Customer Training Material

Lecture 2 Lecture 2
Volume of Fluid Model in
Fluent
Multiphase Flow Multiphase Flow
Modeling using ANSYS
FLUENT
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FLUENT
Volume of Fluid Model in Fluent
Customer Training Material
Welcome!
• Welcome to the ANSYS Advanced Multiphase training course!
• This training course covers the details of modeling multiphase using the
Volume of fluid (VOF) model of ANSYS Fluent.
• It is intended for all advanced ANSYS Fluent users who wish to use VOF
multiphase model
• Course Objectives:
General understanding of the applicability and the equations of the VOF model • General understanding of the applicability and the equations of the VOF model
• Understanding the sub-models available with VOF model including surface
tension, coupled level set and turbulence dampening
• Suggestions on the boundary conditions
• Suggestions on solver options available for modeling – implicit and explicit
and their scope
• Suggestions on the discretization schemes available for tracking interface and
their scope their scope
• Examples from industrial applications showcasing the capability of the model
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Applicability of the Volume of Fluid Model
• VOF model is used to model immiscible fluids
with clearly defined interface.
– Two gases cannot be modeled since they mix at the
Interface
length larger
VOF Applicable
molecular level.
– Liquid/liquid interfaces can be modeled as long as
the two liquids are immiscible.
VOF i t i t if i t f l th i ll
length larger
than grid
• VOF is not appropriate if interface length is small
compared to a computational grid
• Accuracy of VOF decreases with interface length
scale getting closer to the computational grid scale
Interface
length scale
larger than
computational
id scale getting closer to the computational grid scale
• Typical problems:
– Jet breakup
M ti f l b bbl i li id
VOF Not Applicable
grid
– Motion of large bubbles in a liquid
– Motion of liquid after a dam break
– Steady or transient tracking of any liquid-gas
interface
Interface
length scale is
smaller than
grid
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interface
grid
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Volume of Fluid Model Inputs
• Arbitrary number of phases are
allowed
• Phases are defined through phases
panel
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Solver compatibility for VOF model
• Solver
– Only pressure-based solver
is available.
– VOF model can be run in
both Steady and Unsteady
mode (unsteady mode is
most often used) most often used).
– Gravity should be enabled
for most VOF cases.
– Non-Iterative Time Non Iterative Time
Advancement (NITA) may be
used with VOF model for
unsteady mode.
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Volume of Fluid Model Schemes
• VOF Scheme – controls how phase
continuity (volume fraction through
which interface is tracked) equation is
solved.
• Explicit VOF – Default and used only
with unsteady simulation which is
also default
Begin time step
Solve VOF
Solve Momentum
and Pressure
Solve VOF
Iterations
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Explicit VOF
Iterations
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Numerical schemes for VOF model
• Explicit Scheme
– Explicit scheme solves the volume
fraction in sub time steps.
– Number of sub time steps is
dictated by the value of the
Courant number.
The default value 0 25 is robust – The default value 0.25 is robust
and should not be changed.
1 + n
T
T
Interface location update
n
T
n
T Δ
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Interface location update
during one time step
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Numerical schemes for VOF model
• Implicit Scheme
– Implicit scheme solves phase
continuity equation (volume fraction)
it ti l t th ith t iteratively together with momentum
and pressure.
– Available with both steady and
unsteady simulation unsteady simulation
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Explicit Vs Implicit schemes
Tradeoff between explicit and implicit VOF schemes
–Explicit Scheme
– Advantages
• Allows use of Geo-Reconstruct discretization scheme
Georeconstruct
for VOF. This scheme renders a clear, crisp interface
without numerical diffusion.
• Should be used in simulation of flows where surface
tension is important because of highly accurate
curvature calculation.
– Disadvantages
• Poor convergence for skewed meshes.
• Poor convergence if phases are compressible.
–Implicit Scheme
– Advantages
• Does not have Courant number limitation – can be run
with large time steps or in steady state mode.
• Can be used with poor mesh quality and for complex
flows (e.g. compressible).
– Disadvantages
• Numerical diffusion of interface does not allow
accurate prediction of interface curvature so
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accurate prediction of interface curvature so
accurate prediction of flows where surface tension
is important is not feasible.
Modified HRIC
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• Implicit body force
– Designed for flows with large body
forces.
• Gravity acting on phases with large
density difference.
• Flows with large rotational
accelerations (such as centrifugal ( g
separators and/or rotating machinery).
– The force is handled in robust
numerical manner.
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Options for modeling open channel flows
• Open Channel Flow option
– Applicable to flows where both inertia
and gravity are dominant with known
depths of the liquid at the inlets or outlets p q
• Example – Ship moving through the sea at depth
y
in
and speed V
in
• Prescribe yin and Vin at inlet and y
out
at the outlet.
