A Master of Book Publishing

Graduate Portfolio
by
J. Adam Collins
This
is
Intentional
This
is
Intentional
A Master of Book Publishing
Graduate Portfolio
by
J. Adam Collins
Ooligan Press, Portland, OR
Class of 2012
Colophon
Tis is Intentional
J. Adam Collins
© 2012 by Author
All Right Reserved.
Published by:
J. Adam Collins
Portland, OR
304.617.4526
jacollins1986@gmail.com
Printed and bound in the United States of America
by OdinInk in Portland, OR.
As a testament to my design aesthetics, I have chosen to use a minimal number of fonts. Tere are three in this
portfolio. Te interior text is set in Adobe Caslon Pro 12pt. Caslon is a new favorite font of mine. Te breadth
and openness of its letters are inviting to a reader when set in block text. I chose to revive this old font which
was commonly used in texts of the 18
th
century, because the rhythm of its strokes allow for less leading without
afecting its readability. Te legibility of the individual letters leaves much to be desired, but the readability of a
passage is soothing, a paragraph weaving with a latticework that most typefaces cannot produce.
Te earliest stages of Caslon are based on Garamond, which is my second typeface of choice. Used for its
strength and the command in its thick strokes, Adobe Garamond Pro 50pt demands attention at the start of each
section heading. Te broad, deep letters stand frm when set in color, and small caps add fuidity and consistency
to its long extenders and top serifs.
To add warmth and personality to the text, I have titled each chapter with a script font which elicits a gender-
neutral stroke. Te calligraphic nature of Scriptina Pro’s letterforms balances the rigid structure of the previous
two fonts. It’s airiness helps to clear the reader’s mind and ease them into a new subject.
Te text is printed on pH-balanced paper and produced with Adobe Creative Suite 6. Te cover is designed
using open-domain images obtained from creativecommons.org.
Tis is for you, though you
are no longer here.
Tis is for me, because I
know where I am going,
the no apologies needed to
get there, and always the
way home.
Table of Contents
Acquisitions
11
Design
Editing
33
XLIII
Marketing
71
101
Digital
113
Poetry
Leadership and Internship
127
9
Introduction
E
verything about this book is intentional. Everything is intentional because I decidedly put it there;
made a conscious decision to place it where I felt it rightfully belonged. Te font, the layout, this conver-
sation, and yes, even the cover—it is all created with intent. Even the mistakes the reader may fnd in these
pages are created, not intentionally, but with intent behind their blunders. It is only with intent in our actions
that we learn something from the creative process and the mistakes that inform them. Tat is one lesson I have
learned from my two years in the Master of Book Publishing program at Portland State University. Tat, and
fake it until you make it.
I kid, but only a little. Since completing the program, I have realized that my brain has made some kind of
switch in my work processes. I began my master’s in literature at Marshall University in West Virginia directly
following my bachelor’s. I was lost—mindlessly flling papers with long sentences that were not created with
intent, reading with no passion words that were written with as much as could fll any heart. And I had become
a zombie, gnawing and upchucking something that had no theoretical value. I left the program, a bad taste in
my mouth for academic writing. It was not what I wanted, even though books were all I needed.
When I found Ooligan Press, I realized my purpose in the life of books. As soon as work began, I found
that my mind could accept the art of creation and the act of discovery more than an analytical diagnosis of
someone else’s work. What’s more, my work improved—my comprehension enhanced by electrifying stimula-
tion. And I began to work with intent. I began to read with more vigor. And I began to pay attention to those
decisions made by all those who touched a manuscript during its life. I believe that’s when I turned from
bibliophile to bibliovore.
No, I do not eat books, but I do consume them. Te term bibliophile suggests a lover of books, the appre-
ciation of their texts, but not an overwhelming need to devour every aspect from cover to cover. Bibliophiles
can collect books or read mass quantities, but more often than not they have an afnity for the printed page
and how it looks on the shelf—trophies of their excursions in the world through the word. In my defnition,
10
a bibliovore’s appreciation for the word goes beyond the printed page, beyond the text, beyond the messages
lying therein. It is the format of presentation to a reader—a page’s layout, the fonts chosen, the aesthetics of
the covers or images inside, the platform on which to deliver a text’s knowledge. A bibliovore reads title and
copyright pages from top to bottom and actively searches for a colophon (I wish they were used more often).
A bibliovore aligns publishers on bookshelves together, because we look for those imprints we love. We bib-
liovores reread every cover blurb after having fnished the text and consider its accuracy or if we could have
said it better. We mark post-publication typos. We look for our favorite cover designers. We read quicker given
a particular font. Tis is more than a mere lover of books would do.
I do not eat books; I consume them. I feel their binding, test their strength, no longer fearing bent and
rolled covers and dog-eared pages. Tat only shows my love for them, my give and take as I put my own words
in the margins and grow with what the author, the designer, the editors, and the publisher have given to me. A
book is no longer just the author’s voice, but the voice of many—an honor I wish to experience in every venue.
I have already practiced the voice of a designer thanks to Ooligan Press choosing my cover to bind the pages of
their poetry anthology Alive at the Center. I am proud of my book cover, and have my personal library to thank
for it. My books are more than trophies. Tey are examples. Tey are my predecessors. Tey are the lineage I
must try to make proud. I pull them from my shelves so that I can see how their fonts fowed. I analyze what
passages may have inspired their covers. I look to the publishers and designers that embody my own design
aesthetics. I consume books so that I can create them—create them with an intent I have never felt in my work.
And creation has never before come so easily to me.
Because we all want something
we can just sink our teeth into.
Acquisitions
I
was assigned to both the Acquisitions and Digital departments during my
frst term at Ooligan Press. It makes the most sense to acquaint us with the
slush pile when introducing us to the house. Tis is not where we learn the dif-
ference between good and bad writing. As readers, we should already know that.
Tis is where we learn how to say no, the rarity of saying yes, and how to trust
our own judgement.
I feel as though I was a natural ft to this department, and it is where I spent
a majority of my time with the program. I had the opportunity to be the frst
reader for one of Ooligan’s latest manuscripts Close is Fine and take part in its
developmental edit. During my three terms with Acquisitions, I managed the
in-house side of the department for two, taking part in one other developmental
edit (Out of the Iron Lung, still in revision), and successfully pitching to the
press a Seattle edition of Ooligan’s Red Guide series.
Work from all three semesters is represented here, as well a developmental
edit project from the Book Editing course. Tough I do view acquisitions as an
editing experience, I have chosen to keep developmental edits under the subhead-
ing of Acquisitions because that is where they begin. It is this department that
ultimately decides if the manuscript stays or goes, and that, in my opinion, is the
foundation of the entire press.
13
Manuscript Reviews
A
s a writer, the most enlightening experience in the press is that of the slush pile. Every writer likes
to think of their work as completed once they have put in their last period. But the reality is that it is far
from fnished. As an acquisitions editor, the volume of our slush pile even as a small press was at times daunt-
ing, but that was only when looking at the mass itself. When reading, I was surprised at how quickly and easily
it was to pick out a great proposal from the few pages given. Te reverse of that was not only surprising, but
heartbreaking at frst. For every remarkable manuscript or proposal, there were always ten to twenty bad ones.
As a writer, my frst inclination is to respect the fellow writer’s work. Te manuscript represented their time
and energy. To cast that aside, deeming it un-publishable, seemed unfair after just a few pages. But soon it sunk
in that not all writing is good writing, and therefore not all writing merits my time and energy, especially when
there is more good writing to fnd. We Ooligans generally come from backgrounds in literature, writing, and
journalism, so we come with knowledge of what good stories must sound like, read like, or look like. However,
just because it is good writing, does not mean it will sell. It takes more than distinguishing the good from the
bad; it takes knowing the current market, what topics are trending, or if it has even been done before. Tat is
not something they teach you with literature. Te qualities of a good story, yes. Not however, the foresight of
how it will be received in the present and the future.
As a lifelong student of writing and literature, I wanted to read every story. But I learned that not every
story is worth telling in written form. Most importantly, I learned the proper way to say no.
14

