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GSM Based Campus Display System


Submitted in fulfillment of the
requirement for the award of the
Degree of

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Sharwan Kumar
Hemant Kumar Singh
Rahul Kumar
Komal Karan
Brijesh Yadav

Under the Guidance of
Asst Prof. Komal Arora

Lovely Professional University
Month and Year of Submission (APRIL 2014)


This is to certify that the Project Report titled GSM Based Campus Display System that is being
submitted by Sharwan Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Hemant Kumar Singh, Komal Karan and Brijesh
Yadav are in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of BACHELOR OF
TECHNOLOGY DEGREE, is a record of bonafide work done under our guidance.
The content of this Project Report, in full or in parts have neither been taken from any other source
nor have been submitted to any other institute or University for award of any degree.

Ms. Komal Arora
Assistant Professor
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, Punjab

Objective of the Report is Satisfactory / Unsatisfactory

E x a mi n e r I E x a mi n e r I I


The Students are free to acknowledge all those whom they feel they should acknowledge on the
basis of the guidance and help provided during the implementation of the Project work. If the
students have conducted their project elsewhere (viz. outside Lovely Professional University)
appropriate acknowledgement should be given to all concerned.
It is customary to acknowledge the University Management & our School Dean for giving the
candidates an opportunity to carry out their studies at the University.

Submitted By:-
Sharwan Kumar (11003078)

Hemant Kumar Singh (11011283)

Rahul Kumar (11002826)

Komal Karan (11008428)
BrijeshYadav (11011445)


This is to certify that Sharwan Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Hemant Kumar Singh, Komal Karan and
Brijesh Yadav have completed their thesis titled, GSM Based Campus Display System under
my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of their
original investigation and study. No part of the Project Report has ever been submitted for any other
degree at any University.
The Project Report is fit for submission and the partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of

Date: 25/04/2014

Ms.Komal Arora
Assistant Professor
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, Punjab.


We Sharwan Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Hemant Kumar Singh, Komal Karan and Brijesh Yadav
students of B.Tech.(ECE) under Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering of
Lovely Professional University, Punjab, hereby declare that all the information furnished in this
project report is based on my own intensive research and is genuine.
This project does not, to the best of my knowledge, contain part of our work which has been
submitted for the award of our degree either of this university or any other university without
proper citation.

Date: 25/04/2014 Signature and Name of the student
Sharwan Kumar (11003078)
Hemant Kumar Singh (11011283)
Rahul Kumar (11002826)
Komal Karan (11008428)
BrijeshYadav (11011445)


Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going mobile.
Everything needs to be controlled without movement of an inch. This remote control of appliances
is possible through Embedded Systems. The use of Embedded System in Communication has
given rise to many interesting applications that ensures comfort and safety to human life.
The main aim of the project will be to design a SMS driven automatic display board which can
replace the currently used programmable electronic display. It is proposed to design receive cum
display board which can be programmed from mobile phone. The message to be displayed is sent
through a SMS from an authorized transmitter. The GSM modem receives the SMS and displays
the desired information. Started off as an instantaneous News display unit, this project has been
improved by taking the advantage of the computing capabilities of microcontroller.
The system required for the purpose is a Microcontroller based SMS box. The main components
are microcontroller, GSM modem. These components are integrated with the display board and thus
incorporate the wireless features. The GSM modem receives the SMS. The AT commands are
serially transferred to the modem through MAX232. In return the modem transmits the stored
message through the COM port. The microcontroller validates the SMS and then displays the
message in the LCD display board.


Page no.
1. Series of Diode 18
2. Port 3 Configuration 30
3. MAX 232 Pin Specifications 33


Page no.
1. Block Diagram Representation 8
2. Flow Chart Representing 9
3. Operational Flow Chart 10
4. Proteus Schematic Snapshot 12
5. Resistors 14
6. Carbon Resistors 15
7. Electrolytic Capacitor 16
8. Ceramic Capacitor 16
9. Frequency Diode 17
10. Full and Half Wave Rectifier 17
11. IN400X Series Diode 18
12. Pull Down Resistor 18
13. Voltage Divider Circuit 19
14. LEDs 19
15. LED Circuit 20
16. IC 7805 20
17. Crystal Oscillator 21
18. Transformer Circuit 22
19. Center Tapped Transformer 22

20. Winding of Transformer 23
21 Center Tapped Transformer 23
22. Rectifier with Power Supply 24
23. Diagram of Microprocessor and Microcontroller 26
24. Pin Diagram of 8052 28
25. Oscillator Circuit 28
26. Reset Switch 29
27. LCD 2*16 Character Module 32
28. MAX 232(operating circuit) 34
29. GSM Module 37


1.1 Brief Introduction to Wireless Communication 1
1.2 Objective and Goal of Project 1
1.3 An Insight to Approach 2
2.1 Internet Based Monitoring 3
2.2 GSM-SMS Based Monitoring 5
2.3Remote Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) 6

3.1 Block Diagram 8
3.2 Flow Chart 9
3.3 Operational Flow Chart 10
3.4 Software Required 11


4.1 Basic Components Description 13
4.2 Power Supply and Rectifier 24
4.3 LCD and GSM Interfacing with Microcontroller 25
5.1 Offline Testing Result 36
5.2 Online Testing and Observation 36
5.3 Overview 37
5.4 Proposal 37
6.1 Conclusion and Problem Faced 39
6.2 Future Improvements 39
7.1 Books 41
7.1 URLs 41

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In the present time technologically is advancing in our country in the area of telecommunications
with about 126 million phone lines, 7.5 million cellular phone users, 5 thousand AM radio
broadcast stations, 5 thousand FM radio stations, 1 thousand television broadcast stations, 9
thousand cable television systems, 530 million radios, 193 million television sets, 24 ocean cables,
and scores of satellite facilities. This is truly an "Information Age" and sometimes, we need to look
at where we have been in order to see the future more clearly. A term to describe communication
where a piece of information is sent or transmitted from one point to all other points. There is just
one sender, but the information is simultaneously sent to all connected receivers. In networking, a
distinction is made between broadcasting and multicasting. Broadcasting sends a message to
everyone on the network whereas multicasting sends a message to a select list of recipients.
One of the most common examples is broadcast through a cellular network service. This serves
multiple end users at different locations in a simulcast fashion. Practically every cellular system has
some kind of broadcast mechanism. This can be used directly for distributing information to
multiple mobiles, commonly, for example in a mobile telephony system, the most important use of
broadcast information is to set up channels for one to one communication between the mobile
Trans-receiver and the base station. This is called paging.The details of the process of paging vary
somewhat from network to network, but normally we know a limited number of cells where the
phone is located (this group of cells is called a location area in the GSM system or Routing Area in
UMTS). Paging takes place by sending the broadcast message on all of those cells.

