/ &4 '+* 3&5-<&0 HC.(56(0<I
'& C* 6(<('(B*6= J+*0 '+* )./2&/ (2 5&),'*6 3/&3*/5-@ )5()F '+* D&.2*= K C5.* 2+,3* 1(55
,33*,/ (0 '+* )&/0*/= K2 -&. D&A* -&./ D&.2*@ -&. 1(55 2** , C5.* 5(0* *L'*06(0< 4/&D
'+,' 3&(0' :;(<./* #=!"?= M&A* -&./ D&.2* '& '+* 0*L' )&/0*/ HA*/'*LI &4 '+* C.(56(0<@
,06 )5()F '+* D&.2* ,<,(0=

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -'.'/0#1$ 2'&0#/'3 415 3'$6'103 78 4 97.:$71 71 0;' 649)

<70',
%&' ()* '+, -., /0)*1 -&&2 -& 3&&4 5*-& -., 4)67 8.5(. 8522 4)9, 5- ,)+5,: -& +,, -.,
&'-25*,+ &; -., 6&2<=&*+ -& >, ?5=5-53,?@

A&*-5*', -& 4&B, <&': 4&'+, -& -., *,C- B,:-,C '*-52 )22 -., (&:*,:+ &; -., 6&2<=&*
.)B, >,,* +,2,(-,?@ D.,* (25(9 -., ;5:+- B,:-,C )=)5* -& (2&+, -., 6&2<=&*@ D., 6&2<=&*
+.&'2? *&8 >, +.)?,? &* -., 4)6 EF5=':, "@!"G@


"#$%&' ()*(, = /769.'0'5 97.:$71 >#.. ?' 3;45'5 71 0;' 649)

!"!
$%&%'( ()%*% *(%&* +,(-. /0+ )'1% 2-3-(-4%2 '.. ()% 5062%6* 07 ()% 5+-.2-,3* ()'( 7'..
8-()-, ()% '6%' 07 -,(%6*%9(-0, *)08, 0, ()% :'&;

<0+ 8-.. 7-,2 ()'( *0:% 5+-.2-,3* '6% ,0( *-:&.% 6%9(',3.%* 5+( )'1% :',/ 906,%6* ',2
*%3:%,(* =>-3+6% ";?@A; <0+ 9', 2-3-(-4% ()%*% -, ()% *':% 8'/B 5/ 9.-9C-,3 %'9) %,2 07
()% *%3:%,( 5%(8%%, (80 906,%6*B +,(-. /0+ )'1% 90,,%9(%2 ()% %,(-6% &0./30, =>-3+6%
";?!A;


"#$%&' ()*+, -'&.#/'0 123 0'$4'2.0 56 1 /5478'9 758:$52)


"#$%&' ()*;) <5478'.'3 #&&'$%81& 758:$52)

!"#
!"#$%
%&' ()* +,-,., ) /&-01&* 23.4 243(4 0&' )5, *&. 6).3673,+ 80 6,-,(.3*1 .4, /&-01&* 23.4
.4, 8'..&* &* 9)/:3*+&2;6 <,*' 8)5 )*+ .4,* (-3(=3*1 .4, 8'..&*>
?436 +,-,.3&* 23-- )--&2 0&' .& 6.)5. &@,5 23.4 .4). /&-01&*>

'#$( )%
A7.,* 24,* 0&' )5, +313.3B3*1 /&-01&*6C 0&' 23-- 4)@, )++3.3&*)- 3*7&5<).3&* )8&'.
.4,<C 243(4 0&' 2)*. .& 3*(-'+, 3* 0&'5 )..538'., .)8-,C 6'(4 )6 8'3-+3*1 *)<,6 &5 .4,
+).,6 24,* .4,0 2,5, ,5,(.,+> D-.4&'14 2, +& *&. 4)@, 6'(4 3*7&5<).3&* 7&5 &'5
8'3-+3*16 3* E,(37,C 2, )5, 1&3*1 .& )++ +).) .& &'5 )..538'., .)8-, )6 37 2, +3+>

%&' <'6. -,)5* 4&2 .& )++ +).) .& .4, )..538'., .)8-, &7 ) 64)/,73-,> F&5 ,G)</-,C 37 0&'
2,5, 3*@,6.31).3*1 .4, H,5*)<8'(& 5,@&-. &7 !I!JC 243(4 .&&= /-)(, 3* E,(37, K)*+
/5,(,+,+ .4, 3*+,/,*+,*(, &7 L5)B3-MC 0&' 2&'-+ 2)*. .& )++ .4, *)<,6 &7 .4,
3*+3@3+')-6 24& -3@,+ 3* ,)(4 8'3-+3*1 64&2* 3* .4, <)/> N* +&3*1 6&C 0&' (&'-+ (5,).,
) /5&O,(. )3<,+ ). ,G)<3*3*1 4&2 .4, 3+,)6 .4). 64)/,+ .4, 3*+,/,*+,*(, &7 L5)B3-
/)66,+ .45&'14 .4, 6&(3)- *,.2&5=6 &7 5,63+,*.6 23.43* .4, /4063()- -)*+6()/, &7 E,(37,
+'53*1 &*, &7 .4, <&6. (53.3()- /,53&+6 3* L5)B3-3)* 436.&50>



















193
Once you have finished digilizing aII lhe ¡oIygons in our inlerseclion on lhe ma¡ of
Recife, o¡en lhe allribule labIe of your ¡oIygons sha¡efiIe |Iigure 9.22j, by righl-
cIicking on lhe Iayer name and seIecling ´Allribule TabIe Idilor.¨ CIick ´Idil,¨ and
choose ´Add IieId.¨


"#$%&' ()**+ ,-..&#/%.' 01/2' 34#.5&6 7#8457)




!"#
%&'()' ( *'+ ,-'./ *(0'/ 123-./-*456 (7 789+* -* :-43&' ";<=5 (*/ 7'.'>) 1?)&-*46 ,9&
)8' )@A'; B'0'0C'& )8() C'>(37' 7)&-*4 ,-'./7 >9*)(-* (.A8(*30'&-> /()(5 )8'@ >(* 89./
C9)8 +9&/7 (*/ *30C'&7;


"#$%&' ()*+, -.' /011 "#'213 4#5164 #5 7.' /077&#8%7' -982' :1#76&)3

D8' ())&-C3)' )(C.' ,9& @93& A9.@49*7 78(A',-.' +-.. 9A'*5 +-)8 ( .-*' ,9& '(>8 A9.@49*
)8() +(7 /-4-)-E'/; F(0' '(>8 9, )8' A9.@49*7 G:-43&' ";<#H5 >.->I 1JAA.@56 (*/ )8'*
1%.97';6 K93 >(* *(0' @93& C3-./-*47 89+'L'& @93 +(*)M +' 8(L' *(0'/ 93&7 12!56
12<56 ')>;


"#$%&' ()*;, <'4 /=%#21#5$3 >#'21 4#7. 59?'@ 911'1A #5 6%& 977&#8%7' 7982')
195
!"#$ &'(
ßefore ve Iook al lhe buiIdings lhal are in our seIecled area of Recife, ve need lo lurn
off lhe ´Sha¡efiIe Idilor¨ ¡Iug-in lo reslore our originaI menu bar. To do lhis, go lo
´IIug-ins¨ and cIick ´Sha¡efiIe Idilor¨ lo deaclivale lhe ¡Iug-in.

Your finaI screen vilh your digilized ¡oIygons shouId Iook Iike Iigure 9.25.


)*+,-# ./01( 23$ 45 6#7*5# 8*"9 "9# :*+*"*;#: $4<=+4>? :#$*7"*>+ "9# @,*<:*>+?
8*"9*> "9# 3-#3 45 *>"#-?#7"*4> *:#>"*5*#: @= @,55#-?/

CongraluIalions! You have ¡erformed com¡Iex s¡aliaI anaIysis on a hisloricaI ma¡ of
Recife, ßraziI, by a¡¡Iying muIli¡Ie buffers, idenlifying lhe overIa¡¡ing inlerseclion of
lhose buffers, and lhen digilizing lhe buiIdings Iocaled vilhin lhal inlerseclion.
AIlhough ve underlook lhis s¡aliaI anaIysis lo Iocale a¡¡ro¡riale housing Iocalions for
our ficlionaI lraveIer, lhe same lechniques can be used lo anaIyze a variely of hisloricaI
queslions. As aIvays, feeI free lo re¡eal lhis exercise and ¡Iay vilh lhese looIs unliI you
feeI comforlabIe vilh lhem.

In our nexl cha¡ler, ve viII begin lo use a differenl ly¡e of dala from lhe veclor dala ve
have been using. Rasler dala ¡rovides informalion aboul eIevalion. If you have ever
used a lo¡ogra¡hicaI ma¡, you have used a ma¡ vilh rasler dala. Ior some hisloricaI
queslions, ma¡s using rasler dala can ¡rovide more so¡hislicaled vays lo anaIyze your
dala.
!"#
!"#$%&' )*+ ',-./0 1,.,
%& &'()*+,&- .&/012 -*0* +, 34*(0&2 56 *,- ,17 7& *2& 81+,8 01 -+9/:99 * -+;;&2&,0 -*0*
;12<*0 =,17, *9 0,-./0 2,.,> %4+)& .&/012 -*0* :9&9 /112-+,*0&9 01 2&(2&9&,0 9(*0+*)
-*0* +, 04& ;12< 1; (1+,096 )+,&96 *,- (1)?81,96 2*90&2 -*0* *2& -+8+0*) +<*8&9 04*0
-+9()*? *,- 9012& +,;12<*0+1, *0 04& /&)) @12 (+'&)A )&.&)> B; ?1: 0*=& * (4101 7+04 *
-+8+0*) /*<&2*6 ?1: /2&*0& * 2*90&2 +<*8&> C1<& /1<<1, 2*90&2 ;12<*09 +,/):-& >0+;
@D*88&- B<*8& E+)&A6 >8&10+;; @F&12&;&2&,/&- D*88&- E+)& E12<*0A6 *,- >G(8 @;21< HIJF6
04& */21,?< 1; 04& H1+,0 I410182*(4+/ J'(&209 F21:(A> B,;12<*0+1, 2&8*2-+,8 ;&*0:2&96
9:/4 *9 &)&.*0+1, 12 )*,- :9&6 /*, K& +<K&--&- 7+04+, /&20*+, 0?(&9 1; 2*90&2 -*0*>
L+;;&2&,0 .*):&9 *2& 1;0&, *99+8,&- ;12 * (*20+/:)*2 0?(& 1; +,;12<*0+1,6 *,- 0419&
,:<K&29 *2& ()100&- 1, * 82+-M 04:96 &*/4 ,:<K&2 9417, 1, 04& 82+- <+840 2&(2&9&,0 *
-+;;&2&,0 &)&.*0+1,6 12 * -+;;&2&,0 )*,- :9&> E12 &'*<()&6 +, 04& 82+- 9417, +, E+8:2& !N>!6
&*/4 82+- /&)) 4*9 * ,:<K&2 *991/+*0&- 7+04 +0 74+/46 +, 0:2,6 2&(2&9&,09 )*,- :9& 0?(&>


Land use:

34560/ )*7)+ # 0,-./0 48,5/ 4- 90:;/< 2:=< >4?/@ 9A >4?/@B 4< .C4- D,-/ 9A @,<2 6-,5/7
197
To¡ogra¡hicaI ma¡s are a common exam¡Ie of ma¡s using rasler dala, and many of
lhem aIso have !"#$"%& ()#*+, or isoIines, vhich are Iines lhal deIineale differenl
eIevalion vaIues. Ior exam¡Ie, lhe ma¡s of lhe Uniled Slales GeoIogicaI Survey (USGS)
for hiking in nalionaI ¡arks are lo¡ogra¡hicaI ma¡s vilh conlour Iines. Conlour Iines
on lhose ma¡s are nol associaled vilh differenl coIor vaIues for differenl eIevalions, bul
il is ¡ossibIe and, in some cases, desirabIe lo use bolh coIor and conlour Iines lo
em¡hasize lhe changes in eIevalion in a ma¡. As aIvays, you musl decide vhal you
vish lo communicale vilh your ma¡ and make lhe carlogra¡hic decisions lhal besl
¡ermil you lo achieve lhal goaI.

,"- )+ ./+$*& 0/$/ 1+*2 34 ,)+$"&)/#+ /#2 ,)+$"&)!/( 5"!)/( 5!)*#$)+$+6
AIlhough hislorians have lradilionaIIy used veclor dala in GIS sludies, lhere are many
o¡¡orlunilies for lhe a¡¡Iicalion of rasler dala lo hisloricaI research. Nalive American
Sludies ¡rofessor IIisabelh Rose MiddIelon used bolh rasler and veclor dala lo ¡roduce
a ma¡ of hisloric and conlem¡orary Maidu Iands in norlhern CaIifornia, USA.
1
She
argued lhal a ma¡ made vilh GIS soflvare, in addilion lo slory-leIIing and lribaI
hislories, can ¡roduce a ¡overfuI sense of ¡Iace-making. Draving u¡on such rasler
dala as ¡arceI ma¡s and saleIIile imagery, MiddIelon used GIS as a melhod lo recreale
lhe ¡asl. Vieving cuIluraI informalion on a ´singIe frame,¨ she said, is a greal vay lo
visuaIize various conce¡lions of lhe Iandsca¡e and ¡rovides a visuaI looI lo ¡air
geogra¡hic vilh cuIluraI dala for anlhro¡oIogisls and elhnohislorians.
2


Geogra¡hers }eff UeIand and ßarney Warf used census dala and a digilaI eIevalion
modeI (DIM) lo delermine vhelher 146 cilies in lhe soulhern Uniled Slales exhibiled
´aIliludinaI residenliaI segregalion.¨
3
Of lhese cilies, lhey found lhal 35 ¡ercenl
´exhibiled slalislicaIIy significanl correIalions (!<.05) belveen ¡ercenl bIack and mean
bIock-grou¡ aIlilude in 1990, indicaling lhal vhiles Iived al grealer eIevalions lhan did
bIacks.¨
4
This correIalion heId lrue in mosl cases, vilh exce¡lions noled onIy in lhe case
of ex¡ensive oceanfronl ¡ro¡erly. UeIand and Warf noled lhal Iiving al Iover
eIevalions oflen comes vilh disadvanlages, such as lhose associaled vilh dam¡ and

1
IIisabelh Rose MiddIelon, ´Seeking S¡aliaI Re¡resenlalion: RefIeclions on Iarlici¡alory IlhnohisloricaI
GIS Ma¡¡ing of Maidu AIIolmenl Lands,¨ "#$%&$'(#&)* 57/ 3(2010): 363-387,
hll¡://elhnohislory.duke|ournaIs.org/conlenl/57/3/363.fuII.¡df+hlmI.
2
Ibid., 381.
3
}eff UeIand and ßarney Warf, ´RaciaIized To¡ogra¡hies: AIlilude and Race in Soulhern Cilies,¨
+,&-).!$'/.0 2,3',4 91/ 1 (2010): 1-29, hll¡://onIineIibrary.viIey.com/doi/10.1111/|.1931-
0846.2006.lb00387.x/¡df.
4
Ibid., 9.
198
fIood-¡rone areas. WhiIe lhey used recenl dala for lheir sludy, one couId recreale a
simiIar sludy in a differenl era using a simiIar a¡¡roach.
5


In Cha¡ler 8, ve discussed hov hisloric ma¡s can be defined in s¡ace by
georeferencing lhe ma¡ lo a sha¡efiIe of lhe same Iocalion using a series of conlroI
¡oinls. This melhod is a common vay for hislorians lo use GIS in lheir schoIarshi¡.
Hisloric ma¡s lhal are scanned and georeferenced inlo Ma¡Windov GIS are lechnicaIIy
rasler images because vhen scanned lhey are saved as an image, such as a .|¡g or a .¡ng
(IorlabIe Nelvork Gra¡hics) fiIe. Ma¡Windov offers a variely of vays lo ¡erform
s¡aliaI anaIysis of lhese rasler images.

!"#"$%& (&)*%$"+, -+.)&/
UnIike a basic digilaI image, a digilaI eIevalion modeI (DIM, aIso caIIed a digilaI lerrain
modeI) conlains eIevalion dala al lhe ¡ixeI IeveI and shovs a 3-D re¡resenlalion of a
lerrain or surface. This modeI is crealed using a lrianguIar irreguIar nelvork (TIN). A
TIN is much Iike veclor dala in lhal Iines are connecled by ¡oinls in order lo assign
vaIues lo ¡ixeIs. If done in fine enough delaiI, lhis ¡rocess can give a fairIy reaIislic
de¡iclion of lhe Iarlh's surface.
6
In lhis vay, rasler dala can give a 3-D a¡¡earance lo
lhe Iarlh, vhiIe veclor dala onIy a¡¡ears in 2-dimensions. DIMs can be very significanl
for many hisloricaI queslions. Ior inslance, a researcher may vanl lo define areas of
habilalion of an indigenous grou¡ of ¡eo¡Ie in a ¡arlicuIar Iocalion. Draving u¡on
aIready exisling knovIedge aboul diel or lhe areas vhere lhe grou¡ foraged from
season lo season, schoIars may idenlify lhe eIevalion of lhe fIora and fauna of lhe
grou¡'s diel. In lhis vay, digilaI eIevalion modeIs couId heI¡ ansver queslions aboul an
indigenous grou¡'s hisloricaI boundaries or Iands of im¡orlance vhere such issues are
frequenlIy sources of conlenlion in nearIy aII of lhe vorId's regions.

