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Strayer 1e, Chapter 22 Self-Test Quizzes

Total score: 19 out of 20, 95%

1. Of the communist regimes that came to power in North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia,
Cuba, and Afghanistan, which had achieved the level of industrialization that Karl Marx
believed necessary for communism?
a. North Korea
b. Cuba
c. Afghanistan
d. None

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is d. North Korea, Cuba, Afghanistan, Vietnam,
Laos, Cambodia, and most other countries where communist
revolutions triumphed were largely rural, agricultural societies,
whereas Marx had predicted that communism could triumph only in
societies that had already industrialized. (see page 661)

2. How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks take power in 1917?
a. Through democratic elections
b. Through an overnight coup in the capital
c. By gradually infiltrating the provisional government
d. By leading a massive popular uprising throughout the empire

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. Though the Bolsheviks spoke for many
downtrodden Russians and other Russian subjects in calling for
communist revolution in Russia, they were not necessarily populists
and took power through a well-coordinated, well-timed tactical
seizure of power in the capital during the night, accomplished by a
relatively small number of revolutionaries. (see page 664)

3. How did the Chinese Communist Party adapt its ideology and strategy during its long
struggle to power?
a. It focused solely on the cities and the working class.
b. It focused solely on assassinating top Japanese and Guomindang leaders.
c. It focused on returning to traditional Confucian values of social hierarchy and
d. It focused on creating peasant communism and rural guerilla warfare.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is d. Chased out of the cities, where Marx had
believed communism would always have its base of support, the
Chinese communists were forced to adapt to living in the
countryside, and thus develop a new kind of communism, one that
focused on building a communist society among peasants, and
learned to use the rural countryside to fight a guerilla war against
the Nationalists and the Japanese. (see page 666)

4. Which of the following was NOT a way in which the Chinese Communists under Mao
Zedong gained the widespread support of the peasantry?
a. By promising the end of the rural way of life
b. By offering protection against Japanese and Nationalist atrocities
c. By seizing land from landlords and distributing it to peasants
d. By teaching literacy to adults and mobilizing women

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is a. The Chinese Communists curried
widespread favor among the vast rural population of China through
their policies of helping poor peasants, rather than helping the elites
in society, and this approach provided them shelter, disguise, and
access to recruits and resources amongst the tens of millions of
sympathetic peasants. They could not therefore continue to preach
traditional Marxism, which foresaw the transition from rural to
urban society as a precondition of communism. (see page 666)

5. Which of the following best describes the initial policies of the Soviet and Chinese
Communist Parties toward women after taking power?
a. They forced women to obey their husbands.
b. They talked about gender equality, but it was only lip service.
c. They achieved far-reaching freedom for women.
d. They paid no attention to women's issues at all.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is c. In both the USSR and in Communist China,
the initial period of the communist era involved significant, concrete
steps toward the goals of women's liberation, including legalizing
divorce, abortion, giving equal legal and property rights to women,
and forming massive women's organizations to give education and
help to women throughout the country. Such reforms came to an
end and in some cases were reversed in the USSR and China due to
a backlash in each case. (see page 669)

6. How did the Bolshevik efforts at land redistribution compare with Chinese Communist
efforts at land redistribution?
a. The Bolsheviks found the task much more difficult than the Chinese Communists.
b. Both the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communists found the task difficult.
c. Both the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communists found the task quite easy.
d. The Bolsheviks found the task much easier than the Chinese Communists.

0 out of 1
Incorrect. The answer is d. In the case of the Russian Revolution,
the peasants often had risen up against their landlords and taken
the land themselves; the Bolsheviks simply approved of the
outcome. In China however, peasants were often hesitant to go
against Confucian beliefs of respecting the social hierarchy and had
to be pushed by the Chinese Communists to rise up against their
landlords. (see page 670)

7. What happened to communist commitment to social and gender equality in Stalins
a. Those values were strictly enforced throughout the country.
b. Those values were often set aside in favor of industrial development and state power.
c. Those values were explicitly abandoned in favor of a return to capitalism.
d. Those values led to a gradual democratization of the Communist Party.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. Stalin's rule, from 19281953,
represented a repeal of many of the more radical and utopian
impulses that characterized the first decade of the Soviet Union,
such as liberation for women, and artistic freedom. (see page 673)

