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DATA MINING AND DATA WAREHOUSING

K.TEJASWI BHARADWAJ,

III rd YEAR COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING,

St.ANN’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEEING AND TECHNOLOGY,

CHIRALA.

Email: bharadwaj2004_k@yahoo.com

Mobile: +91-9885425198

P.SANTHI,

III rd YEAR COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING,

St.ANN’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEEING AND TECHNOLOGY,

CHIRALA.

Email: chinni_friends123@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT

One may claim that the exponential growth in the amount of data provides great
opportunities for data mining. In many real world applications, the number of sources over
which this information is fragmented grows at an even faster rate, resulting in barriers to
widespread application of data mining. A data warehouse is designed especially for decision
support queries.
Data warehousing is the process of extracting and transforming operational data into
informational data and loading it into a central data store or warehouse. The idea behind data
mining , then is the “ non trivial process of identifying valid, novel , potentially useful, and
ultimately understandable patterns in India”
Data mining is concerned with the analysis of data and the use of software technique
for finding patterns and regularities in sets of data. Data mining potential can be enhanced if
the appropriate data has been collected and stored in data warehouse
Data warehousing provides the means to change raw data into information for
making effective business decision – the emphasis on information , not data. The data
warehouse is the hub for decision support data.
This paper also explains partition algorithm to discover all requirements sets from the
data warehousing using the data mining. Also explained relation between operational data ,
data warehouse and data marts.
Every day organizations, both large and small, genetic billions of bytes of data
related all aspects of their business. But locked up variety of systems, most of this data is
extremely difficult to access. Only a very small part of data – captured, processed and stored is
available to decision markers.
INTRODUCTION
What is data warehouse?
A data warehouse in its simplest perception , is in more than a collection of the
key pieces of information used to manage the and direct business for the most Popular
outcome. A large amount the right information is the key to survival in today’s competitive
environment. And this kind of information can be available only if there’s a totally integrated
enterprise data warehouse.
A data warehouse is repository of integrated information, available for queries and
analysis. For such a repository, data and information extracted from heterogeneous resources
and consolidated in a single source. This makes it much easier and efficient to query the data.
There are two fundamentally different types of information systems in
enterprises: operational systems and informational systems
Operational systems run daily enterprises information like ERP (enterprises resource
planning). Information systems analyze the data make decision on how enterprise will be
operate, not only information systems have different focus from operational ones, they often
have a different scope altogether.
There are some specific rules that govern the basic warehouse, namely that such a
structure should be:
 Time dependent
 Non-volatile:
 Subject oriented
 Integrated
NEED FOR DATA WAREHOUSE
1. To summarize the large volumes of data.
2. To integrate data’s from different sources.
3. Make decision makers to access past data.
4. Enable people to make informed decision.
USERS:
From the definition we can infer that the data warehouse users are as follows
1. This person’s job involves drawing conclusions from, and making decision
Based on large masses of data.
2. This person doesn’t want to get involved with finding and organizing the
Data for this purpose.
3. This person also doesn’t want to access a database highly technical fashion.

STRUCTURE OF DATA WAREHOUSE


Data warehousing is one of the hottest industry trends for good reason. The
structure of a data warehouse consist as follows.
• Physical data warehouse
• Logical data warehouse
• Data marts
Physical data marts in which all the data for the data warehouse are stored, along
with meta data and processing for scrubbing , organizing , packing and processing detail the
data.
Logical marts also contain as physical database but does not contain actual data.
Instead it contains the information necessary to access the data wherever they reside.
Data mart is subset of an enterprise wide data warehouse, which potentially
supports an enterprise element.
DATA WAREHOUSE-ARCITECTURE
The architecture of an information system refers to the way its pieces are laid out ,
what types of tasks allocated to each piece of hoe pieces interaction with each other and how
they interact with outside world. The architecture of data warehouse is shown in fig.