5
Or one mighl use a lechnique from Marc ßIoch, !"# %&'&%()'"# *'+,+-&./ 0" 123+#(*+'" '.'&1" 4'&-5&+#" (Iaris:
Armand CoIin, 1931), vho somelimes began vilh informalion aboul lhe 20lh-cenlury silualion and lhen
¡ursued ils origins in lhe hisloricaI record. Il vas a melhod lhal reveaIed lo him as¡ecls of Irench ruraI
hislory lhal he mighl have olhervise missed. We menlion ßIoch because he vas an ins¡iralion for lhe use
of GIS for hisloricaI research, somelhing lhal onIy became ¡ossibIe Iong afler his murder by lhe Gesla¡o
in 1944 due lo his courageous vork in lhe Irench Resislance.
6
Ian N. Gregory and IauI S. III, 6+#(*'+%&1 789: ;"%3-*1*,+"#< ="(3*0*1*,+"#< &-0 9%3*1&'#3+> (Cambridge:
Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007), 30-31.
199

!"#$%& ()*+, -."/ 0.121 3&0"42/ 3"#"256 &6&752"18 91% 5 01%2"18 19 2.& :%583 ;58<18 19
2.& ;161%531 ="7&%> ?@A* A42$56 &6&752"18 3525 "/ 41825"8&3 B"2."8 5 CDE> 812 F$/2 5
%&#$65% "G5#&*

A&%"56 H.121#%50.<
AIlhough lhey do nol incIude lhe eIevalion dala of a DIM, aeriaI ¡hologra¡hs can aIso
be usefuI for hisloricaI anaIysis of a given Iocalion. A good vay lo viev aeriaI
¡hologra¡hy, or orlhoimagery, of lhe Iarlh is lhrough lhe Uniled Slales' NalionaI
AgricuIlure Imagery Irogram (NAII). This ¡rogram mainlains a Iarge Iibrary of aeriaI
¡hologra¡hs onIine, vhich covers lhe Iarlh's surface over severaI decades. AeriaI
¡hologra¡hy can onIy be em¡Ioyed easiIy in hisloricaI sludies of lhe ¡eriod since lhe
beginning of human fIighl. Hovever, for hislorians of lhe earIy lvenlielh cenlury on,
orlhoimagery can ¡rove a usefuI looI. AeriaI ¡hologra¡hy has fIourished since WorId
War I and has ex¡onenliaIIy increased our abiIily lo survey vasl svalhs of area vilh a
camera and an air¡Iane. Nov vilh saleIIiles, high-¡recision imagery of our ¡Ianel is
videIy avaiIabIe lo users everyvhere.
7
Ior lhe mosl ¡arl, schoIars can find free,
dovnIoadabIe orlhoimagery of lhe enlire Iarlh, vilh varying degrees of resoIulion,
lhrough governmenl vebsiles.

7
Ior a brief hislory of geos¡aliaI imagery, see Ienn Slale Universily's !"#$%&'(&) +",#)-'(#. videos,
¡arlicuIarIy lhe firsl one, hll¡://vvv.youlube.com/valch`v·¡oMGRbfg¡38.
200

!"#$%& ()*+, -. /&%"/0 12343#%/12 35 6/#0&7 8/%9 ". :2%";4<2$%<2= >&? @&/0/.A*

B/;4&% C/4/ D;* E&<43% C/4/, - :3F1/%";3.
Rasler dala and veclor dala bolh serve cerlain ¡ur¡oses veII. WhiIe veclor dala Iimils
users lo em¡Ioying dala lhal conlains Iongilude and Ialilude (x, y) measuremenls,
cerlain ly¡es of rasler dala enabIe users lo incor¡orale eIevalion dala (oflen referred lo
as a ´z¨ vaIue). Where veclor dala ly¡icaIIy shovs soIid coIors for areas on ma¡s, rasler
dala incIudes orlho¡hologra¡hy, vhich can give a delaiIed, bird's-eye viev of lhe area
of inleresl. Of course, lhis delaiI may be more confusing for vievers, and using il
cerlainIy de¡ends u¡on lhe ¡ur¡ose of your ma¡. IinaIIy, lhough fiIe size is becoming
Iess of an issue vilh advancemenls in com¡uler lechnoIogy, il is vorlh discussing here.
Veclor dala uses a fraclion of lhe slorage s¡ace of mosl rasler images. Ior exam¡Ie, an
aeriaI ¡hologra¡h of a valershed in veslern Wisconsin, USA, vhich com¡rised lvo
smaII counlies, sur¡assed one gigabyle in size. Veclor dala of lhe same area, de¡ending
!"#
%&'( )*+ ,--'.&,(/)(0 1,*,2,+34 .,/ '(5/ %+3 , 637 8)5'2/*3+9 :;3+3 ,<3 *;)(0+ *'
-'(+)13< 7;3( 3=&5'<)(0 /'%< '7( >?@ &<'A3-*9 ?6 /'%< &<'A3-* 7)55 23 <35),(* %&'(
<,+*3< 1,*,4 )* 7)55 5)835/ -'+* .'<3 *' '2*,)( ,(1 +*'<3 *;3 1,*, *;,( )* 7'%51 *' 1' ,
&<'A3-* '6 *;3 +,.3 ,<3, 7)*; B3-*'< 1,*,9 C%* 23-,%+3 <,+*3< 1,*, 1'3+ '663< %+3<+ .'<3
,(,5/*)-,5 &'*3(*),5 )( +'.3 <3+&3-*+4 *;3 13-)+)'( .%+* 23 2,+31 '( 7;,* /'% ,<3 *</)(0
*' -'(B3/ *' /'%< .,& <3,13<+9

?( '%< 3=3<-)+34 73 7)55 %+3 <,+*3< 1,*, 6'< , +&3-)6)- 03'0<,&;)-,5 ,<3, ,(1 ,&&5/
B,<)'%+ *''5+ *' 3(;,(-3 *;3 .,&D+ B,5%3 6'< , +&3-)6)- ;)+*'<)-,5 E%3+*)'(9 F3 7)55 %+3
-'5'< ,(1 -'(*'%< 5)(3+ *' ).&<'B3 *;3 <3,1,2)5)*/ '6 *;3 .,&4 ,(1 73 7)55 ,11 &')(*+
)(1)-,*)(0 *;3 5'-,*)'( '6 *;3 ;)+*'<)-,5 3B3(*+ )( 7;)-; 73 ,<3 )(*3<3+*319




























202
!"!#$%&! ()
Hislorians can use rasler dala and digilaI eIevalion modeIs (DIMs) lo ¡in¡oinl
Iocalions and/or lrack lhe s¡read of an evenl according lo lhe lo¡oIogy of lhe area
under sludy. In lhis exercise, ve are going lo use lhis melhodoIogy lo allem¡l lo lrack a
disease oulbreak.

*+,-.
The infIuenza ¡andemic belveen 1918 and 1920 vas one of lhe deadIiesl and mosl
severe ¡andemics ever recorded. We are going lo use a DIM de¡icling Sainl Louis Cily
Counly, in Missouri, lo ¡in¡oinl lhe Iocalions of lhe cases of infIuenza and ma¡ lhe
s¡read of lhe disease.

&/01 (.
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/exercise10.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe zi¡¡ed foIder conlaining lhe dala you viII use in lhis exercise, and unzi¡
il lo your ´Ixercise10¨ foIder. Your foIder viII conlain a subfoIder named DIM, vhich
conlains a DIM of Sainl Louis Cily Counly, and a second subfoIder named
´InfIuenza_Dealhs,¨ conlaining ¡oinl dala de¡icling infIuenza dealhs.

&/01 2.
O¡en Ma¡Windov, cIick on lhe bullon, and navigale lo your ´DIM¨ foIder. In
´DIM,¨ idenlify lhe fiIe ´hdr.adf¨ and Ioad lhe fiIe as a Iayer in Ma¡Windov |Iigure
10.1j.

!"#

!"#$%& ()*(+ ,-. /0 12"34 5/$"6 7"48 7/$3489 .:*


















204
!"#$ &'
Our DIM accuraleIy shovs lhe lo¡oIogy of our counly, bul ve vanl lo add a coIor
scheme lo make lhe differences in eIevalion more a¡¡arenl. To do lhis, go lo ´Dala
Layers,¨ righl-cIick on lhe ´hdr¨ Iayer, and seIecl ´Iro¡erlies.¨

Irom lhe ´Iro¡erlies¨ menu, choose lhe ´Legend Idilor¨ |Iigure 10.2j, and go lo
´CoIoring Scheme.¨ CIick on lhe bullon lhal viII a¡¡ear nexl lo ´Idil...¨ on lhe righl
of ´CoIoring Scheme.¨


()*+,# -./0' 12343,)5* !67#8#9 )5 "7# 1:#*#5; <;)"3,9 =)5;3=/












205
This viII o¡en lhe ´CoIoring Scheme Idilor¨ vindov |Iigure 10.3j. CIick on lhe
bullon al lhe lo¡ of lhe screen.


!"#$%& ()*+, -./0/%"1# 234&5& 67"8/%9 :"17/:*

The ´In¡ul number of breaks...¨ vindov viII o¡en |Iigure 10.4j, vhich viII ask you
hov many breaks you vanl lo use. Iach break viII corres¡ond lo an eIevalion vaIue,
you can have as many eIevalion vaIues as you desire, bul for our ¡ur¡oses, ve viII use
onIy 5 eIevalion vaIues.

Choose ´IquaI ßreaks¨ from lhe dro¡-dovn menu, enler lhe vaIue ´5,¨ and cIick ´OK¨
|Iigure 10.4j.

!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -./0%1 /%23'& 45 3&'6789: ;#/<4;*

%&' ()*+*,-./ 01&'2' 34-5*,6 7-.4*7 .*7 8&*78 9-:' '+':;5-*. :;+<'8 4'=-15'4 -.
4-99','.5 1*+*,8> )+-1? (@==+AB6 ;.4 5&'. (CD>6


"#$%&' ()*=, ->4?4&#/$ @AB'2' C<#14&: ;#/<4;*
207
The range of coIors assigned by Ma¡Windov is nol one lhal viII shov our eIevalion
differences very cIearIy. To enhance lhe eIevalion differences, ve vanl lo change lhe
coIors lo Iighl bIue, Iighl green, green, ¡ink, and brovn. To do lhis, cIick on lhe coIor
bIock in lhe Iefl-hand coIumn, vhich viII o¡en lhe ´CoIor¨ vindov. This vindov viII
shov a grid of coIors headed ´ßasic coIors.¨ SeIecl lhe desired coIor by cIicking on lhal
coIor box, and lhen cIick ´OK.¨ The coIor bIock in lhe ´CoIor¨ coIumn in lhe ´CoIoring
Scheme Idilor¨ vindov shouId change lo lhe seIecled coIor. Re¡eal lhis unliI aII five
coIors malch lhose in Iigure 10.5, lhen cIose lhe ´CoIoring Scheme Idilor.¨

On lhe Ma¡Windov ma¡ screen, lhe DIM Iayer viII nov shov five differenl eIevalion
vaIues, vilh lhe coIor for each vaIue making il easy lo differenliale belveen lhem
|Iigure 10.6j.


Figure 10.6: Color-differentiated elevation values on our map.
!"#
!"#$ &'
%& '( ()*+,-.(/ -. 01( 21,*0(34 25.0563 +-.(&4 53 -&5+-.(&4 2533(&*5./ 05 +-.(& 57
(+(8,0-5.9 :5 ;(00(3 8-&6,+-<( 01( (+(8,0-5. 8,+6(& 735= 563 >?@4 '( 2,. ()03,20
25.0563 +-.(& 735= -09 ?,21 25.0563 +-.( '-++ 2533(&*5./ 05 (,21 (+(8,0-5. 8,+6(9

A. 01( BC(D(./E *,.(4 &'-021 05 01( B:55+;5)E 8-(' ,./ &235++ /5'. 05 01( BF,&0(3E
75+/(3 GH-D63( I"9JK9 L*(. -0 ,./ 2155&( BM(.(3,0( , N5.0563 O1,*(7-+(9E


()*+,# -./0' 12#3#,4"# 4 563"6+, !74$#8)9#: "669 )3 "7# 1;4<"#,: 869=#,/

















!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-+.+&/)+ 0'.)'1& 2*/3+456+7 85.9'8: 1.9+& ,0'.)'1& ;3)5'.<:7 =*''<+
,><+ 45?+9 6+@+6< A<+3/&/)+9 BC <3/=+D7 E%5F1&+ G"HIJ /.9 )C3+ )*+ +6+@/)5'. @/61+<
&+='&9+9 91&5.F !"#$ & A%5F1&+ G"HKDH 065=L '. )*+ ,-+.+&/)+7 B1))'.H


'()*+# ,-./0 12#3#+4"# 563"6*+ !74$#8(9#: ;(3<6; ;("7 "7# $+6$#+ =49*#> #3"#+#<.

M*+ ,N'.+7 85.9'8 8566 /33+/&: <)/)5.F )*/) / ='.)'1& <*/3+456+ */< B++. F+.+&/)+9
E%5F1&+ G"H#JH 065=L ,;OH7


'()*+# ,-.?0 1@63#A: B638(+C4"(63 ;(3<6;.

!"#
%&'( )*+ ,-&'./ 0&1 .&&2 .324 536'(4 "#7"#7


!"#$%& ()*()+ ,-. /"01 23403$% 5"4&6 7&8"20"4# &5&9:0"34 9:5$&6*

!""
!"#$ &'
$%& '()' &* ()+* ,*)-.*/ (%& '% +012),03* *,*+)'0%. +),2*1 4-%5 ) 6789 &* :).
).),;3* (%& '(* 0.4,2*.3) <)./*50: %::2--*/ 0. '(* :%2.';= >* &0,, /% '(01 ?; )//0.@
'(* <%0.' /)') '()' 1(%&1 '(* ,%:)'0%. %4 *):( :)1* %4 '(* /01*)1* '% %2- 5)<=

A-%5 '(* 5)0. 5*.2 ?)-9 )// '(* BC.4,2*.3)D"E"FG 1()<*40,* '% '(* <-%H*:'= I(01
1()<*40,* /*<0:'1 /*)'(1 :)21*/ ?; 0.4,2*.3) 0. 6*:*5?*- %4 "E"F 0. '(* :%2.';= I(*
5)< 1(%2,/ .%& :%.')0. <%0.'1 '()' 0./0:)'* '(* :)1*1 %4 '(* /01*)1* JA0@2-* "K=""L9 1%
&* :). 1** &(*'(*- '(* /01*)1* %::2--*/ 5%-* )' :*-')0. *,*+)'0%.1=


()*+,# -./--' -0-1 )234+#256 7#6"89 :; #4#<6")=2/

212
As ve can see, eIevalion vas a significanl faclor in lhe infIuenza oulbreak of 1918 in lhis
Missouri counly, vilh lhe mid-range eIevalions more IikeIy lo see an oulbreak lhan lhe
Iovesl or highesl eIevalions. We couId do even more vilh lhis DIM, for exam¡Ie, one
couId use lhis ma¡ lo ¡Iol lhe ¡oinl dala for lovns in lhe counly, lo see if urban or ruraI
dveIIers vere more IikeIy lo Iive al lhese eIevalions and lherefore more IikeIy lo be
affecled by lhe ¡andemic. A slalislic anaIysis can be used lo accuraleIy delermine a
correIalion belveen dealhs and eIevalion. If ve had lem¡oraI dala indicaling vhen
each case occurred, ve couId generale severaI ma¡s, one for each lem¡oraI break, lo
lrack lhe oulbreak over lime.

CongraluIalions! You have nov Iearned hov lo use rasler dala, in lhe form of a DIM,
aIong vilh conlour Iines and ¡oinl dala. As aIvays, you shouId re¡eal lhe exercise unliI
you feeI comforlabIe vilh lhese lechniques. If you feeI comforlabIe doing so, you couId
edil lhe allribule labIe of our ¡oinl dala, or change lhe number of eIevalion breaks, and
see hov lhal changes lhe resuIling ma¡.

You have aIso com¡Ieled lhe firsl seclion of lhis manuaI, vhich conlains lhe basic
lechniques necessary lo im¡Iemenl GIS anaIysis inlo your research. The remainder of
lhis manuaI conlains more s¡eciaIized informalion, designed for lhose users vho need
lo go beyond lhe basics in lheir research. We have lried lo offer severaI differenl
¡robIems lhe hisloricaI researcher mighl face, and lhe luloriaIs from lhe remaining
cha¡ler do nol need lo be done in order, lhey are each beneficiaI on lheir ovn.


