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Inspection Engineer Interview points

Piping
Commonly used Construction codes:
ASME B 31.1 (Power piping)
ASME B31.3 Process Piping,
ASME B31.4 Liquid transportation piping
ASME 31.8 Liquid petroeu! trans!ission piping
AP" 11#4 $eding o% pipeine
What are the main deference between ASME !"#! $ ASME !"#%&
&'e aowa(e stress is not t'e sa!e. Mini!u! t'ic)ness %or!ua is not sa!e. *ne is %or t'e piping inside t'e pant and t'e ot'er one is %or
transportation.
Inspection: AP" +,#, AP" -P +,4
Material: AS&M A+3, AS&M A1#., SA 13+, SA 333, SA .,1, SA .,/, AP" +L, SA /.8, SA /13, SA 31/, SA ,0#, etc.,
a) Carbon Steel Pipe
AP" +L, 1rade A or B, sea!ess
AP" +L, 1rade A or B, SA$, str. sea!, Ej 2 #.0+
AP" +L, 1rade 34/, sea!ess
AP" +L, 1rade 34., sea!ess
AP" +L, 1rade 3+/, sea!ess
AP" +L, 1rade 3+., sea!ess
AP" +L, 1rade 3.#, sea!ess
AS&M A +3, sea!ess
AS&M A 1#.
AS&M A 333, sea!ess
AS&M A 3.0
AS&M A 381, Ej 2 #.0#
AS&M A +/4
AS&M A .,1, Ej 2 #.0#
AS&M A .,/, Ej 2 #.0#
AS&M A .01, Ej 2 #.0#
(b) Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe
AS&M A 333, sea!ess
AS&M A 33+
AS&M A 3.0
AS&M A 4/., Ec 2 #.0#
AS&M A .,1, Ej 2 #.0#
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AS&M A .,/, Ej 2 #.0#
AS&M A .01, Ej 2 #.0#
(c) Stainless Steel Alloy Pipe
AS&M A /.8, sea!ess
AS&M A 31/, sea!ess
AS&M A 3+8, Ej 2 #.0#
AS&M A 3,.
AS&M A 4+1, Ec 2 #.0#
(d) Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe
AS&M B 4/
AS&M B 4..
(e) Nickel and Nickel Alloy Pipe
AS&M B 1.1
AS&M B 1.+
AS&M B 1.,
AS&M B 4#,
(f) Aluminum Alloy Pipe
AS&M B /1#, &e!pers * and 411/
AS&M B /41, &e!pers * and 411/
'ow temperature service material $ fittings
Product 5or! AS&M Spec. 6o.
Pipe A 333
&u(e A 334
5ittings A 4/#
5orgings A 3+#
7astings A 3+/
Boting A 3/#
Pate A /#
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&'e pri!ar8 ee!ents in deter!ining t'e !ini!u! accepta(e dia!eter o% an8 pipe networ) are s8ste! design %ow rates and
pressure drops. &'e design %ow rates are (ased on s8ste! de!ands t'at are nor!a8 esta(is'ed in t'e process design p'ase o% a
pro9ect.
&'e '8drauic design o% a piping s8ste! is pre!ised on seecting t'e opti!u! pipe si:e (dia!eter) and t'ic)ness (sc'edue), %or t'e
design %ow rate and t'e aowa(e pressure drop in t'e s8ste!.
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5or a speci%ic %ow rate, as t'e pipe dia!eter increases, t'e pressure drop increases at a %ast rate (pressure drop ;aries appro<i!ate8
wit' t'e square o% t'e ;eocit8). &'is !eans t'at t'e pu!ping 'orsepower required woud increase resuting in a 'ig'er pu!p cost and
on=going operating energ8 costs. *n t'e ot'er 'and, as t'e pipe dia!eter decreases, t'e instaed cost o% t'e piping s8ste! (pipe,
%ittings, ;a;es) aso decreases. &'e opti!a soution is to %ind t'e pipe si:e t'at woud resut in t'e owest i%e c8ce costs (initia
instaed cost pus operating costs o;er t'e i%e o% t'e piping s8ste!.