Today, interaction with digital displays is a deskbound or device-dependent experience. However,
developments in display and information sharing technologies may enable a new form of
interaction with digital media: ubiquitous computing. In ubiquitous computing, the physical
location of data and processing power is not apparent to the user. Rather, information is made
available to the user in a transparent and contextually relevant manner. A single display device
restricts the repertoire of interactions between the user and digital media, so ubiquitous computing
requires displays wherever the user might need one in appliances, tabletops public transport, walls,
etc.Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going mobile.
This enables us to display a message at a specific location by a single handed cell phone user in just
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a click of a command button. We want to control everything and without moving an inch. This
remote control of appliances is possible through Embedded Systems. The use of Embedded
System in Communication has given rise to many interesting applications that ensures comfort and
safety to human life.Our project aims at integrating the expansiveness of a wireless cellular network
and the ease of information transfer through the SMS with the coverage of public display boards. It
is thereby a modest effort to realize the complete potential of public display boards in instantaneous
information broadcast in swift response to events of interests. The system required for this purpose
is a Microcontroller based SMS Module. The main components are microcontroller, GSM modem,
Serial Driver.

These components are integrated with the display board and thus incorporate the wireless features.
The GSM modem receives the SMS. The AT commands are serially transferred to the modem
through MAX232. In return the modem transmits the stored message through the COM port. The
microcontroller validates the SMS and then displays the message in the LCD display board.
This many-to-one network of SMS transmission has become quite popular and many a business has
entered into this model with mixed results. However, as of this writing, the vast majority of
businesses that revolve around the GSM-SMS system have been targeted to consumers. This paper
aims to propose industrial applications that will utilize the distinct advantages of the GSM.SMS
system over other possible technologies in the industrial setting.

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The literature related to this project has been reviewed for last twenty years in order to find out
work carried out by various researchers. There are many systems for remote monitoring and control
designed as commercial products or experimental research platforms. It is noticed that most of the
research carried out belongs to the following categories:
Internet based Monitoring using Servers, GPRS modems, etc. with different approaches.
GSM-SMS protocols using GSM module individually or in combination with Internet.
Monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks.
Wireless Monitoring using Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and RF

Internet monitoring is one of the common approaches for remote monitoring. Many researchers
have worked in field of Internet based remote monitoring.
Al-Ali and Al-Rousan, 2004 developed Java based home automation system via World Wide Web.
The home appliances were controlled from ports of embedded system board connected to PC based
server at home. RF and master node has serial RS232 link with PC server. The nodes are based on
AT89S52c.PC server is formed of a user interface component, the database and the web server
components. An Internet page has been setup running on a Web server. The user interface and the
Internet front end are connected to a backend data base server. The control of devices is established
and their condition is monitored through the Internet.[2]Al-Khateeb, 2009 used X10 controller
interfaced through serial port to PC server for control of devices. The Common Gateway Interface
(CGI) is used to interface between the browser and the X10 protocol via http connection. The server
executes CGI programs in order to satisfy a particular request from the browser, which expresses its
request using the http.
Peng Liul, 2007developed model of web services based email extension for remote monitoring of
embedded systems which integrates web services into emails. It uses a general purpose email
messaging framework to connect devices and manipulators. This low cost model fits for systems
with low connection bandwidth, small data transportation volume and non real- time control, e.g.,
monitoring of home appliances and remote meter-reading. Tan and Soy, 2002 developed a system
for controlling home electrical appliances over the Internet by using Bluetooth wireless technology
to provide a link from the appliance to the Internet and Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) to
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provide a data link between the Internet and a mobile phone. However, technical details relating
controller are not revealed. Nikolova et al, 2002 demonstrated that the control of home appliances
can be extended beyond the home network to wireless mobile networks without any modification in
the network specifications. This was accomplished by developing and implementing a HAVi
(Home Audio Video Interoperability) - WAP UI gateway that intermediates between a wired home
network and a wireless communication network using HAVi and WAP specifications, respectively.
The gateway uses both pull and pushes technologies, improves the network integration and provides
opportunities for developing applications that combine mobile devices with home network devices.
Yen-Shin Lai et al, 2002 developed an Internet-based monitoring and control of fuzzy controlled
inverter for air conditioning system. The system consists of client/server, programmable logic
controller, D/A modules, inverters, induction motors and the temperature sensing modules. The
client accepts the command from the user and can also access the database created in server, using
Internet Explorer (IE) Browser. The server performs function of fuzzy logic control,
communication interface between server and PLC, and receiving command from client.
Furthermore, the server also creates a database of the sensed temperature, speed of inverter-
controlled motor drives, and reference command. Chen Chao, 2009 developed a remote wireless
monitoring system for off grid Wind turbine based on the GPRS and the Internet. The remote
monitoring system is made up of three parts: controlling terminal, central monitoring computer and
communication network.
Controlling terminal consists of microcontroller ARM7 LM3S1138, data acquisition module and
GPRS communication module WAVECOM Q2406B connected to ARM7 system using serial port.
GPRS module sends parameters relating wind turbine to central monitoring computer. The client
can access central monitoring computer server through Internet and know parameters of different
wind turbines. Kumari and Malleswaran, 2010 developed real time based equipment condition
monitoring and controlling system using embedded web based technology which directly connects
the equipment to network as a node. The embedded system consists of ARM7 based LPC 2148
microcontroller board, A/D, signal conditioning, sensors, and communications interface. The
function of web based system is to collect the real time data information of the on-site equipment
and remotely send the data in the form of user defined data transmission style. The remote
Computer collects the data and running status through the network and provides the comparison on
the historical data. If the parameter value is different from the original set value, the corrected
signal is sent to the control unit.[8]
The embedded remote monitoring system completes the data Collection in the embedded platform
and provides the data to remote host through the TCP/IP protocol from Web server. It creates
condition to realize unattended management through providing Web-based graphical management
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interface for the Internet or LAN users. Hongping and Kangling, 2010 proposed the architecture of
embedded remote monitoring system based on Internet. The system adopts embedded web server as
a central monitoring node and results in improvement in stability and reliability of system.
Moreover, utilization of dynamic monitoring web based on Java Applet improves the response
capability and brings convenience for complex monitoring web design. Zhu and Cui, 2007
developed remote intelligent monitoring system based on embedded Internet technology for device-
room monitoring of the campus network. The Intelligent Monitoring Terminal (IMT) is provided
with the functions of Embedded Internet Node Unit and local MSD (Monitoring System Devices).
IMT can give alarm of theft or fire according to detection analysis of temperature, sound and smog.
And it also can connect to Internet for carrying out remote data communication. The MCU
S3C44B0, which utilize 32-bit ARM kernel, is adopted in intelligent monitoring terminal. Clinux
operating system is chosen as the software core of embedded system. It offers self-contained
TCP/IP network protocol module and provides strong support for embedded Internet technology.