Ooligan Press Manuscript/Proposal Review

Title of Work: Close is Fine
Author: Eliot Treichel
Genre: Short Story Cycle
Proposal or Manuscript: Manuscript

Reviewed by: Adam Collins
Date Reviewed: 2/1/2011

RECOMMENDATION (Please Bold Decision):

PROPOSAL MANUSCRIPT
See More Accept
Reject Strongly Consider
*Open Door Rejection*
Rejection

*If you chose to give the manuscript an
Open Door Rejection please write a 1-2
paragraph response to the author.
______________________________________________________________________________
ASSESSMENT

Summary of Work (1 paragraph):
Close is Fine is a short story cycle in which stories are centered on blue collar life
in a small Wisconsin town. The story is mainly a first person narrative from the view of
various town citizens from different time periods and focuses on real-life situations and
common daily occurrences. While there is no connection between the stories besides
location, there is an understanding of township through the characters’ common
ordinary lives and community mentality.

Potential Market(s) (1-2 paragraphs):
This collection would be marketable as a general literary fiction work, since it’s
the author points out that it is wholly fictional. Also, the collection could loosely be
marketed to the sub-genre of short story cycle. Since the stories all take part in a rural
Wisconsin town and focus on blue-collar existence in a downturned economy, they
work together to give a larger picture and a better understanding of this community
and the motivations and ambitions of its citizens. This would lump it in a category with
works such as Winesburg, OH.
Although the book is not set in the Pacific Northwest, it does have its appeal to
the working class. Furthermore, being set in a rural town may make it marketable to
rural communities in the Pacific Northwest. Although there is a set location for the
collection, its lack of landscape and specific references to surrounding urban areas gives
it the ability to morph into Any-rural-town, USA. Rural or farming areas of the Pacific
Northwest may be able to relate with these same ideals of the working class.

How does (or doesn’t) this fit with our backlist (1 paragraph):
The collection does not fit with our backlist in terms of location. As previously
stated, it is set in Wisconsin and therefore does not meet our qualification for setting in
the Pacific Northwest. However, also as stated before, the collection does appeal to the
working class (especially those affected by the downturn in the economy) and echoes
the same themes along with other works published by Ooligan. There is a feeling of
Close is Fine is Ooligan Press’s latest
title, slated for release in Fall 2012.
I was privileged enough to be the
manuscript’s frst reader and one of
its developmental editors.
Te manuscript review process was
my favorite aspect of acquisitions.
I completed more reviews than any
other student in our department
during my three terms as member and
manager.
15

community in its examination of blue-collar America that can be applied to almost any
rural area, therefore putting it in a category with collections like Oregon Stories.

Comments on Manuscript (3 or more paragraphs)
Strengths: The collection has a rich and colorful setting. The author pulled out all
the stops in describing the settings of each story. There is a relationship between
author and setting, evidenced through close attention to the characters’ interaction
with their surroundings and offering vivid, colorful, and often times amusing
descriptions of anything as large as a house or as small as a dog. There is clearly an
appreciation for this type of landscape and life.
When introducing each plot it is clear that the author thought up back-stories
and was able to execute the delivery of these very well. We are informed of the
past without realizing it, often times. This makes the narrative (and thereby the
narrator) both controlled and strong.
Grammatically the work needs a little cleaning up, but for the most part, each
sentence has its place and is very concise and relevant.