Piping and Instrumentation (iagram )P$I(*
&'e pri!ar8 ee!ent o% a piping design is t'e piping and instru!entation diagra! (P>"?). Bot' t'e process engineer and t'e
instru!ent and contros engineer pro;ide design in%or!ation. &'e %irst ;ersion s'oud represent a !a9or equip!ent, process piping
wit' si:es, utiit8 piping wit' si:es, and ine=!ounted instru!ent 'ardware. &'e piping design tea! is responsi(e %or dra%ting t'e
P>"?.
&'e P>"? is co!!on8 re%erred to as t'e contro docu!ent %or design and construction and su(sequent8 %or operation and
!aintenance. 5or t'e pipe designer, t'e diagra! is a co!pete !ec'anica description. "t is an engineering e<pression o% t'e process=
scope o% wor).
"t is i!perati;e to !aintain t'e P>"? up to date and to contro and co!!unicate t'e re;isions to t'e design group to ensure t'at t'e
design is (ased on t'e atest re;ision.
Piping co!ponents s'a (e designed %or an interna pressure representing t'e !ost se;ere condition o% coincident pressure and
te!perature e<pected in nor!a operation. &'is condition is (8 de%inition t'e one t'at resuts in t'e greatest required pipe t'ic)ness
and t'e 'ig'est %ange rating
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MA+E,IA' SE'EC+I-.
Materias seection is an opti!i:ation process, and t'e !ateria seected %or an appication !ust (e aowed (8 t'e appica(e code@ and
c'osen %or t'e su! o% its properties (strengt', toug'ness, corrosion resistance, etc), a;aia(iit8, and cost. &'us, t'e seected !ateria
!a8 not ran) %irst in eac' e;auation categor8@ (ut it s'oud (e t'e (est o;era c'oice
"n practice it is usua to seect !aterias w'ic' corrode sow8 at a )nown rate and to !a)e an aowance %or t'is in speci%8ing t'e
!ateria t'ic)ness.
Material Selection Process
Piping !ateria is seected (8 opti!i:ing t'e (asis o% design.
1. Ei!inate %ro! consideration t'ose piping !aterias t'atA
a. Are not aowed (8 code or standard@
(. Are not c'e!ica8 co!pati(e wit' t'e %uid@
c. 4a;e s8ste! rated pressure or te!peratures t'at do not !eet t'e %u range o% process operating conditions@ and
d. Are not co!pati(e wit' en;iron!enta conditions suc' asA e<terna corrosion potentia, 'eat tracing require!ents,
utra;ioet degradation, i!pact potentia, and speci%ic 9oint require!ents.
2. &'e re!aining !aterias are e;auated %or ad;antages and disad;antages suc' as capita, %a(rication and instaation costs@
support s8ste! co!pe<it8@ co!pati(iit8 to 'ande t'er!a c8cing@ and cat'odic protection require!ents. &'e 'ig'est ran)ed
!ateria o% construction is t'en seected.
3. &'e design proceeds wit' pipe si:ing, pressure integrit8 cacuations and stress ana8ses. "% t'e seected piping !ateria does
not !eet t'ose require!ents, t'en t'e second ran)ed !ateria is used and t'e pipe si:ing, pressure=integrit8 cacuations and
stress ana8ses are repeated.
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P,ESS/,E0I.+E1,I+2 (ESI1.
&'e pressure=integrit8 design o% a piping s8ste! nor!a8 requires t'e consideration o% at east two issues. &'e %irst is t'e
deter!ination o% t'e !ini!u! or no!ina pipe wa t'ic)ness, and t'e second is t'e deter!ination o% t'e pressure rating o% t'e in=ine
co!ponents suc' as ;a;es and %ittings. &'e design process %or consideration o% pressure integrit8 uses aowa(e stresses, t'ic)ness
aowances (ased on s8ste! require!ents, and !anu%acturing wa t'ic)ness toerances to deter!ine !ini!u! wa t'ic)ness
Current asis for (etermining the Allowable Stress )S*
As a resut o% t'e introduction o% new !aterias and increases in ser;ice te!peratures, use
o% BSa%et8 %actorsC was a(andoned and t'e %actor (eca!e part o% t'e aowa(e stress %or a !ateria at an8 te!perature. &'e aowa(e
stress is (ased on t'e east o% t'e %oowingA
-oo!=te!perature tensie strengt' D 3.+
-oo!=te!perature 8ied strengt' D 1.+
&'e stress required to cause a creep rate o% #.###1ED1### 'ours
&'e a;erage stress to cause rupture at 1##,### 'ours D 1.+
&'e !ini!u! stress to cause rupture at 1##,### 'ours D 1./+
&oda8, %racture !ec'anics aows an engineer to esta(is' t'e !ini!u! toug'ness required in a !ateria (ased on t'e stress appied
and t'e !a<i!u! credi(e si:e %aw.