With the wide spread use of cellular networks, this approach is also popular when small amount of
data is to be transferred through the network. Extensive work has been carried out by researchers
using this approach especially in medical field.Chen Peijiang and Jiang Xuehua, 2008 describe a
remote monitoring system based on SMS of GSM. The system includes two parts which are the
monitoring center and the remote monitoring station. The monitoring center consists of a computer
and a TC35 GSM communication module. The computer and TC35 are connected by RS232. The
remote monitoring station includes a TC35 GSM communication module, a MSP430F149 MCU, a
display unit, various sensors, data gathering and processing unit.[2].Jiang et al, 2008 proposed a
system for early diagnosis of hypertension and other chronic diseases. The proposed design consists
of three main parts: a wrist Blood Pressure (BP) measurement unit, a server unit and a terminal unit.
Blood Pressure is detected using data acquired by sensors intelligently using DSP microchip. The
data is then transmitted to the remote server unit located at Community Healthcare Centers/Points
(CHC/P) by using Short Messaging Service (SMS), and notification information is sent to the
terminal unit to inform users if patients BP is abnormal.
Xu Meihua, 2009 described a remote medical monitoring system based on GSM (Global System for
Mobile communications) network. This system takes advantage of the powerful GSM network to
implement remote communication in the form of short messages and uses FPGA as the control
center to realize the family medical monitoring network. The system is made up of user terminal
equipments, GSM network and hospital terminal equipments. Hospital terminal equipments can be
a personal computer (connected with GSM modules) or other receiving equipments such as the
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mobile phone of the related doctor, while user terminal equipments are used to collect, demonstrate
and transmit kinds of physiological parameters. User terminal devices include the temperature
acquisition module, blood pressure/heart rate acquisition module, FPGA of Actel Fusion series,
information-sending and information-receiving module Siemens TC35 GSM module, LCD displays
and expansion modules.Van Der Werff, 2005 proposed a mobile-based home automation system
that consists of a mobile phone with Java capabilities, a cellular modem, and a home server. The
home appliances are controlled by the home server, which operates according to the user commands
received from the mobile phone via the cellular modem.In the proposed system the home server is
built upon an SMS/GPRS (Short Message Service/General Packet Radio Service) mobile cell
module Sony Ericsson GT48 and a microcontroller Atmel AVR 169, allowing a user to control and
monitor any variables related to the home by using any java capable cell phone.
Khiyal, 2009 proposed SMS based system for controlling of home appliances remotely and
providing security when the user is away from the place. Home appliance control system (HACS)
consists of PC which contains the software components through which the appliances are controlled
and home security is monitored and GSM Modem that allows the capability to send and receive
SMS to and from the system. The communication with the system takes place via RS232 serial port.

Many Wireless Technologies like RF, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Zigbee have been developed and
remote monitoring systems using these technologies are popular due to flexibility, low operating
charges, etc. Today Wireless Sensor Network are used into an increasing number of commercial
solutions, aimed at implementing distributed monitoring and control system in a great number of
different application areas.[4]Wijetunge, 2008 designed a general purpose controlling module
designed with the capability of controlling and sensing up to five devices simultaneously. The
communication between the controlling module and the remote server is done using Bluetooth
technology.The server can communicate with many such modules simultaneously. The controller is
based on ATMega64 microcontroller and Bluetooth communication TDK Blu2i module which
provides a serial interface for data communication. The designed controller was deployed in a home
automation application for a selected set of electrical appliances.Kanma, 2003 proposed a home
appliance control system over Bluetooth with a cellular phone, which enables remote-control, fault-
diagnosis and software-update for home appliances through Java applications on a cellular phone.
The system consists of home appliances, a cellular phone and Bluetooth communication adapters
for the appliances.The communication adapter hardware consists of a 20MHz 16bit CPU, SRAM
and a Bluetooth module. The communication adapter board is connected to the home appliance and
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to the cellular phone through serial ports. The appliances can communicate with the cellular phone
control terminal via Bluetooth SPP.Yunseop Kim, 2008 described details of the design and
instrumentation of variable rate irrigation, a wireless sensor network, and software for real-time in-
field sensing and control of a site-specific precision linear-move irrigation system. Communication
signals from the sensor network and irrigation controller to the base station were successfully
interfaced using low-cost Bluetooth wireless radio communication through Bluetooth RS-232 serial
adaptor (SD202, Initium Company).Harms, 2010describe the emerging wireless sensor networks
(WSN) for autonomous Structural Health monitoring SHM systems for bridges. In SmartBrick
Network, the base station and sensor nodes collect data from the onboard and external sensors. The
sensor nodes communicate their data from quasi-static sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, strain
gauges and seismic detectors to the base station over the ZigBee connection. The base station
processes these data and communicates them, along with any alerts generated, to a number of
destinations over the GSM/GPRS link provided by the cellular phone infrastructure. The data are
reported by email and FTP to redundant servers, via the Internet, at regular intervals or on an event-
triggered basis. The alerts are sent directly by SMS text messaging and by email. Wireless sensor
networks are the key enabler of the most reliable and durable systems for long-term SHM and have
the potential to dramatically increase public safety by providing early warning of impending
structural hazards.Mulyadi,2009 implemented a wireless medical interface based on ZigBee and
Bluetooth technology. The purpose is to acquire, process, and transfer raw data from medical
devices to Bluetooth network. The Bluetooth network can be connected to PC or PDA for further
processing. The interface comprises two types of device: MDIZ and MDIZB.MDIZ acquires data
from medical device, processes them using microcontroller, and transmit the data through ZigBee
network through UART. MDIZB receives data from several MDIZs and transmit them out to PC
through Bluetooth network. MDIZB comprises of ZigBee module, two processors, RAM, and
Bluetooth module. It receives data from ZigBee network through its ZigBee module. The data are
then sent to processor 1. Processor 1 decides priority of MDIZs. In processor 1, the data frame is
added with Start byte and End byte to mark the beginning and the end of data frame.

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As explained in the introduction chapter, the realization of complete circuitry of the Display
boards and the wireless GSM medium in information transfer is the major issue that the
following project deals with.

As we see in the figure below, there are three interfacing circuits, MAX-232 with
microcontroller, LCD display with microcontroller, and MAX-232 with GSM MODEM. The
display boards used commercially can be as follows

Figure 1: Block Diagram Representation [12]
The block diagram clearly represents the interconnection and interfacing of the various modules of
the circuit as is implemented on board, as we soldered on the Zero PCB. The various modules are a
Power circuit, a Rectifier circuit, a GSM modem, a MAX 232 driver, a microcontroller AT89S52,
Alarm Circuit with a Buzzer and a LCD Display. The GSM module acts as a Receiver circuit for
the message transmitted by the end user through a cell phone.