– Charectarised by Froude Number , Fr =
V/ sqrt(g y) V/ sqrt(g y)
– Upsteam boundary conditions
• Pressure inlet
• Mass flow inlet
– Downstream boundary conditions
• Pressure outlet
• Outflow
y
i
n
y
o
u
t
in
V
r
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Wave bc for open channel flow
• Open Channel Wave BC Option
– First order or linear wave theory is applicable
for shallow to deep liquid depth ranges
– Higher order or non-linear wave theories are
applicable for intermediate to deep liquid
Wave Input Analysis Through TUI
applicable for intermediate to deep liquid
depth range.
– Choice of Wave theory (within wave breaking
limit) :
• Wave theories should be chosen in
accordance with wave steepness (wave
h i ht/ l th) height/ wave length)
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Controlling interface sharpness
• Zonal Discretization Option
– This option provides diffusive
or sharp interface modeling in or sharp interface modeling in
different fluid (cell)zones
based on the value of zone
dependent slope limiter. dependent slope limiter.
Slope Limiter (Beta) Scheme
Beta = 0 First Order Upwind
Beta = 1 Second order upwind
Beta = 2 Compressive
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(Zone 1) (Zone 2)
(Zone 3)
0 < Beta < 1 ,
1 < Beta < 2
Blended scheme
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Bounded Gradient Maximization (BGM)
• BGM scheme is introduced to obtain sharp
interfaces with the VOF model, comparable
to that obtained by the Geometric
Reconstruction scheme.
• Currently this scheme is available only with
the steady state solver.
Steady state schemes comparison
Speed HRIC ~ Compressive > BGM
Sharpness BGM > Compressive > HRIC
Stability HRIC > Compressive > BGM
Best Practices :
• Lower under-relaxation for
vof might be needed for g
better stability.
• Switching to BGM at later
stage for sharp interface.
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Turbulence Damping
• Turbulence damping at the interface
– The mesh at the free surface is not
fi h t t th l it fine enough to capture the velocity
gradients correctly. The turbulent
quantities are over predicted due to
this higher velocity gradients. this higher velocity gradients.
– Turbulence damping helps in getting
correct profiles with coarse meshes
• This treatment is available only for k- y
omega turbulence model
• Source term is added for the omega
equation in the interfacial cells which q
enforces the high value of omega
and thus produces turbulence
damping.
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• Definition of phases
– Any phase can be primary or secondary – not important in VOF
d l model.
– Usual practice is to have secondary phase which has less
presence in the domain
Three ways phases – Three ways phases
may interact in VOF
• Mass exchange
• Heterogeneous g
reactions
• Surface tension with
optional wall adhesion
effect effect
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Modeling using surface tension
• Surface Tension
– Surface tension coefficient can be constant or function of variables (often
temperature)
– Pressure difference is equal to surface tension coefficient times sum of
inverse curvature radii
– significance of surface tension ⎟







+ σ = −
2 1
1 2
1 1
R R
P P For 3D:
depends on the Reynolds number:
– For Re << 1, evaluate the Capillary number:
– For Re >> 1, evaluate the Weber number:
Surface tension is important
⎠ ⎝ 2 1
σ
μ
=
U
Ca
2
We
U L
σ
=
– Surface tension is important
– when We >>1 or Ca<< 1
– Surface tension is modeled using an additional
source term in the momentum equation
2
U L ρ
source term in the momentum equation
2
P
( ) ( )
( )








α ∇
α ∇
⋅ ∇ = κ
α ∇ κ ρ α + α ∇ κ ρ α σ
= ,
1
q q q q p p p p
pq
F
r
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2
2
R
1
R
( )
⎠ ⎝
α ∇
ρ + ρ
2
1
q p
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Working with wall adhesion
• Wall adhesion
– Wall adhesion force is a measure of the
cohesive forces acting between the fluid
and walls.
Adh i i i t t h d li – Adhesion is important when modeling
meniscus shapes and/or wettability.