DATA INFORMATION
DECISION

L Q
O U
OPERATIONAL A E
DATA D R
Y DATA
M DETAILED SUMMARY
A INFORMATION INFO M
N INFORMATION A
DIPPERS
EXTERNAL A N
DATA G A
E G
R E
META R
DATA

OLAP
WAREHOUSE MANAGER TOOLS

FIG. DATA WAREHOUSE ARCHITECTURE


The architecture consist of following components
1. Load Manager
2. Warehouse manager
3. Query manager
Each component has some specific process.
Load Manager
It is constructed using a combination of off-the- shelf tools, spoke coding,
C programs and shell scripts. It extracts the data from the source systems. It first loads
the extracted data from source systems. It performs simple transformation into a
structure similar to the one in the data warehouse.
Warehouse Manager
• It is constructed using a combination of third party systems management software,
bespoke code, C programs and shell scripts.
• Support warehouse management process, such as transforming data, backup and
archives into data warehouse.
Query Manager
• It is constructed using a combination of user access tools, specialist data warehousing
monitoring tools, native database facilities, bespoke coding, C programs and shell
scripts.
• Direct queries to appropriate table.
• Schedule the execution of user queries.
PARTITION ALGORITHM TO DISCOVER ALL REQUIREMENT SETS FROM THE
DATA WAREHOUSING USING THE DATA MINING:
INTRODUCTION DATA MINING
Data mining or knowledge discovery in data bases is the nontrivial extraction of
implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from the data. This
encompasses a number of technical approaches, such as clustering , data summarization, finding
dependency networks, classification analyzing changes , and detecting anomalies. Data mining
search for the relationship and global patterns that exists in large databases byt are hidden
among of data ,such as the relationship between patient data and medical diagnosis. The
relationship represents valuable knowledge about the databases, and objects in the database, it
the database is a faithful mirror of the real word registered by the database. If refers to using a
variety of techniques to identify nuggets of information or decision making knowledge in the
database and extracting these in such a way that they can be put to use in areas such as
decision support , prediction ,forecasting and estimation . In particular , finding associations
between items in a database of customer transaction. Market basket analysis technique used to
group items together. A rule may contain more than one ,item in the antecedent and the
consequent of the rule. In this paper . we concentrate on finding association, but with different
slant (i.e.) by using partition algorithm. In the next section , we review the basis concepts of
association rule.
PARTITION ALGORITHM
Partition algorithm is based on the observation on the frequent sets are normally
very few in number compared to the set of all item sets. The partition algorithm uses two
scans of databases to discover all frequent sets by scanning the database once. This set is super
set of all frequent item sets i.e it may contain false positives. The algorithm executes in two
phases. In the first phase, the partition algorithm logically divides the database into a number of
non-overlapping partitions. The partitions are considered one at a time and all frequent item sets
for that partition are generated. Partition algorithm as follows.
P = Partition-database(T); n = Number of partitions
For I = 1 to n begin //Phase 1
read-in-partition(Ti in P)
L1=generate a1 frequent items set of T using a priori method in main memory
End
For (k=2 ; LIK = 1,2,…….,n,k++) do begin // Merge Phase
CGK = U I =l n LIK end
For I =1 to n do begin
read_in_partition(T1 in P) //Phase 2
for all candidates C CG compuate S(C ) Ti end
LG = { C CG/ S ( C ) T1 >= }
Answer = LG

