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A Reference Guide to Mining Machine Applications

Purpose of Mine Evaluation


Confirm that mine is getting maximum value from its investment
in Cat equipment.
Help mine set and achieve new benchmarks for safety, efficiency
and profitability.
Key Factors to Review
Machine/system sizing and selection.
Job set-up.
Operating techniques.
General site conditions.
Haul road design and maintenance.
Trucks
Performance Benchmark
Exchange time
Target. . . . . . . . . . . . .42 seconds
Acceptable. . . . . . . . .54 seconds
Trucks
Load Placement
Center load above hoist cylinders and along body centerline.
Minimize material on headboard.
Minimize spillage from sides, corner, rear.
Always target 66% - 33% load split on front/rear axles.
Correct Loading
Incorrect
Loading
Correct Loading
Incorrect Loading
Trucks
Positioning
Loader operator spots truck.
Position for fastest cycle times.
Wheel loaders - 45
Other loading tools - angle varies
Keep rear tires off pile.
Minimize wait time.
Trucks
Other Tips
Safety
Apply parking brake
Body
Check liner plate wear and
body pad alignment
Tires
Inspect tire condition
Check TKPH/TMPH ratings
Loading Tool Selection
Rope Shovel Front Shovel Mass Excavator Wheel Loader
Cycle time
(seconds)
28-32 27-30 24-28 30-40
Fill factor (%) 100-105 90-100 90-110 90-110
Pass match 3-4 4-6 4-6 4-6
Favorable
conditions
Single face
Stable level floor
Wide benches
Well-shot material
Selective digging
Tight area &
material
Poor floor
Truck below HEX
Tight area &
material
Short swing
Level, dry floor
Well-fragmented
material
Lower face profile
Multi-face loading
Unfavorable
conditions
Poor underfoot Excessive
tramming
Low benches
High/unstable
benches
Excessive
tramming
Low angle of
repose material
Poor/wet underfoot
Tight load areas
Rope Shovels
Performance Benchmarks
Cycle time
28-32 seconds (31-second average)
Bucket fill factor - well shot rock
100-105%
Pass match
3-4 passes
Rope Shovels
Site Conditions
Optimum bench height
Top of boom sheeves
Best applications
Single face, correct height
Wide benches
Well-shot material
Unfavorable conditions
Poor underfoot
Rope Shovels
Tips
Maintain maximum swing - 70-90.
Keep floor clean.
Monitor power cable maintenance.
Never operate a bare edge.
Hydraulic Front Shovels
Performance Benchmarks
Cycle time
27-30 seconds (28-second average)
Bucket fill factor - well shot rock
90-100%
Pass match
4-6 passes
Hydraulic Front Shovels
Site Conditions
Optimum bench height
Just above boom/stick pivot
Best applications
Selective digging, multiple targets
Tight load area and materials
Poor underfoot
Unfavorable conditions
Excessive tramming
Low benches
Hydraulic Front Shovels
Tips
Strip top, load from center.
Keep tight digging zone.
Avoid digging too far into face.
Watch for high, unstable benches.
Load from left.
Avoid excessive prying.
Maximize tip contact.
Always have defined dig
pattern R to L or L to R and
maintain pattern.
Hydraulic Backhoes (Mass Excavation)
Performance Benchmarks
Cycle time
24-28 seconds (26-second average)
Bucket fill factor - well shot rock
90-110%
Pass match
4-6 passes
Hydraulic Backhoes (Mass Excavation)
Site Conditions
Optimum bench height
Length of stick or distance between truck siderail and ducktail
Best applications
Truck below excavator
Tight load area, tight material
Short swing - 60
Unfavorable conditions
High benches
Excessive tramming
Low angle of repose material
Hydraulic Backhoes (Mass Excavation)
Tips
Watch for excess bench height.
Keep tight digging zone and swing angle.
Remove farthest pass during truck exchange and maintain
Key Cut (pass in front of inside track) to establish straight
wall for next cut.
Avoid digging too far into face.
Keep cut in line with inside
track, no more than 45 over
outside track.
Watch for poorly blasted toe.
Wheel Loaders
Performance Benchmarks
Cycle time
30-40 seconds (38-second average)
Bucket fill factor - well shot rock
90-110%
Pass match
4-6 passes
Wheel Loaders
Site Conditions
Optimum bench height
Bucket hinge pin height at maximum lift
Best applications
Level, dry, smooth, firm floors
Good drainage
Well-fragmented material
Lower face profile
Multi-face loading
Unfavorable conditions
Poor or wet underfoot
Tight load areas
Wheel Loaders
Tips
Enter pile straight on.
Keep frame straight when digging.
Lift bucket before crowding.
Horizontal lift arms when bucket
is full.
Keep time in face below 12 seconds.
