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# SEMESTER 6

## SESSION 2012/ 2013

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COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME
Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:-
1. Express the relation of statistics and quality management system in
understanding the principles and concept of quality control and their
application tools. (C2).
2. Measure the quality of products and services by using control charts,
Statistical Process Control and Acceptance Sampling methods. (P5)
3. Propose the tools and techniques that can be used to improve quality
including cost associated in controlling quality of products and services
based on quality system ISO 9000 Series. (A5)
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COURSE OUTLINE
1. FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISCTICS
2. BASIC QUALITY CONCEPT
3. CONTROL CHART FOR VARIABLES
4. CONTROL CHARRT FOR ATTRIBUTES
5. ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING
6. QUALITY COST
7. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE
8. ISO 9000 SERIES
QUALITY CONTROL
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CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CA) 50%
FINAL EXAMINATION (FE) 50%
QUALITY CONTROL
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TOPIC COVERED
CHAPTER 1: FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTICS
Analyze data by calculating min, range and standard deviation
Construct repetitive distribution table and sketch histogram
chart. Identify normal curve and calculate the area under the
normal curve.
Normal curve by using Table of Area under Normal Curve and be
able to solve problems related to quality control.
QUALITY CONTROL
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INTRODUCTION
Statisticsis the study of the collection, organization, analysis,
and interpretation of data.
It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data
collection in terms of the design of surveysand experiments.
The word of statistic usually
FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
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FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
NO TERMS DEFINITION
1 POPULATION The population is the entire set from
which one select a sample to test.
2 SAMPLE A sample is a group of units selected from
population.
3 SAMPLING
DISTRIBUTION
(PENSAMPELAN)
The sampling distribution describes
probabilities associated with a statistic
when a random sample is drawn from a
population.
TERMS AND DEFINITION
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FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
DATA
GROUPEDDATA UNGROUPED DATA
Data that has been organized into
groups (into a frequency distribution).
Example: Table below show the DAD
students score mark for Mathematics:
Data that has not been organized into
groups.
Example: Given a set of no as a following:
1,4,6,9, 7,10,12
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FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
1. The mean is calculated by adding up all the numbers in the set,
and dividing that sum by the number of entries.
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Ungrouped data
Grouped data
X1,X2.Xn =represent the data values
N =population size
n =sample size
1) The Mean = The Average
2) The Median = The Middle 3) The Mode = The Most
The middle value when a set of
the data values have been ordered
from lowest to the highest value.
When the no. of data values is
even, no natural middle value exist
and special calculation required.
Median = th rank value
Median =
The mode is the number(s) that
appear(s) the most out of a given
set of data.
The mode for a grouped data
problem is the midpoint of the
class with the highest frequency
(f).
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n +1
n
FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
Grouped data
FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
EXAMPLE 1
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FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
MEASURE OF VARIATION
Measures of variation show the amount of dispersion, or
spread, in the data values of a numerical variable.
The difference between the largest and smallest data values in
a set of data values.
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1) The Range
2) Standard Deviation 3) Variance
the standard deviation is the
square root of the variance
the variance is equal to the
standard deviation squared.
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FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
Ungrouped data
Ungrouped data
Grouped data Grouped data
or
or
FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC
EXAMPLE 1
Find the mean from the following data:
EXAMPLE 2
Find the standard deviation and variance from the following
sample data:
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A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency table.
Histograms also are used to show the shape of a distribution.
They are used for continuous or discrete variables with a large
quantity of data that is grouped into classes.
As the table indicates, it is best to use no fewer than 5 classes
(or subdivisions) or more than 20.
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HISTOGRAM
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HISTOGRAM
In a symmetric distribution, such as the bell-shaped
distribution, the mean = the median.
With positive(right) skewed distributions (with longer
tails to the right), the mean the median.
With negative(left) skewed distributions (with longer
tails to the left), the mean the median.
Steps to Making Your Frequency Distribution
STEP 1: Calculate the range of the data set
STEP 2: Find the class width / class interval / bin ranges.
Divide the range by the number of groups you want and then round up OR
Use the formula:
STEP 3: Use the class width to create your groups
STEP 4: To make a histogram from this, we will use the groups on the
horizontal axis and the frequency on the vertical axis.
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HISTOGRAM
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HISTOGRAM
EXAMPLE 1
1) Calculate the range,
2) Calculate the class interval (round up to
integer) by choose the no. of group is 6.
3) Start at the smallest number we have,
which is 12, and count by 9 until have 6
groups.
4) Plot the histogram by:
X-axis=Frequency
Y-axis =Class interval of data
Classes Frequency
12 -20 8
21 - 30 6
31 - 39 6
40 - 48 6
49 - 57 2
58 -66 2
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HISTOGRAM
Example 2
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HISTOGRAM
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HISTOGRAM
A random variable X whose distribution has the shape of a normal
curveis called a normal random variable.
Normal Curve
This random variable X is said to be normally distributed with mean
and standard deviation if its probability distribution is given by
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Properties of a Normal Distribution
The normal curve is symmetrical about the mean ;
The mean is at the middle and divides the area into halves;
The total area under the curve is equal to 1;
It is completely determined by its mean and standard deviation
(or variance
2
)
Note:
In a normal distribution, only 2parameters are needed, namely and

2
.
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Area Under the Normal Curve using Integration
The probability of a continuous normal variable X found in a
particular interval [a, b] is the area under the curve bounded by x =
aand x = band is given by
and the area depends upon the values of and .
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
The graph of the normal distribution depends on two factors - the
mean and the standard deviation.
Mean of the distribution determines the location of the center of
the graph
Standard deviation determines the height and width of the graph.
The curve on the left is shorter and wider than the curve on the right,
because the curve on the left has a bigger standard deviation.
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
The Standard Normal Distribution
If we have the standardized situationof = 0 and = 1, then we
have:
Standard Normal Curve = 0, = 1
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Percentages of the Area Under the Standard Normal Curve
A graph of this standardized (mean 0 and variance 1) normal curve
is shown.
In this graph, we have indicated the areas between the regions as
follows:-
1 Z 1 68.27%
-2 Z 2 95.45%
-3 Z 3 99.73%
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
We can transform all the observations of any normal random
variable X with mean and variance to a new set of observations
of another normal random variable Zwith mean 0 and variance 1
using the following transformation:
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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
EXAMPLE
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QUESTION 1
Find the area under the standard normal curve for the
following, using the z-table. Sketch each one.
A. More than z=0.78
B. Less than z =-0.56
C. More than z=-0.43
D. Between z =0.44 and z =1.50
E. Between z =-0.43 and 0.78
F. to the right of z =-1.33
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QUESTION 2
The IQs of a group students are normally distributed with mean of
100, and a standard deviation of 12. What % of students has an IQ of
110 or more?
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QUESTION 3
The blood pressure of adult males is normally distributed with a mean
of 122mm/hg and a standard deviation of 8.
a) What % of men has blood pressure of 129 mm/hg or more?
b) What % of men has blood pressure of 131.4 mm/hg or more?
c) What % of men has blood pressure of 126.6mm/hg or less?
EXERCISE
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QUESTION 4
The IQs of a group students are normally distributed with mean of
100, and a standard deviation of 12. What the lowest IQ of the top
30% of students? Call this IQ x.
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QUESTION 5
A cold-cereal manufacturer wants 1.5% of the product to be below
the weight specification of 0.567kg. If the data are normally
distributed and the standard deviation of the cereal filling machine is
0.018kg, what mean weight is required?