213
!"#$%&' ))* #+,-./ %012+3456
ßy lhe lime lhal you have com¡Ieled lhe Ma¡Windov luloriaIs, you viII have
deveIo¡ed lhe basic skiII sel you need lo use GIS for hisloricaI research. You viII be
famiIiar vilh common GIS o¡eralions such as geocoding, georeferencing, cIi¡¡ing, and
buffering sha¡es. You may vish, hovever, lo go beyond vhal you have Iearned.
Ma¡Windov is an o¡en source ¡ro|ecl, and il does nol ¡rovide an exlensive sel of GIS
funclions. Al lhe lime of lhe ¡roduclion of lhis lraining manuaI, Ma¡Windov onIy
¡rovided lhe GIS looIs required lo gain a basic skiII sel and underslanding of GIS. As
you become more confidenl vilh your GIS skiIIs, you may vish lo Iearn nev conce¡ls
such as ma¡ aIgebra, dala conversion, and relrievaI of eIevalion vaIues from digilaI
eIevalion modeIs (DIMs). These GIS o¡eralions are im¡orlanl if you vanl lo examine
issues such as lhe change of vegelalion in an area over a given ¡eriod of lime, or if you
vanl lo relrieve s¡ecific eIevalion vaIues from a DIM lo examine lhe infIuence of
lo¡ogra¡hy on a hisloricaI evenl. Many commerciaI ¡ackages offer lhese fealures. This
cha¡ler ¡rovides four addilionaI luloriaIs aimed al heI¡ing Iearners vho vish lo make
lhe lransilion from Ma¡Windov GIS lo ISRI's ArcGIS 10 (or Ialer versions), and
discover lhe advanlages of using a commerciaI GIS soflvare ¡ackage vilh an exlensive
sel of GIS and carlogra¡hic funclions.
1


%012+345 . inlroduces you lo lhe conce¡l of carlogra¡hic modeIing. Il leaches you hov
lo buiId a sim¡Ie carlogra¡hic modeI by using GIS o¡eralions vilh vhich you became
acquainled vhiIe com¡Ieling lhe Ma¡Windov GIS luloriaIs. %012+345 .. inlroduces you
lo dala conversion. You viII Iearn hov lo converl a sha¡efiIe lo a KML (KeyhoIe
Marku¡ Language) fiIe designed for use in GoogIe Iarlh or ISRI's ArcGIobe. GoogIe
Iarlh and ArcGIobe enabIe lhe visuaIizalion of dala in a lhree-dimensionaI
environmenl. VisuaIizing your dala in GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe mighl give you nev
insighls aboul your informalion. %012+345 ... inlroduces lhe conce¡l of ma¡ aIgebra.
You viII Iearn hov lo generale a nev rasler Iayer from aIready exisling Iayers. %012+345
.7 leaches you hov lo creale a carlogra¡hic modeI aimed al idenlifying areas on ma¡s
vilh ¡arlicuIar characlerislics, such as eIevalion or sIo¡e.

The a¡¡roach lo Iearning ArcGIS 10 ve have ado¡led incIudes lhe crealion of
carlogra¡hic modeIs buiIl lhrough ArcGIS 10 ´ModeIßuiIder,¨ and lhis melhod is
innovalive in hov il ¡resenls GIS lo novice users. We chose lhis a¡¡roach because lhe
use of carlogra¡hic modeIs enabIes users lo organize and visuaIize lheir dala and lhe

1
ArcGIS is one of lhe mosl so¡hislicaled soflvare-¡ackages for GIS. IIease access lhe ArcGIS vebsile lo
Iearn aboul ¡ricing and hov lo ¡urchase a co¡y of lhe soflvare:
hll¡://vvv.esri.com/soflvare/arcgis/¡ricing (accessed on Oclober 21 2013).
214
GIS o¡eralions lo vhich lheir dala are submilled. A carlogra¡hic modeI can be
inler¡reled as a fIovcharl.
2
A fIovcharl is a gra¡hic re¡resenlalion of lhe dala, lhe GIS
o¡eralions lo vhich lhe dala are submilled, and lhe syslemalic s¡ecificalion of lheir
sequence.
3
The oul¡ul dala de¡icls lhe finaI resuIl and shovs vhal vas ¡ossibIe lo
relrieve from lhe s¡aliaI invesligalion. You can creale differenl carlogra¡hic modeIs lo
soIve lhe same ¡robIem. ßecause lhe crealion of a carlogra¡hic modeI requires a
fIovcharl s¡ecifying lhe GIS looIs you are using aIong vilh lhe descri¡lion of lhe
sequence in vhich lhe looIs are ¡resenled, you viII gain a dee¡er underslanding of lhe
GIS o¡eralions you are em¡Ioying. As Iigure 1 shovs, buiIding a modeI inviles GIS
¡raclilioners lo lhink crilicaIIy aboul vhich GIS o¡eralions lhey vish lo use.


!"#$%& () *$"+,"-# . /"01+& 02,&+ "- 3%4567(8 9:2,&+*$"+,&%;<

The four luloriaIs ve ¡resenl ¡rovide aII of lhe inslruclions required lo buiId a
carlogra¡hic modeI for lhe firsl lime. Carlogra¡hic modeIs can be designed in a number
of vays lo soIve lhe same ¡robIem. We encourage you lo ex¡erimenl crealing
carlogra¡hic modeIs differenl from lhose ve ¡resenl. Irior ex¡erience vilh ArcGIS 10
and ArcGIS 10 ´ModeIßuiIder¨ is nol a requiremenl for lhe com¡Ielion of lhe luloriaIs.

We caulion users of lhis lraining manuaI lhal ve cannol creale lhe luloriaIs on lhe basis
of a slabIe version of ArcGIS because ISRI is conlinuousIy im¡roving lhe soflvare.
Therefore, you may ex¡erience some differences from lhe ¡rocedures ve describe.

=$>2%".+ 6
Our firsl luloriaI leaches you hov lo buiId a sim¡Ie modeI by using GIS o¡eralions vilh
vhich you became acquainled vhiIe doing lhe Ma¡Windov GIS exercises. You viII
vork vilh a dalasel conlaining muIli¡Ie enlries recorded in an IxceI s¡readsheel. Your
lask is lo relrieve ¡arlicuIar records lhal de¡icl lhe voyage commanded by Lieulenanl
GeneraI ßenilo Anlonio de Is¡inoIa from Veracruz, Mexico, lo Cadiz, S¡ain, in 1735.
The ¡ur¡ose of lhis luloriaI is lo inlroduce you lo lhe conce¡l of carlogra¡hic modeIing.
You viII Iearn vhal a carlogra¡hic modeI is, hov lo creale il, and hov lo use il in more

2
IauI ßoIslad, !"# %&'()*+',)-./ 0 %12., 3+4, 5' !+562)7819 "':52*),15' #;.,+*. (Minnesola: Iider Iress,
While ßear Lake, 2008), 480.
3
Ibid.
215
com¡Iex s¡aliaI anaIyses, such as lhose lhal demand lhe use of rasler fiIes and DIMs.


"#$%&' () *+,'- .&+.+/', 0+& 1%1+&#2- 34

Ior her kindness in ¡roviding us vilh lhe dala sel lhal ve use in lhis luloriaI, ve vouId
Iike lhank our coIIeague Dr. Ana Cres¡o SoIana, a researcher vilh lhe !"#$%$&$' )*
+%#$',%-, .*"$,' )* .%*"/%-# +&0-"-# 1 2'/%-3*#, .'"#*4' 2&5*,%', )* !"6*#$%7-/%'"*#
.%*"$89%/-#, Madrid, S¡ain. Dr. Cres¡o is a vorId-renovned ex¡erl on 18
lh
-cenlury
AlIanlic lrade.

5%1+&#2- 33
Our second luloriaI inlroduces you lo dala conversion. You viII converl enlries
recorded in an IxceI s¡readsheel lo a sha¡efiIe, and lhen converl lhe sha¡efiIe lo KML.
KML slands for KeyhoIe Marku¡ Language. KML fiIes are ¡rimariIy designed for use in
GoogIe Iarlh/Ma¡s. Once you finish lhe dala conversion, you viII Ioad your KML fiIe
in ISRI's ArcGIobe or GoogIe Iarlh. You mighl vanl lo consider converling sha¡efiIes
lo KML fiIes for lhe ¡ur¡oses of beller visuaIizalion. GoogIe Iarlh uses digilaI eIevalion
modeIs lo de¡icl lhe surface of lhe Iarlh, and il, lherefore, enabIes you lo oblain a
visuaIizalion of lhe Iarlh in lhree dimensions.

VisuaIizing s¡aliaI dala lhrough GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe viII IikeIy enabIe you lo
gain nev insighls aboul your dala. The dalasel used in lhis exercise comes from
Anderson Sandes's research aboul Henry Kosler, a 19
lh
-cenlury lraveI vriler vho vrole
exlensiveIy aboul lhe ¡hysicaI and sociaI Iandsca¡e of ßraziI. You can viev lhe ¡ro|ecl
onIine al hll¡://vvv.andersonsandes.com/kosler/.

216

"#$%&' () *+, -#.'/ 0'1#23#4$ 5'4&6 *7/3'&8/ 3&9:'. 7:'&.9#0 #4 ;77$.' +91/<

When you finish lhe luloriaI and Ioad lhe KML fiIe in GoogIe Iarlh or ArcGIobe, you
viII be abIe lo see lhe ¡Iaces aboul vhich Kosler vrole. We ho¡e lhal you viII use KML
fiIes lo enhance lhe visuaIizalion of your ovn s¡aliaI dala as you become more
acquainled vilh lhe lechnoIogy of GoogIe Iarlh and ArcGIobe.

=%37&#9. >>>
Our lhird luloriaI inlroduces lhe conce¡l of ma¡ aIgebra. Whal is ma¡ aIgebra` Sim¡Iy
¡ul, ma¡ aIgebra is as a sel of o¡eralions, such as addilion, sublraclion, muIli¡Iicalion,
and division, belveen lhe ceIIs (or ¡ixeIs) of lvo or more rasler Iayers.
4
When you
¡erform a ma¡ aIgebra o¡eralion using rasler Iayers, a nev Iayer com¡osed of nev ceIIs
(or ¡ixeIs) conlaining nev informalion is generaled. This luloriaI viII leach you hov lo
buiId a carlogra¡hic modeI using Landsal 5 TM rasler saleIIile dalasels lo examine lhe
change of vegelalion in lhe ¡eriod of 10 years (2001-2011) in ßannock Counly, Idaho,
lhe home of lhe main cam¡us of Idaho Slale Universily. To relrieve lhe green vaIues
de¡icling vegelalion, you viII Iearn hov lo use lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ looI from
ArcGIS 10 and em¡Ioy a vegelalion index.


4
Ior exam¡Ie, Ian N. Gregory, and IauI S. III, !"#$%&"'() +,-. /0'12%)%3"0#4 50$1%6%)%3"0# (26 -'1%)(&#1"7
(Cambridge, Nev York: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007), 80-81, ßoIslad, +,- 8926(:02$()#, 380-384.
217
Vegelalion indices are formed lhrough lhe combinalion of s¡eclraI vaIues lhal can be
added, divided, or muIli¡Iied. This lechnique can assisl researchers in assessing lhe
vigor of vegelaled surfaces.
5
Ior lhis exercise, you viII a¡¡Iy lhe NormaIized Difference
Vegelalion Index (NDVI), vhich is one of lhe mosl videIy used vegelalion indices.
6
The
NDVI uses lhe near-infrared and visibIe (red) bands of lhe Landsal 5 TM rasler dalasel,
as demonslraled beIov:



A nev rasler Iayer conlaining green vaIues is derived from lhe NDVI anaIysis. This nev
Iayer conlains informalion lhal corres¡onds lo vegelalion or vegelaled surfaces. ßy lhe
lime lhal you com¡Iele lhis luloriaI, you viII have Iearned hov lo ¡erform lhe NDVI
anaIysis lo relrieve green vaIues from Landsal 5 TM dalasels.


"#$%&' () *+,'- .&+.+/', 0+& 1%2+&#3- 4445

The Landsal 5 TM rasler dalasels ¡resenled in lhis luloriaI are courlesy of Idaho Slale
Universily's GIS Training and Research Cenler (hll¡://giscenler.isu.dala).

5
}ames ß. Cam¡beII, !"#$%&'(#)%" #% +,-%#, .,"/)"0 (Nev York, London: The GuiIford Iress, 2008), 465.
6
Ibid.
218
!"#$%&'( *+
Our fourlh luloriaI leaches you hov lo relrieve eIevalion vaIues from a DIM. Imagine
yourseIf Iiving in lhe cily of S¡okane, Washinglon, Uniled Slales. You are a hislorian
and medicaI geogra¡her inleresled in documenling lhe hislory of S¡okane's famous
High ßridge Iark. This recrealionaI area, according lo lhe hisloricaI ¡ro|ecl ´S¡okane
HisloricaI¨ (hll¡://s¡okanehisloricaI.org), ¡romoled by Iaslern Washinglon Universily
(hll¡://vvv.evu.edu), vas used as a sanilarium lo lreal ¡alienls vilh lubercuIosis in
lhe ¡asl.
7
You are Iooking for a house in vhich lo Iive in S¡okane lhal is cIose lo lhe
¡ark, bul you disIike vaIking in hiIIy areas. Therefore, you vanl lo Iive in a house lhal
is vilhin 0.5 miIes of High ßridge Iark, and lhal is in a fIal area. To idenlify a fIal area,
you viII use a DIM and Iook for s¡ecific areas in lhe cily vilh a sIo¡e of Iess lhan 0.5
degrees. To find lhese vaIues, you viII again use lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ looI from
ArcGIS 10. The DIM ¡resenled in lhis luloriaI is courlesy of lhe Cily of S¡okane
vebsile (hll¡://vvv.s¡okanecily.org).


,&-"%. /0 1$2.( 3%$3$4.2 5$% !"#$%&'( *+6

We ho¡e lhal lhe conlenl ¡rovided lhrough lhe four luloriaIs heI¡ you undersland and
feeI comforlabIe vhiIe using ArcGIS 10 or Ialer versions of lhe soflvare. We chose lo
inlroduce lhe conce¡l of carlogra¡hic modeIing because ve vanl you lo Iearn hov lo
organize your GIS dala and o¡eralions more syslemalicaIIy. In becoming comforlabIe
vilh carlogra¡hic modeIing, il is our ho¡e lhal you viII Iearn hov lo lhink more
crilicaIIy aboul lhe GIS looIs and o¡eralions you are em¡Ioying lo achieve your goaIs.



7
Tracy L. Rebslock, High ßridge Iark. hll¡://s¡okanehisloricaI.org/ilems/shov/142-.UmrCgRbva-I
(accessed on }une 12 2012).
219
!"!#$%&' %
You viII buiId a modeI lo query lhe dala slored in lvo sha¡efiIes de¡icling muIli¡Ie
18
lh
-cenlury voyages. In com¡Ieling lhis luloriaI, you viII Iearn hov lo creale your firsl
modeI lhrough ´ArcGIS 10 ModeIßuiIder,¨ and creale a ma¡ de¡icling an 18
lh
-cenlury
ex¡edilion from Veracruz, Mexico, lo Cadiz, S¡ain

)*+,-./012-*+,
ßy nov, you musl have ArcGIS inslaIIed on your machine. You musl lurn on aII ArcGIS
exlensions. CIick lhe ´Slarl¨ bullon, go lo ´AII Irograms,¨ and lhen cIick lhe ´ArcMa¡
10¨ o¡lion under ArcGIS |Iigure 1.1j.


3-450/ 6768 9&0:;1< 6=7>

When ArcMa¡ 10 slarls, go lo ´Ixlensions.¨ |Iigure 1.2j.


3-450/ 67?8 9@A2/+,-*+,7>


220
Aclivale aII lhe exlensions and cIick ´CIose,¨ as shovn in Iigure 1.3.


"#$%&' ()*+ ,-./'01#2013 4#0524)

6/'7 (+
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/luloriaI1.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe zi¡¡ed foIder. You are being ¡rovided vilh lvo sha¡efiIes named
´Origen1¨ and ´Deslino2,¨ res¡ecliveIy. ßecause lhese dala reIales lo lhe 18
lh
-cenlury
CasliIian lrade, aII of our descri¡lions are in S¡anish. ´Origen¨ means origin and
´deslino¨ means deslinalion.

221
!"#$ &'
CIick lhe bullon lhal aclivales lhe ´ModeIßuiIder vindov¨ (ArcMa¡'s menu bar):


()*+,# -./' 0123#45+)43#, 6)7326.8

!"#$ 9'
You viII see lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov.


()*+,# -.:' 0123#48 6)7326.







222
!"#$ &'
CIick lhe bullon (´ModeI¨ vindov). Navigale lo your ´TuloriaI I¨ foIder and Ioad
lhe lvo sha¡efiIes in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov:


()*+,# -./' 0122 34"4 5, 6557.8

!"#$ 9'
The ´ModeI¨ vindov shouId Iook Iike in Iigure 1.7:


()*+,# -.:' 0;52#78 <)=25< <)"> )=$+" 24"4.
!!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '&() *)&+ ,-'*.*)* -/ 011.'2 345 -+&60).-'* )- )%& 78-1&9: ;.'1-;< =+&' )%&
75&06,% ;.'1-;: >? ,9.,@.'2 )%& 75&06,% ;.'1-;: >A))-' BC.2A6& D<EFG )?+& 75&9&,): .'
)%& *&06,% /.&91G 0'1 +6&** )%& @&? 7H')&6<: I602 )%& 75&9&,) JK'09?*.*L: )--9 /6-M )%&
9.*) 0'1 16-+ .) .')- )%& 7N.'1-;: M-1&9 BC.2A6& D<OF<


()*+,# -./' 0!#1,23 4)5674.8


!"#$%& ()*+ ,%-##".# /001 2%03 1"4/ 02 2$.5/"0.4 -.6 !"#$$%&' %) %&)# *+#!,-.
!"#$%!!