Weaknesses: The characters, while extravagantly detailed and described, seemed
a bit two-dimensional. We see them going through the motions of the story, but
often times their motivations behind their actions are unclear. There is a lack of
psychology, if you will, behind the minds of the characters. For instance, in times
of emergency, there is a lack of a sense of urgency in many of the characters as
they go about their actions in a ho-hum way.
There are also holes in the narrative that make some aspects unbelievable. For
example, in “Good Potato Soil,” it is clearly evident that if a parent were sent to jail
or even a convicted felon, Child Protective Services would be made aware, and
would more than likely would not allow a little girl to be sent to a home where no
father is present. If there was some kind of way of getting around this, then the
reader should be let in on the secret, so we do not have to wonder.
The collection is also too colloquial in its narrative, which could account for
grammatical issues in stories such as “The Lumberjack’s Story.” The use of slang
or dialect is generally not used in narration and is saved for dialogue (which is also
lacking in the collection). While the dialogue given is very realistic, there is not
enough to develop these two-dimensional characters. This could help to build on
the most important role of the narrators. The narration of the stories is controlled
and strong, which is a strength to each story. However, hearing the narrator more
will give him depth and purpose in the action of the plot.

Needs: The work needs to build on each character, giving him/her depth by
adding psychology, dialogue, motivations, and clear ambitions. Also, the
colloquialisms of the work as a whole need to be toned down.
Value to Publishing Students (1 paragraph):
In the area of marketing, the collection would be beneficial in its ability to apply
to rural America. Its application to the working class as a whole would give the
marketing department the opportunity to reach beyond the city, or even beyond Pacific
Northwest. The cycle would also be beneficial to the editing department to help with
the colloquial tone and the few grammatical errors. Also, a close edit would be
beneficial in finding the holes in plot. The editing team could give suggestions on how
to improve dialogue and character development.



Explanation of Recommendation (if necessary) (1-2 paragraphs):
My evaluations tended to center
around plot and character. My
knowledge of the industry now
greatly informed, I know to focus
on trending markets just as heavily.
16

The cycle as it stands is not publishable, though it could have potential in its
future. I believe there is an important message in publications regarding blue-collar
America, since it makes up a majority of this nation’s population. The value of this work
is evident through its application to almost any rural setting and its examination of
living on the brink of not-living. However, the work that needs to be done to the
collection far outweighs its profitable value. After taking a close editing eye to his work,
the author could resubmit and, with the help of Ooligan, produce a very eye-opening
and beneficial work.

Response to author (1-2 paragraphs for open-door rejection manuscripts/1-2 sentences for all
others):
I must say that your descriptions of setting and characters in Close is Fine are
absolutely rich and vibrant. You should be proud of the world you have created. I
enjoyed the humor you have placed throughout as well as the striking visualizations of
these characters’ actions and the terrain on which they play. There is a realism in the
plots of each story that would most definitely resonate with any person in the working
class (farmers, loggers, poverty-stricken homes and communities). I truly enjoyed
reading it and exploring the town and its citizens.
However, the collection as it stands now does need some work before it is able to
be published. While your setting and tone and narration are all strong, the characters
are a bit too two dimensional. They lack motivation and ambition that explain their
actions. They lack dialogue that helps build the psychology of each person. Times of
fear or emergency should be injected with more of a sense of urgency. Also, there are a
few holes in the narrative which need to be filled. One example is the lack of care or
law enforcement around the character Michelle in “Good Potato Soil.” It would seem
that a father sent to jail would be unable to accept custody of a girl from her mother. I
feel that mix-up would not be allowed to happen in real life. Child Protective Services
would be right on top of it. However, if a reader is to believe that this could happen, we
have to know how it was allowed to happen. How could a little girl be sent to live with
the roommates of a father who has been put and jail? And how could a mother not
know that he was sent back?
Also, there is a need to address the colloquialism of the work as a whole. I
believe “The Lumberjack’s Story” to be the weakest story of the collection, due most in
part to its lack of emotion and dialogue for a reader to relate to, but also because it is
narrated with slang and dialect, which would normally be saved for the narrator’s
dialogue.
Please keep working on this and resubmit. As I stated before, it is relevant to this
society and the majority of our population. A little more fine-tuning, and possibly a
substitution and an addition or two could strengthen this work tremendously.
17

Ooligan Press Manuscript/Proposal Review

Title of Work: Out of the Iron Lung
Author: Patricia Kullberg
Genre: Historical Fiction
Proposal or Manuscript: Proposal

Reviewed by: J. Adam Collins
Date Reviewed: 2/11/11

RECOMMENDATION (Please Bold Decision):

PROPOSAL MANUSCRIPT
See More Accept
Reject Strongly Consider
*Open Door Rejection*
Rejection

*If you chose to give the manuscript an
Open Door Rejection please write a 1-2
paragraph response to the author.
______________________________________________________________________________
ASSESSMENT

Summary of Work (1 paragraph):
Out of the Iron Lung is told through the character Phoebe McIntire, a resident of
Portland, during the polio outbreak of ’41. Phoebe is a new nurse who defies
conventional rules in pursuing what she feels to be right in the treatment of polio-
afflicted children. She becomes interested in the work of an internationally recognized
and controversial Sister Elizabeth Kenny (a true historical figure) who broke the mold
in the treatment of polio. The story centers on Phoebe’s struggle between continuing the
inhuman treatment practiced by her superiors and adopting the new experimental
procedures of Sister Kenny. If her job weren’t grueling enough, Phoebe must also wage
the internal battle of love in choosing between her fiancé and the new emotions
bubbling for a resident doctor, both of whom are sent to war.

