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1.

The function of adjectives
An adjective describes a noun:
• cheap tickets
• a long journey
or a pronoun:
• We are all going to be late for work.
It can be used before the word it describes:
• cheap tickets
or after this word:
• We are all late for work.
Adjectives are also used after the verbs be, look, taste, smell, feel, sound,
seem, appear, stay and remain:
• This new route looks difficult.
• She said the tram smelled terrible inside.
2. The function of adverbs
An adverb describes or adds to the meaning of a verb of another adjective or
adverb, or of a whole clause:
• They queued up as usual, patiently waiting for the 72 bus. (verb)
• A season ticket is an extremely efficient way of controlling your travel
spending. (adjective)
• The privatisation of British Rail didn't work out particularly well. (adverb)
• Amazingly, the motorway was dead quiet even though it was a long
weekend. (clause)

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in good health:
• "How are you?" - "Quite well, thanks."
c. Consonant + -y
If the adjective ends in a consonant+ y, y changes to i:
• Travelling by tube in London was easy.
• I can easily make the trip in two days.
d. a ... way
If you want to use adjectives that end in -ly (e.g. friendly, ugly, lovely) as adverbs, you have to use in
a ... way / manner / fashion:
• He explained how the ticket machine worked in a friendly way.
e. Adverb same as adjective
Some adjectives can be used as adverbs without adding-ly:
• She's a hard worker. She works hard.
• Other examples include: better, best, direct, early, fast, free, hard, high, late, long, short,
straight, worse, worst
Comparison of adverbs
Some of these adverbs have a different meaning if you add -ly:
• I have hardly been in the office all week. (very rarely)
• Have you been to Manchester lately? (recently)
• I can highly recommend it. (very much)
• Our dogs can move around freely all day. (without restriction)



We use the comparative and superlative forms to compare the same quality of different things:
• Air transport is much faster than road transport, but road carriage is more convenient . (comparative)
• Concorde is without doubt the fastest passenger plane in the world. It is also the most expensive way to
cross the Atlantic. (superlative)

. Short adjectives
Adjectives with only one syllable (e.g. soft, tall) count as short adjectives and form their
comparatives and superlatives like this:
fast faster fastest
Exceptions: one-syllable adjectives ending in -ed, (e.g. pleased), as well as the adjectives real, right
and wrong, which work like long adjectives (2).
In adjectives of one vowel ending with a consonant (e.g. big, hot, thin) the consonant is doubled:
big bigger biggest
2. Long adjectives
Most two-syllable adjectives count as long (e.g. careful, helpless, boring, amused, afraid, certain, correct):
careful more careful most careful
Exceptions: adjectives ending (1) in -y or -le usually work like short adjectives (e.g. happy, simple).
pretty
happy
simple
likely
prettier
happier
simpler
likelier
prettiest
happiest
simplest
likeliest
Some adjectives can work like short or long adjectives (e.g. quiet, tired, clever):
quiet quieter/more quiet quietest/most quiet
Adjectives of three or more syllables count as long (e.g. difficult, beautiful):
difficult more difficult most difficult
Exceptions:unhappy, unlikely, etc. (3 syllables) work like happy, likely, etc (i.e. like short adjectives):
unhappy unhappier unhappiest
unlikely unlikelier unlikeliest

Comparison of adjectives ending in -Y or -LE
3. Irregular adjectives:
good
bad
far
old
better
worse
farther/further
older/elder
best
worst
farthest/furthest
oldest/eldest
4. Adverbs
Normally the comparative and superlative of adverbs are formed with more and most, like with long
adjectives (2):
• He found the address more easily with a map.
• You can most easily reach me by mobile when I'm on the road.
A few adverbs work like short adjectives (1), taking -er and -est to form comparatives and
superlatives (e.g. fast, soon, early, late, hard, long, well, near).
• Could you leave earlier?
• The longest she could drive without stopping was 8 hours.
5. Irregular adverbs
badly
well
little
much
worse
better
less
more
worst
best
least
most
6. These words can be used to compare quantities
Nouns in the plural Uncountable nouns
few - fewer - fewest little - less - least
fewer (a smaller number)
There are fewer motorcyclists in winter.
less (a smaller amount)
Bus drivers earn less (money) than
conductors.
fewest (the smallest number)
Last year saw the fewest accidents on
the roads.
least (the smallest amount)
Cyclists are in least danger on cycle
paths.
many - more - most much - more - most
more a larger number
More men get a company car than
women.
more a larger amount)
He needs more time to get there
most (the largest number)
Most accidents happen as a result of
fast and undisciplined driving.
most (the largest amount)
Most traffic information is inaccurate.

Uncountable nouns
MUCH - LITTLE / MANY - FEW
7. Other constructions used for comparing
• Tourists were less affected by the new regulation than residents were. Children were least affected
of all.
(Less and least are the opposite of more and most.)
• The boat tickets were as expensive as the taxi. (the same)
BUT:
The weather today is warmer than yesterday. (Not the same - do not use as here!)
• The passengers were getting more and more nervous. (increasingly nervous)
We're moving more and more slowly. (increasingly slowly)
• The older I get, the slower I become.
The more dangerous it is, the more I like it. (I like it more if it is more dangerous.)
• His car is much older than mine.
You're a far better driver than I am. (Far and much can modify a comparative.)