&'ese c'anges ei!inated concern o;er (ritte %racture. "n addition, Section F""" requires t'at '8drostatic testing (e per%or!ed at t'e
!ini!u! design !eta te!perature pus ateast 3#G5, ensuring t'at (ritte %aiure wi not occur during '8drostatic testing
(esign Margin )3Safety 4actor5* in the ASME oiler and Pressure 6essel Code
"n t'e 1000 addenda o% t'e ASME Boier 7ode, t'e design !argin (%or!er8 )nown as t'e BSa%et8 5actorC) was c'anged %ro! 4.# to
3.+.
ASME !"#! 'as 'ad a design !argin o% 3.# %or !ore t'an /# 8ears
ASME !"#" is in t'e process o% c'anging to 3.+, (ut !a8 c'ange to 3.#.
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PIPI.1 S2S+EM (ESI1. P,-CE(/,E
&'e %oowing %owc'art s'ows t'e t8pica procedure used in designing piping s8ste!s
PIPI.1 'A2-/+ A.( IS-ME+,IC (,AWI.1S
5ow diagra!s, ine ists and design speci%ications are a used (8 t'e piping designer to a8 out t'e piping and generate design
drawings. Piping o% t'e si:e and sc'edue !ust (e routed (etween t'e appropriate pieces o% equip!ent as s'own on t'e %ow
diagra!s. -outing wi (e a%%ected (8 s8ste! operating te!perature, pipe weig't, instaation and !ateria costs, appica(e code
require!ents, pressure drop require!ents and equip!ent and (uiding structure ocations.
Piping iso!etrics are t'ree=di!ensiona representations o% t'e piping s8ste! using a H3#G orientation o% t'e two 'ori:onta a<es.
Piping not running parae to one o% t'e !ain a<es is s'own (8 its co!ponents in eac' direction. "so!etrics need not (e drawn to
scae@ t'e piping seg!ents !a8 (e drawn as ong as is necessar8 %or carit8
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olting material: AS&M A 103 grade B, (oting %or ordinar8 ser;ice. AS&M A 103 grade B,M (oting %or areas e<posed to '8drogen
su%ide ser;ice
7ydro test pressure: 1.+ 3 design pressure
What is the difference between pipe $ tube&
&'e word pipe is used, as distinguis'ed %ro! tube to app8 to tu(uar products o% di!ensions co!!on8 used %or pipeine and piping s8ste!s. Pipes 6PS
1/ (?6 3##) and s!aer 'a;e outside dia!eters nu!erica8 arger t'an t'eir corresponding si:es. "n contrast, t'e outside dia!eters o% tu(es are
nu!erica8 identica to t'e si:e nu!(er %or a si:es.
Minimum re8uired thic9ness calculation:
Pipe t'e !ini!u! required t'ic)ness is ItJ, t'e no!ina t'ic)ness is t K corrosion aowance
&'e ItJ as per API ,P :;% is t<P( = >SE w'ere P=?esign Pressure, (=*? o% pipe, S=aowa(e stress as per t'e code, E=quait8 %actor (%or Sea!ess
pipe it is *ne). &'is %or!ua is used %or in=ser;ice piping.
&'e ItJ as per ASME !"#! is t<P( = >)SE?P2* w'ere P=?esign Pressure, (=*? o% pipe, S=aowa(e stress as per t'e code, E=quait8 %actor (%or
Sea!ess pipe it is *ne), 20@#% %or car(on stee upto 4##G5. &'is %or!ua is used on8 %or new construction.