• Jump Adhesion
– contact angle specification at porous
jump boundary jump boundary
Gas
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Liquid
o
7 = θ
w
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Working with surface tension
• In standard VOF methods, the curvature calculations are based on volume
fraction fields
• Interface sharpening schemes provide discontinuous or sharply changing
l f ti l t i t f volume fractions close to interface
• Calculation of curvature based on volume fractions can be inaccurate and
cause convergence issues in problems dominated by surface tension
• Two options can be used to address them • Two options can be used to address them
– Use node based smoothening of VOF field for curvature calculations (Default
option )
– Use Coupled Level set + VOF method
– Node based smoothing done using TUI
Number of smoothings can be increased to 2 or 3
For higher smoothings the relaxation factor can be set to
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Better curvature calculations
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Coupled Level set + VOF method
• Coupled Level set + VOF method
– The method uses a level set function defined as
distance from the interface
– The function is smoothly varying compared to
volume fraction fields
– The level set function is used for calculating
curvature curvature
– Better calculations obtained for curvature in
surface tension dominated flows
• Advantages • Advantages
– Works better for surface tension dominated flows
– No requirement for VOF smoothing
Di d t • Disadvantages
– Recommended only for geo-reconstruct scheme
– Requires finer meshes compared to just VOF runs
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Modeling Heterogeneous reactions
• Heterogeneous reactions
– Example of heterogeneous reaction simulating evaporation of water into
vapor-air atmosphere
– Gas phase is mixture of vapor and air species
– Liquid phase is mixture of water and species
Gas
(air + vapor species)
Liquid
(water species)
Evaporation rate
at free surface
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at free surface
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Pressure velocity coupling
Solver Settings – Explicit VOF Formulation
• Pressure-velocity coupling
– PISO recommended for
incompressible flow
– SIMPLE recommended for
compressible flows or flows in closed
domains domains.
• Under-relaxation factors
• Pressure discretization
– Pressure – Body Force
Weighted for high body
force (rotation).
Otherwise, use PRESTO!
• Volume frac discretization
– Geo-Reconstruct (default) no
numerical diffusion, high accuracy g y
curvature, needs high quality grid.
– Compressive for large jobs
– Compressive for medium
quality grids
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Solver Settings – Explicit VOF Formulation
• Variable time stepping
– Scheme for explicit VOF
– Automatically adjusts the
time step based on
• Global Courant number
– Controls can be provided
ffor
• Max and min time steps
used
• Change factor for time g
steps
• It is useful for explicit
problems as the time step
determines the stability for
speed of the solution
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Solver Settings – Implicit VOF Formulation
• When Implicit is chosen as the VOF formulation,
an under-relaxation factor for the volume fraction
equation is added equation is added
• Compressive is the recommended discretization
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Bounded Second Order Time Formulation
• Second order accuracy with better stability
compared to existing second order time
formulation.
• Larger time step size compared to first order Larger time step size compared to first order
and second order implicit (Adams Bashforth)
scheme.
• It is available with all models (single
phase/multiphase) using pressure based solver phase/multiphase) using pressure based solver
except for MDM.
• Bounded by the lower and upper bounds for
any variables based on availability of bounds.
(For eg volume fraction species mass (For eg. , volume fraction, species mass
fraction, turbulent K.E, turbulent dissipation)
Schemes comparison
Accuracy Bounded Second order ~ Second order > First order Accuracy Bounded Second order Second order > First order
Speed First order > Second order > Bounded second order
Stability First order > Bounded second order > second order
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Comparison of schemes
• Comparison of schemes : Pure advection of shapes
Need to point out what to compare, 1
st
order versus 2
nd
order implicit? Then both need to be implicit?
Compressive CICSAM Modified HRIC
Compressive Modified HRIC
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VOF Explicit, First order time
VOF Implicit, Second order time
p
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• Operating conditions
– Specify the Reference
P L ti Pressure Location
– Specified Operating Density
–Density of the lightest phase y g p
–If a phase is compressible,
provide Zero for operating
density density
3
kg/m 225 1 = ρ
3
kg/m 2 998 = ρ
ref
kg/m 225 . 1 = ρ
ref
kg/m 2 . 998 = ρ
Choice of large density
as reference will result in
incorrect display of
pressure distribution
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Pressure distribution in the dam break example
pressure distribution
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• How to prescribe boundary conditions
– Velocity inlet – Only one phase can enter; therefore, only one phase can
have inlet volume fraction set to 1 and nonzero inlet velocity. All inputs
for other phases are irrelevant.
– Mass flow inlet – Same as above. Only one phase can have nonzero
mass flow rate Inputs for all phases are irrelevant mass flow rate. Inputs for all phases are irrelevant.
– Pressure inlet – Same as above. Only one phase can have inlet volume
fraction of 1. Inputs for all other phases are irrelevant.
• In order to facilitate convergence for pressure inlet, it is advisable to patch In order to facilitate convergence for pressure inlet, it is advisable to patch
VOF of incoming to 1 for the cell layer adjacent to the pressure inlet.
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• How to prescribe boundary conditions
– Pressure outlet
• Be careful which VOF you specify as backflow VOF!