Potential Market(s) (1-2 paragraphs):
This novel would be marketable to any fans of historical fiction and anyone with
an appetite for the history of disease in this nation and the treatment thereof. Readers of
the medical history genre (The Air We Breathe, Cutting for Stone) would fall into this
category. Residents of Portland attracted to the history of the city may appreciate the
significance the polio outbreak had on the population of the time, as well as the
controversial work that was adopted to treat the virus. In the professional field, anyone
working in medicine, public health, education, or nursing may enjoy the book for a
good read. The author has indicated her work and association with various professional
circles, thereby giving her platform to do her own marketing as well.

How does (or doesn’t) this fit with our backlist (1 paragraph):
The work would most definitely fit with Ooligan’s historical fiction and
nonfiction backlist, such as Oregon at Work or A Heart of Any Fate. The narrative is set in
Portland and focuses on a great aspect of Portland history (after proper fact checking, of
course). The novel could be a valuable addition to Ooligan’s pursuit of giving voice to
those underrepresented as well. With its ambitious and aspiring female characters
Out of the Iron Lung was my favorite
manuscript to review. Tough it was
a well-researched historical novel,
the plot needed structural help. A
developmental edit was to follow.
Te manuscript is still in revision.
18

during that time period, the narrative has a feminist undertone. All of these aspects
show that it could have a home with Ooligan’s backlist.

Comments on Manuscript (3 or more paragraphs)
Strengths: Kullberg has crafted a very believable and authentic environment.
Everything from the dialogue to setting to clothing, transportation, and living
conditions all seem to validate the time period. Also, the medical terminology
seems accurate and real, at least to someone with no medical knowledge. Not only
the use of terminology and treatment feel authentic, but in a more personal and
frightening appeal to readers, the chill of a hospital and the overly professional
and cold doctor-patient relations also feel very genuine. I feel the coldness and lack
of compassion by some of the doctors towards the patients they know will not
survive, and also sympathy and remorse of those nurses and doctors who really
work for the patients’ interests.
Some characters stand out more than others (which may be problematic because
they are not central to the plot) and are developed very well so that the reader has
a clear picture of them. Lorna and Esther are both very memorable and well
characterized. I see their expressions and hear their voices very well. Some of this
same strategy should be implemented when characterizing other players.

Weaknesses: The first few pages moved very slowly for me. The character did
not strike me from the beginning as being strong enough to handle the obstacles
that her new position would set before her. She also seemed very flat compared to
characters like Lorna and Esther. I wanted to know her ambitions and motivations
for pursuing such a position at a hospital when no one else desired it. The
character asks of herself “who was she” in the second paragraph of the narrative.
Even if the character does not know the answer to this question, the reader should
believe that she has the strength to answer it sometime within the course of the
novel.
Also, there was an abundance of secondary characters (some of which I feel I
may never see again when I read the full manuscript), which come in a flood
during the first chapter. It seemed that I was introduced to almost every character
within the first few pages, mostly through dialogue, which does not give the
reader an image to associate with them. If a description is given, it does not come
at the most opportune time, and is given in a fleeting moment. These characters
lack an image and a depth that makes them memorable.

Needs: Besides the work of building more lasting characters and discarding
insignificant ones, the author should do away with nicknaming characters, since
there are so many to keep track of anyway. There are also some grammar issues
that need to be addressed. With close reading, I believe there are also some issues
with time (pages 5 and 6) and point of view (page 33) in which the author seems to
have stepped out of the present or jumped into another character. Also, an excess
of medical jargon may distance those readers not familiar with it or who may
become bored. This will have to be looked for in the entirety of the manuscript.

Value to Publishing Students (1 paragraph):
The novel would be useful to editors and copyeditors in fact checking the
various elements of setting, characters, and treatments in the 1940s so that this
novel could truly work as historical fiction. It would also be beneficial to
marketing students with its potential appeal to so many professional circles.


I was the frst reader on the proposal
and full manuscript prior to the
developmental edit. Were I still with
Ooligan, I would follow through with
the copyedit. I see why editors often
stay with their authors. For me, it’s
my investment in the story and its
characters. I want to be a part of not
only their success, but also the author’s.
19


Explanation of Recommendation (if necessary) (1-2 paragraphs):
I think the full manuscript of this work would be beneficial to look at and
consider. It has all of the elements Ooligan looks for in considering a work. It
seems to be very well researched and genuine in describing this period of
Portland’s history. Furthermore, if selected, the manuscript would be
advantageous for editing students in giving it the little fine-tuning needed to make
it an excellent selection for Ooligan’s backlist.

