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1

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:-

1. Express the relation of statistics and quality management system in

understanding the principles and concept of quality control and their

application tools. (C2).

2. Measure the quality of products and services by using control charts,

Statistical Process Control and Acceptance Sampling methods. (P5)

3. Propose the tools and techniques that can be used to improve quality

including cost associated in controlling quality of products and services

based on quality system ISO 9000 Series. (A5)

2

COURSE OUTLINE

1. FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISCTICS

2. BASIC QUALITY CONCEPT

3. CONTROL CHART FOR VARIABLES

4. CONTROL CHARRT FOR ATTRIBUTES

5. ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING

6. QUALITY COST

7. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUE

8. ISO 9000 SERIES

QUALITY CONTROL

3

CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CA) 50%

FINAL EXAMINATION (FE) 50%

QUALITY CONTROL

4

TOPIC COVERED

CHAPTER 1: FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTICS

Analyze data by calculating min, range and standard deviation

Construct repetitive distribution table and sketch histogram

chart. Identify normal curve and calculate the area under the

normal curve.

Normal curve by using Table of Area under Normal Curve and be

able to solve problems related to quality control.

QUALITY CONTROL

5

INTRODUCTION

Statisticsis the study of the collection, organization, analysis,

and interpretation of data.

It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data

collection in terms of the design of surveysand experiments.

The word of statistic usually

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

6

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

NO TERMS DEFINITION

1 POPULATION The population is the entire set from

which one select a sample to test.

2 SAMPLE A sample is a group of units selected from

population.

3 SAMPLING

DISTRIBUTION

(PENSAMPELAN)

The sampling distribution describes

probabilities associated with a statistic

when a random sample is drawn from a

population.

TERMS AND DEFINITION

7

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

DATA

GROUPEDDATA UNGROUPED DATA

Data that has been organized into

groups (into a frequency distribution).

Example: Table below show the DAD

students score mark for Mathematics:

Data that has not been organized into

groups.

Example: Given a set of no as a following:

1,4,6,9, 7,10,12

8

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

1. The mean is calculated by adding up all the numbers in the set,

and dividing that sum by the number of entries.

9

Ungrouped data

Grouped data

X1,X2.Xn =represent the data values

N =population size

n =sample size

1) The Mean = The Average

2) The Median = The Middle 3) The Mode = The Most

The middle value when a set of

the data values have been ordered

from lowest to the highest value.

When the no. of data values is

even, no natural middle value exist

and special calculation required.

Median = th rank value

Median =

The mode is the number(s) that

appear(s) the most out of a given

set of data.

The mode for a grouped data

problem is the midpoint of the

class with the highest frequency

(f).

10

n +1

n

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

Grouped data

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

EXAMPLE 1

11

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

MEASURE OF VARIATION

Measures of variation show the amount of dispersion, or

spread, in the data values of a numerical variable.

The difference between the largest and smallest data values in

a set of data values.

12

1) The Range

2) Standard Deviation 3) Variance

the standard deviation is the

square root of the variance

the variance is equal to the

standard deviation squared.

13

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

Ungrouped data

Ungrouped data

Grouped data Grouped data

or

or

FUNDAMENTAL OF STATISTIC

EXAMPLE 1

Find the mean from the following data:

EXAMPLE 2

Find the standard deviation and variance from the following

sample data:

14

A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency table.

Histograms also are used to show the shape of a distribution.

They are used for continuous or discrete variables with a large

quantity of data that is grouped into classes.

As the table indicates, it is best to use no fewer than 5 classes

(or subdivisions) or more than 20.

15

HISTOGRAM

16

HISTOGRAM

In a symmetric distribution, such as the bell-shaped

distribution, the mean = the median.

With positive(right) skewed distributions (with longer

tails to the right), the mean the median.

With negative(left) skewed distributions (with longer

tails to the left), the mean the median.

Steps to Making Your Frequency Distribution

STEP 1: Calculate the range of the data set

STEP 2: Find the class width / class interval / bin ranges.

Divide the range by the number of groups you want and then round up OR

Use the formula:

STEP 3: Use the class width to create your groups

STEP 4: To make a histogram from this, we will use the groups on the

horizontal axis and the frequency on the vertical axis.

17

HISTOGRAM

18

HISTOGRAM

EXAMPLE 1

1) Calculate the range,

2) Calculate the class interval (round up to

integer) by choose the no. of group is 6.

3) Start at the smallest number we have,

which is 12, and count by 9 until have 6

groups.

4) Plot the histogram by:

X-axis=Frequency

Y-axis =Class interval of data

Classes Frequency

12 -20 8

21 - 30 6

31 - 39 6

40 - 48 6

49 - 57 2

58 -66 2

19

HISTOGRAM

Example 2

20

HISTOGRAM

21

HISTOGRAM

A random variable X whose distribution has the shape of a normal

curveis called a normal random variable.

Normal Curve

This random variable X is said to be normally distributed with mean

and standard deviation if its probability distribution is given by

22

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Properties of a Normal Distribution

The normal curve is symmetrical about the mean ;

The mean is at the middle and divides the area into halves;

The total area under the curve is equal to 1;

It is completely determined by its mean and standard deviation

(or variance

2

)

Note:

In a normal distribution, only 2parameters are needed, namely and

2

.

23

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Area Under the Normal Curve using Integration

The probability of a continuous normal variable X found in a

particular interval [a, b] is the area under the curve bounded by x =

aand x = band is given by

and the area depends upon the values of and .

24

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

The graph of the normal distribution depends on two factors - the

mean and the standard deviation.

Mean of the distribution determines the location of the center of

the graph

Standard deviation determines the height and width of the graph.

The curve on the left is shorter and wider than the curve on the right,

because the curve on the left has a bigger standard deviation.

25

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

The Standard Normal Distribution

If we have the standardized situationof = 0 and = 1, then we

have:

Standard Normal Curve = 0, = 1

26

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Percentages of the Area Under the Standard Normal Curve

A graph of this standardized (mean 0 and variance 1) normal curve

is shown.

In this graph, we have indicated the areas between the regions as

follows:-

1 Z 1 68.27%

-2 Z 2 95.45%

-3 Z 3 99.73%

27

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

We can transform all the observations of any normal random

variable X with mean and variance to a new set of observations

of another normal random variable Zwith mean 0 and variance 1

using the following transformation:

28

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

EXAMPLE

29

QUESTION 1

Find the area under the standard normal curve for the

following, using the z-table. Sketch each one.

A. More than z=0.78

B. Less than z =-0.56

C. More than z=-0.43

D. Between z =0.44 and z =1.50

E. Between z =-0.43 and 0.78

F. to the right of z =-1.33

30

QUESTION 2

The IQs of a group students are normally distributed with mean of

100, and a standard deviation of 12. What % of students has an IQ of

110 or more?

31

QUESTION 3

The blood pressure of adult males is normally distributed with a mean

of 122mm/hg and a standard deviation of 8.

a) What % of men has blood pressure of 129 mm/hg or more?

b) What % of men has blood pressure of 131.4 mm/hg or more?

c) What % of men has blood pressure of 126.6mm/hg or less?

EXERCISE

32

QUESTION 4

The IQs of a group students are normally distributed with mean of

100, and a standard deviation of 12. What the lowest IQ of the top

30% of students? Call this IQ x.

33

QUESTION 5

A cold-cereal manufacturer wants 1.5% of the product to be below

the weight specification of 0.567kg. If the data are normally

distributed and the standard deviation of the cereal filling machine is

0.018kg, what mean weight is required?

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