8. Who, of the following, was NOT a victim of the "Terror" or "Great Purge" in the USSR in
the 1930s?
a. The original Bolshevik revolutionaries
b. Communist Party officials
c. Those who carried out the arrests and killings in the purges
d. Stalin himself

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is d. Virtually no one in the USSR was safe
from being falsely accused as a traitor and arrested, executed, or
sent to horrible labor camps (the gulag) in freezing Siberia, from
which most never returned, even those who carried out the arrests,
show trials, tortures, and executions often became victims
themselves. Only Stalin and a few of his most trusted companions,
who initiated the Terror, were safe. (see page 674)

9. What was the end result of Mao's two great campaigns, the "Great Leap Forward" and the
"Cultural Revolution"?
a. The replacement of the communist party as the governing body in the country by
the military
b. The death and ruin of tens of millions and the widespread discrediting of communism
c. Chinas parity with the United States in terms of industrial production
d. More democracy and prosperity for Chinese citizens

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. The Great Leap forward sought to
transform the Chinese countryside into a new communal-based
society and introduce industrialized, but it created chaos and the
starvation of 20 million people instead; the Cultural Revolution was
intended to reverse what Mao saw as a growing complacency and
individualism among Communist Party members, but it became an
out-of-control witch hunt in which hundreds of thousands of
innocent people were persecuted and killed, and almost resulted in
civil war. (see page 673)

10. Why did the United States military intervene so massively in Vietnam in the 1960s?
a. It depended on Vietnam for essential natural resources.
b. It feared a communist victory there would lead to communist expansion to the rest
of Asia and beyond.
c. It wanted to make up for not having had as many colonies in Asia as other powers.
d. The North Vietnamese (communists) were planning a direct assault on the United
States mainland once they triumphed in their own land.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. Though South Vietnam was not important
to the United States in terms of economic resources or as a
strategic location, many in the U.S. government and military felt
that the spread of communism had to be stopped there, or else it
would simply continue to spread, becoming harder and harder to
stop the longer the West waited to fight it. (see page 675)

11. Why did the Soviet Union so greatly value the Communist regime in Cuba?
a. They were seduced by Cuba's exotic Latin culture.
b. It provided a tropical vacation spot for Soviet leaders.
c. It was the first country where Communism triumphed without the help of the Soviet
d. It provided a perfect base for the USSR to carry out its plans for an invasion of the
United States.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is c. With the exception of China, which had
diverged significantly from the Soviet model, and which the Soviet
Union no longer considered Communist, Cuba was the first country
that went communist on its own. In all other communist countries,
for example in Eastern Europe and North Korea, the Soviet Union
had to use its military to prop up Communist governments, and
thus it seemed to legitimize communist ideology. (see page 677)

12. How did the cold war impact many third world countries?
a. Both sides attempted to entice the support of third world countries with military and
economic aid.
b. Most third world countries practiced democracy but favored the USSR in foreign
c. Most third world countries converted to Christianity, but rejected political democracy
and communism.
d. Most third world countries secretly favored communism, but were afraid to ally
formally with the USSR.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is a. Though not always successful, both the
United States and the USSR supported movements or governments
in countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were aligned with
their particular ideology, often with economic and military aid
though these movements and governments often switched sides if
they saw benefit for themselves. (see page 678)

13. What helped sustain the immense military effort involved in the United States' efforts to
contain the spread of communism?
a. Population growth
b. A booming consumer economy
c. Large contributions by allies
d. Widespread opposition to the Soviet Union around the world

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. The American economy experienced a
dramatic boom after World War II, with a huge rise in living
standards, home ownership, and upward mobility that made
America by far the most prosperous country in the world and gave it
the economic resources to sustain its military effort. (see page

14. Why did the Soviet Union invade Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and
threaten to invade Poland in 1980, if those countries were supposedly its own allies?
a. Soviet leaderships long-harbored resentment against those countries for their lack
of support during World War II
b. To free these countries of foreign occupation
c. To crush reformist movements that they feared would spread throughout the Soviet
d. Misunderstandings

