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Kristin McKeown

Abby Side, Magda Soloman, Paige Romoser
Class Period 7
17 November 2011
!e "##ects o# t!e "##ectiveness o# t!e "n$ymes on t!e Amo%nt o# &%ice "'tracted
Introduction:
Problem()%estion*
+ow do two en$ymes, Cell%lase and Pectinase, and water a##ect t!e amo%nt o# ,%ice
e'tracted #rom Sto- and S!o-, .nsweetened, nat%ral a--lesa%ce/
0ac1gro%nd Researc!*
2n order #or a--le ,%ice com-anies to create t!eir -o-%lar -rod%ct, t!ey need to e'tract
,%ice #rom a--lesa%ce t!ro%g! #ilters to retrieve t!e ,%ice3 0e#ore t!ese com-anies can act%ally
begin e'tracting t!e ,%ice, t!ey m%st e'-eriment aro%nd wit! di##erent en$ymes, or even water to
!el- #ilter t!ro%g! ,%ice3 "n$ymes are -roteins t!at !el- to s-eed %- c!emical reactions in t!e
cells o# many living organisms3 !e two en$ymes t!at will be tested d%ring t!is lab are, Cell%lase
and Pectinase3 !e s%bstrate #or Cell%lase is cell%lose, w!ic! is a carbo!ydrate t!at is located in
t!e cell wall o# -lant cells3 Cell%lose gives t!e -lant cells walls t!eir rigidity, or to%g!ness3
Cell%lase s-eeds %- t!e decom-osition o# cell%lose3 !e s%bstrate #or Pectinase is -ectin, w!ic!
is also a carbo!ydrate #o%nd in t!e cell wall o# -lant cells3 Pectin is similar to gl%e, it !el-s to
1ee- t!e cell wall all st%c1 toget!er3 &%st li1e Cell%lase, Pectinase s-eeds %- t!e decom-osition
o# -ectin3
+y-ot!esis*
2# t!e en$yme, Pectinase, is added to a--lesa%ce, t!en more ,%ice will be e'tracted t!an i#
Cell%lase were added beca%se Pectin !olds t!e cell wall toget!er and i# it is se-arated a-art #rom
eac! ot!er, t!en more ,%ice wo%ld be able to #low o%t3
2nde-endent 4ariable*
y-e o# en$yme, Pectinase and Cell%lase3
5e-endent 4ariable*
!e amo%nt o# ,%ice e'tracted #rom t!e a--lesa%ce3
Experimental Design:
Control 6ro%-*
a- water being added to t!e a--lesa%ce3
"'-erimental 6ro%- 1*
Cell%lase being added to t!e a--lesa%ce3
"'-erimental 6ro%- 2*
Pectinase being added to t!e a--lesa%ce3
Constant 4ariables*
!e tem-erat%re o# t!e en$ymes, Cell%lase and Pectinase being added to t!e a--lesa%ce,
1ee-ing t!e ratio o# #ive dro-s o# en$yme -er 27m8 o# a--lesa%ce, t!e amo%nt o# time to allow
t!e ,%ice to dri- #rom t!e a--lesa%ce being #iltered, and stirring t!e a--lesa%ce a#ter t!e en$ymes
and water are added every ot!er min%te #or ten min%tes3
Lab Safety Precautions:
• P%t on sa#ety glasses, or sa#ety goggles3
• ie bac1 any long !air t!at is !anging down3
• 5o not eat or taste any o# t!e materials t!at are being %sed wit!in t!e e'-eriment3
• 9ear closed toed s!oes at all times d%ring t!e lab3
• 5o not wear any loose clot!ing or ,ewelry3
Materials:
• 1 individ%al container o# Sto- and S!o- brand a--lesa%ce
• Pectinase en$yme
• Cell%lase en$yme
• Sto- and S!o- co##ee #ilter -a-er
• 8ab a-rons
• S-las!:-roo# goggles
• ; dro--ers
• ; stirring rods
• ; 100m8 glass grad%ated cylinders <=linn Scienti#ic>
• 77m8 o# ta- water
• ; small glass bea1ers <=linn Scienti#ic>
• Sto-watc!