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Figure 2: Flow chart representing the end user perspective on control flow [4]
The above given flowchart gives the end user perspective on the control flow. During normal
operations the LCD reads a message from a fixed memory location in the microcontroller and
displays it continuously, until a new message arrives for validation. It is then when a branching
occurs basing on the validity of the senders number and further taking into account the priority
assigned to the new message in comparison to the previous one.

Check for new message

Is the
no. valid?

Keep displaying
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Figure 3: Operational Flow Chart

3.3.1. Initializations
The baud rate of the modem was set to be 9600 bps using the command AT+IPR=4800.The ECHO
from the modem was turned off using the command ATE/ATE0 at the hyper terminal. For serial
transmission and reception to be possible both the DTE and DCE should have same operational
baud rates. Hence to set the microcontroller at a baud rate of 9600bps, we set terminal count
of Timer 1 at 0FFh (clock frequency = 1.8432). The TCON and SCON registers were set

Initialisation band rate

Serial transmission
microcontroller modem
AT + CMGR = 1


Print ?

LCD Display
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3.3.2. Serial transfer using TI and RI flags
After setting the baud rates of the two devices both the devices are now ready to transmit and
receive data in form of characters. Transmission is done when TI flag is set and similarly data is
known to be received when the Rx flag is set. The microcontroller then sends an AT command to
the modem in form of string of characters serially just when the TI flag is set. After reception of a
character in the SBUF register of the microcontroller (response of MODEM with the read message
in its default format or ERROR message or OK message), the RI flag is set and the received
character is moved into the physical memory of the microcontroller.[1]
3.3.3. Validity Check
After serially receiving the characters the code then checks for start of the senders number and then
compares the number character by character with the valid number pre stored in the memory. Since
we are employing just one valid number, we are able to do the validation process dynamically i.e.
without storing the new message in another location in the memory. For more than one valid
numbers we would require more memory locations to first store the complete (valid/invalid)
message in the memory and then perform the comparison procedure.
3.3.4 Display
After validity check the control flow goes into the LCD program module to display the valid
message stored in the memory. In case of multiple valid numbers all invalid stored messages are
deleted by proper branching in the code to the delete-message module.

Embedded C
Embedded C is used for microcontroller programming. There is a large and growing international
demand for programmers with 'embedded' skills, and many desktop developers are starting to move
into this important area. Because most embedded projects have severe cost constraints, they tend to
use low-cost processors like the 8051 family of devices considered in this paper.
Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of 4software
developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded
software development. The Keil 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex
problems facing embedded software developers.[1]

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Proteus Schematic Snapshot

Figure 4: Proteus Schematic Snapshot [12]

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1. Transformer (12V)
2. Diodes (IN4007)
3. Capacitor (470uF,1000uf,22pf)
4. Voltage Regulator (7805 & 7812)
5. Resistors
6. LED
7. GSM Modem
8. MAX 232
10.IC bases
11. Ribbon wire
12. Jumper wire
13. Soldering Iron
14. Soldering Wire
15. Multimeter
16. PCB
17. Cutter
18. Screw & Nuts
4.1.1 Resistors
The flow of charge (or current) through any material, encounters an opposing force similar in many
respect to mechanical friction. This opposing force is called resistance of the material. It is
measured in ohms. In some electric circuits resistance is deliberately introduced in the form of the
Resistors are of following types:
Wire wound resistors.
Carbon resistors.
Metal film resistors.
Wire Wound Resistors:
Wire wound resistors are made from a long (usually Ni-Chromium) wound on a ceramic
core. Longer the length of the wire, higher is the resistance. So depending on the value of
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resistor required in a circuit, the wire is cut and wound on a ceramic core. This entire
assembly is coated with a ceramic metal. Such resistors are generally available in power of
2 watts to several hundred watts and resistance values from 1ohm to 100k ohms. Thus wire
wound resistors are used for high currents.[7]
Carbon Resistors:
Carbon resistors are divided into three types:
1. Carbon composition resistors are made by mixing carbon grains with binding material
(glue) and moduled in the form of rods. Wire leads are inserted at the two ends. After this an
insulating material seals the resistor. Resistors are available in power ratings of 1/10, 1/8,
1/4, 1/2, 1.2 watts and values Z from 1 ohm to 20 ohms.
2. Carbon film resistors are made by deposition carbon film on a ceramic rod. They are
cheaper than carbon composition resistors.
3. Cement film resistors are made of thin carbon coating fired onto a solid ceramic substrate.
The main purpose is to have more precise resistance values and greater stability with heat.
They are made in a small square with leads.

Figure 5: Resistors [12]
Metal Film Resistors
They are also called thin film resistors. They are made of a thin metal coating deposited on a
cylindrical insulating support. The high resistance values are not precise in value; however,
such resistors are free of inductance effect that is common in wire wound resistors at high

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Example- Carbon Resistor

Figure 6: Carbon Resistor [12]

A capacitor can store charge, and its capacity to store charge is called capacitance. Capacitors
consist of two conducting plates, separated by an insulating material (known as dielectric). The two
plates are joined with two leads. The dielectric could be air, mica, paper, ceramic, polyester,
polystyrene, etc. This dielectric gives name to the capacitor. Like paper capacitor, mica capacitor
Types of Capacitors:-
1.Fixed capacitor.
2.Variable capacitor.
1. Fixed types of capacitor are further of two types:-
Polar Capacitor:Those capacitor have polarity are known as polar capacitor. Electrolytic
capacitor are the example of polar capacitors.
Non Polar Capacitor
Those capacitor have no polarity are known as NON- polar capacitor. Ceramic capacitor are
the example of non polar capacitors
Electrolytic Capacitor:
Electrolytic capacitors have an electrolyte as a dielectric. When such an electrolyte is
charged, chemical changes takes place in the electrolyte. If its one plate is charged
positively, same plate must be charged positively in future. We call such capacitors as
polarized.Normally we see electrolytic capacitor as polarized capacitors and the leads are
marked with positive or negative on the can. Non-electrolyte capacitors have dielectric
material such as paper, mica or ceramic. Therefore, depending upon the dielectric, these
capacitors are classified.
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Figure 7: Electrolytic Capacitor [12]
Ceramic Capacitor
Such capacitors have disc or hollow tabular shaped dielectric made of ceramic material such
as titanium dioxide and barium titanate. Thin coating of silver compounds is deposited on
both sides of dielectric disc, which acts as capacitor plates. Leads are attached to each sides
of the dielectric disc and whole unit is encapsulated in a moisture proof coating. Disc type
capacitors have very high value up to 0.001uf. Their working voltages range from 3V to
60000V. These capacitors have very low leakage current. Breakdown voltage is very high.

