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written permission of TTRI.


1
The Development of
Protimo Anti-Microbial Textile
(Always effective type)
ByDr. Lin, Chun Hung
chLin.0697@ttri.org.tw
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Introduction
In our real life, all kinds of bacteria, germ and fungus are around ourselves. These microbial will grow
rapidly if the suitable environment were given to them, which would cause a lot of diseases happened when
contact them. And will spread or transmit to other people easily. That is how a lot of people have the illness
happened and get killed.
That is the reason why Antimicrobial textiles were invented and had been paid a highly attention to its
development by most of the people in the world. It can be foreseen obviously that antimicrobial textile will have a
lot of demand in the market and create a lot of profits and commercial opportunity under the increasing of the
attention of personal health, daily hygiene and expect of the quality of living life style by the consumer. By ITIS
reports, J apan has the largest antimicrobial textile market in the world, which is larger than US and European
markets . In Canada it has about 350 millions Canadian Dollars of antimicrobial textile market. It is recognized
that will have 10% growth rate of the world antimicrobial textile market within 8 years period. It is the trend of the
future textile market.
Introduction
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3
Market report of consumer requirement of antimicrobial products
Product %
Socks 28.0
Underwear 13.3
Panties 6.0
Handkerchief 5.6
Towel 5.3
Shoe 4.9
Slipper 3.4
Telephone 2.5
OthersBathrooms products, cooking ware, cutting board, wallet, water
piping, wet towels/paper towel of restaurant, remote controller etc.
People surveyedTotal 1600 of adult men, women from age 20yrs to 50 yrs.
Fromwww.antibacteria.com.tw
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4
Domestic and foreign market of Antimicrobial Textiles
The antimicrobial products/technologies of domestic and international market
Company Product Anti-microbial agent Remarks


Domestic
Far Eastern Anti-microbial/anti
odor yarn
Silver, anti-microbial agent
(PET)
More than 95 bacteriostasis
tested by TTRI
Shin Kung Tree in one Silver, anti-microbial agent
(PET)
99.9 of bacteriostasis tested by
national certify test
Chung Shin Anti-microbial/odor
yarn
Silver ion, anti-microbial agent
(PET)
Tested by TTRI


Japan
Teijin Chemitac (silver anti-
microbial agent (PET)
Chemitac, Silver anti microbial
agent (PET)
Certified by SEK, it inhibits the
growth of MRSA
Kanebo Gohesen Livefresh Silver ion anti-microbial agent
(Nylon)
After 50 washes, still has its anti-
microbial function -- SEK certified
Toray Seberis-M Zeolite/quatemary ammonium salt
(Nylon)
Control the growing of MRSA


US &
EURO
Trevira Bioactive Silver ion, anti-microbial agent
(PET)
Oeko-Tex certified
Du Pont Tyvek Anti-microbial agent (PE) Multi-liquid VS Anti-bacterial
function tested by DuPont Inc.
Sterling Biofresh Triclosan (Acrylic) Micro fiber, soft, registered in US
Environmental Protection Agency

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Silver Antimicrobial Agent faces the challenge
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The Restriction of the Silver Antimicrobial Textile
The complain of silver ion textiles from the
consumer:
Easy pilling and color fading
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When washing this
products by using
cl ean wat er wi t h
t he t emper at ur e
under 30 degree C
D r y c l e a n i n g ,
bl eachi ng, col or
e n h a n c i n g ,
softener and anti -
m i c r o b i a l
det ergent are not
a l l o w e d


The Restriction of the Silver Antimicrobial Textile
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8
Processing of development
Processing of the R &D of Anti-microbial fiber
Evaluation of the
anti-microbial
agent
Technology of the
anti-microbial
master batch
Long term effect of
anti-microbial fiber
spinning
technology
Long term effect of
anti-microbial fiber
testing technology
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The Characteristics of Antimicrobial Agents
Organic Anti-microbial
material
Inorganic Anti-
microbial
material

Natural
material
Photo-
catalyst
material
Anti-microbial
agent
Protimo TBZ Silver, copper,
lead
Wasabi, Chinese
cypress extracted
oil
TiO2
Distribution of
pathogens
Fungi 223
Bacterial 147
Algae 27
Fungi 32
Bacterial 0
Algae 0