Position loader 1.5 wheel turns
from face to truck.
Never operate a bare edge.
Motor Graders
Blade Position
Keep top of moldboard 50 mm ahead of cutting edge.
Keep edge at 90 angle to surface.
Maintain constant tip angle.
Motor Graders
Blade Angle
Use widest pass width.
Increase blade angle if material flows around leading edge.
Use 10 blade angle for Grader Bit System or serrated edge.
Motor Graders
Other Tips
Grade in 2nd or 3rd gear.
Rip in 1st gear with all machines.
Always keep edges sharp
for better penetration.
Change edges prior to
moldboard damage.
Track-type Tractors
Ripping Tips
Rip downhill.
Rip in same direction scrapers will load.
Watch speed.
1.5-2.5 km per hour
Position tip properly.
Begin with tip rearward
Pull forward after penetration
Shank lies backward while ripping
Track-type Tractors
Dozing Tips
Use slot dozing.
Use slopes.
Steer with blade.
Minimize corner loading,
prying, impact.
Maintain steady pressure.
Position blade properly.
Tilt forward
Lay blade back when half full
Continue racking blade back as it fills
Track-type Tractors
Other Tips
Reinforcing ribs on penetration ripper tip must face up.
Ensure proper installation of GET.
Never operate bare shank.
Avoid excessive tramming.
Watch for missing or loose track hardware.
Scrapers
Performance Benchmarks
Load time - open bowl/push-loaded WTS.
Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-30 seconds
Average . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-43 seconds
Shorter time for tandem.
Longer time for single powered.
Drills
Performance Benchmarks
(25,000-40,000 lb/111.25-178 kN pulldown)
Depths
Multi-pass . . . . . . . . .up to 40 m/43 yd
Single-pass . . . . . . . 10-12 m/11-13 yd
Hole sizes
100-200 mm/3.9-7.8 in
Rotation speeds
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-150 rpm
Hard rock . . . . . . . .100-120 rpm
Penetration
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-60 m/hr/43.7-65.6 yd/hr
Hard rock . . . . . . . .10-30 m/hr/10.9-32.8 yd/hr
Drills
Performance Benchmarks
(40,000-60,000 lb/178-267 kN pulldown)
Depths
Multi-pass . . . . . . . . . up to 60 m/65.6 yd
Single-pass . . . . . . . .12-16 m/13-17 yd
Hole sizes
150-250 mm/5.9-9.8 in
Rotation speeds
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-130 rpm
Hard rock . . . . . . . . . 80-110 rpm
Penetration
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-80 m/hr/43.7-87.4 yd/hr
Hard rock . . . . . . . . .10-40 m/hr/10.9-43.7 yd/hr
Drills
Performance Benchmarks
(60,000-110,000 lb/267-489.5 kN pulldown)
Depths
Multi-pass . . . . . . . up to 100 m/109 yd
Single-pass . . . . . .14-18 m/15-19 yd
Hole sizes
200-350 mm/7.8-13.7 in
Rotation speeds
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . .80-110 rpm
Hard rock . . . . . . . 70-90 rpm
Penetration
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . 40-100 m/hr/43.7-109.4 yd/hr
Hard rock . . . . . . . 10-50 m/hr/10.9-54.6 yd/hr
Drills
Performance Benchmarks
(Track drills)
Depths
Multi-pass . . . . . . . . . up to 50 m/54 yd
Single pass . . . . . . . . 8-10 m/8.75-10.9 yd
Hole sizes
up to 150 mm/5.9 in
Rotation speeds
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-120 rotary
Hard rock . . . . . . . . . up to 40 rpm hammer
Penetration
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-50 m/hr/32.8-54.6 yd/hr
Hard rock . . . . . . . . . 10-30 m/hr/10.9-32.8 yd/hr
Drills
Favorable Site Conditions
Level floor.
Unbroken ground.
Minimal water ingress.
Regular pattern spacing.
Limited tramming.
Adequate maneuvering space.
Drills
Operating Tips
Watch for excessive vibration.
Avoid drill plunging.
Avoid excessive pulldown pressures.
Avoid excessive rotation speeds.
Set bailing velocity correctly.
Monitor chip size.
Level drill correctly.
Maintain flat floor.
Haul Road Design
Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
Design corners and crests that allow excellent visibility at normal
travel speeds.
Use worst-case scenarios.
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Haul Road Design
Cross-slope
Flats
Apply minimum slope to maintain drainage
Use constant crossfall when possible
Grades
Minimal cross-slope required
2 constant crossfall
Haul Road Design
Grade
Maintain smooth grade.
Maintain consistent percentage.
Correct Incorrect
Haul Road Design
Corners
Use maximum practical radii.
Employ super elevation for
higher speed operations.
Use super elevation >10%
with caution.