!"#$ 9'
P9.,@ );.,& -' )%& 6&,)0'29& 6&+6&*&').'2 )%& )--9 J75&9&,):L )%0) ?-A %0Q& 011&1 )- ?-A6
M-1&9< R-A ;.99 *&& )%& 75&9&,): ;.'1-;< $%.* +6-,&** .* )%& /.6*) )- ;%.,% ?-A6 .'+A)
10)0 ;.99 >& *A>M.))&1<




224
In ´In¡ul Iealures,¨ choose ´Origen1.sh¡.¨ Nov cIick lhe ´SQL¨ bullon lo slarl
querying lhe dala:


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,-'.'/01 2#3452)

-0'6 7+
The ´Query ßuiIder¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. We are inleresled in lhe voyage commanded
by Lieulenanl GeneraI ßenilo Anlonio de Is¡inoIa in 1735. Iormal your query as in
Iigure 1.11. Use lhe bullons ´·,¨ ´Gel Unique VaIues,¨ and ´And¨ lo formal your
query.


8#3452 ()((+ ,9%'&: ;%#.4'&1 2#3452)
!!"
!"#$ &'
$%& '(&)&*+, -./01- 2%13)0 )114 ).4& ./ 5.637& 898!9


()*+,# -.-/' 0!#1#2"3 4)5674.

!"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -$)$ -#.*/#- 0.(1 ),*% %)#2 3*"" 4# %$/#- *' ),# 56#0$7")89-4:
!"#$%&%'%(") +, -#. /0(12 -#. 3%4 !"#$ &'$ ()&*)& +"!&$+ ,- " *."/$ (0 1()+ /'(,/$ "-2
!"#$% ' #())$%$"* "'+$, -. #. */(01 23(24 */$ !"##$% '($)% *% +*,"-. /0/1 2%3 4($$'. 2
!"#$% '( )*'$* +,- )#(. ., /#0% .*% ,-.!-. 1#.#2 !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+
!"#" %& "'' ()%*+,,+, -. #/+ 01+&"2'#34!56 4+%!"#"5",+ #/"# -, '%*"#+! 2.!+)
!"#$%&'()!!"#$%&' !"#$% '())"*+ ,-. /01- '234+














!!"
!"#$ &'(
!"#$ &"'() *+"#)' )"", )-,( -. /-0#$( 12132 $%&'( )*+ ,-.)/ 012/.)3 4.))/5 )/ /6715&8+
)*+ %12/.) /9 2/.6 :/;+% 15; '%&'( )*+ ,<.53 4.))/5 )/ 6.5 2/.6 :/;+% =>&7.6+ ?@?AB@


!"#$%& ()(*+ ,-./&01 2"3/.2!


!"#$%& ()(*+ ,-$./ 012/$.3 145 ,6$43 7$../48!












227
!"#$ &&'
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike in Iigure 1.15:


()*+,# &-&.' /012#34 5)6215-
















!!"
!"#$ &'(
$%& '(&)&*+, +--) %./ /&)&*+&0 +%& 1-2 34 +%& .++1356+& +.5)& +%.+ *-11&/7-40/ +- +%&
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/&)&*+&0 &4+19 ./ . /%.7&D3)&A $- .*%3&8& +%3/ :-.)E 2& F6/+ 6/& +%& 'G-79, +--)A

H7&4 +%& '(&.1*% 2340-2, 59 *)3*I34: +%& '(&.1*% 2340-2, 56++-4 JK3:61& LALMNE +97&
'G-79, 34 +%& /&.1*% D3&)0E .40 71&// +%& I&9 '?4+&1A, O1.: +%& 'G-79 PO.+.
Q.4.:&F&4+R, +--) D1-F +%& )3/+ .40 01-7 3+ 34+- +%& 'B340-2, F-0&) JK3:61& LALSNA


)*+,-# &.&/( 0!#1-23 4*5674.8


)*+,-# &.&9( !"#$$%&$ ())* +"), *%-( )+ +.&/(%)&- #&0 0")11%&$ %( %&() 23)04*5
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)*+,-# &.&/( 012$34 5*6725.

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!"#$ $& '"() $*) &+$,+$ -"$". !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+ /%+% -0 %11 &"-#*((*(
!" $%& '(&)*+,$-./01 .&2/*$*0*3& $%*$ !3 ,24*$&/ +"/&5 (24+6&"$3!!"#$%&' )*+#,
!"##$%& ()* +,-) !./0&










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07826'9, *+, &230/* 0: 30/7 ;0<,& 26< (&'() *+, -=/64 5/**06 *0 7/6 30/7 ;0<,&
>?'8/7, @A@BCA


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)*+,-# &./0( 1234#56 7*8437.











231
!"#$ &'(
Once you have run your modeI, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe ´Co¡y¨ o¡eralion
and choose lhe o¡lion ´Add lo Dis¡Iay.¨


)*+,-# &./&( 0122 "3 4*5$678.9

!"#$ &:(
Nov you can see a ¡oinl de¡icling lhe origin of lhe voyage in Veracruz, Mexico.


)*+,-# &.//( !;7$#<*6# 2#-*=#2 <-3> ";# 0?3$89 3$#-7"*3@.
232
!"#$ &'(
The nexl sle¡s consisl of a¡¡Iying lo lhe ´Deslino2¨ sha¡efiIe lhe same ¡rocess lhal ve
a¡¡Iied lo lhe ´Origen1¨ sha¡efiIe. In doing lhis, ve viII oblain a ¡oinl de¡icling lhe
deslinalion of lhe voyage.


)*+,-# &./0( 123#4.

!"#$ &5(
Drag lhe ´SeIecl (AnaIysis)¨ looI from lhe Iisl and dro¡ il inlo lhe ´Windov¨ modeI:


)*+,-# &./6( !"#$$%&$ ())* +"), *%-( )+ +.&/(%)&- #&0 0")11%&$ %( %&() 23)04*5
!"#$%!!


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:;+%+')< =&.62= =&%% -00+-,8 >. :>.04) ?+-)4,+1@< '*221+ :A+1)&.2!81*08< $%&'( )*+
:;BC< D4))2. )2 1)-,) E4+,3&./ 324, 6-)-8


)*+,-# &./0( 1!#2#3"4 5*6785.

!"#$ /9(
9*+ :B4+,3 F4&%6+,< =&.62= =&%% -00+-,8 G+ -,+ &.)+,+1)+6 &. )*+ 523-/+ '277-.6+6
D3 C&+4)+.-.) H+.+,-% F+.&)2 I.)2.&2 6+ J10K.2%- &. LM"N8 ?2,7-) 324, E4+,3 -1 &.
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E4+,38


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)*+,-# '.&/( 0!#1#2"3 4*5674.

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!"#$%& ()*+, -./0&12 3"40/3!


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0'*'+,'1 '5,2: /0 / 0&/8'E4*'B %. /+&4'9' ,&40 ;./*F 3' G70, 70' ,&' (H.8:- ,..*B

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(H.8:- 45 ,&' 0'/2+& E4'*1F /51 82'00 ,&' J': (@5,'2B- P2/; ,&' (H.8: QP/,/
R/5/;'G'5,S- ,..* E2.G ,&' *40, /51 12.8 4, 45,. ,&' (C451.3- G.1'* KL4;72' MB"MOB


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8,0'7,8 D0-9 */, ;E,&,(*< 30-(,44 :A,4*'.-!FE,&,(*=>


)*+,-# ./0&( 123$45 6*7836/

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!"#$ $& '"() $*) &+$,+$ -"$". !" $%&'()*+ !"#$%& (%)*( +,* -.+&.+ /%+% -0 %11 &"-#*((*(
!" $%& '(&)*+,$-./01 .&2/*$*0*3& $%*$ !3 ,24*$&/ +"/&5 (24+6&"$3!!"#$%&' )*+#,
!"##$%& ()* +,-) !./0&

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*/, &15-6* -D 5-60 9-8,& 1.8 (&'() */, ;K6.< I6**-. *- 06. 5-60 9-8,& LM'260, N>"OP>


!"#$%& ()**+ ,-$./ 012/$.3 145 ,6$43 7$../48!

238

!"#$%& ()*+, -./0&12 3"40/3!

!"#$ &'(
Once you have run your modeI, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe ´Co¡y¨ o¡eralion
and choose lhe o¡lion ´Add lo Dis¡Iay.¨


!"#$%& ()*+, -.// 01 2"34567!!




239
!"#$ &'(
Nov you can see a ¡oinl de¡icling lhe deslinalion of lhe voyage in Cadiz, S¡ain:


)*+,-# ./01( !23$#4*5# 6#-*7#6 4-89 "2# :;8$<= 8$#-3"*8>/

!"#$ &?(
CIick lhe bullon (´ModeI¨ vindov) lo save your modeI. Your modeI viII be saved
in lhe ´TooIbox¨ lhal is Iocaled under !"#$%&'()!!"#$%&' )*+,- ./- 01234+56 7+4-*'














240
!"#$ &'(
!" $%&'()*+ ,-". /(%0 &12&3 45- !"##$%& ()*+,)#- #$ .$"/ 01"#$/+)2 34 5$26-/ )%6
!"#$ &'( )'#*(+,!( -./01234506235738-!"#$ &' ()*+,-" .)/,'&01 234) 5,21)6 63
lhal lhey Iook Iike Iigure 1.37:


"#$%&' ()*+, -./'&0)

12'3 *4,
Svilch lo lhe Layoul Viev (bollom-righl of your screen):


"#$%&' ()*5, -./6%2 7#'8)

12'3 *(,
Creale a ma¡ Iike lhe one shovn in Iigure 1.40. 96 :&'.2' . ;#<' ='3#:2#<$ 2>' 6&#$#<
.<= ='02#<.2#6< 6? 2>' @6/.$': Go lo ´Cuslomize,¨ choose ´TooIbars,¨ and lhen cIick
´Drav.¨ The ´Drav¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. CIick lhe reclangIe shovn in Iigure 1.39.
Choose ´Line¨ or ´Curve¨ from lhe Iisl.


"#$%&' ()*A, BC&.8D 8#<=68)
!"#

"#$%&' ()*+, -./)

%&'()*+,-*+.&'/0 1&, 2*34 -4*)'45 2&6 +& 7,.-5 *'5 ),' * 8&54- /,994//:,--;< =: ;&,
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4A4)9./4 *'5 ?)*9+.94 7,.-5.'( * 8&54- 7; 9*)4:,--; :&--&6.'( +24 .'/+),9+.&'/ +2./
4A4)9./4 ?)&3.54/<



242
!"!#$%&' %%
Henry Kosler lraveIed lhroughoul ßraziI from 1809 lo 1815 and carefuIIy recorded
informalion aboul each Iocalion he visiled. Kosler is ¡raised as a lraveI vriler due lo his
cIose allenlion lo lhe ¡hysicaI and sociaI Iandsca¡e aboul vhich he vrole ÷lhal of ¡re-
inde¡endence ßraziI. This exercise viII leach you hov lo visuaIize in ArcGIobe each
Iocalion aboul vhich Kosler vrole.

!"#$%&"'"()*
!" $%&$'"( )$*+ ",-+ ./$. $%% 01 '0,- +2.+3"403" $-+ !"#$%!#&' !"#$" &$ '()#**#*) &+(
!"!#$%&!' )* +,! !"#!$%&'$% )*! $'# )+#&,)#!-. /'0 1&22 !"# !" $!%" &' (')*%"&" &+"
exercise. On ArcMa¡'s menu bar, go lo ´Cuslomize,¨ and lhen choose ´Ixlensions....¨
!"# %&'(#)*+,)*- .+)/,. .+00 122#134 5"#67 100 ("# #'(#)*+,)* ("1( 8,9 "1:# 1:1+01;0#
!"# %&'%( )*&+,-./ !"#$%# '()*+# ),$) ),# -./$)*$" 0'$"1%)2 #3)#'%*(' *% 45'6$7#')$" 4(8
!"# %&'()#!*&+ &, !"*- #.#/%*-#0


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-./&01"2013 4"0524!

243
!"#$ !"
!" $" hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/luloriaI2.zi¡

!!"#$!%& ()* +,--*& .!$&*/ 0!#(%,#,#1 ()* &%(% /*23,/*& .!/ ()* 0!4-$*(,!# !. (),5
!"!#$%&!'

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!"#$%"&!'!( *'%'+, ,-' ./%' 012&3'%45$62&7/%(8%49 &$! +%/+: 0;!!(9


!"#$%& ()(* +,-- ./0/1 2"3-42!

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!"#$%&" ()% $*" %&+,- $, ./#"0 &1*"$2&3""45 6*#7$1 8+00 $&9 ()% 4) &"0"#4 43" &3""4
!"#! %&' (#)! !& &*+), -"&&.+ !"+ ."++! ."&() /) 0/1'2+ 3,45 #)6 78/79 :;66,<


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-.. /0102 3"4.53!

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!"#$ &"#'() *+, -.""'( /.( "0/1"+ 231'04*! 56 3*/*789


!"#$%& ()*+ ,-"./012 34 -15167 8/5"89!


















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!" $%& '( )*&+,-. /%001& '234567!7829. 4+*/: ';<9.


!"#$%! #$%& '()*+,-. /0 (-1-2 3)4563$









246
!"#$ &'
You viII see a varning message. Ignore il and cIick ´OK.¨ You viII see aII lhe Iocalions
aboul vhich Kosler vrole de¡icled as ¡oinl dala:


()*+,# -.&' /012")034.













247
!"#$ &'
Ix¡orl lhe ¡oinl dala as a sha¡efiIe. Righl-cIick lhe Iayer under lhe ´TabIe of Conlenls¨
¡ane, lhen go lo ´Dala,¨ and choose lhe o¡lion ´Ix¡orl Dala.¨


()*+,# -.&' /01$2," 34"456 2$")27.










!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' ()** +,, -., /012&3- 45-56 ()78&(9 :5;, -., +.52,<)*, )7 =&'3 />'-&3)5* ??6 <&*8,3
578 75@, )- /A&+-,396 B*)CD /EA6 578 588 -., 7,( +.52,<)*, 5+ 5 *5=,3 )7 F3CG529


()*+,# -.&' /01$2," 34"45 6)7826.

!"#$ 9'
E2,7 -., +.52,<)*,H+ 5--3)I'-, -5I*, -& +,, -., )7<&3@5-)&7 +-&3,8 )7 ,5C. 2&)7-9


()*+,# -.9' /:4;<#5 6)7826.


!"#
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%&'( ') '*++ ,-./0) 1-) +&&2 &3 1-) 4&*/15 6)4*,1*/0 7&51)895 18.:)+5; <),.=5) ') .8)
0&*/0 1& +&.6 1-) 4&*/15 */ >8,?+&@)( ') './1 1& A.2) 1-) 4&*/15 BC; D+*,2 1'*,) &/ 1-)
4&*/1 +.E)8 6)4*,1*/0 7&51)895 18.:)+5; F-*5 *5 1-) 5-.4)3*+) E&= -.:) ,8).1)6; F-)
GHEA@&+ H)+),1&8I '*/6&' '*++ .44).8;


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12345 !#5#6"4-7 8*9:48/
















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%&'() *+ ,-. /0,1&. 2.3.4.+(.567 89,,*+:


()*+,# -.&&' /!01234 !#4#5"3,6 7)8937.












251
!"#$ &'(
The ´SlyIe References¨ vindov viII shov u¡. Aclivale lhe o¡lion ´ArcGIS_Ix¡Iorer,¨
as shovn in lhe figure beIov:


)*+,-# '.&'( /!"01# 2#3#-#45#67 8*49:8.













!"!
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$%& '%( &)** +,, -,& +'./%*+ )- 01, 23'./%* 3,*,40%56 &)-7%&8 91%%+, 01, 2:*;4<
=(+1>)-86 9*)4< 2?@86


)*+,-# ./&'( 0!12345 !#5#6"4-7 8*9:48/











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%&' (&)* +,*--. +/&)01 0&&2 032- 435)*- !6786


)*+,-# ./&'( $0*1"2/

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,>. 0&>1 ;/- ?30- 3.;& D*,E0&F- >.1G >0;-*.>;3=-0(G 3.;& E&&50- B><+6 9<-. ;/- HI->*,/
'3.1&'J F( ,03,23.5 ;/- HI->*,/ '3.1&'J F);;&. K435)*- !67"LG ;(<- H@BCJ 3. ;/-
+->*,/ ?3-01G >.1 <*-++ ;/- 2-( HM.;-*6J


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%&'() *+, -.*'-/ 0123,4 *- 561 7%-/8,49'-/:;<


)*+,-# ./&'( 0123#- "4 561 7849:#-;*49</=


















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$%& '()*&+ ,- ./(0 1234-1 1255 )66&)+7 83 '()*&+90 :%--;& '.-;,&+70 <)=& ,%& ->,6>,
?25& ); '@-;,&+A5-:),2-3;0 )34 B)@& ;>+& ,%& ?25& 2; ;)=&4 23 *->+ '$>,-+2)5 880 ?-54&+7 83
'()*&+ C>,6>, <:)5&90 ,*6& !DDDD7 E52:@ 'C.70


)*+,-# ./&'( 0123#- "4 561/7

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%); G&&3 :-3=&+,&4 ,- ./(7


)*+,-# ./&8( 0123#- "4 5617 94:;#-<*4:/









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%&'() *+,-./ .01 '/)0 *+,2&'3)4


)*+,-# ./&'( 0$#1*1+ 2-34567#&8/










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%&'( )*+ ,-.( */(&(0 12'34*5(6 78 9744 4**: 47:( !;!<;


)*+,-# &.&'( /-01234# 50-##6.