Fungi 3
Bacterial 6
Algae 0
Yeast 1

Unknown Unknown
MIC value 1~25 ppm 1~50 ppm 2000~3000 ppm
Anti-microbial
mechanism
Non-outflow
(Forever Type)
Outflow Sterilizing Unknown Sterilizing
Problems
Poor heat
resistance,
Intend to turn to
yellow color
Color changed Unknown Light
required
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10
Pallium
Cell nucleus
Lipid double membrane
Protimo anti-microbial agent
Destroys only the pallium
Bacteria nucleus in
Suspended animation
How does the Protimo Antimicrobial Agent Work?
After sending danger signals
to the others (Evasion signal
Transmission), they are eventually
destroyed by losing the nutrients.
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It destroys only the pallium of bacteria or
fungus, which will be interrupted the
proteinase, DNA, thiol group synthetized
and stop their reproduction mechanism.
The interrupted synthetized bacteria will
release its proteinase from the destroyed
pallium, which means sending the chemical
signal (in dangerous) to other bacteria.
That will prevent other bacterial to
approach those material which has Protimo
contain. Then, the bacterial will not be able
to survive without required reproduction
nutrition.
Protimo Antimicrobial Mechanism
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The Safety of Protimo Antimicrobial Agent
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13
Anti-microbial value >2.0It means the sample has antimicrobial effect (JIS L1902:2008)
Sterilizing activity value >0.0means the sample has sterilizing activity effect (JIS L1902:2008)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes tested grade0No growthGrade 1lightly growth (<10%)Grade 2Minor growth
(<10~30%)Grade 3medium growth (30~60%)Grade 4Growth heavily (>60%)(ASTM G21-2009)
Anti-
microbial
Nylon
Master batch
antimicrobial
agent
concentration
(%)
Anti
microbial
agent
concentr
ation in
the fiber
(%)
Staphylococcus Aureus
(MRSA)
Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
Before dyeing After dyeing
Anti-
microbial
value
Sterilizing
activity
value
Anti-
microbial
value
Sterilizing
value
Grade
5 0.2 5.6 3.2 5.4 3.2 0
Antimicrobial
Nylon fiber
SDY Homo, Round shape fiber
Denier/ filament Tenacity (gf/d) Elongation %
80/48 4.8 39.8
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14
154 2011
Problems caused by MRSA
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Test method
JIS Z2801:2010
Result
Bacterial
count
(24hrs.)
Antimicrobia
l activity
value



Staphylococcus
Aureus
(MRSA)
Initial count 1.6 E6 --
Untreated sample 2.1 E6 --
0.2% Protimo
antimicrobial
added Nylon fiber
sample1
2.4 E2 3.95
0.2% Protimo
antimicrobial
added Nylon fiber
sample2
2.6 E2 3.78
Required standard: Antimicrobial activity value should larger than2.0
MRSA Test of Protimo Antimicrobial contained Nylon fiber
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid
absorption method
Result
JIS
white
cotton
fabric
Contain
Protimo
antimicrobial
Nylon knitting
fabric
Contain Protimo
antimicrobial
Nylon knitting
fabric after
washing and
bleaching (20g/l)
Staphyloco
ccus
Aureus
(MRSA)
ATCC
6538P
Concentratio
n of bacteria
1.3 E5 1.5 E5 1.3 E5
Ma 2.6 E4 -- --
Mb 7.0 E6 -- --
Mo -- 2.7 E4 2.4 E4
Mc -- 1.2 E3 1.8 E2
Growth rate 2.4 -- --
Bacteriostasi
s activity
value
-- 3.8 5.0
Sterilizing
activity value
-- 1.4 2.6
When Bacteriostasis activity value >2.2 means it has bacteriostasis effect,
Sterilizing value >0means it has sterilizing effect.
The Antimicrobial Test of Washed & Bleached Nylon fabric
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid absorption method
Test result
J IS
White cotton
fabric
0.2% Protimo
antimicrobial
agent added
Nylon fiber
(refining)
0.2% Protimo
antimicrobial
agent added
Nylon fiber
(refining and
dyeing)