4or -( of piping up to ">5 refer API ,P :;% piping schedule table# Above ">5 the -( is the siAe of the pipe#
ASME B 31.3 formula
tm L
C
Py SE
PD
+
+ ) ( 2
$'ere
S M Aowa(e Stress
( = *utside dia!eter
E = ongitudina 9oint %actor o(tained %ro! ree;ant &a(e
P = ?esign Pressure
2 = te!perature %actor
C = 7orrosion > !ec'anica aowance
ASME !"#% formula
tm L C
S
PD
+
2
$'ere
S M Aowa(e Stress from ASME !"#%
( = *utside dia!eter
P = ?esign Pressure
C = 7orrosion > !ec'anica aowance
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API ,P :;% formula
tm L C
SE
PD
+
2
$'ere
S M Aowa(e Stress
( = *utside dia!eter
E = ongitudina 9oint %actor o(tained %ro! ree;ant &a(e
P = ?esign Pressure
C = 7orrosion > !ec'anica aowance
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What is PMI&
Positi;e Materia "denti%ication (8 using isotopes, ig't or c'e!ica. 5irst two are porta(e. &'e code used is AP" -P +,8. "t is (eing used on8 %or ao8
stee ;eri%ication.
C/I
7orrosion under insuation occurs at w'at te!perature rangeN
$'at are t'e 6?& !et'ods can (e used to %ind t'e corrosion under insuationN
$'at are a t'e possi(e ocations w'ere one can e<pect 7O"N
Piping components:
4langes: ASME B 1..+ upto /4C dia!eter, B1..4, %or dia!eter a(o;e /4C
4lange Material: SA 1#+, SA .04,
4orged 4ittings: SA /34, SA 4#3
+ype of flanges: $ed nec), (ind, sip on, ori%ice, t'readed etc.,
+ype of flanges:
$ed nec), Lap, soc)et
wed, sip on, (ind >
t'readed
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Piping system hydrotest pressure 6s flange rating
4lange rating 7ydrotest pressure in
psi
1+#P 4/+
3##P 11##
.##P /1,+
0##P 3/+#
1+##P +4##
7ow will you identify flange rating if in doubt& Loo) %or punc' !ar)ing on t'e %ange sides > c'ec) t'e di!ension against t'e code
Where will you find the details of pipe fittings )elbowsB reducers etc#B*
*n t'e sides o% %ittings (e(ow=sides, reducers=sides, %anges=sides)
API Std#""C@
7ydrotest )Page >: $ >C*
48drostatic testing ;aidates integrit8 at t'e ti!e o% t'e test (8 de!onstrating t'e integrit8 o% a pipeine wit' respect to t'e esta(is'ed M*P and t'e
ea) tig'tness o% a pipeine. $it'in i!its, t'e greater t'e ratio o% test pressure to operating pressure, t'e !ore e%%ecti;e t'e test. ASME
B31.4 current8 requires a test pressure o% not ess t'an 1./+ ti!es M*P %or not ess t'an %our 'ours w'en t'e pipe is ;isua8 inspected
during t'e test, and not ess t'an an additiona %our 'ours at 1.1 ti!es M*P w'en t'e pipe is not ;isua8 inspected during t'e test. An
aternati;e test co!!on8 caed a Ispi)e testJ is conducted at 1.30 ti!es M*P %or appro<i!ate8 3# !inutes to detect inear t8pe de%ects
associated wit' ongitudina sea!s
,etesting 4re8uency )Page >C*
&'e %requenc8 o% '8drostatic retesting required to assure continued ser;icea(iit8 o% a pipeine seg!ent depends on t'e test=pressure=to=operating=
pressure ratio, and t'e rates o% growt' o% t'e particuar t8pe o% de%ects t'at e<ist in t'e pipeine. &8pica de%ects t'at tend to (eco!e arger wit' t'e
passage o% ti!e areA e<terna and interna corrosion=caused !eta oss, stress=corrosion crac)s, and an8 ongitudina8 oriented crac)=i)e de%ect t'at is
su(9ected to pressure=c8ce=induced
(etermination of Inspection Interval= 4re8uency )Page >C*
A '8drostatic test is one !et'od to assess t'e integrit8 o% a pipeine. $'en '8drostatic testing is seected to ;eri%8 t'e integrit8 o% a pipeine seg!ent,
tests s'oud (e conducted at inter;as su%%icient to ei!inate or pro;e t'e a(sence o% critica de%ects (e%ore t'e8 reac' a condition t'at can cause an
unintentiona reease
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Suggested Welding repair methods for piping according to API ""@% = API :;@
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API 570 suggested repair methods
EDAMP'ES -4 ,EPAI,S
C#" ,epairs
Manua weding utii:ing t'e gas !eta=arc or s'ieded !eta=arc processes !a8 (e used.