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=*9 9( -2( >*7&> 8* 4*-0 8,( ?@A B74( 0(/7'87&> ?*C8(2DC 82-.(4C; 3* 8* EF+C8*G7H(6I
'47': EJ**45-2C6I -&0 '47': E?@A6I -C C,*9& 7& 8,( K7>+2( !;!L;


)*+,-# &.&7( /0"*89"*6+ :;< "33249-.

258
!"#$ &&'
The KML vindov viII a¡¡ear. CIick lhe firsl bullon of lhe vindov, as shovn in lhe
figure beIov. Navigale lo your ´TuloriaI II¨ foIder and Ioad in ArcGIobe lhe
´kosler_Iocalions.kmz¨ fiIe lhal you crealed in sle¡ 17.


()*+,# &-&&' ./012 3)4563-

!"#$ &7'
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


()*+,# &-&7' 8,9:;6<# =9,##4-






259
!"#$ &'(
You can nov visuaIize and relrieve informalion aboul lhe Iocalions visiled by Kosler.
Zoom in, zoom oul, and discover lhe names of each Iocalion aboul vhich Kosler vrole.


)*+,-# &.&'( /012"*034.

CongraluIalions! You have Iearned hov lo converl sha¡efiIes lo KML, and hov lo o¡en
KML fiIes in ArcGIobe. The nexl exercise viII leach you hov lo use Landsal 5 TM
saleIIile dalasels lo assess lhe change of vegelalion in lhe counly of ßannock, Idaho,
Uniled Slales, during lhe ¡eriod of 10 years (2001-2010).














260
!"!#$%&' %%%
Landsal saleIIiles have been ca¡luring images from lhe surface of Iarlh since 1972.
These images can ¡rovide vaIuabIe informalion aboul lhe Iarlh's surface for sludies
aboul use, managemenl, and ¡reservalion of naluraI resources.

A vegelalion index can be efficienlIy used lo delecl vegelaled surfaces from saleIIile
imagery. A vegelalion index is an indicalor of vegelalion heaIlh and abundance. The
NormaIized Difference Vegelalion Index (NDVI) is a vegelalion index lhal is videIy
used lo delecl heaIlhy green vegelalion from saleIIile imagery.

This luloriaI viII leach you hov lo delecl vegelalion informalion from Landsal 5 TM
dalasels in ßannock Counly, Idaho, in 2001 and 2011, res¡ecliveIy.

You viII become famiIiarized vilh lhe foIIoving ArcGIS looIs:
• ´IIoal¨
• ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨
• ´RecIassify¨
• ´Ixlracl by Mask¨

)*+,-./012-*+, 1+. 134+*56/.78/+2,
Idaho Slale Universily's GIS Training and Research Cenler has a¡¡Iied almos¡heric
correclion lo lhe Landsal dalasels you are going lo use in lhis exercise. This means lhal
lhe dalasels can be accuraleIy a¡¡Iied in a lem¡oraI sludy.

You can dovnIoad simiIar dalasels lhal are avaiIabIe for lhe scienlific communily for
free al hll¡://giscenler.isu.edu/dala/.

You viII be using onIy Landsal bands 3 (red) and 4 (near-infrared) in lhis exercise.











261
!"#$%&"'"()*
As aIvays, make sure lhal aII of your exlensions are aclivaled ¡rior lo beginning lhe
exercise. If lhe exlensions are nol aclivaled, you viII (,) be abIe lo com¡Iele lhe
exercise. On ArcMa¡'s menu bar, go lo ´Cuslomize,¨ and lhen choose ´Ixlensions....¨
The ´Ixlensions¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. Check aII lhe exlensions lhal you have avaiIabIe
and cIick ´CIose.¨ IIease nolice lhal lhe ´S¡aliaI AnaIysl¨ exlension is fundamenlaI for
lhe com¡Ielion of lhis exercise.


-%.$&" /012 345)"(*%,(*6 7%(8,70




!"!
$% & '()*+,('- ./0 )&. 1*%2 3'(&4( & 5/6,(' 4/ %4/'( &66 /5 42( /04704 ,&4& ,('*8(, 5'/)
./0' )/,(69 $% ./0 2&8( 6(&'+(, *+ :04/'*&6 ;- 12(+ ./0 3'(&4( &+, '0+ & )/,(6 !"#$
"$&'&()* &(+#, -),) )$. /#01.2,.- ," ) /., "3 +$"2.//./9 <&32 7'/3(%% 1*66 '(%064 *+ +(1
,&4&- &+, ./0 )&. 1*%2 4/ %&8( 42(%( ,&4& *+ & %7(3*5*3 5/6,(' /5 ./0' 32/*3(9

;5 ./0 ,/ +/4 %7(3*5. & 6/3&4*/+ 12('( ./0 1/06, 6*=( ./0' ,&4& 4/ >( %&8(,- 42( ,&4&
1*66 >( %&8(, *+ 42( ,(5&064 ?(/,&4&>&%( @AB(5&0649?,>CD 6/3&4(, &4
B/30)(+4%E$'3F;GEB(5&0649?,>9

$% *+ :04/'*&6 ;- ./0 1*66 3'(&4( &+ A$'3F;G HI J/,(6K0*6,('C )/,(69 :2*% )/,(6 *%
%2/1+ *+ L*?0'( M9!9 :2( )/,(6 %2/1% /0' *+704 ,&4&- 42( %(4 /5 7'/3(%%(% 4/ 12*32 /0'
*+704 ,&4& 1*66 >( %0>N(34(,- &+, 42( /04704 ,&4& /5 /0' )/,(69 <O&)*+( 42( )/,(6
36/%(6. &+, 4'. 4/ 0+,('%4&+, 42( %(4 /5 7'/3(%%(% ,(7*34(, *+ 42( )/,(69 ;5 ./0 3&++/4
0+,('%4&+, 42( )/,(6- ,/ +/4 1/''.9 :2*% (O('3*%( 1*66 4(&32 ./0 2/1 4/ >0*6, &+, '0+
42( )/,(6 %033(%%5066.9


4&'#$. 5678 9"-.* -.+&2,&(' /.:#.(2. "3 /,.+/6

263
!"#$ &'
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/luloriaI3.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe zi¡¡ed foIder. If you ex¡erience any difficuIlies unzi¡¡ing lhe fiIe, ¡Iease
conlacl Anderson Sandes lhrough his e-maiI (sandande+isu.edu). ßecause Landsal
images have a Iarge size, ¡Iease be ¡alienl and vail unliI lhe dovnIoad is finished lo
exlracl lhe fiIes.

!"#$ ('
As you did in TuloriaI I, o¡en ArcMa¡ and cIick lhe ´ModeIßuiIder vindov¨ bullon
|Iigure 3.3j.


)*+,-# ./.' 0123#45,*43#- 6*73268 9,""27/

!"#$ .'
The ´ModeI¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. As in TuloriaI I, cIick lhe ´+¨ bullon lo add lhe in¡ul
dala of your modeI |Iigure 3.4j. As in TuloriaI I, you viII drag GIS looIs from lhe Iisl of
funclions and dro¡ lhese GIS looIs in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov.


)*+,-# ./:' 0123#48 6*7326/

264
!"#$ &'
Navigale lo lhe foIder you dovnIoaded. You viII find lvo sub-foIders named ´2001¨
and ´2011,¨ res¡ecliveIy. You viII aIso find a sha¡efiIe de¡icling ßannock Counly,
vhich ve viII use Ialer. Navigale lo lhe ´2001¨ subfoIder and add lhe Landsal bands
´aLT5¡39r30_20010615b3.rsl¨ and ´AIl5¡39r30_20010615b4.rsl¨ lo lhe ´ModeI¨
vindov.¨ The in¡ul dala are adding lo lhe ´ModeI¨ are a¡¡ro¡riale for lhe NDVI
anaIysis. The NDVI vegelalion index em¡Ioys lhe red and near-infrared bands lo delecl
heaIlhy green vegelalion from saleIIile imagery. ßand 3 corres¡onds lo ´red¨
refIeclance and band 4 corres¡onds lo ´near-infrared¨ refIeclance. Your in¡ul dala
shouId a¡¡ear as in Iigure 3.5.


()*+,# -./' 012341" 51234.











265
!"#$ &'
If you vish lo knov vhal a fiIe Iooks Iike, you can dis¡Iay il in ArcMa¡ by righl-
cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe o¡lion ´Add lo Dis¡Iay¨ |Iigure 3.6j. Minimize
lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov, and you viII be abIe lo see lhe fiIes in ArcMa¡ |Iigure 3.7j.


()*+,# -./' 0122 "3 4)5$6789 3$")3:.


()*+,# -.;' ()6#5 2)5$678#2 ): 1,<=7$.




266
!"#$%
As you have Iearned in lhe firsl luloriaI' (")* "*+,+-./ +-0)# 1.#. 2+// 3$ 4)35$6#$1 #" .
4$# "7 0*"6$44$4.

8#$0 9%
Nolice lhal lhe rasler dalasel shovn in Iigure 3.7 is com¡osed of many ceIIs, or ¡ixeIs.
To ¡erform lhe NDVI anaIysis accuraleIy, ve need lo assure ourseIves lhal lhe numeric
vaIues of lhese ceIIs are re¡resenled .4 1$6+:./4; We can use lhe <=/".# >80.#+./
?-./(4#@A #""/ lo converl lhe numeric vaIue of each ceII inlo a fIoaling-¡oinl
re¡resenlalion.

O¡en lhe ´Search vindov¨ by cIicking lhe ´Search vindov¨ bullon |Iigure 3.8j, ly¡e
´IIoal¨ in lhe search fieId, and ¡ress lhe key ´Inler.¨ Drag lhe ´IIoal (S¡aliaI AnaIysl)¨
looI from lhe Iisl and dro¡ il inlo lhe ´Windov¨ modeI |Iigure 3.9j.


=+,)*$ B;C% <8$.*6D E+-1"2A 3)##"-;


=+,)*$ B;F% G*.,,+-, #""/ 7*": /+4# "7 7)-6#+"-4 .-1 1*"00+-, +# +-#" <H"1$/A
2+-1"2;


267
We viII have lo converl lhe lvo bands ve have Ioaded in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov inlo
decimaIs. ßecause ve have lvo bands, ve viII have lo do lhe same ¡rocedure lvice.
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIes re¡resenling lhe ´IIoal¨ looI (lhe looI lhal you have
dro¡¡ed in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe ´IIoal¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear |Iigure 3.10j.


"#$%&' ()*+, -"./012 3#45/3)

SeIecl band 3, as in Iigure 3.11, and cIick ´OK.¨


"#$%&' ()**, 6045 ( 7&'58)







268
Nntc:
IIease nolice lhal aII lhe oul¡ul dala shovn in lhis exercise are saved in lhe
´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oul¡ul rasler in a ¡Iace of
your choice and under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon under ´Oul¡ul
rasler,¨ and choose a ¡Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oul¡ul dala. By dcIau!t,
ArcMa¡ saves lhe oul¡ul dala of aII ¡rocesses in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase lhal is
Iocaled under Documenls(ArcGIS.

Nov re¡eal lhe ¡rocedure and do lo band 4 lhe same lhal you did lo band 3:


Figurc 3.12: Band 4 (ncar-inIrarcd).

















269
This is vhal your modeI shouId Iook Iike nov:


"#$%&' ()*(+ ,-.'/)

CIick lhe ´Aulo Layoul¨ bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and cIick lhe
´Run¨ bullon lo run your modeI.


"#$%&' ()*0+ 12%3- 456-%37 58. 19%87 :%33-8;)











!"#
%&'( '( )&*+ ,-./ 0-123 (&-.31 3--4 3'42 5-)6


!"#$%& ()*+, -./&0)





















!"#
!"#$ &'
()* *# +,# ,#+-. ") /0# "1# 23+0"#, 4+56/5+"),7 "))58 %& '()& *+,,&**-+../ ,01)&23&4
3'& 1+5&26, )(.+& 0- &(,' ,&.. 0- 0+2 2(*3&2 4(3( 6130 4&,65(.*7 8.6,9 3'& :;&(2,'
<6140<= >+3301 ?@6A+2& B7CD 30 0E&1 3'& .6*3 0- -+1,3601*7 F/E& :G(*3&2 8(.,+.(302= 61
3'& *&(2,' -6&.4H (14 E2&** 3'& 9&/ :I13&27= J* /0+ 464 >&-02&H 42(A 3'& 300. -205 3'& .6*3
(14 420E 63 6130 3'& :%6140<= 504&. ?@6A+2& B7#KD7


9:;/,# <8=>' ?,+;;:@; "))5 A,)B 5:0" )A A/@6":)@0 +@- -,)$$:@; :" :@") 2C)-#57
*:@-)*8














272
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ looI in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov lo see lhe
´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ |Iigure 3.17j:


Figurc 3.17: "Rastcr Ca!cu!atnr" windnw.

Nolice lhal ve are going lo use lhe dala derived from lhe ´IIoal¨ o¡eralion.
´IIoal_rsl1¨ corres¡onds lo band 3 (rcd), vhereas ´IIoal_rsl2¨ corres¡onds lo band 4
(ncar-inIrarcd).

The NDVI equalion is underslood as (ncar-inIrarcd - rcd) / (ncar-inIrarcd + rcd), or,
using lhe derived dala from sle¡ 7, il can formalled as (F!nat_rst2 ÷ F!nat_rst1) /
(F!nat_rst2 + F!nat_rst1).












!"#
%&'&() )*& +,'-.)/01)!2 .34 +,'-.)/01)52 '.6&01 70-8 )*& +9.6&01 .34 :.0;.<'&12 ';1) <6
(';(=;3> &.(* -7 )*&8 ?;)* 6-@0 8-@1&A .34 7-08.) )*& &B@.);-3 .1 1*-?3 ;3 ,;>@0&
#C5DC


"#$%&' ()*+, -./01'& 2/34%3/15&6 7#8957)

E';(= +FGG'6A2 )*&3 +HIA2 .34 0@3 6-@0 8-4&'C


274

"#$%&' ()*+, -./'0)

The resuIl of lhe rasler caIcuIalion lhal you have ¡erformed shouId be a singIe rasler
dalasel vilh binary vaIues ranging from -1 lo 1. To viev lhis singIe rasler dalasel in
ArcMa¡, righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion (´ModeI¨ vindov) and
lhen choose ´Add lo Dis¡Iay¨ |Iigure 3.20j.


"#$%&' ()12, 34// 5. 6#7809:);



275
Minimize lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov, and you viII be abIe lo viev lhe nev rasler dalasel
derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion in ArcMa¡.


"#$%&' ()*+, -'. &/01'& 2/1/0'1 .#13 4/5%'0 &/6$#6$ 7&89 :+ 18 +)

Nolice lhal lhe minimaI vaIue for vegelaled surfaces may vary according lo each
silualion and Iocalion. Ior lhis exercise, ve are going lo use lhe vaIues of 0.2 lo 0.85 as
vaIues lhal de¡icl greenery. We, of course, encourage you lo ex¡erimenl using olher
vaIues lo examine hov veII lhey de¡icl green refIeclance.
1







1
We recommend reading Zohrabi Samani el aI., ´Measuring on-farm irrigalion efficiency vilh chIoride
lracing under deficil irrigalion,¨ !"#$%&' ") *$$+,&-+"% &%. /$&+%&,0 1%,+%00$+%, 131 (2005), 555÷559,
YoungryeI Ryu el aI., ´Tesling lhe ¡erformance of a noveI s¡eclraI refIeclance sensor, buiIl vilh Iighl
emilling diodes (LIDs), lo monilor ecosyslem melaboIism, slruclure and funclion,¨ 2,$+3#'-#$&' &%. 4"$05-
60-0"$"'",7 150 (2010), 1597-1606.