Staphylococcus
Aureus
(MRSA)
ATCC 6538P
Concentration 1.5 E5 1.5 E5 1.5 E5
Ma 3.0 E4 -- --
Mb 9.4 E6 -- --
Mo -- 2.4 E4 1.8 E4
Mc -- <20 <20
Growth rate 2.5 -- --
Bacteriostasis activity
value
-- 5.6 5.4
Sterilizing activity value -- 3.2 3.2
When Bacteriostasis activity value >2.2 means it has bacteriostasis effect,
Sterilizing value >0 means it has sterilizing effect
The MRSA Test of the Protimo Antimicrobial Nylon fiber
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Item tested
Test Result
Test Method
Contain 0.5%
Protimo
antimicrobial
PET fiber
Contain 0.2%
Protimo
antimicrobial
agent Nylon
fiber
ASTM G21-
2009

Anti-fungus
Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
AATCC 9533

Grade 0

Grade 0
PS: The definition of the Anti-fungus degree evaluation:
Observation of the growth of
fungus on the tested sample Grade
Non-growth 0
minor growth (<10%) 1
lightly growth (10~30%) 2
medium growth (30~60%) 3
Heavily growth (>60%) 4

Note: This is the result observed after 28 days culture period.

The result of the polyester and nylon fibers
Trichophyton mentagrophytes test
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid
absorption method
Test Result
JIS
White
cotton
fabric
Regular
Nylon fiber
25%
Antimicrobia
l Nylon fiber
50%
Antimicrobial
Nylon fiber

75%
Antimicrobi
al Nylon
fiber
100%
Antimicrobial
Nylon fiber

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A
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(
M
R
S
A
)

A
T
C
C


65
38
P

Concentration 1.5 E5 1.5 E5 1.5 E5 1.5 E5 1.5 E5 1.5 E5
Ma 2.9 E4 -- -- -- -- --
Mb 8.0 E6 -- -- -- -- --
Mo -- 2.6E4 2.5 E4 2.5 E4 2.9 E4 2.7 E4
Mc -- 2.6E6 1.9 E5 4.0 E4 4.3 E3 1.2 E3
Growth rate 2.4 -- -- -- -- --
Bacteriostasis
activity value

-- 0.4 1.6 2.2

3.3 3.8

Sterilizing
activity value
-- <0 <0 <0

0.9

1.4

Bacteriostasis value >2.0 shows the tested sample has antimicrobial and anti odor effect
Sterilizing activity value >0 shows the tested sample has sterilizing effect.
The Antimicrobial Test of Mixed Antimicrobial/Regular Nylon Fibers
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20
Anti-
microbial
PET
fibers
POY Homo round shape POY Sheath/core structure DTY Sheath /core structure
Denier/
filament
Tenacity
(gf/d)
Elongation
%
Denier/
filament
Tenacity
(gf/d)
Elongation
%
Denier/
filament
Tenacity
(gf/d)
Elongation
%
120/48 2.4 110 120/48 2.4 115 75/48 4.1 26.1
Anti-
microbial
PET

Master batch
antimicrobial
agent
concentration
(%)
Anti microbial
agent
concentration
in the fiber
(%)
Staphylococcus Aureus
(MRSA)
Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
Before dyeing After dyeing
The sterilization
rate %
The sterilization
rate %
Grade
5 0.3~0.5 98.4 <0 0
When sterilization rate %>0It means it has antimicrobial function (AATCC 100-2004)
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid absorption method
Test Result
JIS white cotton
fabric
PET fabric PET fabric after bleaching
(20% X 2hr)


Staphylococcus
Aureus
(MRSA)
ATCC 6538P
Concentration of
Bacteriopexia
1.7 E5 1.7 E5 1.18 E5
Ma 3.2 E4 -- --
Mb 6.9 E6 -- --
Mo -- 3.5 E+4 3.5 E+4
Mc -- 1.9 E+4 2.0 E+4
Growth rate 2.3 -- --
Bacteriostasis activity
value
-- 2.6 2.6
Sterilizing value -- 0.2 0.2


Klebsiella
pneumoniae
ATCC 4352
Concentration of
Bacteriopexia
1.4 E5 1.4 E5 1.4 E5
Ma 3.0 E4 -- --
Mb 2.5 E7 -- --
Mo -- 2.7 E+4 2.8 E+4
Mc -- 1.7 E+3 1.7 E+3
Growth rate 2.9 -- --
Bacteriostasis activity
value
-- 4.2 4.1
Sterilizing value -- 1.3 1.2
When Bacteriostasis activity value >2.2 means it has bacteriostasis effect, Sterilizing value >0means it has sterilizing effect.
The Antimicrobial Test of Washed & Bleached PET fabric
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Before washing
No inhibition ring shown.
And, no bacterial grown
on the sample.
After 20 washing cycles:
No inhibition ring shown.
And, no bacterial grown
on the sample.

