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CELL DIVISION

Mitosis-cell division that usually occurs in plant cells


Stages of Mitosis
INTE!"#SE
-chro$oso$es have %een replicated %ut re$ain elongated and rela&ed 'ithin the
nucleus(
-centriole 'ithin the $icrotu%ule organi)ing center* have also %een replicated
-also +no'n as the resting stage
E#L, !O!"#SE
-chro$oso$es condense and shorten %eco$ing visi%le 'ith a $icroscope
-centrioles %egin to $ove apart
-spindle %egins to for$
L#TE !O!"#SE
-nuclear envelope %rea+s and the spindle $icrotu%ules invade the nuclear region
-spindle fi%ers attach to each chro$oso$e at its +inetochore
-other fi%ers e&tend fro$ each pole to the cells e-uator 'here their ends overlap
MET#!"#SE
-spindle is fully for$ed
-+inetochore $icrotu%ules $ove the chro$oso$e to cell.s e-uator
#N#!"#SE
-chro$atids separate at the centro$ere* %eco$ing independent chro$oso$es(
-+inetochore $icrotu%ules shorten* pulling one for$er chro$atid fro$ each
chro$oso$e to'ards each pole of the cell(
-at the sa$e ti$e* poles $ove farther apart
-cell $e$%rane are cleaving
TELO!"#SE
-one co$plete set of chro$oso$es has reached each pole of the cell
-chro$oso$es rela& into their e&tended state
-spindle disappears and the nuclear envelopes %egin to refor$
-cytoplas$ is divided along the e-uator of the parent cell 'ith each daughter cell
receiving one nucleus and half of the original cytoplas$
-cleaving is al$ost co$plete(
/SES of !L#NTS
0rains
ice 1Ory)a sativa2
3heat 1Triticu$ custivu$
Corn 14ea $ays2
Legu$es
Soy%ean 10lycine so5a2
6eans 1!haseolus sp2
oot Crops
Cassava 1Manihot esculenta2
S'eet potato 1Ipo$oea %atatas2
6eets 16eta vulgaris2
Ste$ Crops
!otato 1Solanu$ tu%erosu$2
Sugarcane 1Saccharu$ officinaru$2
7ruits
6anana 1Musa sp(2
Coconut 1Cocos nucifera2
Leaves
Ca%%age 16rassica oleracea2
7orages
-any plant consu$ed %y livestoc+
Lu$%er
Oa+s 18uercus sp(2
Maple 1#cer saccharu$2
7i%er !lants
Cotton 10ossypiu$ sp2
9ute 1Corchorus capsularis2
6everage plant
Coffee plant 1Coffea ara%ica2
6lac+ !epper 1!iper nigru$2
Medicinal !lants
Opiu$ poppy 1!apaver so$niferu$2
T#NS!OT #COSS MEM6#NE
: Types
;( !assive transport
-$ove$ent of su%stances across a $e$%rane* going do'n a gradient of
concentration pressure or electrical change( Does not re-uire the e&penditure of
energy %y the cell(
;(;si$ple diffusion
- is the net $ove$ent $olecules in a fluid fro$ regions of high
concentration to regions of lo' concentration
E&( Dye < h:o
;(:facilitated diffusion
-diffusion of $olecules across a $e$%rane* assisted %y C"ON poses or
carries e$%edded in the $e$%rane(
;(=os$osis
-diffusion of h:o across a differentially per$ea%le $e$%rane $ore
per$ea%le to h:o to dissolved solutes
:( Energy re-uiring transport
-$ove$ent of su%stance across a $e$%rane* usually against a
concentration gradient* using cellular energy(
E77ECTS O7 OSMOSIS
Cells are isotonic
- no net $ove$ent of h:o across the cell $e$%rane(
- cell $aintains shape(
Cells are hypertonic
1too $uch salt2
":> leaves the cells shriveling then up
Cells are hypotonic
1less salt than cells2
":> enters cell

#ctive transport
-$ove$ent of individual s$all $olecules on ions C"ON using cellular energy*
/sually #T!(
Endocytosis
-$ove$ent of large particles including large $olecules into cell %y a process
in '?c the plas$a $e$%rane engulf e&tra cellular $aterial for$ing $e$%rane %ound sacs
that enter the cytoplas$(
!inocytosis 1cell drin+ing2
-s$all patch of cell $e$%rane di$ples in'ard a sit surrounds e&tra cellular fluid
< fluids off into the cytoplas$ as a tiny vesicle(

!hagacytosis 1cell eating2
-used to pic+up large particles including 'hole $icroorganis$s
T"E !L#NT
VE0ET#TIVE ST/CT/E

oot-part of plant a&is typically non-green < found %eneath the surface of the soil greatly
%ranched(
;( function@ a%sorption of h:> a $inerals fro$ the soil(
:( function@ conduction
storage
anchorage
STEM
-continuation of plants a&is typically found a%ove the soil surface
-no sharp line of de$arcation
-$ay%e $oody or $an 'oody
7unction@ conduction
-h:o< $inerals fro$ roots to often parts of the plant
-food fro$ leaves to other parts of the plants(

Leaf A out gro'th of the ste$ flat < thin* needed* li+e scale li+e
- $ostly green BchlorophyllC
;( food production in a photosynthesis
Life span@
-h:o supply
-te$perature
-supply of $aterials in soil(
-light
-o: < co: supply(