EXAMPLE:
Let us take the database T, and let us partition, for the sake of illustration, T into
three partitions T1,T2,T3, each containing 5 transactions. The first partition T1 contains
transactions 1 to 5, T2 contains transactions 6 to 10, similarly, T3 contain transactions 11 to 15.
We fix the local support as equal to given support, that is 20%. Thus ,Any item set that appears
in just one of the transaction in any partition is local frequent set in the partition.
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
L= { {1}, {2},{3},{4},{5},{6},{7},{8},{9}, {1,5},{1,6,},{1,8}, {2,3},{2,4},
{2,8},{4,5},{4,7},{4,8},{5,6},{5,7},{5,8},{6,7},{6,8}, {1.6,8},{1,5,6},
{1,5,8},{2,4,8},{4,5,7},{5,6,8},{5,6,7},{1,5,6,8}}
similarly
L={{2},{3},{4},{5},{6},{7},{8},{9},{2,3},{2,4},{2,7},{2,9},{3,4},{3,5},{3,7},
{5,7},{6,7},{6,9},{7,9},{2,3,4},{2,6,7},{1,5,8},{2,6,9},{2,7,9},{3,5,7},{2,6,7,9}}
L= { {1}, {2},{3},{4},{5},{6},{7},{8},{9}, {1,3},{1,5,},{1,7}, {2,3},{2,4},
{2,6},{2,7},{2,9},{3,5},{3,7},{3,9},{4,6},{4,7},{5,6},{5,7},{5,8},{6,7},{6,8},
{1,3,5},{1,5,7},{2,3,9},{2,4,6},{2,4,7},{3,5,7},{4,6,7},{5,6,8},{2,4,6,7}}
In phase II, we have candidates set as
C=LULUL
L={{1},{2},{3},{4},{5},{6},{7},{8},{9},{1,3},{1,5},{1,6,},{1,7},{1,8},{2,3},{2,4},{2,6},
{2,7},{2,8},{2,9},{3,4},{3,5},{3,7},{3,9},{4,5},{4,6},{4,7},{4,8},{5,6},{5,7},{5,8},{5,7}.
{6,7},{6,8},{6,9},{7,9},{1,3,5},{1,3,7},{15,6},{1,5,7,},{1,5,8,},{1.6,8},{1,5,8},{1,6,8},
{2,3,4},{2,3,9},{2,4,6},{2,4,7},{2,4,8},{2,6,7},{2,6,7},{2,6,9},{2,7,9},{3,5,7},{4,5,7},{4,6,7},
{5,6,8},{5,6,7},{1,5,6,8}{2,6,7,9}{1,3,5,7},{2,4,6,7}}
ADVANTAGES
- Data warehouse are free from the restrictions of the transactional environment. There
is an increased efficiency in query processing.
- Artificial intelligence techniques, which may include genetic algorithm And neural
networks, are used classification and are employed to discover knowledge from the
data warehouse that may be unexpected or Difficult to specify queries.
APPLICATONS
Data warehouse application include:
• Sales and marketing analysis across all industries.
• Inventory turn and product tracking in manufacturing.
• Category management ,vendor analysis , and marketing , program effectiveness
analysis in retail
• Profitability analysis or risk assessment in banking.
• Claims analysis or fraud detection in insurance.
Data mining has many and varied fields of applications such as:
a. Retail/Marketing
b. Banking
c. Medicine
d. Transportation
e. Insurance and Health Care
CONCLUSION:
Data warehousing provides the means to change raw data into information for making
effective business decision – the emphasis on information, not data. The data warehouse is the
hub for decision support data. Comprehensive data warehouse that integrate operational data
with customer, supplier, and market information have resulted in an explosion of information.
Completion requires timely and sophisticated analysis on an integrated view of the data
. Data mining tool can enhance inference process. Speed up design cycle, but con not be
substitute for statistical and domain expertise. Data mining allows for the creation of a self
learning organization.
So the future of data warehouse lies in their accessibility from the internet. Successful
implementation of a data warehouse and data mining requires a high performance; scalable
combination of hardware and software which can integrate easily within existing system, so
customer can use data warehouse to improve their decision –making—and their competitive
advantage
A good data warehouse provides the RIGHT data…to the RIGHT PEOPLE… at the
RIGHT time… RIGHT now! While data warehousing organizes data for business analysis,
internet has emerged as the standard for information sharing.
REFERENCES:
Data mining technologies – Arun K Pujari
Data warehousing, Data mining and OLAP
Berson & Smith, Mc-Graw Hill.
Data mining techniques, tools and trends – Bhavani Thuraisingam
Data Base Systems – Elmasri, Tata Mc-Graw Hill