Free anti-microbial agent sample test: Yellow bacteria
track will be appeared when no agent applied.
Polyester
Binder 6% +
Protimo - B
0.5%
160x2MIN
The Antimicrobial activity Test of the Antimicrobial Finishing
Textile
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid absorption
method
Result
JIS white
cotton
fabric
PET fabric
(Before
washing)
PET fabric
(After 20
washing)


Staphylococcus
Aureus
(MRSA)
ATCC 6538P
Concentration of
bacteria
2.1 E5 2.1 E5 2.1E5
Ma 4.0 E4 -- --
Mb 9.1 E6 -- --
Mo -- 3.9 E4 3.4 E4
Mc -- 3.6 E4 8.4 E4
Growth rate 2.5 -- --
Bacteriostasis
activity value
-- 2.4 3.0
Sterilizing activity
value
-- 0.0 0.7
Bacteriostasis activity value >2.2 means the tested sample has bacteriostasis effect.
Sterilizing value >0 means the tested sample has sterilizing effect.
Tested sample: 6% Binder + 0.5% APDS (Antimicrobial agent)
The Antimicrobial Activity and Efficacy Test
of the Finishing PET Fabric
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Item tested
Result
Method
Socks
(Before wash)
Socks
(After 20
washes)
CNS 2690
L3063-2008
Dry
environment
Fungus
resistance

Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
AATCC 9533

Grade A

Grade A
Note : Grading of fungus resistance
Grade A : The growth area of fungus on tested sample <1/10 of sample area
Grade B : The growth area of fungus on tested sample between1 /10~1/3 of sample area
Grade C : The growth area of fungus on tested sample >1 /3 of sample area
Trichophyton mentagrophytes test after finishing treatment
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Item tested
Result
Method
0.2% Protimo
antimicrobial
Finished PET
fabric(After
50 washes)
0.3% Protimo
antimicrobial
Finished PET
fabric(After
50 washes
CNS 2690
L3063-2008
Dry
environment

Fungus
resistance

Trichophyton
mentagrophytes
AATCC 9533

Grade A

Grade A
Note : Grading of fungus resistance
Grade A : The growth area of fungus on tested sample <1/10 of sample area
Grade B : The growth area of fungus on tested sample between1 /10~1/3 of sample area
Grade C : The growth area of fungus on tested sample >1 /3 of sample area

Trichophyton mentagrophytes test after finishing treatment
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Test method
JIS L1902:2008
Bacterial fluid absorption method
Result
JIS White
cotton fabric
PET fabric
(After 50 washes)


Staphylococcus
Aureus
(MRSA)
ATCC 6538P
Concentration 1.4E5 1.4E5
Ma 2.7 E4 --
Mb 9.7E6 --
Mo -- 2.1 E4
Mc -- 3.9 E3
Growth rate 2.6 --
Bacteriostasis
activity value
-- 3.5
Sterilizing activity
value
-- 1.0
Bacteriostasis activity value >2.2 means the tested sample has bacteriostasis effect.
Sterilizing value >0 means the tested sample has sterilizing effect.
Tested sample: 6% Binder + 0.2% APDS (Antimicrobial agent)
The MRSA Antimicrobial Test of the Finishing fabric
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27
Advantage and its Application
Advantage
Intimate wears (Underwear, pantyhose etc.)
Home textile
Sport wears
Medical, hygiene garment
1. With 0.2~0.5 wt% concentration in the fiber will have the antimicrobial effect.
2. By adding the agent during the Solution dye will have the same effect.
3. After 50 washes still keep the antimicrobial function.
It has a long term effect.
Application
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