!"#
!"#$ &'
(# )*# *#)+, "- ./# "0# 12#34)//56,7 "--48 %&'( )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 56 /71/81(9 )*'
+,'-./* 01(2304 5:))3( ;<19:.' =>?@A )6&' +B'/7-CC1D64 1( )*' C'-./* D1'72A -(2 &.'CC )*'
8'6 +E()'.>4 F.-9 )*' +B'/7-CC1D6 G,&-)1-7 H(-76C)I4 )337 D.3J )*' 71C) -(2 2.3& 1) 1()3
)*' +K1(2304 J32'7>


95:.*# ;8<<' =*)::5>: "--4 6*-? 45/" -6 6.>3"5->/ )>+ +*-$$5>: 5" 5>"- 1@-+#47
A5>+-A8
















277
Righl-cIick lhe ´RecIassify¨ looI (as shovn in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe
´RecIassify¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear:


"#$%&' ()*(+ ,-'./011#234 5#6785)

In ´In¡ul rasler,¨ choose lhe dala derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion. You viII see aII
lhe vaIues ranging from -1 lo 1.


"#$%&' ()*9+ ,-'./011#234 5#6785)


278
SeIecl aII lhe rovs vilh your mouse and cIick ´DeIele Inlries,¨ as shovn in Iigure 3.25.


"#$%&' ()*+, -.'/'0' 120&#'3)4

Add lhree em¡ly rovs by cIicking lvice on lhe ´Add Inlry¨ bullon:


"#$%&' ()*5, -677 120&8)4


279
Add lhe nev vaIues as shovn in Iigure 3.27. AII vaIues ranging from -1 - 0.2 viII be
cIassified as ´0,¨ or no green refIeclance.¨ AII vaIues ranging from 0.2 - 0.85 viII be
cIassified as ´1,¨ or green refIeclance. AII vaIues ranging from 0.85 - 1 viII be cIassified
as ´2,¨ or no green refIeclance.


"#$%&' ()*+, -..#/$ /'0 123%'4)

CIick lhe ´Aulo Layoul¨ bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and lhe ´Run¨
bullon lo run your modeI:


"#$%&' ()*5, 6-%78 92:8%7; 2/. 6<%/; =%778/4)








280
This is vhal your modeI shouId Iook Iike nov:


"#$%&' ()*+, -./'0)

Righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe recIassificalion ¡rocess and seIecl ´Add lo
Dis¡Iay.¨


"#$%&' ()(1, 23// 4. 5#67089):




!"#
%&'&(&)* +,* (-.*/ 0&'.-01 2,&3 &3 0,4+ 5-67 387**' 3,-6/. /--9 /&9*:


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,'-%./#0$ .12'&)

34/'+
;- '-+ <-7=*+ +,4+ >*8463* ?@A 3-<+047* 433&='3 8-/-73 +- .4+4 74'.-(/5B 5-67 8-/-73
(&=,+ >* .&<<*7*'+ +,4' +,-3* 3,-0' &' C&=67* D1D#1

E*8463* +,* F4/6*3 -< GHI4'. G!I .- '-+ 7*J7*3*'+ =7**' 7*</*8+4'8*B 7&=,+K8/&89 +,*
7*8+4'=/*3 '*L+ +- GHI 4'. G!I 4'. 3*+ +,*&7 8-/-7 +- GM- N-/-71I A*+ +,* F4/6* -< G#I +-
GC*7' ?7**'1I


"#$%&' ()(5+ 64.4&-)

282
Turn on lhe Iayer derived from lhe rasler caIcuIalion. This is vhal your screen shouId
Iook Iike:


"#$%&' ()((* +,-. /0& 1223)

Zoom in lo an area of inleresl (e.g. lhe American IaIIs Reservoir) lo see hov lhe oul¡ul
Iayer derived from your modeI de¡icls vegelaled surfaces accuraleIy. CongraluIalions!
You have Iearned hov lo creale a modeI lhal aIIovs you lo delecl green refIeclance
vaIues from saleIIile imagery.


"#$%&' ()(4* 56'&#789 "8::; <';'&=0#&)

!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' '( ')** +),-&.(/ '0)-0 %123 .4*5(, 64** ')70)8 9488&-: ;&587<= ><?( @AB7/4-7
C< D4,:E )8 70( ,(4/-0 6)(*+F 48+ ?/(,, 70( :(< @A87(/=E G, <&5 +)+ C(6&/(F +/4H 70( 7&&*
6/&I 70( *),7 48+ +/&? )7 )87& 70( @J)8+&'E I&+(*=


()*+,# -.-/' 0,1**)2* "334 5,36 4)7" 35 5+28")327 129 9,3$$)2* )" )2"3 :;39#4<
=)293=.

!"#$ >?'
%4.)H47( 7& 70( @>57&/)4* #E 6&*+(/ 48+ 4++ 70( 9488&-: ;&587< ,04?(6)*( 7& <&5/
I&+(* 5,)8H 70( C577&8=


()*+,# -.-@' :;39#4 =)293=.<

284
!"#$ &&'
Righl-cIick lhe ´Ixlracl by Mask¨ looI (as shovn in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe
´Ixlracl by Mask¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. In ´In¡ul rasler,¨ choose ´RecIass_rasl1¨ and in
´In¡ul rasler or fealure mask dala,¨ choose ´ßannock.sh¡.¨ CIick ´A¡¡Iy¨ and lhen
´OK.¨


()*+,# -.-/' 012",34" 56 7389: ;)<=>;.

CIick lhe ´Aulo Layoul¨ bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and lhe ´Run¨
bullon lo run your modeI:


()*+,# -.-?' 0@+"> A36>+": 3<= 0B+<: 5+""><8.










285
Righl-cIick lhe dala derived from lhe recIassificalion ¡rocess and seIecl ´Add lo
Dis¡Iay.¨


"#$%&' ()(*+ ,-.. /0 1#23456)7

Organize your Iayers as in Iigure 3.40.


"#$%&' ()89+ ,:5;4' 0< =0>/'>/2)7



286
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


"#$%&' ()*+, -.//012 30%/45)

64'7 +8,
Ixamine lhe in¡ul dala and lhe oul¡ul dala, as veII as lhe ¡rocesses, documenled in
lhe modeI shovn in Iigure 3.2 in lhe beginning of lhe exercise. 90 0:4.#/ 4;' <=>? @0&
8A++, creale an #B'/4#1.C modeI lo lhe one shovn in Iigure 3.2. Make sure lhal you use
lhe dala slored in lhe ´2011¨ subfoIder.













287
!"#$ &'(
Go lo lhe ´TabIe of Conlenls¨ ¡ane (Iefl side of lhe screen), and ¡Iace lhe resuIling Iayer
from your 2011 modeI )*+,# lhe resuIling Iayer from lhe 2001 modeI. As you did in
sle¡ 9, sel lhe ´0¨ and ´2¨ vaIues of lhe 2011 Iayer lo ´No CoIor¨ and sel lhe ´1¨ vaIue
of lhe 2011 Iayer lo ´Tzavorile Green.¨


-./01# '234( 5+6+172

!"#$ &3(
This is vhal your screen shouId Iook Iike:


-./01# '23'( 8)9#17 :.7$6)9#: .; <066 #="#;"2

!""
!"#$ &'(
$% &'( )*+,- ./0120 1 314 5*60 2,0 '70 +,')7 *7 8*9(/0 :;<<;


)*+,-# ./00( )*123 42$/


289
!"!#$%&' %)
TuloriaI IV viII leach you hov lo use a digilaI eIevalion modeI (DIM) lo assess vhich
areas of lhe cily of S¡okane, in lhe Slale of Washinglon, Uniled Slales, are fIal or have a
sIo¡e of Iess lhan 0.5 degrees.

The ¡ro|ecl ´S¡okane HisloricaI¨ is a ¡ubIic hislory ¡rogram deveIo¡ed by Iaslern
Washinglon Universily (hll¡://vvv.evu.edu). You are a hislorian and medicaI
geogra¡her inleresled in documenling lhe hislory of and doing fieId vork al lhe High
ßridge Iark. This recrealionaI area of S¡okane, according lo ´S¡okane HisloricaI,¨ vas
used as a sanilarium lo lreal ¡alienls vilh lubercuIosis in lhe ¡asl.

To documenl lhe hislory of High ßridge Iark, you viII have lo Iive in S¡okane for one
year. You are Iooking for a house in vhich lo Iive in S¡okane lhal is cIose lo lhe ¡ark.
You disIike vaIking in hiIIy areas. Therefore, you vanl lo Iive in a house lhal is vilhin
0.5 miIes of High ßridge Iark and lhal is in a fIal area. ßecause you vanl lo Iive in a fIal
area, you are required lo idenlify areas vilh a sIo¡e of Iess lhan 0.5 degree.

You viII use lhe foIIoving GIS funclions:
• ´SIo¡e¨
• ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨
• ´ßuffer¨
• ´Ixlracl by Mask¨

*+,-./0123.+,- 2,/ 245,+670/890,3-
The s¡aliaI dala you are using in lhis exercise are courlesy of lhe Cily of S¡okane
vebsile (hll¡://vvv.s¡okanecily.org).












290
!"#$%&"'"()*
As aIvays, make sure lhal aII of your exlensions are aclivaled ¡rior lo beginning lhe
exercise. If lhe exlensions are nol aclivaled, you viII (,) be abIe lo com¡Iele lhe
exercise. On ArcMa¡'s menu bar, go lo ´Cuslomize,¨ and lhen choose ´Ixlensions....¨
The ´Ixlensions¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. Check aII lhe exlensions lhal you have avaiIabIe
and cIick ´CIose.¨ IIease nolice lhal lhe ´S¡aliaI AnaIysl¨ exlension is fundamenlaI for
lhe com¡Ielion of lhis exercise.


-%.$&" /012 345)"(*%,(*6 7%(8,70




291
As a reminder, you may vish creale a foIder lo slore aII of lhe oul¡ul dala derived from
your modeI. As you have Iearned from TuloriaIs I and III, vhen you creale and run a
modeI !"#$ "$&'&()* &(+#, -),) )$. /#01.2,.- ," ) /., "3 +$"2.//./. Iach ¡rocess viII
resuIl in nev dala, and you may vish lo save lhese dala in a s¡ecific foIder of your
choice. If you do nol s¡ecify a Iocalion vhere you vouId Iike your dala lo be saved, lhe
dala viII be saved in lhe defauIl geodalabase (´DefauIl.gdb¨) Iocaled al
Documenls(ArcGIS(DefauIl.gdb.

As in lhe ¡revious exercises, you viII creale an ´ArcGIS 10 ModeIßuiIder¨ modeI. This
modeI is shovn in Iigure 4.2. The modeI shovs our in¡ul dala, lhe sel of ¡rocesses lo
vhich our in¡ul dala viII be sub|ecled, and lhe oul¡ul dala of our modeI. Ixamine lhe
modeI cIoseIy and lry lo undersland lhe sel of ¡rocesses de¡icled in lhe modeI. If you
cannol undersland lhe modeI, do nol vorry! This exercise viII leach you hov lo buiId
and run lhe modeI successfuIIy.


4&'#$. 5678 9"-.* -.+&2,&(' /.:#.(2. "3 /,.+/6


;,.+ <8
Go lo hll¡://vvv.geogra¡hicaIIyinlegraledhislory.com/v¡-
conlenl/u¡Ioads/exercises/luloriaI4.zi¡

DovnIoad lhe zi¡¡ed foIder.



292
!"#$ &'
As you did in lhe ¡revious exercises, o¡en ArcMa¡ and cIick lhe ´ModeIßuiIder
vindov¨ bullon:

()*+,# -./' 0123#45+)43#, 6)73268 9+""27.

!"#$ /'
The ´ModeI¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. CIick lhe ´+¨ bullon lo add lhe in¡ul dala of your
modeI. As in lhe ¡revious exercises, you viII drag GIS looIs from lhe Iisl of funclions
and dro¡ lhese GIS looIs in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov.


()*+,# -.-' 0123#48 6)7326.







293
!"#$ &'
Navigale lo lhe foIder you dovnIoaded. Load lhe DIM from vhich lhe sIo¡e viII be
caIcuIaled and lhe ´HighßridgeIark.sh¡¨ sha¡efiIe inlo lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov:


()*+,# &-.' /0$+" 12"2-















!"#
!"#$ &'
%&'( )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 56 /71/81(9 )*' +,'-./* 01(2304 5:))3( ;<19:.' #=>?@ )6&'
+,73&'4 1( )*' A'-./* B1'72@ -(2 &.'AA )*' 8'6 +C()'.=4 D.-9 )*' +,73&' E,&-)1-7
F(-76A)G4 )337 B.3H )*' 71A) -(2 2.3& 1) 1()3 )*' +I1(2304 H32'7 ;<19:.' #=J?=


()*+,# -./' 0!#1,23 4)56789 :+""75.


()*+,# -.;' <,1**)5* "77= >,7? =)@" 7> >+52")75@ 156 6,7$$)5* )" )5"7 0A76#=9
8)5678.










295
!"#$ &'
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe re¡resenling lhe ´SIo¡e¨ looI (lhe looI lhal you have
dro¡¡ed inlo lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe ´SIo¡e¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. In ´In¡ul
rasler,¨ choose ´1239CATD.DDI.¨ In ´Z¨ faclor (o¡lionaI), Ieave lhe defauIl vaIue of
´1.¨


()*+,# -./' 0!12$#3 4)5624.

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle¡ viII be saved in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oul¡ul rasler in a ¡Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.8 and choose a
¡Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oul¡ul dala. 78 6#9:+1"; ArcMa¡ saves lhe oul¡ul
dala of aII ¡rocesses in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick ´A¡¡Iy¨ and lhen ´OK.¨






!"#
!"#$ &'
%&'( )&*+, -.&',* ,&&/ ,0/+ 102'(+ 34"4 5,06/ 7.+ 89'7& :;<&'7= >'77&? 7& &(2;?0@+ 7.+
,;<&'7 &A <&'( )&*+,B ;?* 6,06/ 7.+ 8C'?= >'77&? 7& ('? <&'( )&*+, D102'(+ 34EFG4


()*+,# -./' 0123#45 6)7326.


()*+,# -.89' 0:+"2 ;<=2+"5 <73 0>+75 ?+""27@.








297
!"#$ &'
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.11. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe derived dalasel
Iooks Iike, you can dis¡Iay il in ArcMa¡ by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe
o¡lion ´Add lo Dis¡Iay.¨ You viII see lhe dalasel conlaining sIo¡e vaIues |Iigure 4.12j.


()*+,# -.//' 0122 "3 4)5$678.9


()*+,# -./:' 4#,);#2 ,75"#, 27"75#" <3="7)=)=* 563$# ;76+#5.

!"#
!"#$ &'
%&' (')* +*', -(./0.'+ -1'(*-23-(4 56'5+ -( 7&-8& *&' +0/,' -+ 0'++ *&5( 9:;: <,'( *&'
=>'568& 7-(1/7? @3 80-8A-(4 *&' =>'568& 7-(1/7? @B**/( CD-4B6' E:FGHI *3,' =J5+*'6
K508B05*/6? -( *&' +'568& 2-'01I 5(1 ,6'++ *&' A'3 =L(*'6:? M654 *&' =J5+*'6 K508B05*/6
N>,5*-50 O(503+*P? *//0 26/Q *&' 0-+* 5(1 16/, -* -(*/ *&' =R-(1/7? Q/1'0 CD-4B6' E:FEH:


()*+,# -./0' 1!#2,34 5)6789: ;+""86.


()*+,# -./-' <,2**)6* "88= >,8? =)@" 8> >+63")86@ 267 7,8$$)6* )" )6"8 1A87#=:
9)6789.








299
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe re¡resenling lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ looI (lhe looI lhal
you have dro¡¡ed inlo lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ vindov viII
a¡¡ear. You viII creale a condilionaI slalemenl. In ´CondilionaI,¨ choose ´Con.¨ SeIecl
lhe ´SIo¡e_DDI1¨ Iayer from lhe ´Layers and variabIes¨ Iisl by cIicking il vilh your
mouse. Iormal lhe equalion as shovn in Iigure 4.15. ßecause lhis is a condilionaI
slalemenl, lhe vaIue of ´1¨ means lrue, vhereas lhe vaIue of ´0¨ means faIse. In
formalling lhe equalion as shovn in Iigure 4.15, lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalor¨ viII relurn
onIy sIo¡e vaIues beIov 0.5.


)*+,-# ./&0( 1234"#- 5367,63"8-9 :*;<8:/

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle¡ viII be saved in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oul¡ul rasler in a ¡Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.15 and choose
a ¡Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oul¡ul dala. => <#?3,6"@ ArcMa¡ saves lhe oul¡ul
dala of aII ¡rocesses in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick ´A¡¡Iy¨ and lhen ´OK.¨






!""
!"#$ &&'
$%&' (%)*+ ,-%&+) +%%. +/.* 0/1&'* 23453 6+/7. 8-* 9:&8% ;<=%&8> ?&88%@ 8% %'1<@/A*
8-* +<=%&8 %B =%&' (%)*+ <@) 7+/7. 8-* 9C&@> ?&88%@ 8% '&@ =%&' (%)*+ D0/1&'* 234EF3


()*+,# -.&/' 0123#45 6)7326.


()*+,# -.&8' 09+"2 :;<2+"5 ;73 0=+75 >+""27?.














301
!"#$ &'(
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.18. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe derived dalasel
Iooks Iike, you can dis¡Iay il in ArcMa¡ by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe
o¡lion ´Add lo Dis¡Iay.¨ You viII see lhe dalasel conlaining sIo¡e vaIues lhal are Iess
lhan 0.5 |Iigure 4.19j.