Response to author (1-2 paragraphs for open-door rejection manuscripts/1-2 sentences for all
others):

-Patricia
I believe you have crafted a very genuine and authentic world of Portland during
the 1940s. All aspects from transportations to clothing, medical terminology and
treatment, and dialogue feel very believable. While I did not fact check anything during
the read of the proposal, I can feel that you have done quite a bit of research with this
novel. Congratulations on creating a wonderfully vibrant and educational environment
for we readers!
On a more critical look, I would mainly note the abundance of characters
introduced within the first chapter or two. There are a lot to keep track of, and what’s
more, characters like Lorna and Esther (who are not central to the action of the plot)
stand out a great deal more than any other character, including Phoebe who needs to be
strengthened with a more internal description of her ambitions and goals and exactly
who she is.
Overall, wonderful proposal and I look forward to hopefully getting to read the
full manuscript. You have hooked me.
20
Developmental Edit
Te following is my frst developmental edit (an exercise in Book Editing with hopeful author Kylin Larsson):
Mostly Mortal by Kylin Larsson
Editor: J. Adam Collins
March 5, 2011
Dear Ms. Larsson,
I would frst like to say, thank you so much for sharing your story with our class and giving us the oppor-
tunity to provide this developmental edit for you. I know it will be fundamental in our futures as editors, so
the experience will be most benefcial in future edits we undertake. Let me say that I found your manuscript
to have great promise and to be most thought provoking both in structure and plot. Te language and the
narrative voice are both refreshing and calming. Tis is a contrast to those authors who feel the need to create
complex sentences and use dominating and overbearing language. Tere is simplicity in the way you describe
things, as well as the way in which you construct each scene the reader experiences, which makes for an easy
to follow read. I can tell by the length of your manuscript, the detail of Greek culture, and the wide cast of
characters that you have spent a great deal of time and research on this manuscript; so much time, I am sure
that the idea of more edits feels both a pleasure and a labor of love. But that is what we are here for, and I hope
that this edit will help ease the work for you.
Let me ofer a precursor to the edit I am about to supply. I will provide my evaluation of various areas of
the novel’s structure. I would frst like to address organization and overall structure and then pinpoint more
precise areas of point of view, pacing, and fnally characterization. A majority of my examples will come from
21
the frst three quarters of the story, since I believe most
of the suggestions I make could be applied to the novel
as a whole.
So without further adieu, here is my developmental
edit of Mostly Mortal. I hope you fnd it helpful:
Organization
Overall Structure and Scene Prioritization
I did fnd your incorporation of myth into the story
line a very novel idea. I can get a feel for what you are
trying to accomplish with the myths you have decided
to use. Te myths are centered on Apollo and Artemis,
since they are arguably the drivers of this plot. Tey
are the gods in control of the destinies of these mor-
tals we are following. Terefore, the myths are meant
to ofer a deeper look at the psychology of these gods
and the motivations for their decisions. Tis is a great
way to explore characters which we might not other-
wise get the chance to know on a deeper level, since
the two gods are not the main characters of the pres-
ent-time narrative. Tis is a way to acknowledge the
large scale of their powers in governing this specifc
universe.
I hope I have assessed your intentions for the myths
correctly. And if executed properly, this is an excellent
way of adding a depth to your story the main plot cannot
ofer. However, there are some developments needed in
order for you to fully achieve this. As I was reading the
myth sections, I began to realize that the gods of these
myths seem diferent from the gods of the present stor-
yline. Te gods of the myths feel stoic, refned, practiced
and matured. Te Apollo and Artemis of Helen’s time
feel more forced into the time period, diluted, and lack-
ing the same prestige. I realize that physically they are
lacking in power (as this is the need for Apollo acquir-
ing Chloe), but I do not believe that this would take
away from the stance and maturity which they present
when in the future millennium. I will expand on this
idea in the character of Artemis later. It was as if we
were seeing two distinct sets of gods, afected by time
and culture as it changed, which being gods, I am not
sure they would. Tink closely on how the myths help
the story of Helen.
You established that this is Helen’s story, so the
myths must not subtract from that. Tis is where scene
prioritization is key. If the myths are meant to build on
the story of Helen, then where they are placed must
enhance the story line. As they stand now, the myths
feel random and I was unsure if I would even see them
mentioned again. I later found this inclination to be
false, when characters like Agathe and Nik reappear on
page 375. Te myth where they frst appeared was near
the beginning of the novel, and by the time I reached
them near the end, I had almost forgotten who they
were. Tis is what I mean by scene ordering. If the myth
is intended for us to understand something in the story,
then it should perhaps be placed closer to its intended
reference. Tis way it is fresh in the reader’s mind, and
we are not apt to return to the pages where the myth
frst appeared.
22
I believe when considering these myths, or any scene
for that matter, it is important (even crucial) to ask
yourself what the scene does for Helen. Does it expand
on her character? Does it help her on her journey? Does
it help drive the plot? On close analysis, I felt that a
majority of the myth scenes did not. I might expand this
to also include the scenes from Helen’s childhood. Te
way in which we are given these stories and expected to
apply them later removes the reader from the anchor
story you are trying to tell, and forces them into a time
period which at the moment has nothing to do with
the plot. We later fnd some details to be signifcant,
but only after a great deal of time in which we may have
forgotten them.
In approaching this issue it might be helpful to look
at each supplemental chapter (those addressing Helen’s
childhood and those of myth) apart from the anchor
plotline of Helen’s adventure. Tis anchor plotline is the
most crucial part of the story, and I believe should both
begin and end the novel, rather than the myth sections
as it stands now. By opening the novel with a myth, I
felt lost on how I was to apply it. Also, ending the novel
with a myth felt too contrived, like it was the only option
for ending the novel. But I might argue that since this is
Helen’s story, it should begin and end with her.
Te plot was given another layer by looking back
into Helen’s childhood to when she frst discovered
her power and when she lost it. Te idea of looking at
the origin of Helen’s power is very important, I would
agree, but I question the way in which it was delivered.
Te reader is pushed and pulled from myth, to present,
to childhood, to myth, then to present again. Chapters
three, four, six, seven, and eight all deal with Helen’s
childhood, but I wonder how much of the material is
actually relevant to Helen’s present. In reorganizing the
events, it might prove more useful to open the novel
with Helen’s childhood as a type of prologue—give the
origins of her powers, her frst experiences with it, a
description of the disappearance of her father, and the
loss of the power. Beyond that, I believe all other child-
hood experiences to be space fllers, because they do not
deal with the story directly at hand. Where have Helen’s
powers gone? Why can she not remember them or con-
jure them at odd times, even if she does not acknowl-
edge it herself ? Tese might be clever asides to explore
in her childhood, but I would argue that these are all
that would be important to the anchor plot. Scenes like
those in basement with her cousin and sister (chapter
six) or Helen becoming a teenager without her powers
(chapter eight) have little to do with what is about to
happen in Helen’s adulthood. Terefore, they only keep
the reader from reaching the action of the plot.