Figure 8: Ceramic Capacitor [12]
4.1.3 DIODE
Diodes are semiconductor devices which might be described as passing current in one direction
only. Diodes have two terminals, an anode and a cathode. The cathode is always identified by a dot,
ring or some other mark. Diode is a unidirectional device. In this the current flows in only one
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Figure 9: Frequency Diode [8]
Diodes can be used as voltage regulators, tuning devices in RF tuned circuits, frequency
multiplying devices in RF circuits, mixing devices in RF circuits, switching applications or can be
used to make logic decisions in digital circuits. There are also diodes which emit "light", of course
these are known as light-emitting-diodes or LED's.
A rectifying diode of the 1N4001-07 ( 1A) type or even one of the high power, high current stud
mounting types. You will notice the straight bar end has the letter "k", this denotes the "cathode"
while the "a" denotes anode. Current can only flow from anode to cathode the principal early
application of diodes was in rectifying / 60 Hz AC mains to raw DC which was later smoothed by
choke transformers and / or capacitors. This procedure is still carried out today and a number of
rectifying schemes for diodes have evolved half wave, full wave and bridge, full wave and bridge

Figure 10: Full and Half Wave Rectifier [12]
As examples in these applications the half wave rectifier passes only the positive half of successive
cycles to the output filter through D1. During the negative part of the cycle D1 does not conduct
and no current flows to the load.
In the full wave application it essentially is two half wave rectifiers combined and because the
transformer secondary is centre tapped, D1 conducts on the positive half of the cycle while D2
conducts on the negative part of the cycle. Both add together. This is more efficient. The full wave
bridge rectifier operates essentially the same as the full wave rectifier but does not require a centre
tapped transformer. Further discussion may be seen on the topic power supplies

Page | 18

1N400X Series Diode
Diffused Junction
High Current Capability and Low Forward Voltage Drop
Low Reverse Leakage Current

Figure 11: 1N400X Series Diode [12]
Table: 1 Series of Diode

4.1.4 Signals from switches
When a switch is used to provide an input to a circuit, pressing the switch usually generates a
voltage signal. It is the voltage signal which triggers the circuit into action. What do you need to get
the switch to generate a voltage signal ,we need a voltage divider. The circuit can be built in either
of two ways:

Figure 12: Pull up and Pull Down Resistor [8]
Page | 19

The pull down resistor in the first circuit forces V
to become LOW except when the push button
switch is operated. This circuit delivers a HIGH voltage when the switch is pressed. A resistor value
of 10 is often used.In the second circuit, pull up resistor forces V
to become HIGH except
when the switch is operated. Pressing the switch connects V
directly to 0 V. In other words, this
circuit delivers a LOW voltage when the switch is pressed. In circuits which process logic signals, a
LOW voltage is called 'logic 0' or just '0', while a HIGH voltage is called 'logic1' or '1'.
These voltage divider circuits are perfect for providing input signals for logic systems. The kinds of
switches could we use. One variety of push button switch is called miniature tactile switch. These
are small switches which work well with prototype board.

Figure 13: Voltage Divider Circuit [12]
4.1.5 LED

Figure 14: LEDs [12]
Page | 20

LED means light emitting diode. Its function is similar to the diode. But these are not made up from
silicon or germanium. These are generally used as a indicating device. There are variety of LEDs
are available in market depending upon their size and colour.
Polarity of LED
LED has polarity. We can judge its polarity by watching flags in its structure. Bigger flag is
known as cathode and smaller flag is known as anode as shown below.

Figure 15 LED Circuit [8]
4.1.6 Voltage Regulator
The LM78XX 3-terminal positive voltage regulators employ internal current-limiting, thermal
shutdown and safe-area compensation, making them essentially indestructible. Heat sinking is
provided; they can deliver over 1.0A output current. They are intended as fixed voltage regulators
in a wide range of applications including local (on-card) regulation for elimination of noise and
distribution problems associated with single-point regulation. In addition to use as fixed voltage

Figure 16 IC 7805 [8]
Page | 21

Output current up to 1 A
Output voltages of 5; 6; 8; 9; 12; 15; 18; 24 V
Thermal overload protection
Short circuit protection
4.1.7 Crystal

Figure 17: Crystal Oscillator [8]
Its a 2 terminal component. This component has no polarity. Its basic function to generate a Square
Wave of some fixes frequency. Its value is measure in MHz
4.1.8 Transformer
Transformer works on the principle of mutual inductance. We know that if two coils or windings
are placed on the core of iron, and if we pass alternating current in one winding, back emf or
induced voltage is produced in the second winding. We know that alternating current always
changes with the time. So if we apply AC voltage across one winding, a voltage will be induced in
the other winding. Transformer works on this same principle. It is made of two windings wound.
The winding to which AC voltage is applied is called primary winding. The other winding is called
as secondary winding. Transformers are of two types Step Up transformer and Step Down
Page | 22

Figure 18: Transformer Circuit [8]
Step Up Transformer
These transformers are used to increase the voltage level at the output means Voltage at
secondary winding is more than the primary winding. In this transformer secondary winding
has more number of turns than primary winding.
Step Down Transformer
These transformers are used to decrease the voltage level at the output winding means
voltage of secondary winding is less than the primary winding. In this transformer
secondary winding has less number of turns than primary winding. These types of
transformers have major applications in electronics industry.
Further these are divided into two categories
Simple Transformer
Center Tapped Transformers

Figure 19: Center Tapped Transformer [8]

Page | 23

Simple Transformer
Its a four wire transformer. These types of transformer have 2 wires on primary winding
and 2 wires on secondary output. Symbol of this transformer is shown below.

Figure 20: Winding of Transformer [12]
Center Tapped Transformer
Its a 5 Wire transformer. This type of transformer has 2 wires on primary winding and 3
wires on secondary. Middle one is known as Common. Voltage rating of this transformer
expressed as 6-0-6 V,9-0-9V, 12-0-12 V etc.

Figure 21 Center Tapped Transformer [7]
Specification of Transformer
While purchasing a transformer generally two considerations have to be kept in mind, first
one is voltage rating and second is current rating. Voltage rating depends upon the circuits
operating voltage its generally 5 or 12 Volt so 6 or 12 Volt transformers are generally
used.Current rating of transformer depends upon the load of circuit. If our load current is
more than the transformer current then due to loading effects transformer can burn out. So to
protect our transformer, current rating of transformer should be more than the load
current.All transformer comes with different current rating e.g. 6 V transformer is available
in 500m A, 750mA, 1A, 2A so on. One thing should be kept in mind as the ampear
increases cost of transformer also increases. We have to choose best one according to our
circuit requirements.[4]

Page | 24

Power supply is the essential part of any device or project. We are using microcontroller and LED.
These components needs +5V DC supply. So we need a power supply circuit of +5V DC. Power
supply circuit includes step down transformer, rectifier circuit, filter circuit and regulator circuit.