$'en t'e te!perature is (eow +#G5 (1#G7), ow='8drogen eectrodes, A$S E=331. or E=3318, s'a (e used w'en weding !aterias con%or!ing to AS&M A=+3, 1rades A
and B@ A=1#., 1rades A and B@ A=333@ A=334@ AP" +L@ and ot'er si!iar !ateria. &'ese eectrodes s'oud aso (e used on ower grades o% !ateria w'en t'e te!perature
o% t'e !ateria is (eow 3/G5 (#G7). &'e piping engineer s'oud (e consuted %or cases in;o;ing di%%erent !aterias.
$'en A$S E=331. or E=3318 eectrodes are used on wed nu!(ers / and 3 (see 5igure 7=1 (eow), t'e (eads s'a (e deposited (8 starting at t'e (otto! o% t'e asse!(8
and weding upward. &'e dia!eter o% t'ese eectrodes s'oud not e<ceed +D3/ inc' (4.# !!). Eectrodes arger t'at +D3/ inc' (4.# !!) !a8 (e used on wed nu!(er 1
(see 5igure 7=1), (ut t'e dia!eter s'oud not e<ceed 3D1. inc' (4.8 !!).
&'e ongitudina weds (nu!(er 1, 5igure 7=1) on t'e rein%orcing see;e s'a (e %itted wit' a suita(e tape or !id stee (ac)ing strip (see note) to a;oid %using t'e wed to
t'e side wa o% t'e pipe.
6oteA "% t'e origina pipe aong wed nu!(er 1 'as (een c'ec)ed t'oroug'8 (8 utrasonic !et'ods and it is o% su%%icient t'ic)ness %or weding, a (ac)ing strip is not
necessar8. A repair and weding procedures %or on=strea! ines !ust con%or! to AP" Pu( //#1 %or 'ot tapping
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C#> Small ,epair Patches
&'e dia!eter o% eectrodes s'oud not e<ceed +D3/ inc' (4.# !!). $'en t'e te!perature o% t'e (ase !ateria is (eow 3/G5 (#G7), ow='8drogen eectrodes s'a (e used.
$ea;ing o% wed (eads deposited wit' ow='8drogen eectrodes s'oud (e a;oided. A repair and weding procedures %or on=strea! ines !ust con%or! to AP" Pu(ication
//#1.
E<a!pes o% s!a repair patc'es are s'own (eow in 5igure 7=/.
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Intelligent Pigging
&'is !et'od in;o;es t'e !o;e!ent o% a de;ice (pig) t'roug' t'e piping eit'er w'ie it is in ser;ice or a%ter it 'as (een re!o;ed %ro! ser;ice. Se;era
t8pes o% de;ices are a;aia(e e!po8ing di%%erent !et'ods o% inspection. &'e ine to (e e;auated !ust (e %ree %ro! restrictions t'at woud cause t'e
de;ice to stic) wit'in t'e ine, i.e., usua8 %i;e dia!eter (ends are required (standard 0#Q pipe es !a8 not pass a pig). &'e ine !ust aso 'a;e %aciities
%or aunc'ing and reco;ering t'e pigs. Most pant piping s8ste!s are t8pica8 not suited to inteigent pigging
/nderground piping
'ea9 +esting
Onderground ines t'at cannot (e ;isua8 inspected s'oud (e periodica8 tested %or ea)s. Se;era !et'ods are a;aia(e to ac'ie;e t'is o(9ecti;eA
a. Pressure deca8 !et'ods in;o;e pressuri:ing t'e ine to a desired a!ount, (oc)ing it in, and t'en re!o;ing t'e source o% pressure. Monitoring t'e
ine pressure o;er a period o% ti!e wi pro;ide an indication o% s8ste! tig'tness. &ests !a8 (e conducted at a singe pressure or !utipe pressures
(. Fou!e inD;ou!e out !et'ods !a)e use o% ;ou!etric !easuring !eters at eac' end o% t'e ine
c. A !ar)er c'e!ica (tracer) !a8 (e added to t'e ine as a ea) detection !et'od. Soi gas sa!pes near t'e ine are coected and tested %or t'e
presence o% t'e !ar)er c'e!ica. &'e a(sence o% an8 !ar)er c'e!ica in t'e soi gas sa!pes indicates t'e ine is not ea)ing
d. Acoustic e!ission tec'noog8 detects and ocates ea)s (8 t'e sound created (8 t'e ea). Sensors !ust (e spaced to aow t'e sound generated (8 a
ea) to (e detected at t'e sensor ocations. Sensors are attac'ed direct8 to t'e pipe, so testing !a8 require t'e re!o;a o% an8 protecti;e coating
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Acceptable under tolerances as per API ,P :;%
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Chec9 list from API :;@
APPE.(ID AEED+E,.A' I.SPEC+I-. C7ECF'IS+ 4-, P,-CESS PIPI.1
A#" 'ea9s
a. Process.