• Pa-er towels #or clean %-
• 1 s-oon
• ; #%nnels
Procedure:
13 Meas%re 27m8 o# Sto- and S!o- or .nsweetened and Nat%ral a--lesa%ce into t!ree
bea1ers3
23 8abel one bea1er and grad%ated cylinder o# a--lesa%ce, C #or Cell%lase, label a
second bea1er and grad%ated cylinder o# a--lesa%ce, P #or Pectinase, and label t!e
last remaining bea1er and grad%ated cylinder o# a--lesa%ce, 9 #or ta- water3
;3 .sing t!e dro--er, add #ive dro-s o# Cell%lase to bea1er C, add #ive dro-s o#
Pectinase to bea1er P, and add #ive dro-s o# ta- water to bea1er 93
?3 0egin t!e timer #or ten min%tes, stirring t!e a--lesa%ce wit! its new en$yme or ta-
water addition, every ot!er min%te begin t!e stirring wit! min%te two3
73 Place one #%nnel into every grad%ated cylinder, !aving a total o# t!ree3
@3 !en, -lace one S!o- and S!o- co##ee #ilter into eac! o# t!e #%nnels3
73 Now t!at t!e ten min%tes o# stirring is over, -o%r eac! labeled a--lesa%ce mi't%re
into t!e grad%ated cylinder, be s%re to matc! %- eac! o# t!e labels wit! t!e ones t!at
are on t!e bea1ers wit! t!e ones on t!e grad%ated cylinders3
A3 8et t!e a--lesa%ce sit in t!e co##ee #ilter #or two and a !al# min%tes, allowing time #or
,%ice to dri- o%t3
B3 Meas%re t!e amo%nt o# a--le ,%ice e'tracted #rom eac! grad%ated cylinder
103 Record data into -ro-erly #ormatted data table3
113 Re-eat ste-s t!ree t!ro%g! ten #or two additional trialsC remember to clean t!e
s%--lies between eac! new trial3
Results:
A#ter giving time allowing t!e en$ymes, Cell%lase and Pectinase, and ta- water to #ilter
t!ro%g! Sto- and S!o- brand a--lesa%ce, a--le ,%ice was e'tracted #rom eac! e'-eriment3 D%t
o# t!e two tested en$ymes and ta- water, t!e en$yme Pectinase e'tracted t!e most amo%nt o#
a--le ,%ice3 2n trial one, Pectinase #iltered 17m8 o# a--le ,%ice, t!en in trial two it #iltered 17m8
and lastly in trial t!ree, it #iltered o%t 1@m8 o# ,%ice3 otally wit! an overall average o# abo%t
173;m8 o# a--le ,%ice collected3 As #or t!e en$yme Cell%lase, in trial one it drained 7m8 o#
,%ice, t!en is trial two it drained @ m8 o# ,%ice, and t!en again in trial t!ree Cell%lase e'tracted
7m8 o# ,%ice3 9it! all o# t!ese n%mbers added toget!er and divided by t!ree, t!e average amo%nt
o# ,%ice t!at Cell%lase e'tracted was abo%t 73;m83 8astly, w!en ta- water was added to
a--lesa%ce, in trial one it e'tracted ?m8 o# ,%ice, t!en in trial two 7m8 o# ,%ice and t!en in trial
t!ree, @m8 o# a--le ,%ice3 !e average amo%nt o# ,%ice t!at was collected #rom ta- water was
7m83
Conclusion:
!e data t!at was recorded d%ring t!e entire e'-eriment -roved o%r !y-ot!esis to be
correct3 D%r !y-ot!esis was, i# t!e en$yme, Pectinase, is added to a--lesa%ce, t!en more ,%ice
will be e'tracted beca%se Pectin !olds t!e cell wall toget!er and i# it is se-arated a-art #rom eac!