I suggest condensing all of Helen’s childhood (but
only those instances dealing with her powers) into one
prologue or two to three chapters at the very start of the
novel. Tese provide a backdrop for the action about
to unfold. Te childhood and adulthood might be sep-
arated by a myth, so as to introduce the gods Apollo
and Artemis and get the reader’s mind turning on what
these gods have to do with Helen’s powers. It’s a way of
23
not only foreshadowing but also hinting at answers that
the characters may not understand at the moment. Te
reader enjoys being in-the-know.
Point of View
Te structure of the plot leads me to the devices you
use to deliver it. Point of view is one way of showing us
varying perspectives of the same scene, or varying places
during the same time. However, as I have said before,
this is Helen’s story. A majority of the story is told from
a third person limited point of view from Helen’s per-
spective which led me to this conclusion. Terefore, I
believe it is most useful to keep it that way. Tere are
points when you change perspective even in the same
chapter (see chapter seven with Sophia’s account of her
power, chapter twenty-two and thirty with Cormac’s
perspective, or chapter thirty-seven with varying per-
spectives from Apollo and Sophia). Tis adds multiple
layers to the story which the reader must keep track of.
Now, this change in perspective is done well with
the myths, because the reader understands why we
jump out of Helen’s mind. Any other time, I was ques-
tioning why we left Helen. By chapter thirty-seven,
we have multiple layers occurring—Sophia and Chloe
with Apollo, Helen with Eliot, myths, and we must not
forget the beginning childhood narrative. Tis is a lot
for the reader to wrap their minds around as they read,
though easier for you because you created the world. I
believe that by keeping the storyline with Helen at all
times, not only do you strengthen your main character,
you also keep alive the element of mystery. When trav-
eling to ancient Greece, Cormac may have been killed,
captured, or left in the present. Not knowing helps us
get to the end and helps Helen return. I believe that this
element of mystery not only keeps your character mov-
ing, but also your reader.
Pacing
In continuing this crucial element of keeping your
reader moving, it is necessary to look at the pacing of
the action of the novel. When I say pacing, I mean the
speed in which the narration and action drives the plot.
Are we getting to where we need to go quickly enough?
I have already stated how the bulk of the childhood
chapters hinder the reader from doing just this, but a
closer look at some pivotal moments may ofer even
better examples. On page thirty and page 158 when
Bella, Cormac, and Helen herself learn of her pow-
ers, there is a lack of urgency. Tese passages unveil
a great deal and did not feel authentic to me because
they were not driven by excitement or fear surrounding
these powers. Tey merely seemed to be accepted and
dealt with. Instead, there should be a great uproar over
them. Her powers mean she is descended from a Greek
god?! How awesome, right?! Or how unbelievable and
absurd! Either way your characters choose to react, I
think it should be a big one because this is a big revela-
tion. Teir world has just been turned upside down and
should refect as much through mass confusion, panic,
or excitement. Magic is real!? Tis is huge!
24
You have illustrated a great use of pacing through
the development of Helen’s relationship with
Cormac. It came out of nowhere, but the reader has
been whisked away just as quickly as Helen has, so
it therefore feels believable. Scene after scene we see
their love grow and grow with rapid speed, but the
reader can keep up because we feel the love as it grows.
If the rest of the novel picked up and kept speed with
that romance, then I believe we would not notice the
huge plot changes or the absence of Helen’s power
from the frst half of the novel. We would be taken
along for the ride with the action Helen is experi-
encing. Instead, the frst half felt a little too doting,
like two diferent storylines which fnally collided in
ancient Greece. By picking up the pace, you could
remove narration that describes unconscious move-
ments (such as taking a drink of water or holding
hands) and avoid descriptions of places we only see
for a moment. You could also avoid trivial scenes like
the long journey to the cave where they will time
travel. Te reader would not want to sit through a
dinner or a conversation or a long walk that Helen
herself fnds trying, so sum it up and return to the
action. Explicating every movement makes it read
too much like a screenplay intended for a movie or
staging. It may require a line-by-line analysis, each
sentence separately and a question of how this gets
her to where she needs to be. We are here for Helen’s
adventure, after all.
Characterization
Dialogue
I must say Bravo! to you in the area of dialogue. Each
character had a specifc voice that ft what I believed
their personality to be, whether I liked it or not. Not
only did casual dialogue feel natural and fuent, but
action dialogue also felt witty and clever. Personally, I
enjoyed Artemis’s dialogue the most. She was jovial and
spicy which helped to drive the action even more. Te
only critique I have in the way of dialogue is to avoid
too many catch phrases. “Chickadee” and “moving on”
became distracting and didn’t really add anything to the
characters. But all other dialogue I felt was spot on!
I will list and assess main characters by order of their
strength and presence:
Helen
As your main character, Helen should be the stron-
gest, most likeable character in the novel. All other
characters should pale in comparison. Not only that but
we should be given a clear picture of what she (and all
other main characters) looks like, which I feel we only
gain slowly throughout the novel. I didn’t even know
she wore glasses until she wondered how they would be
received in ancient Greece. Tat being said, description
of main characters is key.
Helen is defnitely the strongest character, but I
question whether she is the most likable. She has con-
trol of her surroundings and her emotions (depicted
25
through her allowance of one cry per day). She makes
use of the people around her and seems very resourceful
and quick-minded. Tese are all important qualities for
the success of her journey. I accepted a majority of the
decisions she makes (except to bring Cormac to ancient
Greece, possibly endangering him) and stand behind
them with her. However, I was a bit put of by her per-
sonality.
By the time we returned to Helen’s adulthood, I
wondered what age she was. I understood her to be in
her mid/late-twenties. However, her personality seemed
much younger. She quite often interrupted others or
quoted her catch phrase “moving on!” which seemed a
bit immature for a woman of such stature. She is a busi-
ness owner, after all. Tat should say a lot of her charac-
ter and place in the community. Her willingness to take
on the family business after her mother’s death also says
something of her loyalty to family. However, her some-
times jeering tone and smart mouth detracted from her
likability and made me question her ability to handle
some scenarios, such as a quick marriage or a tedious
voyage. Helen is the protagonist, the hero! Everything
she does should feel concrete and thought out. Even if
she doubts herself, the reader should never doubt her.
Artemis
As I stated before, Artemis is the wittiest of the
bunch. She is also a type of comic relief, which makes
her all the more important. I did see Artemis and Helen
as similar characters in terms of their maturity however,
which made their two personalities collide. Tere can
only be one diva (at least that’s what divas believe), so
why not make her the ultimate diva goddess. Artemis
is the key between the present and ancient Greece, so
her role becomes increasingly important as the action
amps up. Terefore, I wonder if might be more benef-
cial to see more of her. I am not saying that she should
be brought in as a solution to problems that arise for
Helen. Instead, she should provide the way. I believe
that you do this well with Artemis’s role in getting
Helen to Greece. However, after that, she seems to dis-
appear in her own time period, when I anticipated her
as being more of a guide. Helen found it annoying that
Artemis did not show herself when she had arrived in
the goddesses time, and as a reader, I did as well. It is
impressive that I can call Artemis the second strongest
character in the novel when she is seen so little. Tat