(. Stea! tracing.
c. E<isting ca!ps.
A#> Misalignment
a. Piping !isaign!entDrestricted !o;e!ent.
(. E<pansion 9oint !isaign!ent.
A#! 6ibration
a. E<cessi;e o;er'ung weig't.
(. "nadequate support.
c. &'in, s!a (ore, or ao8 piping.
d. &'readed connections.
e. Loose supports causing !eta wear.
A#% Supports
a. S'oes=o%% support.
(. 4anger distortion or (rea)age.
d. Brace distortionD(rea)age.
e. Loose (rac)ets.
%. Side patesDroers.
g. 7ounter(aance condition.
'. Support corrosion.
A#: Corrosion
a. Boting support points under ca!ps.
(. 7oatingDpainting deterioration.
c. Soi=to=air inter%ace.
d. "nsuation inter%aces.
e. Bioogica growt'.
A#C Insulation
a. ?a!ageDpenetrations.
(. Missing 9ac)etingDinsuation.
c. Seaing deterioration.
d. Buging.
e. Banding ((ro)enD!issing).
,E6IEW -4 ,EC-,(S
-ecords o% pre;ious inspections and o% inspections conducted during t'e current operating period s'oud (e re;iewed soon a%ter t'e inspections are
conducted to sc'edue t'e ne<t inspection date. &'is re;iew s'oud pro;ide ists o% areas t'at are approac'ing retire!ent t'ic)ness, 'a;e pre;ious8
s'own 'ig' corrosion rates, and current inspection 'as indicated a need %or %urt'er in;estigation. 5ro! t'ese ists, a wor) sc'edue s'oud (e prepared
%or additiona on=strea! inspection, i% possi(e, and %or inspections to (e conducted during t'e ne<t s'utdown period. Suc' a sc'edue wi assist in
deter!ining t'e nu!(er o% inspectors to (e assigned to t'e wor).
803+8#.3.doc Page 3+ o% 30
"n addition, %ro! t'e re;iew o% t'e records o% pre;ious inspections, a ist s'oud (e !ade o% a predicta(e repairs and repace!ents. &'is ist s'oud (e
su(!itted to t'e !aintenance depart!ent %ar enoug' in ad;ance o% t'e s'utdown to per!it an8 required !ateria to (e o(tained or, i% necessar8,
%a(ricated. &'is ist wi aso assist t'e !aintenance personne in deter!ining t'e nu!(er o% personne required during t'e s'ut=down period.
+7ICF.ESS (A+A
A record o% t'ic)ness data o(tained during periodic or sc'edued inspections pro;ides a !eans o% arri;ing at corrosion or erosion rates and e<pected
!ateria i%e. So!e co!panies use co!puteri:ed record s8ste!s %or t'is purpose. &'e data !a8 (e s'own on s)etc'es or presented as ta(uated
in%or!ation attac'ed to t'e s)etc'es
SFE+C7ES
"so!etric or o(ique drawings pro;ide a !eans o% docu!enting t'e si:e and orientation o% piping ines, t'e ocation and t8pes o% %ittings, ;a;es, ori%ices,
etc. and t'e ocations at w'ic' t'ic)ness !easure!ents are to (e ta)en. At'oug' origina construction drawings !a8 (e used, nor!a8 separate
s)etc'es are !ade (8, or %or, t'e inspection depart!ent.