• Consider ink jet injected into atmosphere
Liquid ink
(secondary phase)
Air
(primary phase)
Pressure outlet
Ink velocity inlet
Pressure outlet
(atmosphere)
Backflow VOF of ink phase at atmosphere is zero
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Solution Strategies – Time Dependence
• How to choose transient time step for VOF calculations
– Time step in Solve panel can be estimated as
V
3 / 1
where V
cell,min
can be obtained from the Grid Check panel and U is the
velocity scale of the problem (e g inlet velocity)
U
V
t
min cell,
= Δ
velocity scale of the problem (e.g. inlet velocity).
– If divergence occurs at first time step, decrease time step by factor of 10
and see if it converges. Ideally, you should converge each time step in
around 10-15 iterations. around 10 15 iterations.
– Start with smaller time step size for a few time steps, and then increase
the time step size.
– If divergence persists, try switching off Skewness-Neighbor Coupling in g p y g g p g
the Solution Controls panel.
– Non-iterative time advancement (NITA) reduces computational effort per
time step in comparison with iterative schemes (SIMPLE, PISO)
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– Use variable time stepping for explicit schemes to optimize time steps
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Solution Strategies – Common Mistakes
• Outflow boundary condition is not recommended for multiphase
flows. Outflow can be used only when you select open channel flow
bc.
• At any inlet or outlet, only one phase must enter or exit. This means
that on any flow boundary, the volume fraction must be either 0 or 1.
No intermediate values should be used.
• Operating density should be of the lightest phase. p g y g p
• Back flow vof at the outlet boundary.
• Interface update scheme is most sensitive to grid quality. It is
advisable to put highest quality mesh in areas where the interface is
expected
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Solution Strategies – Common Mistakes
• Smooth, good quality mesh is essential to good convergence of VOF
model.
• Cells which have
large skewness, high
aspect ratio, or large
size variation are
detrimental to
convergence rate.
Good Bad
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Comparison of interface construction schemes
Interface
scheme
Implicit Explicit Accuracy Speed
scheme
First order
Not recommended Not recommended
Second order
Not recommended Not recommended
QUICK
Low High
QUICK
Low High
Modified HRIC
Medium High
CICSAM
High Medium
Compressive
High Medium to High
Georeconstruct
Very high Low to medium
BGM
Very high Low to medium
BGM
y g
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VOF M d l E l VOF Model Examples
Tank Filling
Slug Flow in a Pipe Slug Flow in a Pipe
3D Falling Box
Spinning Gear
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p g
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• Simple filling of a vessel
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VOF Example – Automobile Fuel Tank Sloshing
• Sloshing of liquid in an
automotive fuel tank under
various accelerating various accelerating
conditions is simulated by the
VOF model in FLUENT.
Simulation shows the tank • Simulation shows the tank
with internal baffles will keep
the fuel intake orifice fully
submerged at all times, while
the intake orifice is out of the
Fuel Tank Without Baffles t = 1.05 sec
t = 2.05 sec
the intake orifice is out of the
fuel at certain times for the
tank without internal baffles.
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Fuel Tank With Baffles
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VOF Example – Slugging in a horizontal pipe
• Turbulence Damping treatment was used at the free surface
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VOF Example – Wave Interaction with a Floating Structure
• MDM (Moving Deforming Mesh), 6DOF (6 Degrees of Freedom)and
Open channel Wave BC along with VOF model was used
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VOF Example – 3D Falling Box
• MDM and 6DOF with VOF model was used to simulate a box falling
into liquid.
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Free Surface Flow around a Spinning Gear
• Sliding mesh model with VOF
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Droplet formation in cross-flow emulsification process
• Comparison of coupled
level set with VOF
• Geometry – Channel
( t ) (water)
• x – 130 μm
• y – 45 μm
• z – 90 μm z 90 μm
• Geometry – Pore (oil)
• Diameter – 10 μm
• Height – 10 μm
• Max droplet size: 40 μm
• Downstream length – 100
μm, 2.5 times covers
• Height – 90 μm 2 25 times • Height – 90 μm, 2.25 times
covers
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Comparison of interface: BGM and mod HRIC
HRIC HRIC
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VOF contours (velocity along 14
0
)
BGM
BGM
VOF contours (Zoomed near the interface)
Flow over a bump
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Summary
• VOF is an Eulerian fixed-grid technique.
• VOF is numerically robust and accurate. VOF is numerically robust and accurate.
• Available in conjunction with most other ANSYS FLUENT models.
Not available with the following reacting flow models: – Not available with the following reacting flow models:
• Eddy dissipation concept
• Premixed, non-premixed, partially premixed
• Composition PDF p
• NOx and soot
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