means you have developed her well. It seems that she
should just be even more of an aid. She is a goddess and
therefore can do just about anything she wants.
I did mention before how it feels like we have two
separate Artemis’s when we compare the goddess of
the myths with the goddess of the storyline. Te god-
dess of the myth feels more stoic and reserved than her
present-time counterpart (and the same can be said of
Apollo). I would like to see a more fuid character from
her. Tis same hotheaded, joking attitude should echo
with all of her appearances. I do not foresee a goddess
changing in personality, even as the decades and mil-
lennia continue on.
26
Apollo
As a villain, Apollo could be developed more. Tis
could prove difcult, because once again, he is diferent
in the myths than in the present. As a villain, the cyni-
cal decisions made in the myths should be emphasized.
Tis would make him more believable as an evil-doer
in the eyes of the reader. Perhaps, there are other myths
where he has demolished foes or taken his rage out on
humans. I believe a good myth depicting this was the
one you chose with the transformation of the laurel tree.
I saw his passion for the hunt and his persistence for
women.
However, I did enjoy his redeeming quality with
children. By introducing his son and Chloe’s reverence
for him, we get the feeling that he may not want to do
the things that he does to Helen. I do not mean that
you should victimize his character, but only that you
should make the reader ponder his existence. Is he here
to infict torment, or is he here to ensure his own sur-
vival? I was never quite clear.
Eliot
I found Eliot to be the most likable character, though
he was only present for the second half of the novel.
Tat being said, I would like to see him incorporated
throughout the frst half as well. Perhaps, his liking for
the ancient world makes him a frequent customer of
Helen’s. Or perhaps she has known Cormac for a longer
period of time and had the chance to feel more acquaint-
ed with his family. Whatever you decide, I believe it is
important to see him more. He is the key to Helen sur-
viving in ancient Greece, with his vast knowledge of the
time period. As he stands now, I saw him as merely a
tool for Helen to wield in rescuing her family. He seem-
ingly has no emotional ties to Cormac or Helen which
diminishes his character, leaving the reader indiferent
to whether or not he is left in ancient Greece. When
I learned that he had stayed, my frst thought was for
poor grandmother Belle. I wanted to care for his char-
acter and care for his existence, but my lack of exposure
to him and his lack of appeal as anything more than an
encyclopedia allowed him to disappear into the prover-
bial black hole just as Helen’s father did.
Cormac
Sadly, I saw Cormac as the weakest of the main char-
acters, which I hope drives you to develop him more. I
have little to say about his character because we really
did not see much of it. I know that he is a classic roman-
tic. I know that he loves Helen. But aside from that, he
has no dreams or ambitions. He has no lifestyle, career,
or weird ticks that make him stand out as a likeable and
stand-alone character. Instead, he becomes a cheer-
leader for Helen. He is another tool for her, just like
Eliot—someone she can bounce her ideas of of in the
hopes of getting support for whatever decisions she may
make. Tough sections of the novel are dedicated to his
perspective, I do not think that this should be the aspect
that makes him a legitimate main character. I would like
to see Cormac put a charge in Helen to be a better per-
27
son. I would like to see him complete her other half, if
they are indeed to make this marriage work. I would like
to see him accomplish something for Helen if he is left
in the present. Only then can he fnd his true purpose in
the novel, because as he stands now, I did not see it. I did
not care that he had not come with Helen. In fact, I had
wished that he would have stood his ground and made
a point to say that he would not go with Helen because
this was her endeavor and her adventure.
Secondary characters
Tere was an abundance of secondary characters,
whom I will not name (and possibly could not). While
I believe it is important for Helen to encounter people
in ancient Greece who can help her through the alien
environment, I did think that there were a bit too many.
Two journeyers leave her at one point and are replaced
by three more and then others leave later on. Looking
back now, it was hard to follow exactly who was com-
ing and going. Perhaps, all of these characters who help
Helen on her journey might be combined into two or
three stronger secondary characters. Ten we won’t for-
get their names, and they would be given a specifc pur-
pose in the course of events. It would be nice to see this
follow the basic criteria for an epic in which each char-
acter has a role. Tere could be a priestess and a warrior,
or a monk and a warrior woman, or a child with a special
gift. Look at models for epic journeys like Harry Potter
or Lord of the Rings. Very few characters are introduced
in these examples that we do not see throughout the
course of the work. We wouldn’t want a perfectly good
character to become lost in the void.
Conclusion
Well, I believe that about wraps up my thoughts on
the novel. I know all of these letters may become over-
whelming with things that people suggest—you should
do this or that. But in order to stay true to your novel,
it is crucial to consider the fundamental mold for these
epic sagas. Tere are archetypes to follow and general
themes that pervade most memorable and successful
novels that deal with this battle between good and evil.
Please do not stop evolving this work, because it does
have promise! And trust me when I say that it does,
because otherwise I would not have spent these pages
ofering this edit. I have become invested in your char-
acters and would like to see them succeed in the literary
world. Congratulations on accomplishing something
that most writers cannot do just by fnishing your man-
uscript. Te road ahead to fnalize it may be trying, but
with the work you have produced so far, I have faith that
you can do it!
Cheers and good luck!
J. Adam Collins
Acquisitions Editor
Ooligan Press
adam.collins@ooliganpress.pdx.edu
28
Pitching to the Executive Committee
P
erhaps, my greatest achievement as in-house manager of the Acquisitions department was my
successful pitch of a title to the Executive Committee. Te previously published Portland Red Guide by
Michael Munk was to be pitched as a series, proposing a second installation with a Seattle Red Guide. Te most
challenging aspect of this pitch was the lack of a manuscript. Tis was a proposal generated entirely from an
in-house idea, which meant an author needed to be found—a new excursion for the Acquisitions department,
since most backlist titles had been submitted as full manuscripts.
Te pitch process was daunting at frst, but what it produced was a strong and well researched presentation
which led to the title’s acceptance. As leader of the project, it was my responsibility to not only create the pitch,
but also search out candidates to write the manuscript. Tis project consumed a majority of my last two terms in
Acquisitions. In that space of time, I was only able to approach one potential author by the name of Dr. James
Gregory, a noted historian and professor at the University of Washington. Gregory was our most valued nominee,
having already compiled a large online database of research, interviews, and visual media entitled Communism in
Washington State. Tough he declined our ofer, the experience empowered my ability to act as a liaison for the
press, approaching those with notoriety attached to their name without so much as having met them.
As a result, I developed an authority in my voice on paper. I consider myself a strong speaker and writer,
but the two do not always mix when it comes to demanding attention without a visual presence. My conf-
dence was never a problem, but my ability to ask a question through text would normally elicit a wishy-washy
rambling that lacked enthusiasm and conciseness. I believe I have found that spark, thanks in part to my work
with Ooligan and this pitch, that commands not only the attention in the room and in text, but also exudes a
passion when I discuss projects and solicit help.
Te following are selections from the pitch materials presented to the Executive Committee, as well as my
letter to James Gregory requesting his involvement in the project.
29

