You are on page 1of 14

MM™

Application of
Synthetic Seeds:
Present and the Future Presented by
Mahathir Mohmed
Ruzanna Abdul Rahman
Luvanee Parkianathan
Teh Kit Siang
Nurul Asyikin Sharuddin
Introduction
What is synthetic seeds?

Encapsulated somatic embryos or other plant explants, engineered for use


in the commercial propagation of plants
Introduction
Explant of choice

Induction of calluses

Somatic embryo (SE) induction

Proliferation of SE

Histodifferentiation and maturation of SE

Desiccation-tolerance induction

Encapsulation (artificial endosperm) of SE

In vitro/field germination

Two types of synthetic


It was first discussed seeds: hydrated
by Toshio Murashige (recalcitrant seeds)
in 1977 and desiccated
(orthodox seeds)
Current Application

Propagation
Cost effective

Direct
to field
Hybrid seeds

Genetic
Synthetic Benefits uniformity
Elite genotypes seeds

Unrestricted
GE plants/crops availability

Endangered species
Current Application

Conservation
Min
Use of growth Encapsulation-
osmoticum medium dehydration

Short/
Growth approaches Long approaches
retardant Mid
term
term

Reduced Encapsulation-
Reduced
heat/light vitrification
oxygen
Current Application

Conservation
Current Application

Transportation

Axenic explants: cereals, fruits,


material
medicinal plant studied worldwide

Smaller, easy to handle,


merit providing aseptic environment

Simplify transport across borders,


necessity avoiding quarantine and spread of
disease
Possible Application

Carrier of adjuvant
… any compound that is added to herbicide formulation
or tank mix to facilitate the mixing, application, or
effectiveness of that herbicide

Chemically Biologically Increase


active active the impact

… provides protection for the explants from pests


and diseases
Possible Application

Large scale monocultures


& mixed-genotype plantation
The new way of plantation

… more efficient usage of farm machinery for cultivation, sowing, weed


control, harvest, and can create economic of scale

Synthetic seeds assisting the process

Easy transport of material; crops easy to maintain due to uniformity in


genetic constituent

Sustainable plantation

Improve food production and at the same time promoting Earth-friendly


plantation
Possible Application

Microencapsulation

Hard coating
synthetic seeds

New coating Matrix with Explant will


Chemicals that
agents essential grow
control release
nutrient very fast
PVC, PVA, & consumption
of nutrient by No fertilizer &
bentone For growth herbicides
explant
required

Immediate growth
flower seeds
Possible Application

Recalcitrant explant made


into orthodox
LEA protein
… added in the matrix of synseeds

Achieving orthodox behaviour


desiccation and temperature tolerant

Cryopreservation
can be stored in liquid nitrogen tank
Possible Application

Analytical tools
New plant
varieties

Effects on As food
dormancy storage

Somaclonal
variation

Seed coat Role of


formation endosperm

Synseeds
as tool
Conclusion

Further detailed research is needed mainly for improvement


in conversion of synthetic seeds and subsequent plant
growth in soil and all limitations should be taken into
considerations

Artificial seeds must be competitive with true seed or other


propagation systems currently used for a given crop for this
Content
technology to be commercially attractive
MM™

Thank you