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Schizo key terms\

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts,
bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices.
Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood
2-Psychotic disorder
Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions.
People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and
hallucinations. Delusions are false beliefs, such as thinking that someone is plotting against you
or that the TV is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as
hearing, seeing, or feeling something that is not there.
Hallucinations involve perceiving things in the absence of stimulation. In other words,
perceiving things that are not really there. A hallucination can false or distorted, but seem very
real and vivid to the person experiencing it. Hallucinations can involve any of the senses
including vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste and movement.
4Auditory hallucination
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds
without auditory stimulus.A common form of auditory hallucination involves hearing one or
more talking voices. This may be associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or
mania, and holds special significance in diagnosing these conditions. However, individuals may
hear voices without suffering from diagnosable mental illness.There are three main categories
into which the hearing of talking voices can often fall: a person hearing a voice speak one's
thoughts, a person hearing one or more voices arguing, or a person hearing a voice narrating
his/her own actions.

5-Visual hallucination
defined as the perception of an object or event (in any of the 5 senses) in the absence of an
external stimulus, are experienced by patients with conditions that span several fields (e.g.,
psychiatry, neurology, and ophthalmology). When noted by nonpsychiatrists, visual
hallucinations, one type of sensory misperception, often trigger requests for psychiatric
consultation, although visual hallucinations are not pathognomonic of a primary psychiatric
a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, caused by various
physical and mental disorders, or by reaction to certain toxic substances, and usually manifested
as visual or auditory images.
An unshakable theory or belief in something false and impossible, despite evidence to the
Delusions are false or erroneous beliefs that usually involve a misinterpretation of perceptions
or experiences. Their content may include a variety of themes (e.g., persecutory, referential,
somatic, religious, or grandiose).
7-Affective flatting
Affective flattening refers to a decrease in, or a low level of, an individual's emotion, shown as a
wooden quality to one's emotions or a near absence of emotionality. It can also be described as a
restricted range and intensity of emotional expression. Affective flattening is one of the
"negative symptoms" of schizophrenia. It is associated with a number of psychiatric conditions,
such as schizophrenia. Affect is the psychological term for the outward display of emotion, such
as through gestures, tone of voice, facial expressions, laughter, and tears
Alogia is the inability to speak because of mental deficiency, mental confusion, or aphasia.
Alogia is one of the "negative" symptoms of schizophrenia, where it may take the form of
speaking very little or a lack of spontaneous content in conversation, called "poverty of speech
is defined as lack of initiative or motivation. In schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder,
when avolition is so severe as to prevent a person from doing ordinary things such as work,
hobbies, reading, or taking care of oneself, it is considered a "negative" symptom of the
10-Bizarre delusions
one that is patently absurd, with no possible basis in fact.
A delusion that is very strange and completely implausible; an example of a bizarre delusion
would be that aliens have removed the reporting person's brain
11-Non bizarre delusion
Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of non-bizarre delusions which have
persisted for at least one month. Non-bizarre delusions typically are beliefs of something
occurring in a persons life which is not out of the realm of possibility. For example, the person
may believe their significant other is cheating on them, that someone close to them is about to
die, a friend is really a government agent, etc. All of these situations could be true or possible,
but the person suffering from this disorder knows them not to be (e.g., through fact-checking,
third-person confirmation, etc.).
People who have this disorder generally dont experience a marked impairment in their daily
functioning in a social, occupational or other important setting. Outward behavior is not
noticeably bizarre or objectively characterized as out-of-the-ordinary.
12-Persecutory delusion
This is the most common form of delusional disorder. In this form, the affected person fears they
are being stalked, spied upon, obstructed, poisoned, conspired against or harassed by other
individuals or an organization. As a result, the sufferer may retaliate violently against the
persecution and/or turn to the law and other government agencies for support.
13-Delusions of reference
The person falsely believes that insignificant remarks, events, or objects in one's environment
have personal meaning or significance
The delusion of reference is a delusion where someone believes that everyone is always talking
about them. They believe loved ones and even total strangers are talking about them. They may
also believe certain events occur just for them such as the sighting of a comet or a particular
word or phrase repeated in a book or a television show. They believe that certain remarks, events
and even objects have a strong personal connection relating back to them.
14-Delusions of identity
In this form of delusion, the person believes they are much greater or more influential than they
really are. For example, they may be convinced they have an exceptional talent, extravagant
riches or a special relationship with a prominent person(it is not conformed)
15-Cognitive Flooding

16-Prodromal phase
the period of time leading up to an active phase of schizophrenia. It can vary in length depending
on the individual.
An early symptom indicating the onset of an attack or a disease.
17-Active phase
During schizophrenias active phase, people may experience delusions, hallucinations, marked
distortions in thinking and disturbances in behaviour and feelings. This phase most often appears
after a prodromal period. On occasion, these symptoms can appear suddenly.
At some point you start to have symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, or confusing
thoughts and speech.
These symptoms may appear suddenly or slowly over time. They can be severe and can cause a
psychotic episode, which means you can't tell the difference between what is real and what isn't
You may need to go to the hospital. You probably won't be able to make many decisions about
your care.
This phase usually lasts 4 to 8 weeks. This is when schizophrenia usually is diagnosed.
18-Residual Phase
After an active phase, people may be listless, have trouble concentrating and be withdrawn. The
symptoms in this phase are similar to those outlined under the prodromal phase.. During a
lifetime, people with schizophrenia may become actively ill once or twice, or have many more
episodes. Unfortunately, residual symptoms may increase, while ability to function normally
may decrease, after each active phase. It is therefore important to try to avoid relapses by
following the prescribed treatment. Currently it is difficult to predict at the onset how fully a
person will recover.
The residual stage of schizophrenia resembles schizophrenia prodrome. Obvious psychosis has
subsided, but the patient may exhibit negative symptoms, such as social withdrawal, a lack of
emotion, and uncharacteristically low energy levels. And, although frank psychotic behaviors
and vocalizations have disappeared, the patient may continue to hold strange beliefs. For
instance, when youre in the residual phase of schizophrenia, you may still believe you have
supernatural intelligence, but no longer think you can read peoples minds word-for-word.
After an active phase, symptoms get better, especially with treatment, and life may be more
"normal." This is called remission
20-Partial remission

21-Disorganized-type schizophrenia is characterized by speech and behavior that
are disorganized or difficult to understand, and flattening or inappropriate emotions. People with
disorganized-type schizophrenia may laugh inappropriately for no apparent reason, make
illogical statements, or seem preoccupied with their own thoughts or perceptions. Their
disorganized behavior may disrupt normal activities, such as showering, dressing, and preparing
22-Catatonic schizophrenia
Catatonic schizophrenia is rare. It can cause odd behaviors such as:
Sitting or standing in unusual positions (posturing).
Allowing another person to move one's arms and legs into different positions (waxy
Sitting without moving for long periods of time (stupor).
Being very active but with no purpose (catatonic excitement). During these episodes of intense
activity, people with catatonic schizophrenia may injure themselves or other people.
23-Paranoid-type schizophrenia is characterized by delusions and auditory hallucinations
(hearing voices that don't exist) but relatively normal intellectual functioning and expression of
emotions. The delusions can often be about being persecuted by a person or an organization, or
feeling harassed or treated unfairly. People with paranoid-type schizophrenia can exhibit anger,
aloofness, anxiety, and can be argumentative.
24-Undifferentiated-type schizophrenia is characterized by some symptoms seen in all of the
above types, but not enough of any one of them to define it as another particular type of