Figure 22: Rectifier with Power Supply [8]
An indicating component is also attached with the power supply to indicate the power ON condition
of power supply unit.Now the aim is to design the power supply section which converts 230V AC
in to 5V DC. Since 230V is too high to reduce it to directly 5V DC, therefore we need a step down
transformer that reduces the line voltage to certain voltage that will help us to convert it in to a 5V
DC.Considering the efficiency factor of the full wave, we came to a conclusion to choose a
transformer, whose secondary voltage is 3-4 higher than the required voltage. Thus a step down
transformer of 9 V and 500 mA is used to step down the AC power supply. This transformer can
provide current up to 750 mA.Our circuit load is below 750 mA. So there will not be any loading
effect on transformer. Output of transformer is given to the rectifier circuit. We are using a central
tapped full wave rectifier. In this rectifier we are using 1N4007 pn diode to rectify AC voltage.
Output of this rectifier is not purely DC. Output of rectifier is rippled DC.
So we need some filtering section to rectify these ripples. Output voltage of rectifier can be
calculated by:-
Vout = (VIN * 2)
(Forward voltage drop of diode) 1N4007 is a silicon semiconductor material based diode. So in this
case forward Voltage drop is .7 V. Final output of this rectifier be:-
Vout= (9*2) -0.7
Vout= 16.1 V
Page | 25

Rectifier circuit is build of capacitor. A capacitor of 1000uF, 25V is used to filter the ripples.
Output of capacitor is almost pure DC. But its voltage is 16V and we need +5V DC.So we are
using a voltage regulator to get the desired +5V DC. A 7805 voltage regulator is a suitable
component for this purpose. Output of 7805 regulator is +5V DC. A capacitor of 470uf, 10V is
used to further filter out the critical ripples.
A LED is used as an indicating device. Most of LED operates at 1.5 to 2.5V voltage range with 8-
10 mA. LED used here is of 5mm size. We consider that LED operating at 1.6V with 8mA current.
We can calculate the value of resistor using the KVC law.
Total Voltage= Voltage across resistor+ Voltage across LED
LED and resistor are connected in series so same current will flow. Means 8mA current will flow
through the resistor.
Now Total Voltage is =5V
Voltage across resistor is =1.6v
Current is = 10mA
So our equation will be
5V= (10mA * resistance) + 1.6V
3.4V=10mA * resistance
Resistance =3.4/10mA= 340 ohm
Thus we can calculate the any series resistor for any input voltage and LED.

4.3.1 Microcontrollers (MCU)
Figure shows the block diagram of a typical microcontroller, which is a true computer on a chip.
The design incorporates all of the features found in micro-processor CPU, ALU, PC, SP, and
registers. It also added the other features needed to make a complete computer: ROM, RAM,
I/O,timer & counters,and clock circuit.
Page | 26

Figure 23: Diagram of Microprocessor and Microcontroller [1]
It is very clear from figure that in microprocessor we have to interface additional circuitry
for providing the function of memory and ports, for example we have to interface external
RAM for data storage, ROM for program storage, programmable peripheral interface (PPI)
8255 for the Input Output ports, 8253 for timers, USART for serial port.While in the
microcontroller RAM, ROM, I/O ports, timers and serial communication ports are in built.
Because of this it is called as system on chip. So in micro-controller there is no necessity
of additional circuitry which is interfaced in the microprocessor because memory and input
output ports are inbuilt in the microcontroller.
Microcontroller gives the satisfactory performance for small applications. But for large
applications the memory requirement is limited because only 64 KB memory is available for
program storage. So for large applications we prefer microprocessor than microcontroller
due to its high processing speed.
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8Kbytes
of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-
density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51
instruction set and pin out.The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
Page | 27

the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-
effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of
RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-
vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock
circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.The Idle Mode stops the
CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator,
disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory
Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
Three-level Program Memory Lock
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
Eight Interrupt Sources
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
Watchdog Timer
Dual Data Pointer
Power-off Flag
Although 8051 family members come in different packages such DIP(dual in line
package),QFP(Quad flat package), and LLC(leadless chi0p carrier),they all have 40 pins that are
dedicated to various functions such as I/O,RD,WR, address, data and interrupts.
VCC: Pin 40 provides supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5 Volts.
GND: Pin 20 is the ground.
Page | 28

Figure 24: PIN DIAGRAM OF THE P89C52 [1]
The 8051 has an on chip oscillator but requires an external clock to run it. Most often a
quartz crystal oscillator is connected to inputs XTAL1 (pin 19) and XTAL2 (pin 18). The
quartz crystal oscillator connected to XTAL1 and XTAL2 also needs two capacitors of 27 pf
value. One side of each capacitor is connected to the ground. Speed refers to the maximum
oscillator frequency connected to XTAL .When the 8051 is connected to a crystal oscillator
is powered up we can observe the frequency on the XTAL2 pin using the oscilloscope.

Figure 25: Oscillator Circuit [1]
Pin 9 is the RESET pin. It is an input and is active high. Upon applying a high pulse to this
pin the microcontroller well reset and terminate all activities.
This is often referred to as a power on reset .Activating a power on reset will cause all
values the registers to be lost. It will set program counter to all zeroes.In order for the
Page | 29

RESET input to be effective it must have a minimum duration of two machine cycles. In
other words the high pulse must be high for a minimum of two machine cycles before it is
allowed to go low.