ot!er, t!en more ,%ice wo%ld be able to #low o%t3 &%st by com-aring t!e t!ree averages #rom
Pectinase, Cell%lase and ta- water, it co%ld be determined t!at t!e !y-ot!esis was indeed -roved
correct3 !e average amo%nt o# a--le ,%ice t!at was e'tracted #rom Sto- and S!o- brand
a--lesa%ce mi'ed wit! Pectinase was 17m83 !is was t!e !ig!est average -ercentage o# a--le
,%iced #iltered, com-ared to ta- water w!ose average was 7m8 o# ,%ice and t!en again com-ared
to t!e average wit! Cell%lase, o# 73;m83 All o# t!ese averages, as well as t!e amo%nt o# ,%ice
e'tracted e'actly #or eac! trial, can been seen t!ro%g! #ig%re 1, t!e raw data table3
All o# t!e averages t!at were recorded d%ring t!e e'-eriment are t!e amo%nts o# a--le
,%ice t!at were e'tracted #rom Sto- and S!o- brand a--lesa%ce, mi'ed wit! eit!er an en$yme,
Cell%lase or Pectinase, or ,%st wit! -lan ta- water3 0y loo1ing at #ig%re 1Es data table, t!ere is a
logical reason as to w!y Pectinase e'tracted t!e most a--le ,%ice o%t o# Cell%lase and ta- water3
Pectinase, w!ic! is made #rom t!e s%bstrate, Pectin, acts li1e a gl%e to t!e cell wall3 Pectin !olds
t!e cell wall all toget!er, so t!at it does not b%lge or brea13 !en, i# Pectinase were to be
se-arated, t!en any o# t!e com-onents wit!in t!e en$yme wo%ld be #ree3 !is is w!at !a--ened
d%ring t!e e'-eriment3 Pectinase was loosened %- by t!e a--lesa%ce, res%lting wit! t!e most
a--le ,%ice to be e'tracted3
Dverall, t!is e'-erimental lab #it t!e criteria #or being valid3 5%ring t!e e'-eriment, t!ree
trials were -er#ormed to get t!e most acc%rate readings to draw concl%sions #rom and to create
averages3 Also, t!ere were many constants, mentioned earlier, t!at were 1e-t constant t!ro%g!o%t
t!e entire e'-eriment3 8astly, to be valid t!ere were e'-erimental gro%-s and a control gro%-s
d%ring t!e entire lab3 !e e'-erimental gro%-s were t!e a--lesa%ceEs t!at received Cell%lase and
Pectinase, t!e control gro%- being t!e a--lesa%ce and ta- water combined toget!er3 Some errors
t!at co%ld !ave occ%rred d%ring t!e lab, are not reading any meas%rements correctly, li1e t!e
a--le ,%ice t!at was e'tracted3 Anot!er error t!at co%ld !ave occ%rred, co%ld !ave been adding
too many dro-s o# t!e en$ymes or ta- water to t!e a--lesa%ce3 A last error t!at co%ld !ave
!a--ened was not -aying attention to t!e time #or w!en to stir t!e a--lesa%ce once t!e en$ymes
and ta- water were mi'ed toget!er, or ,%st overall not being e'act wit! time3 2# t!is e'-eriment
were to be -er#ormed again, 2 wo%ld ma1e s%re to -ay more attention to t!e time, reading
meas%rements acc%rately, and being ca%tio%s wit! t!e amo%nt o# dro-s o# en$ymes or ta- water
being added to t!e a--lesa%ce3
Raw Data:
!e "##ect o# t!e "n$ymes, Cell%lase and Pectinase, and a- 9ater on t!e Amo%nt o# &%ice
"'tracted
Prod%cts Added to Sto- and S!o-
A--lesa%ce
rial 1 rial 2 rial ; Averages
Cell%lase 7m8 @m8 7m8 73;m8
Pectinase 17m8 17m8 1@m8 173;m8
a- 9ater ?m8 7m8 @m8 7m8