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A point has no length or width. A line is straight with unlimited length in two directions but no width.

A ray has as starting point and unlimited length in one direction

but no width.

Angles, Triangles

An angle is formed by two rays with the same beginning point called the vertex.

Angles are measured in degrees or radians. Two lines are perpendicular

if their intersection forms a right angle ( 90 ). Complementary angles

add to 90 .

A straight angle measures 180 . Supplementary angles add to 180 .

Parallel lines do not intersect.

The opposite angles formed by a transverse line intersecting two parallel lines are called vertical angles.

1 and 4 are vertical angles. So are 2 and 3, 5 and 8, and 6 and 7.

Vertical angles are congruent (have the same measure). So angle 1 = angle 4, angle 2 = angle 3, angle 6 =

angle 7, and angle 5 = angle 8.

Angles 3, 4, 5, and 6 are called interior angles because they are between the parallel lines.

Angles 1, 2, 7, and 8 are called exterior angles because they are outside the parallel lines.

Alternate interior angles are congruent (angle 3 = angle 6 and angle 4 = angle 5).

Alternate exterior angles are congruent (angle 1 = angle 8 and angle2 = angle 7)

Interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary. So angle 3 + angle 5 = 180 =

angle 4 + angle 6.

A triangle has three sides and three angles. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 .

In an equilateral triangle all three sides are the same length and all three angles are also congruent.

An isosceles triangle has two congruent angles Right triangle: One of the angles

and sides. is 90 . This is indicated by

a square in the angle.

Pythagorean Theorem:

2 2 2

b a c + =

Area of a triangle is base x height

In similar triangles, corresponding angles are congruent. Thus, similar triangles have the same shape, and

their corresponding sides are proportional.

c

C

b

B

a

A

= =

3

2 1

4

5

8 7

6

A A

B

a

b

c

A

B

C

a

b

c

h

base

s

s

s

s

s

Review of Plane Geometry

Quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral has four sides (and four angles). The four angles of a quadrilateral add up to 360 .

A trapezoid has two parallel sides. A parallelogram has two sets of parallel sides. A rectangle is a

parallelogram with each angle 90 . A square is a rectangle with each side the same length.

Circles

A circle is the set of all points that are the same distance from a point called the center.

The distance from the center to any point on the circle is the radius of the circle.

The diameter is a line segment that goes through the center with endpoints on the circle.

So a diameter = two radii.

The circumference is the length of the circle if it is cut once and formed into a straight line.

A triangle inscribed in a circle with one side a diameter is a right triangle.

Circumference d r = = 2

Area

2

r =

Angle Measure

A circle has 360 . If a circle has radius = 1 and an angle is formed with the vertex of the angle at the

center of the circle, the radian measure of the angle is the number of radius lengths in the arc the angle

subtends (or cuts out) on the circle.

There are 2 radius lengths in any circle (the circumference = 2 x radius), so for a circle of radius = 1, the

circumference is 2 radians. So

radians 180 or radians 2 360 = = Radians are abbreviated as rad.

180

rad 1

= To convert radians to degrees, multiply by

180

rad

180

1

=

To convert degrees to radians, multiply by

180

Example:

= 57.3

180

rad 1

Example: rad

2

rad

180

90 90

=

=

radius

diameter

b

1

b

2

h

Area= l x w

length

h

b

width

s

Area= s

2 Area= (b

1

+b

2

)h

Area= bh

l

w

diameter

/2 rad

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