S)etc'es 'a;e t'e %oowing i!portant %unctionsA
a. "denti%8 particuar piping s8ste!s and circuits in ter!s o% ocation, si:e, !ateria speci%ication, genera process %ow, and ser;ice conditions.
(. "n%or! t'e !ec'anica depart!ent o% points to (e opened %or ;isua inspection and parts t'at require repace!ent or repair.
c. Ser;e as %ied data s'eets on w'ic' can (e recorded t'e ocations o% t'ic)ness !easure!ents, serious corrosion, and sections requiring i!!ediate
repace!ent. &'ese data can (e trans%erred to continuous records at a ater date.
d. Assist at %uture inspections in deter!ining ocations t'at urgent8 require e<a!ination.
803+8#.3.doc Page 3. o% 30
ASME B 31.3 Acceptance
a!le 3"1.3.# Acceptance $riteria for %elds and E&amination Methods for E'aluating (eld Imperfections
Criteria )A to M* for +ypes of Welds and for Service Conditions G.ote)"*H
(eld Imperfection
E<a!ination Met'ods
.ormal and Category M
fluid Service
Severe Cyclic conditions Category ( fluid Service
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A A A A A A A A A A 7rac)
A A A A A A 7 A 6DA A Lac) o% %usion R.. R..
B A 6DA A A 6DA 7 A 6DA B "nco!pete penetration R.. R..
E E 6DA ? ? 6DA 6DA A6DA 6DA 6DA "nterna porosit8 R.. R.. R..
1 1 6DA 5 5 6DA 6DA A6DA 6DA 6DA "nterna sag incusion, tungsten
incusion, or eongated indication
R.. R.. R..
4 A 4 A A A " A 4 4 Ondercutting R.. R.. R..
A A A A A A A A A A Sur%ace Porosit8 or e<posed sag
incusion S6ote(+)T
R.. R.. R..
6DA 6DA 6DA " " " 6DA 6DA 6DA 6DA Sur%ace %inis' R.. R.. R..
U U 6DA U U 6DA U U 6DA U 7onca;e root sur%ace (suc) up) R.. R..
L L L L L L M M M M $ed rein%orce!ent or interna
protrusion
R.. R.. R..
1eneral .otes:
803+8#.3.doc Page 3, o% 30
a. $ed i!per%ections are e;auated (8 one or !ore o% t'e t8pes o% e<a!ination !et'ods gi;en, as speci%ied in paras. 341.4.1, 341.4./, 341.4.3 > M341.4 or (8 t'e
engineering design
(. B6DAJ indicates t'e 7odes does not esta(is' acceptance criteria or does not require e;auation o% t'is )ind o% i!per%ection %or t'is t8pe o% wed
c. 7'ec) )* indicates e<a!ination !et'od genera8 used %or e;auating t'is )ind o% wed i!per%ection.
d. Eipsis )I##* indicates e<a!ination !et'od not genera8 used %or e;auating t'is )ind o% wed i!per%ection
$riterion *alue +otes for a!le 3"1.3.#
Criterion
Accepta!le *alue ,imits -+ote ./01
Symbol
Measure
A
E<tent o% i!per%ection Vero (no e;ident i!per%ection)
?ept' o% inco!pete penetration
7u!uati;e engt' o% inco!pete penetration
1 !! (1D3/C) and #./Ww
38 !! (1.+C) in an8 1+# !! (.C) wed engt'
C ?ept' o% Lac) o% %usion > inco!pete penetration
7u!uati;e engt' o% Lac) o% %usion > inco!pete Penetration S6ote
(,)T
#./Ww
38 !! (1.+C) in an8 1+# !! (.C) wed engt'
( Si:e and distri(ution o% interna porosit8 See BPF 7ode, Section. F""", ?i;ision 1, Appendi< 4
E Si:e and distri(ution o% interna porosit8 5or Ww . !! (1D4C) i!it is sa!e as ?