)*+,-# ./&0( 1233 "4 5*6$789/:


)*+,-# ./&;( 5#-*<#3 -86"#- 38"86#" =4>"8*>*>+ 674$# <87,#6/



!"#
!"#$%
%&'() *+&,)- ./+. +0) &)-- ./+1 "23 +0) 0)(0)-)1.)4 56 ./) 1,75)0 89:; </)0)+- -&'()
*+&,)- ./+. +0) &+0=)0 ./+1 "23 +0) 0)(0)-)1.)4 56 ./) 1,75)0 8"; >?@=,0) A29BC2 %). ./)
*+&,) 'D 8"; .' 8E' F'&'02;


'()*+$ ,-./% 0!" 1"2"+-3


'()*+$ ,-.4% 5*(#672$ 82"9$8-
!"!
!"#$ &'(
$%& '&() *)&+ ,'-./-&* 0++/1,'2 0 3455&6 .5 "78 9,/&* ). )%& *%0+&5,/& :&+,;),'2 <,2%
=6,:2& >06?7 @+&' )%& AB&06;% C,':.CD 31 ;/,;?,'2 )%& AB&06;% C,':.CD 34)).'
EF,246& G7HHIJ )1+& A=455&6D ,' )%& *&06;% 5,&/:J 0': +6&** )%& ?&1 AK')&67D L602 )%&
A=455&6 MN'0/1*)OD )../ 56.9 )%& /,*) 0': :6.+ ,) ,'). )%& AP,':.CD 9.:&/ EF,246& G7H!I7


)*+,-# ./00( 1!#2-34 5*6789: ;,""86/


)*+,-# ./0'( <-2++*6+ "88= >-8? =*@" 8> >,63"*86@ 267 7-8$$*6+ *" *6"8 1A87#=:
9*6789/









304
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe re¡resenling lhe ´ßuffer¨ looI (lhe looI lhal you have
dro¡¡ed inlo lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe ´ßuffer¨ vindov viII a¡¡ear. In ´In¡ul
Iealures,¨ choose ´HighßridgeIark.sh¡,¨ and in ´Linear unil,¨ choose MiIes and ly¡e
lhe vaIue of 0.5, as in Iigure 4.24.


)*+,-# './'( 01,22#-3 4*5674.

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle¡ viII be saved in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oul¡ul rasler in a ¡Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.25 and choose
a ¡Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oul¡ul dala. 18 6#29,:"; ArcMa¡ saves lhe oul¡ul
dala of aII ¡rocesses in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick ´A¡¡Iy¨ and lhen ´OK.¨

!"#$ &<(
CIick lhe ´Aulo Layoul¨ bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI and cIick lhe
´Run¨ bullon lo run your modeI |Iigure 4.25j.

)*+,-# './<( 0=,"7 >987,"3 956 0?,53 @,""75A.


305
!"#$ &'(
Your modeI shouId Iook Iike Iigure 4.26. If you vish lo knov vhal lhe buffer Iooks Iike,
you can dis¡Iay il in ArcMa¡ by righl-cIicking lhe fiIe and lhen choosing lhe o¡lion
´Add lo Dis¡Iay¨ |Iigure 4.27j.


)*+,-# ./0'( 1233 "4 5*6$789/:


)*+,-# ./0;( <,==#- 4= >/? @*7#6 6,--4,A3*A+ B*+C <-*3+# D8-E/
!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&' (')* +*', -+ *. ./*0-( *&' +1.,' 2013'+ 4014310*'5 -( +*', 6" *&0* 7011 8-*&-( *&' /377'9
.7 ":; <-1'+ +399.3(5-(= >-=& ?9-5=' @09A: %. 04&-'2' *&-+ =.01B 8' 3+' *&' *..1
CD)*904* /E F0+A:G H,'( *&' CI'094& 8-(5.8G /E 41-4A-(= *&' CI'094& 8-(5.8G /3**.(
JK-=39' L:MNOB *E,' C?377'9G -( *&' +'094& 7-'15B 0(5 ,9'++ *&' A'E CD(*'9:G P90= *&'
CD)*904* /E F0+A QI,0*-01 R(01E+*SG *..1 79.< *&' 1-+* 0(5 59., -* -(*. *&' CT-(5.8G
<.5'1 JK-=39' L:MUO:


)*+,-# ./01( 2!#3-45 6*789:; <,""97/


)*+,-# .(0=( >-3++*7+ "99? @-9A ?*B" 9@ @,74"*97B 378 8-9$$*7+ *" *7"9 2C98#?;
:*789:/








307
!"#$ &'(
Righl-cIick lvice on lhe reclangIe re¡resenling lhe ´Ixlracl by Mask¨ looI (lhe looI lhal
you have dro¡¡ed in lhe ´ModeI¨ vindov) and lhe ´Ixlracl by Mask¨ vindov viII
a¡¡ear. In ´In¡ul rasler,¨ choose lhe dalasel derived from lhe ´Rasler CaIcuIalion¨
o¡eralion. In ´In¡ul rasler or fealure mask dala,¨ choose lhe dalasel derived from lhe
´ßuffer¨ o¡eralion.


)*+,-# ./01( 234"-56" 78 95:;/<

IIease nolice lhal lhe dala derived from lhis sle¡ viII be saved in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨
geodalabase. If you vish, you can save lhe oul¡ul rasler in a ¡Iace of your choice and
under a differenl name. To do lhis, cIick lhe bullon shovn in Iigure 4.31 and choose
a ¡Iace in vhich you vanl lo save lhe oul¡ul dala. =8 >#?5,@"A ArcMa¡ saves lhe oul¡ul
dala of aII ¡rocesses in lhe ´DefauIl.gdb¨ geodalabase lhal is Iocaled under
Documenls(ArcGIS. CIick ´A¡¡Iy¨ and lhen ´OK.¨

!"#$ &B(
CIick lhe ´Aulo Layoul¨ bullon lo organize lhe Iayoul of your modeI, and cIick lhe
´Run¨ bullon lo run your modeI |Iigure 4.31j.

)*+,-# ./0&( 2C,"D E58D,"< 5F> 2G,F< 7,""DF:/


!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'( )*+,-*./0 1&0/- 23&'-0 -&&4 -*4/ *+ 5*6'(/ 78!9:


)*+,-# ./0&( )*123*4#5 675#3/

!"#$ &8(
;& 2// <3/ 2'*<,=-/ ,(/,> (*63<?@-*@4 <3/ 0,<,2/< 0/(*A/0 )(&1 <3/ BCD<(,@< =E F,24G
&H/(,<*&+ ,+0 @3&&2/ <3/ &H<*&+ BI00 <& J*2H-,E8G ;3*2 *2 K3,< <3/ 2'*<,=-/ ,(/, 23&'-0
-&&4 -*4/:


)*+,-# ./00( !,*"293# 2-#2/
309
!"#$ &&'
You are nol yel seeing lhe suilabIe area because lhe ´Ixlracl by Mask¨ funclion has
given you lvo vaIues: ´0,¨ or faIse, and ´1¨ or lrue. Therefore, you shouId sel lhe vaIue
of ´0¨ lo no coIor.


()*+,# -./-' 012 3242,.5

Nov you can see lhe a¡¡ro¡riale areas vilh a sIo¡e of Iess lhan 0.5 degrees.


()*+,# -./6' !+)"784# 7,#79 :)"; 942$# 2< 4#99 ";7= >.6 ?#*,##9.
!"#
!"#$ &'(
%&'() *+, -.**/0 123/4,&5 6'04/67 */ 89:, ;/.< =/4,&> ?/.< =/4,& 6'&& -, 89:,4
'0 *+, 2@//&-/A5 *+9* '8 &/(9*,4 .04,< B/(.=,0*8CD<(EFG> %&/8, *+, 2H'04/65 =/4,&>

!"#$ &)(
I0 D<(39JK8 =,0. -9<L (&'() *+, -.**/0> M9:'N9*, */ ;/.< O/&4,< 904 &/94 *+,
8+9J,O'&, 28*<,,*85 '0 D<(39J> I<N90'P, ;/.< &9;,<8 8/ *+9* *+,; &//) &'), Q'N.<, R>!S>
FN0/<, *+, 2E,/N<9J+'( %//<4'09*, G;8*,=8 69<0'0N5 6'04/6 *+9* =9; 9JJ,9<>


*+,-.# )/'0( 123#.4/














!""
!"#$ &'(
$% &'( )*+,- ./0120 1 314 5*60 2,0 '70 +,')7 *7 8*9(/0 :;!<;


)*+,-# ./01( )*234 53$/

='79/12(512*'7+> ?'( ,1@0 501/70A ,') 2' B(*5A 17A /(7 +(..0++%(55& 1 .1/2'9/14,*.
3'A05 2,12 *A072*%*0+ %512 +5'40+; $% &'( %005 (7.'3%'/21B50 )*2, ),12 &'( ,1@0 501/70A-
4501+0 9' B1.6 2' 2,0 B09*77*79 '% 2,0 0C0/.*+0 17A .1/0%(55& %'55') 2,0 *7+2/(.2*'7+
191*7 (72*5 &'( %005 .'3%'/21B50;


312
!"#"!"$%"&
ßaker, A.R.H. ´RefIeclions on lhe reIalions of hisloricaI geogra¡hy and lhe AnnaIes
SchooI of hislory.¨ in !"# %&&'(#) *+",,(- +./0/+'( '))#))1#&0)2 3,(4556 ed. S. CIark. London:
RoulIedge, 1999.

___________. ´On lhe ReIalions of Hislory and Geogra¡hy.¨ 7/)0,./+'((8 *9#':/&; 5, no. 6
(}uIy/Augusl 2004): 27-29.

___________. <#,;.'9"8 '&= 7/)0,.8- >./=;/&; 0"# ?/3/=#. Cambridge: Cambridge
Universily Iress, 2003.

ßIack, Iiona A., ßerlrum H. MacDonaId, and }. MaIcom W. ßIack. ´Geogra¡hic
Informalion Syslems: A Nev Research melhod for ßook Hislory.¨ >,,: 7/)0,.8 1, no. 1
(1998): 11-31.

ßIoch, Marc. @#) +'.'+0A.#) ,./;/&'BC =# (D"/)0,/.# .B.'(# E.'&F'/)#4 Iaris: Armand CoIin,
1931.

ßoIslad, IauI. <5* GB&='1#&0'()- % G/.)0 !#C0 ,& <#,;.'9"/+ 5&E,.1'0/,& *8)0#1).
Minnesola: Iider Iress, While ßear Lake, 2008.

Cam¡beII, }ames. 5&0.,=B+0/,& 0, H#1,0# *#&)/&;. Nev York, London: The GuiIford Iress,
2008.

ChurchiII, Roberl, and Amy HiIIier. ´Teaching vilh GIS.¨ in I('+/&; 7/)0,.8- 7,J K'9)6
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Cunfer, Geoff. M& 0"# <.#'0 I('/&)- %;./+B(0B.# '&= N&3/.,&1#&0. CoIIege Slalion: Texas
A&M Universily Iress, 2005.

Donahue, ßrian. !"# <.#'0 K#'=,J- G'.1#.) '&= 0"# @'&= /& L,(,&/'( L,&+,.=. Nev
Haven: YaIe Universily Iress, 2004.

___________. ´Ma¡¡ing Husbandry in Concord: GIS as a TooI for InvironmenlaI
Hislory.¨ in I('+/&; 7/)0,.8- 7,J K'9)6 *9'0/'( ?'0'6 '&= <5* '.# L"'&;/&; 7/)0,./+'(
*+",('.)"/9, ed. Anne K. KnovIes. RedIands: ISRI Iress, 2008.


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Ierrez, GiIberlo. H'.') # 9.#+/,)') 3/)0') # 9'&,.'1') =, H#+/E#- OPQQ R OSQQ4
!"#$%"& !"#$%&!!" $%&'"(%) *+,-!"#$%&' " )*+,-./01 23456

Gregory, Ian N., and IauI S. III. 7/)0,./+'( <5*- !#+"&,(,;/#)6 K#0",=,(,;/#) '&= *+",('.)"/9.
Cambridge: Cambridge Universily Iress, 2007.

___________, and Richard G. HeaIey. ´HisloricaI GIS: Slrucluring, Ma¡¡ing, and
AnaIysing Geogra¡hies of lhe Iasl.¨ I.,;.#)) /& 7B1'& <#,;.'9"8 31, no. 5 (2007): 638-
653.

HiII, Linda L. <#,.#E#.#&+/&;- !"# <#,;.'9"/+ %)),+/'0/,&) ,E 5&E,.1'0/,&. Cambridge,
Massachusells, and London: MIT Iress, 2006.

Hinman, Sarah I., }ason K ßIackburn, and Andrev Curlis. ´S¡aliaI and Tem¡oraI
Slruclure of Ty¡hoid Oulbreaks in Washinglon, D.C., 1906-1909: IvaIualing LocaI
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<#,;.'9"/+,6 # N0&,;.'9"/+, =, >.')/(. Rio de }aneiro: ß. L. Gardiner, 1867.

KnovIes, Anne KeIIy. ´Inlroduclion.¨ *,+/'( *+/#&+# 7/)0,.8 24, no. 3 (IaII 2000): 451-470.

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___________. 7,J 0, @/# J/0" K'9)4 Chicago: Universily of Chicago Iress, 1996.

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2014-2040. doi: 10.1111/|.1478-0542.2007.00476.x.

314
___________. ´Whal hislorians vanl from GIS.¨ %.+U#J), 29, 2 (summer 2007): 4-6.
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(accessed 14 May 2014).

___________., and Laura Woodvorlh-Ney. ´Invisioning a masler's degree ¡rogram in
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no. 2 (Se¡lember 2005).

___________. ¨Graduale Iducalion in Geogra¡hicaIIy-Inlegraled Hislory: A IersonaI
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___________. ´HisloricaI Sludies, GIS for.¨ in N&+8+(,9#=/' ,E <#,;.'9"/+ 5&E,.1'0/,&
*+/#&+#, ed. Karen Kam¡. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2008.

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Ryu, YoungryeI, Dennis D. ßaIdocchi, }ose¡h VerfaiIIie, Siyan Ma, Mallhias IaIk, IIse
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s¡eclraI refIeclance sensor, buiIl vilh Iighl emilling diodes (LIDs), lo monilor
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Samani, Zohrab, Ted Sammis, Rhonda Skaggs, N. AIkhaliri, and }ose Deras.
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Irrigalion.¨ T,B.&'( ,E 5../;'0/,& '&= ?.'/&';# N&;/&##./&; 131, no. 6 (2005): 555-559.

Sieberl, Loren. ´Using GIS lo Documenl, VisuaIize, and Inler¡rel Tokyo's S¡aliaI
Hislory.¨ *,+/'( *+/#&+# 7/)0,.8 24, no. 3 (2000): 537-574.

Tufle, Idvard R. N&3/)/,&/&; 5&E,.1'0/,&. Cheshire, CT: Gra¡hics Iress, 1990.

Tyner, }udilh. I./&+/9(#) ,E K'9 ?#)/;&. Nev York: The GuiIford Iress, 2010.


315
UeIand, }eff, and ßarney Warf. ´RaciaIized To¡ogra¡hies: AIlilude and Race in
Soulhern Cilies.¨ <#,;.'9"/+'( H#3/#J 91, no. 1 (2010): 1-29.

Worsler, DonaId. ?B)0 >,J(- !"# *,B0"#.& I('/&) /& 0"# OVWX)4 Nev York: Oxford
Universily Iress, 1979.

Yuan, May. ´Dynamics GIS: Recognizing lhe dynamic nalure of reaIily.¨ %.+ U#J) 30, 1
(S¡ring 2008). hll¡://vvv.esri.com/nevs/arcnevs/s¡ring08arlicIes/dynamics-gis.hlmI
(accessed 14 May 2014).































316
()*&&+!,- %.//.012 3456 758/4
+89(1.:5- ArcGIobe de¡icls a virluaI gIobe, vilh geogra¡hic and ma¡¡ing informalion.
ArcGIobe ¡rovides 3-D symboIogy and navigalion. See (..;15 "<8=>?

+==8@:A=5 =<:15- The dala used in a GIS is slored in a s¡readsheel caIIed an allribule
labIe. Iach Iine, or rov, in lhe s¡readsheel can conlain dala heId in a number of
coIumns, lhe number of coIumns and lhe ly¡e of dala each coIumn hoIds is user-
defined, making lhe s¡readsheel accommodaling enough lo hoId aImosl any ly¡e of
informalion. See +==8@:A=54?

+==8@:A=54- Allribules in a GIS couId be names, ¡o¡uIalion informalion, homes, cro¡s,
or any number of lhings. Allribules in a GIS are slored in lhe +==8@:A=5 =<:15.

+B@/A=><1 C8.D59=@.0- An azimulhaI ¡ro|eclion uses a ¡Ianar surface and ¡Iaces il
across a singIe ¡oinl of lhe Iarlh's surface. AzimulhaI ¡ro|eclions ¡reserve direclion
from a cerlain ¡oinl. See E8.D59=@.0?

F..15<0 1.;@9- To vrile a query, lhe user musl buiId a IogicaI ex¡ression using ßooIean
o¡eralors and define lhe informalion lo be used lo ansver lhe query. See GA582@0;?