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is c. In all three cases, reformist movements
either gained power or were becoming more powerful, advocating
more freedom for the press, religion, and democracy, which
threatened the absolute rule of the Soviet-backed communist
leaderships in those countries, and the USSR invaded, along with
other Eastern European armies, to restore the power of the loyal
Soviet supporters there. (see page 680)

15. Which of the following was NOT a conflict that developed between communist
a. The USSR vs. China
b. China vs. Vietnam
c. Vietnam vs. Cambodia
d. The USSR vs. North Korea

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is d. Just because countries were communist
did not mean they were always allies. The Soviets rejected Mao's
brand of communism and felt he did not understand the stakes of
nuclear war, leading China and the USSR to stand on the brink of
nuclear war themselves, while China invaded communist Vietnam
and communist Vietnam invaded communist Cambodia, all because
of largely territorial disputes. North Korea, on the other hand,
increasingly isolated itself from all countries, communist and non-
communist, toward the end of the twentieth century. (see page

16. What characterized the main economic failure of communism?
a. Inability to match the West in quality and availability of consumer goods
b. Inability to match the West in amount of industrial output
c. Inability to match the West in equality of income distribution
d. Inability to match the West in eliminating unemployment

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is a. Communist countries, especially those in
the Soviet alliance, were able to build up their core or "heavy"
industries, such as steel, mining, and chemicals, and the difference
between rich and poor was almost nonexistent, and everyone had a
job. However, the people often had nothing to buy, or nothing good
to buy, whether in terms of food, services, fashion, housing or
anything else, and the citizens in communist countries knew what
they were missing out on in the West's advanced consumer
economies. (see page 682)

17. What was the result of the reforms instituted by Deng Xiaoping as leader of the Chinese
Communist Party after Mao's death?
a. More upheaval and mass death
b. Mostly ineffective reforms
c. Stunning economic growth along mostly capitalist models
d. The end to all foreign investment in China

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is c. Xiaoping's reforms restored an essentially
capitalist economy under Communist rule, invited massive foreign
investment, and producing huge gains in personal income, living
standard, and career opportunities for millions and even billions of
Chinese. (see page 683)

18. What was the immediate or initial impact of Gorbachev's policy of glasnost?
a. The Soviet Union totally collapsed.
b. Many dark truths about life in the USSR were brought to light for the first time.
c. The abortion rate became the highest in the world.
d. The Soviet economy boomed.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is b. Soviets were shocked to learn that many
of the same problems that existed in the West also existed in their
own countrydespite the decades of official propaganda that
showed only the positive side of the USSRand they also learned
for the first time of the massive crimes committed by Stalin's
regime in the 1930s and 1940s, but unfortunately this cultural
openness was coupled with a severe economic collapse. (see page

19. What was the impact of glasnost on the Soviet allies in Eastern Europe?
a. Because of censorship within those countries, no one knew about glasnost.
b. Because the communist parties of those countries were well liked, they did not face
c. It sparked massive demonstrations that swept away communism in Eastern Europe.
d. Eastern Europeans were critical of Gorbachev's reforms in the USSR.

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is c. Demanding that their own countries
provide a similar kind of glasnost, Poles, East Germans,
Czechoslovakians, and many others led enormous, mostly peaceful
demonstrations calling for an end to communist rule, free elections,
and other freedoms. In the face of such massive protests, the once
all-powerful Communist Parties in these lands had no choice but to
resign and dissolve themselves. (see page 685)

20. Which of the following best describes why Gorbachev's reforms led to the total collapse
of the Soviet Union and communism?
a. Gorbachev opened a "Pandora's box" of demands for change that the Soviet system
could not handle.
b. Gorbachev had secretly planned the demise of the USSR all along.
c. Gorbachevs use of force against protestors backfired.
d. Gorbachev used the reforms to encourage non-Russian nationalities to become

1 out of 1
Correct. The answer is a. Gorbachev never wanted to see the Soviet
Union or the idea of communism fall apart; on the contrary, he
wanted to reform both so that they would be able to survive. But
once he began to encourage some change, it became clear to most
that so much was wrong with the Soviet Union that nothing short of
a complete break with communism could begin to fix the problems.
(see page 686)

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