Haul Road Design
Road Width
One way - 3 truck widths.
Two-way straights - 3.5 truck widths.
Two way corners - 4 truck widths.
One-way (Straights/corners)
Two-way (In Straights)
Two-way (In Corners)
Haul Road Design
Bench Width
Truck must clear loader under full acceleration.
Minimum width = machine turning radius + width of safety berm.
Bench Width
Haul Road Design
Drainage & Safety Berms
Drainage system - sized to accommodate maximum rainfall.
Berm size - at least one-half wheel height.
Drainage
1/2 wheel height
Haul Road Design
Rolling Resistance
Hard, well-maintained road . . . . . . . 1.5%
Well-maintained road with flex . . . . . . 3%
25 mm/1 in tire penetration . . . . . . . . .4%
50 mm/2 in tire penetration . . . . . . . . .5%
100 mm/4 in tire penetration . . . . . . . .8%
200 mm/8 in tire penetration . . . . . . .14%
Tire penetration
Haul Road Maintenance
Rules of Thumb
Begin at face; end at dump.
Pick-up truck travels
comfortably at
60 km/hr (37 mph).
OHT travels at reasonable speed.
Remove and repair wet/soft spots.
Consider checkerboard
or spot watering on slopes.
Haul Road Maintenance
Analysis Tools
Application Severity Analysis (ASA).
Vital Information Management System (VIMS).
Fleet Production and Cost (FPC).
Haul Road Visual Inspection
Load Zone
Floor is smooth.
Water removal is adequate.
Debris is cleared away.
Trucks dont drive over rocks.
Trucks leave under full,
continuous acceleration.
Trucks return without making
tight, high-speed turns.
Loading Zone
Haul Road Visual Inspection
Main Haul Road
Road is free of puddles, potholes, ruts, gullies.
Passing room is adequate.
Corner radius allows safe operation at high speed.
Spillage is removed quickly.
No rubber deposits on tight, rocky turns.
High braking forces not necessary on corners.
Expected road speeds are achieved.
Haul Road Visual Inspection
Dump Zone
Floor is smooth.
Trucks enter at high speed, parallel to edge.
Trucks brake in straight line, then turn and stop to
reverse to dump.
Safety berms are regulation height.
Is dump stable enough to
dump over safely or
should you dump short
and push off.
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
Bucket Fill Factors
Higher fill factors improve productivity and reduce cost per ton.
Achieve higher fill factors through:
Better fragmentation
Correct bucket selection
Correct GET selection and maintenance
Correct bench heights
Correct loader orientation to face
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
Loader Cycle Times
Faster cycle times improve productivity and reduce cost per ton.
Achieve faster cycle times through:
Correct orientation to face
Improved floor conditions
Correct truck placement
Improved material condition
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
OHT Road Speeds
Higher OHT road speeds improve productivity and reduce cost
per ton.
Achieve faster speeds through:
Smooth roads - load to dump
Reduced rolling resistance
Better road design
Better payload control
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
Cat Software Tools
Compare actual and theoretical:
Grade speeds
Cycle times
Total productivity
Analyze impact of changes:
Haul road speeds
Bucket fill factors
Truck exchange time
Fuel consumption
Component life
Tire life
Dozers: 0 to 100 m (0 to 350 ft)
*Load and Carry: 50 to 120 m (150 to 400 ft)
*Scrapers: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4000 ft)
*Articulated Trucks: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4000 ft)
*Rear Dump Truck: 120 to 1500 m (400 to 5000 ft)
*Wagon/Hauler: 1200 to 10 000 m (4000 to 35,000 ft)
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
Hauling System Application Zones
*Underfoot, material type, production rate & operator skill also affect system selection
Discussion Topics for Mine Managers
Support Equipment
Correct use of support machines can:
Enhance safety
Improve productivity & extend life of production equipment
Extend tire life
Maximize haul road life
Reference Material
Print
Cat Performance Handbook
A Reference Guide for Mining Machine Applications (AEDK0391)
Handbook of Ripping (AEDK0752)
5130/5230 Applications Guide (AEDK0128)
H-Series Motor Grader Application Guide (AEGQ0945)
994 Bucket Selection Guide (AEDK0268)
Making the Most of Scraper Potential (AEGQ2380)
Optimum Scraper Load Time (AEGC0195)
GET Inspection & Maintenance Guide (PEXT8033)
GET Service Guide (PEGP7030)
Reference Material
Video
24H Motor Grader Introduction (TEVN3797))
24H Operating Techniques (AEVN4741/AEVP4741)
5130B/5230 Front Shovel Application Techniques
(AEVN4380/AEVP4380)
5130B/5230 ME Application Techniques (AEVN4381/AEVP4381)
994 Operating Tips (AEVN2947)
GET Operating Tips (PEVN4009/PEVP4009)