Figure 26: Reset Switch [1]
This is an output pin. PSEN stands for program store enable. In an 8031 based system in
which an external ROM holds the program code, this pin is connected to the OE pin of the
ALE stands for address latch enable. It is an output pin and is active high. When
connecting an 8031 to external memory, port 0 provides both address and data. In other
words the 8031 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins. The ALE pin is
used for de-multiplexing the address and data by connecting to G pin of the 74LS373 chip.
PORTS 0,1,2,3
All the ports upon RESET are configured as input, since P0-P3 have value FFH on them.
The following is a summary of features of P0-P3.
Port 0 is also designated as AD0-AD7 allowing it to be used for both address and data.
When connecting an 8051/31 to an external memory, port 0 provides both address and data.
The 8051 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins.ALE indicates if p0 has
address the 8051 based systems where there is no external memory connection the
pins of P0 must be connected externally to 10k-ohm pull-up resistor. This is due to the fact
that P0 is an open drain, unlike P1, P2 and P3.Open drain is a term used for MOS chips in
the same way that open collector is used for TTL chips. In many systems using the 8751,
89c51 or DS89c4*0 chips we normally connect P0 to pull up resistors.
In 8051 based systems with no external memory connection both P1 and P2 are used as
simple I/O. however in 8031/51 based systems with external memory connections P2 must
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be used along with P0 to provide the 16-bit address for the external memory. P2 is also
designated as A8-A15 indicating its dual function.Since an 8031/51 is capable of accessing
64k bytes of external memory it needs a path for the 16 bits of address. While P0 provides
the lower 8 bits via A0-a7 it is the job P2 to provide bits A8-A15 of the address. In other
words when the 8031/51 is connected to external memory P2 is used for the upper 8 bits of
the 16 bit address and it cannot be used for I/O.
Port 3 occupies a total of 8 pins 10 through 17. It can be used as input or output. P3 does not
need any pull-up resistors the same as P1 and P2 did not.Although port 3 is configured as
input port upon reset this is not the way it is most commonly used. Port 3 has the additional
function of providing some extremely important signals such as interrupts
Port 3 Alternate Functions
Table: 2 Port 3 Configuration [1]
P3 Bit Function Pin
P3.0 RxD 10
P3.1 TxD 11
P3.2 INT0 12
P3.3 INT1 13
P3.4 T0 14
P3.5 T1 15
P3.6 WR 16
P3.7 RD 17

Difference between RAM and ROM
RAM is used for data storage while ROM is used for program storage.
Data of RAM can be changed during processing while data of ROM cant be changed
during processing.
Accumulator is a mathematical register where all the arithmetic and logical operations are
done is this register and after execution of instructions the outpour data is stored in the
register is bit addressable near. We can access any of the single bit of this register.

Page | 31

B register is same as that of accumulator of. It is also an 8 bit register and every bit of this is
accessible. This is also a mathematical register B which is used mostly for multiplication
and division.
Program status word register is an 8 bit register. It is also referred to as the flag register.
Although the PSW register is 8 bits wide, only 6 bits of it are used by the 8051. The unused
bits are user-definable flags.Four of the flags are called conditional flags, meaning that they
indicate some conditions that result after an instruction is executed. These four are CY
(carry), AC (auxiliary carry), P (parity) and OV (overflow).
This is the stack pointer of the microcontroller. This SFR indicates where the next value to
be taken from the stack will be read from in Internal RAM. If you push a value onto the
stack, the value will be written to the address of SP + 1. That is to say, if SP holds the
value 07h, a PUSH instruction will push the value onto the stack at address 08h.This SFR is
modified by all instructions, which modify the stack, such as PUSH, POP, and LCALL,
RET, RETI, and whenever interrupts are provoked by the microcontroller.[1]
The SFRs DPL and DPH work together to represent a 16-bit value called the Data Pointer.
The data pointer is used in operations regarding external RAM and some instructions
involving code memory. Since it is an unsigned two-byte integer value, it can represent
values from 0000h to FFFFh (0 through 65,535 decimal).
Two instructions which are used to start and terminate program:
This instruction indicate the origin of program ORG 3000H
Means program starts from 3000H loc
This instruction hasnt taken any memory space. It is used to show the starting address of
This instruction show the END of program or it is used to terminate the program.
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that uses the light modulating
properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs does not emit light directly. LCDs therefore need a light
source and are classified as "passive" displays. Some types can use ambient light such as sunlight or
Page | 32

room lighting. There are many types of LCDs that are designed for both special and general uses.
LCDs are more energy efficient, and offer safer disposal, than CRTs. Its low electrical power
consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. The LCD Module can
easily be used with an 8051 microcontroller such as the 162A. The LCD Module comes with a 16
pin connector. This can be plugged into connector 16 pin.Most common LCDs connected to the
8051 are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per
line by 2 lines, respectively.

Figure 27: LCD Character 2x16 Module [1]
The user may select whether the LCD is to operate with a 4-bit data bus or an 8-bit data bus. If a 4-
bit data bus is used, the LCD the 44780 standard requires 3 control lines as well as either 4 or 8 I/O
lines for the data bus. The user may select whether the LCD is to operate with a 4-bit data bus or an
8-bit data bus. If a 4-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of 7 data lines (3 control lines
plus the 4 lines for the data bus). If an 8-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of 11 data
lines (3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus).
The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW.
The EN line is called "Enable." This control line is used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data.
To send data to the LCD, your program should first set this line high (1) and then set the other two
control lines and/or put data on the data bus. When the other lines are completely ready, bring EN
low (0) again. The 1-0 transition tells the 44780 to take the data currently found on the other control
lines and on the data bus and to treat it as a command.
Register Select
The RS line is the "Register Select" line. When RS is low (0), the data is to be treated as a
command or special instruction (such as clear screen, position cursor, etc.). When RS is high (1),
Page | 33

the data being sent is text data which should be displayed on the screen. For example, to display the
letter "T" on the screen you would set RS high.
Read Write
The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the information on the data bus
is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the program is effectively querying (or reading)
the LCD. Only one instruction ("Get LCD status") is a read command. All others are write
commands--so RW will almost always be low.Finally, the data bus consists of 4 or 8 lines
(depending on the mode of operation selected by the user). In the case of an 8-bit data bus, the lines
are referred to as DB0, DB1, DB2, DB3, DB4, DB5, DB6, and DB7.
4.3.4 MAX-232
The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals
suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and
typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals.The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level
outputs from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors. This makes it
useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V
to + 5 V range, as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving
the RS-232 in this case.
When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL Logic 0 to between +3 and
+15 V, and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15 V, and vice versa for converting from RS232
to TTL.The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply
EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply.
Table: 3 MAX 232 pin specification

RS232 Line Type & Logic Level RS232 Voltage
TTL Voltage to/from
Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 0 +3 V to +15 V 0 V
Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 1 -3 V to -15 V 5 V
Page | 34

Figure 28 MAX 232 (operating circuit) [1]
A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem
behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends
and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data
through radio waves. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a
wireless carrier in order to operate. Matrix SIM 300 is a Fixed Cellular Terminal (FCT) for data
applications. It is a compact and portable terminal that can satisfy various data communication
needs over GSM. It can be connected to a computer with the help of a standard RS232C serial
port.SIM 300 offers features like Short Message Services (SMS), Data Services (sending and
receiving data files), Fax Services and Web Browsing. Remote login and data file transfer are also
supported. It is the perfect equipment for factory plants, resorts, dams and construction sites where
wired connectivity is not available or not practicable. The SIM 300 is easy to set up. It finds its
applications in IT companies, Banks and Financial Institutions, Logistic Companies, Service
Providers, Remote Project Sites, Professionals, and such other business establishments. Computers
use AT commands to control modems. Both GSM modems and dial-up modems support a common
set of standard AT commands. GSM modem can be used just like a dial-up modem. In addition to
the standard AT commands, GSM modems support an extended set of AT commands. These
extended AT commands are defined in the GSM standards.