5or Ww X . !! (1D4C) i!it is 1.+ 3 ?
4 Sag incusion, tungsten incusion, or eongated indication
"ndi;idua engt'
"ndi;idua $idt'
7u!uati;e engt'
WwD3
2.5 mm (3/32) and WwD3
Ww in an8 1/ Ww wed engt'
1 Sag incusion, tungsten incusion, or eongated indication
"ndi;idua engt'
"ndi;idua $idt'
7u!uati;e engt'
/ Ww
3 mm (1/8) and WwD/
4Ww in an8 1+# !! (.C) wed engt'
7 ?ept' o% undercut 1 mm (1/32) and WwD4
I ?ept' o% undercut 1.5 mm (1/16) and SWwD4 or 1 !! (1D3/C)T
J Sur%ace roug'ness +## min. Ra per ASME B4..1
F ?ept' o% root sur%ace conca;it8 &ota 9oint t'ic)ness, inc. $ed rein%orce!ent, Ww
' 4eig't o% rein%orce!ent or interna protrusion S6ote (8)T in an8 pane
t'roug' t'e wed s'a (e wit'in i!its o% t'e appica(e 'eig't ;aue in
t'e ta(uation at rig't, e<cept as pro;ided in 6ote (0). $ed !eta s'a
!erge s!oot'8 into t'e co!ponent sur%aces.
5or W w !! (in)
. (1D4)
X. (1D4) 13 (1D/)
X13 (1D/) /+ (1)
X/+ (1)
Li!it is twice t'e ;aue appica(e %or L a(o;e
4eig't, !! (in)
1.+ (1D1.)
3.# (1D8)
4.# (+D3/)
+.# (3D1.)
803+8#.3.doc Page 38 o% 30
+able !%"#!#> Acceptance Criteria for Welds and EKamination Methods for Evaluating Weld Imperfections )ContLd*
.-+ES:
(1) 7riteria gi;en are %or required e<a!ination. More stringent criteria !a8 (e speci%ied in t'e engineering design. See aso paras. 341.+ and 341.+.3.
(/) Longitudina groo;e wed incudes straig't and spira sea!. 7riteria are not intended to app8 to weds !ade in accordance wit' a standard isted in &a(e
A=1 or &a(e 3/..1. Aternati;e Lea) &est requires e<a!ination o% t'ese weds@ see para. 34+.0.
(3) 5iet wed incudes soc)et and sea weds, and attac'!ent weds %or sip=on %anges, (ranc' rein%orce!ent, and supports.
(4) Branc' connection wed incudes pressure containing weds in (ranc'es and %a(ricated aps.
(+) &'ese i!per%ections are e;auated on8 %or weds Y + !! (3Z1. in.) in no!ina t'ic)ness.
(6) $'ere two i!iting ;aues are separated (8 Band,C t'e esser o% t'e ;aues deter!ines acceptance. $'ere two sets o% ;aues are separated (8 Bor,C t'e
arger ;aue is accepta(e. ! w is t'e no!ina wa t'ic)ness o% t'e t'inner o% two co!ponents 9oined (8 a (utt wed.
(,) &ig't8 (utted un%used root %aces are unaccepta(e.
(8) 5or groo;e weds, 'eig't is t'e esser o% t'e !easure!ents !ade %ro! t'e sur%aces o% t'e ad9acent co!ponents@ (ot' rein%orce!ent and interna
protrusion are per!itted in a wed. 5or %iet weds, 'eig't is !easured %ro! t'e t'eoretica t'roat, 5ig. 3/8.+./A@ interna protrusion does not app8.
(0) 5or weds in au!inu! ao8 on8, interna protrusion s'a not e<ceed t'e %oowing ;auesA
(a) %or t'ic)ness Y / !! (+Z.4 in.)A 1.+ !! (1Z1. in.)@
(() %or t'ic)ness X / !! and Y . !! (1Z4 in.)A /.+ !! (3Z3/ in.)
5or e<terna rein%orce!ent and %or greater t'ic)nesses, see t'e ta(uation %or S8!(o L.
803+8#.3.doc Page 30 o% 30