FAHH58 &><C54- ´ßuffer Sha¡es¨ is a Ma¡Windov looI Iocaled under ´Veclor
O¡eralions¨ in lhe ´TooIbox¨ viev. See FAHH58@0;?

FAHH58@0;- The ßuffering looI ¡Iaces a buffer zone around user-defined ¡oinls, Iines, or
¡oIygons. This looI aIIovs lhe user lo creale a ¡oIygon lhal encom¡asses a defined
¡orlion of lhe ma¡, and lo delermine lhe dislances belveen lhe cenler of lhis nev
¡oIygon and olher Iocalions on lhe ma¡.

%<8=.;8<C>@9 /.651- A carlogra¡hic modeI conslilules a gra¡hic re¡resenlalion of lhe
s¡aliaI dala, and lhe o¡eralions lo vhich lhe dala are submilled. A carlogra¡hic modeI
aIIovs lhe user lo describe lhe sequence in vhich each GIS o¡eralion is ¡resenled. See
I.651 FA@1658?

%<8=.;8<C>2- Carlogra¡hy is lhe sludy and ¡raclice of ¡roducing ma¡s. Carlogra¡hy
combines eIemenls of arl, science, and lechnoIogy.

%>.8.C15=> /<C- A lhemalic ma¡ in vhich areas are shaded in ¡ro¡orlion lo lhe
measuremenl of lhe dala variabIe being de¡icled. See &2/:.1.;2?

317
%1@CC@0; =..1- The ´CIi¡¡ing¨ looI in Ma¡Windov is Iocaled under ´OverIays¨ in lhe
´TooIbox¨ viev. See %1@CC@0;?

%1@CC@0;- CIi¡¡ing is lhe ¡rocess of excising unnecessary dala lo cuslomize a ma¡. Ior
exam¡Ie, vhen Iine dala such as roads, rivers, or raiIroads exlend beyond lhe borders of
a ¡oIygon, a GIS ¡raclilioner or ma¡maker can cul, or 91@C, lhe Iine dala, by using lhe
%1@CC@0; =..1?

%.1.8- When used ¡ro¡erIy, coIor can enhance carlogra¡hic visuaIizalion, hovever,
¡oor coIor choices can obscure im¡orlanl as¡ecls of a ma¡. See %<8=.;8<C>2?
%.0@9<1 C8.D59=@.0- A conicaI ¡ro|eclion ¡Iaces a cone over a ¡arl of lhe earlh. Wilh a
conicaI ¡ro|eclion, area is ¡reserved, bul nol scaIe and sha¡e. See E8.D59=@.0?

%.0=.A8 1@054: AIso caIIed @4.1@054. Conlour Iines are Iines lhal deIineale differenl
eIevalion vaIues.

%.0=8.1 C.@0=4- ConlroI ¡oinls are reference ¡oinls lhal aIIov lhe user lo aIign a
scanned or digilized ma¡ lo an aIready ¡ro|ecled sha¡efiIe of lhe same area. See
(5.85H58509@0;?

%21@068@9<1 C8.D59=@.0- A cyIindricaI ¡ro|eclion, in essence, vra¡s a geomelric ¡Iane
around lhe earlh. The resuIl is a ¡Ianar re¡resenlalion of lhe Iarlh. Wilh lhis cyIindricaI
¡ro|eclion, lhere is Iess dislorlion around lhe equalor and more around lhe IoIar
Regions. See E8.D59=@.0?

J<=A/- A dalum ¡rovides a modeI of lhe Iarlh as an eIIi¡soid, because lhe Iarlh is nol
a ¡erfecl eIIi¡soid, lhere are many differenl dalums lo ex¡ress ils irreguIar sha¡e. When
lhe dalum modeI is ex¡ressed in Iongilude and Ialilude (and oflen eIevalion) dala, lhe
resuIl is commonIy caIIed, in lhe GIS vorId, a ;5.;8<C>@9 9..86@0<=5 424=5/. When
crealing a ma¡, il is im¡orlanl firsl lo assign a dalum lo give meaning lo lhe Iocalion of
your dala.

J@;@=<1 515K<=@.0 /.651 LJ"IM- AIso caIIed a digilaI lerrain modeI. A digilaI eIevalion
modeI, or DIM, is a rasler fiIe lhal conlains eIevalion dala al lhe ¡ixeI IeveI and shovs a
3-D re¡resenlalion of a lerrain or surface. See !<4=58 6<=<.

J@;@=@B@0;- Digilizing, in generaI lerms, means laking dala from an anaIog formal and
lransferring lhem inlo a digilaI formal. In GIS, digilizing may mean digilaIIy lracing
fealures such as buiIdings, rivers, counlies, elc., inlo ¡oinls, Iines, or ¡oIygons.

318
"7!&NO- Iuro¡ean TerreslriaI Reference Syslem 1989. See J<=A/?

"PC.8= &5159=@.0- ´Ix¡orl SeIeclion¨ is a Ma¡Windov looI Iocaled under ´Veclor
O¡eralions¨ in lhe ´TooIbox¨ viev. ´Ix¡orl SeIeclion¨ aIIovs lhe user lo ex¡orl a user-
defined area on lhe ma¡ as a sha¡efiIe.

"P=8<9= :2 I<4Q- The ´Ixlracl by Mask¨ looI aIIovs lhe user lo delermine vhich ceII (or
¡ixeI) vaIues faII vilhin a user-defined area. See !<4=58 6<=<?

#1.<=- The ´IIoal¨ looI aIIovs lhe user lo converl lhe numeric vaIue of each ceII (or
¡ixeI) inlo a fIoaling-¡oinl re¡resenlalion. See !<4=58 6<=<?

(5.9.6@0;- Geocoding is a ¡rocess lhal assigns X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and
Ialilude vaIues, lo addresses, cilies, or olher dala lhal can be re¡resenled vilh ¡oinls.

(5.;8<C>@9 9..86@0<=5 424=5/- See J<=A/?

(5.85H58509@0;- Georeferencing is lhe ¡rocess of a¡¡Iying reaI-vorId coordinales lo a
scanned or digilized ma¡ lhrough conlroI ¡oinls. Georeferencing aIIovs lhe user lo
aIign a ma¡ lo an aIready ¡ro|ecled sha¡efiIe of lhe same area. See %.0=8.1 C.@0=4?

(..;15 "<8=>- GoogIe Iarlh is a free ¡rogram lhal de¡icls a virluaI gIobe, vilh
geogra¡hic and ma¡¡ing informalion, aIlhough il is nol a com¡Iele GIS ¡rogram.
GoogIe Iarlh uses digilaI eIevalion modeIs lo de¡icl lhe surface of lhe Iarlh, and il,
lherefore, aIIovs lhe user lo oblain a visuaIizalion of lhe Iarlh in lhree dimensions.

(..;15 (5.9.658- ´GoogIe Geocoder¨ is a Ma¡Windov ¡Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
geocode Iocalions. See (5.9.6@0;?

R650=@H2 E8.D59=@.0- ´Idenlify Iro|eclion¨ is a Ma¡Windov looI Iocaled under
´Iro|eclions¨ in lhe ´TooIbox¨ viev lhal aIIovs lhe user lo examine if a dalum or
¡ro|eclion has been assigned lo a sha¡efiIe.

R/<;5 =. I<C- ´Image lo Ma¡¨ is a Ma¡Windov ¡Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo use
conlroI ¡oinls lo aIign a scanned or digilized ma¡ lo an aIready ¡ro|ecled sha¡efiIe of
lhe same area. See (5.85H58509@0;?

R/C.8=S)&- The ´Im¡orlXLS¨ looI aIIovs lhe user lo converl a s¡readsheel fiIe
conlaining X and Y coordinales, or Iongilude and Ialilude vaIues, inlo a sha¡efiIe. See
&C<=@<1 %.0K58=58?

319
R0=58459=@.0- The ´Inlerseclion¨ looI aIIovs a user lo visuaIize s¡aliaI informalion (for
exam¡Ie, ¡oIygons or Iines) lhal overIa¡ or inlersecl. The ´Inlerseclion¨ looI in
Ma¡Windov is Iocaled under ´OverIays¨ in lhe ´TooIbox¨ viev.

R4.1@054- AIso caIIed 9.0=.A8 1@054? IsoIines are Iines lhal deIineale differenl eIevalion
vaIues.

TI)- KML slands for KeyhoIe Marku¡ Language. KML fiIes are ¡rimariIy designed for
use in GoogIe Iarlh. KML fiIes, combined vilh GoogIe Iarlh, aIIov lhe user lo enhance
lhe visuaIizalion of lheir dala. See (..;15 "<8=>?

)<=@=A65- Lines of Ialilude cross Iines of 1.0;@=A65? The equalor is lhe equivaIenl of lhe
IaleraI ¡rime meridian, and il divides lhe vorId inlo lhe Norlhern and Soulhern
hemis¡heres. See ).0;@=A65.
)<2584- Various ly¡es of geogra¡hic dala (for exam¡Ie, ¡oinls, Iines, or ¡oIygons) lhal
can be added lo Ma¡Windov or ArcGIS, and lhen lurned on and off.

)5;506- A Iegend ex¡Iains lhe symboIs used on lhe ma¡. See %<8=.;8<C>2?

)@054- Lines in a GIS are made of a series of verlices, or connecled ¡oinls, lhal may be
re¡resenlalive of Ienglh. Lines ly¡icaIIy re¡resenl rivers or slreels, lhough lhey are nol
Iimiled lo lhese lhings. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

).0;@=A65- Longilude is anchored by lhe ¡rime meridian, an imaginary Iine vhich is
delermined lo be 0° and vhich circIes lhe earlh from lhe Norlh IoIe lo lhe Soulh IoIe,
dividing lhe earlh inlo lhe Iaslern and Weslern hemis¡heres. See )<=@=A65?
I<C +1;5:8<- Ma¡ AIgebra is a sel of o¡eralions, such as addilion, sublraclion,
muIli¡Iicalion, and division, belveen lhe ceIIs (or ¡ixeIs) of lvo or more rasler Iayers.
See !<4=58 %<19A1<=.8?

I.651 FA@1658- ModeI ßuiIder is an a¡¡Iicalion lhal aIIovs a user lo creale, edil, and
manage modeIs. These modeIs aIIov lhe user lo s¡ecify lhe GIS looIs used and organize
lhe sequence in vhich each looI is ¡resenled. See %<8=.;8<C>@9 /.651.

$+JVW- Norlh American Dalum 27. See J<=A/?

$+JNX- Norlh American Dalum 83. See J<=A/?

320
$JUR- NormaIized Difference Vegelalion Index. The NDVI aIIovs a user lo delecl
green vaIues from saleIIile imagery by using lhe near-infrared and visibIe (red) bands.

$.8=> <88.Y- AIso caIIed a com¡ass rose. A norlh arrov ¡rovides a direclionaI
´orienlalion¨ for lhe ma¡. Using a norlh arrov is ¡arlicuIarIy heI¡fuI vhen deaIing
vilh a geogra¡hic area lhal may nol be famiIiar lo ma¡ readers. See %<8=.;8<C>2?

E.@0=4- Ioinls in GIS aIIov a user lo assign a ¡recise geogra¡hicaI Iocalion lo a ma¡. A
¡oinl symboI shovs a verlex al vhich lhe Iines of Iongilude (x) and Ialilude (y) cross.
Ioinls can re¡resenl anylhing from cilies lo fire hydranls, lo dealhs caused by yeIIov
fever. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

E.12;.04- IoIygons in GIS are a grou¡ of connecled Iines and are, lherefore, sha¡es lhal
re¡resenl an area. Ixam¡Ies of ¡oIygons are slales, counlries, conlinenls, geogra¡hic
regions, elc. See U59=.8 6<=< /.651?

E8.D59=@.0- ßecause lhe Iarlh's sha¡e is described as an irreguIar eIIi¡soid, a
lransformalion musl occur lo ¡Iace a lhree-dimensionaI area of lhe Iarlh on a fIal
surface. This lransformalion is caIIed C8.D59=@.0? Many differenl ¡ro|eclions exisl, and
vhich ¡ro|eclion is chosen by a carlogra¡her de¡ends on lhe ¡ur¡ose for vhich lhe
geogra¡hic dala are dis¡Iayed.

GA582@0;- Querying aIIovs lhe user lo seIecl dala lhal fil a cerlain crilerion. See
F..15<0 1.;@9?

!<4=58 %<19A1<=.8- The Rasler CaIcuIalor looI aIIovs lhe user lo ¡erform Ma¡ AIgebra
ex¡ressions. See I<C +1;5:8<?

!<4=58 6<=<- DigilaI images lhal dis¡Iay and slore informalion al lhe ceII (or ¡ixeI) IeveI.

&9<15- A scaIe shovs lhe re¡resenlalive unils of measuremenl of lhe ma¡. A scaIe can be
re¡resenled as a ralio, in vords, or by a bar scaIe.

&><C5H@15 "6@=.8- ´Sha¡efiIe Idilor¨ is a Ma¡Windov ¡Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
creale and edil a sha¡efiIe. See J@;@=@B@0;?

&><C5H@15- A fiIe com¡rised of severaI differenl fiIes. Required fiIes conlained vilhin a
sha¡efiIe incIude lhe dalabase fiIe (.dbf), and a sha¡e index formal (.shx). Any given
sha¡efiIe may have many olher fiIe exlensions associaled vilh il. See U59=.8 6<=<
/.651?

321
&C<=@<1 %.0K58=58- ´S¡aliaI Converler¨ is a Ma¡Windov ¡Iug-in lhal aIIovs lhe user lo
access lhe ´Im¡orlXLS¨ looI. See R/C.8=S)&?

&2/:.1.;2- The ¡rocess of vieving, crealing, and using various kinds of symboIs in
GIS. SymboIogy aIIovs lhe user lo change lhe symboIs and a¡¡earance of various dala
Iayers lo enhance lhe communicalion im¡acl of a ¡ro|ecl.

30@K584<1 78<04K5845 I589<=.8 L37IM- Iro|ecled coordinale syslem lhal divides lhe
earlh inlo 60 zones (for exam¡Ie, Irance is vilhin zone 30 of lhe Norlhern hemis¡here).

U59=.8 6<=< /.651- A veclor dala modeI uses geogra¡hicaI coordinales lo re¡resenl
s¡aliaI dala. The s¡aliaI dala are re¡resenled as geomelric ¡oinls, Iines, and ¡oIygons.
A veclor dala modeI is saved in a unique fiIe formal knovn as 4><C5H@15?

Z(& [ON\- WorId Geodelic Syslem 1984. See J<=A/?




When }. ß. Ovens vaIked inlo lhe earIy Iriday morning session al lhe 2006 American HisloricaI
Associalion (AHA) meeling, il ¡Ieased him lo see a ¡acked room of ¡eo¡Ie exciled lo hear lhe
CoIIege of San Anlonio discussion of lheir GIS-based vorId hislory ¡edagogicaI ¡ro|ecl
(hp://sacarcims.sac.alamo.edu/default.htm). But it shocked him when the presentation opened
vilh a quolalion from his 1999 WorId Hislory Associalion (WHA) ¡a¡er aboul using geogra¡hic
informalion syslems (GIS) for vorId hislory (based on a 1998 funding ¡ro¡osaI). When Ieaving
lhe session a fev hours Ialer, a ¡rominenl vorId-syslems socioIogisl asked Ovens, ´Hov does
il feeI lo be recognized as a ¡ro¡hel, ahead of your lime`¨ Ovens slammered a res¡onse aboul
hov lhere vere severaI olher ¡eo¡Ie in lhe room vho had ¡Iayed more im¡orlanl roIes in
slimuIaling inleresl in lhe use of GIS for hisloricaI research and leaching. He lhoughl, hovever,
lhal aII of lhis inleresl, incIuding lhe slrong res¡onse lo lheir 2004 AHA ¡a¡er aboul Idaho Slale
Universily's innovalive, GIS-based Masler's degree ¡rogram (Ovens and Woodvorlh-Ney 2005),
¡resenled a chaIIenge because lhe disci¡Iine Iacked an adequale research infraslruclure lo
¡re¡are hislorians, hisloricaI sociaI scienlisls, and lheir sludenls for lhis ly¡e of vork. This GIS
training manual constitutes a partial response to Owens’s concern. It offers tutorials that
introduce historians to the basic elements of GIS. The first ten chapters use a free, open-source
GIS soflvare ¡ackage so lhal inleresled researchers, leachers, and sludenls can lry lhe lechnoIogy
vilhoul cosl.
This lraining manuaI vas ¡ro¡osed as ¡arl of lhe coIIaboralive ¡ro|ecl ´Underslanding SociaI
Networks within Complex, Nonlinear Systems: Geographically-Integrated History and Dynamics
GIS |SOCNITj¨, vhich vas su¡¡orled by lhe U.S. NalionaI Science Ioundalion under Granls No.
0941371 ($1,290.704; lead project Principal Investigator Dr. J. B. Owens, Idaho State University)
and No. 0941501 ($471,193; Principal Investigator Dr. May Yuan, University of Oklahoma), for a
lolaI avard of $1,761,897 (2009-2013).

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