Page | 35

With the extended AT commands, various things can be done:
Reading, writing and deleting SMS messages.
Sending SMS messages.
Monitoring the signal strength.
Monitoring the charging status and charge level of the battery.
Reading, writing and searching phone book entries.

Page | 36


Offline testing refers to the initial phase of testing where the module is not yet connected to the
wireless medium. This is the part of the testing process wherein we check if the MODEM receives
the AT commands from the microcontroller and makes its response in form of a new message, an
ERROR message, or an OK message (all in form of bit strings).
The oscilloscope probes are connected to P3.0 & P3.1 which are internally connected to the Tx and
Rx lines of the microcontroller. Online testing requires proper timing and delay routines, and of
course the validations step to be included.

After inclusion of the validation module in the program code, we test the module in online mode. In
this prototype we used only one valid number. With more memory available three or four valid
numbers can be included. When a message is sent to number carried by the SIM of the MODEM,
the validation module of the program checks character by character the senders number with the
number stored in the memory as the valid or authentic number (in our case the only valid number).
With the same probe connections as in the case of offline testing, we then look for signals on the Tx
and Rx lines. What we see below on the left are the signals on these lines with the ECHO being ON
(ATE1). The corresponding picture on the right depicts the modem response after about 460 ms
(variable as per message length: D) delay with the new message.

Page | 37

Figure 29: GSM Module [8]
Information sharing holds an important role in development of our institute from Regional
Engineering College (REC). The current means of information transfer are notice and circulars.
New notice or circular is only checked at the end of the day. This makes the process very time
consuming and inefficient .Looking into current trend of information transfer in the campus; it is
seen important notice take time to be displayed in the notice boards. This latency is not expected in
most of the cases and must be avoided.

It is proposed to implement this project at the institute level. It is proposed to place display boards
at major access points. These include canteens, entrance gate, hostel area etc. The proposed
locations of these display boards are shown in the figure.But, the electronics displays which are
currently used are programmable displays which need to be reprogrammed each time a new notice
comes. The process of reprogramming includes burning the microcontroller again and again.This
makes it inefficient for immediate information transfer, and thus the display board looses its
importance. The GSM based display toolkit can be used as a add-on to these display boards and
make it truly wireless. The display board programs itself with the help of the incoming SMS with
proper validation. The valid senders may include the Director, and Registrars. The centralized
system can be placed as the Computer Center for access by any other valid users with

Page | 38

SMS from these users is treated to be and is displayed. Other SMS from any other mobile phone is
discarded. Thus information from valid sources can be broadcasted easily. Such a system proves to
be helpful for immediate information transfer and can be easily implemented at the institute level.

Page | 39


The prototype of the GSM based display notice board was efficiently designed. This prototype has
facilities to be integrated with a display board thus making it truly mobile. The GSM MODEM
accepts the SMS, stores it, validates it and then displays it in the LCD module. The SMS is deleted
from the SIM each time it is read, thus making room for the next SMS. The major constraints
incorporated are the use of * as the termination character of the SMS and the display of one SMS
as a time. These limitations can be removed by the use of higher end microcontrollers and extended
RAM. The prototype can be implemented using commercial display boards. In this case, it can
solve the problem of instant information transfer in the campus.
The project undertaken has helped us gain a better perspective on various aspects related to our
course of study as well as practical knowledge of electronic equipments and communication. We
became familiar with software analysis, designing, implementation, testing and maintenance
concerned with our project.

The use of microcontroller in place of a general purpose computer allows us to theorize on many
further improvements on this project prototype. Temperature display during periods wherein no
message buffers are empty is one such theoretical improvement that is very possible. The ideal state
of the microcontroller is when the indices or storage space in the SIM memory are empty and no
new message is there to display. With proper use of interrupt routines the incoming message acts as
an interrupt, the temperature display is halted and the control flow jumps over to the specific
interrupt service routine which first validates the senders number and then displays the information
field. Another very interesting and significant improvement would be to accommodate multiple
receiver MODEMS at the different positions in a geographical area carrying duplicate SIM cards.
With the help of principles of TDMA technique, we can choose to simulcast and /or broadcast
important notifications. After a display board receives the valid message through the MODEM and
displays it, it withdraws its identification from the network & synchronously another nearby
MODEM signs itself into the network and starts to receive the message. The message is broadcast
by the mobile switching center for a continuous time period during which as many possible display
board MODEMS catch the message and display it as per the constraint of validation. Multilingual
display can be another added variation of the project. The display boards are one of the single most
Page | 40

important media for information transfer to the maximum number of end users. This feature can be
added by programming the microcontroller to use different encoding decoding schemes in different
areas as per the local language. This will ensure the increase in the number of informed users.
Graphical display can also be considered as a long term but achievable and target able output. MMS
technology along with relatively high end microcontrollers to carry on the tasks of graphics
encoding and decoding along with a more expansive bank of usable memory can make this task a
walk in the park.

Page | 41


7.1 BOOKs
1. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice G. Mazidi, Rolin D. McKinley The 8051 microcontroller
And embedded systems using assembly and C 2nd edition 01-Sep-2007, Pearson
Education India.
2. SMS and MMS Interworking In Mobile Networks Arnaud Henry-Labordere, Artech
House mobile communications 2004 Technology & Engineering.
3. Ayala, Kenneth J.(1996) The 8051 Microcontroller- Architecture, Programming and
Applications Delmar Publishers, Inc. India Reprint.
4. GSM telecommunication standards, June 2000 Second edition, European
Telecommunications Standards Institute.
5. M Samiullah, NS Qureshi,SMS Repository and Control System using GSM-SMS
Technology, European journal of scientific research, 2012.
6. D Dalwadi, N Trivedi and A Kasundra (2011), Article in Nation conference on recent
Trends in engineering and technology, INDIA

7.2 URLs
10. 8051

I am pursuing Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Lovely Professional University, Punjab. My area of interest is Communication Engineering.
I am pursuing Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Lovely Professional University, Punjab. My area of interest is Communication Engineering.
I am pursuing Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Lovely Professional University, Punjab. My area of interest is Communication Engineering.
I am pursuing Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Lovely Professional University, Punjab. My area of interest is Communication Engineering.
I am pursuing Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
Lovely Professional University, Punjab. My area of interest is Communication Engineering.