Acquisitions Pitch to Executive Committee

The Seattle Red Guide

1. GENERAL INFORMATION
Title: The Seattle Red Guide
Author: undetermined
Proposed Publication Date: Fall 2013
Genre: History
Specs (tentative): 200+ page count, 5 × 8.5, approx. 100 b&w photos and 20 maps

2. MANUSCRIPT INFORMATION
Categories: History/United States/State & Local/Pacific Northwest/Political
Science

Hook: A comprehensive guidebook and historical text of Seattle, Washington’s
unique and radical history.

Summary: Like The Portland Red Guide, this is a historical guidebook of social and
political radicals, their organizations, and their activities in relation to physical
sites in Seattle, Washington. Containing those events and stories left out of
traditional history books, The Seattle Red Guide explores the major social and
political movements of the last century with the aid of maps and historical photos.
This book will challenge the traditional historical views of Seattle and show that
Seattle is a place where the people are motivated to improve the everyday
conditions of our country’s citizens.

Strengths: This book would serve as a series accompaniment to The Portland Red
Guide. This will enable us to market to current RG readers and aid in expanding
our market throughout the Pacific Northwest.

Weaknesses: The manuscript hasn’t been written yet. We would need to find an
author for the book, and possible editors.

What Sold the Acquisitions Department on the manuscript? With the success of
PRG, Acquisitions liked the idea of creating a Red Guide series. It would enable us
to expand our Red Guide market further. Seattle would be the first step in the
series because it is a familiar city to Portland, sharing many citizens and travelers.
Both cities could hold similar markets, and it would be a great opportunity to pair
PRG with its Seattle companion for its introduction to Seattle consumers.

Tis was my frst time creating a hook,
pitch, and description. Tank you to
Mandi Russel, Tony Anderson, and
Robert Gruber for helping me to
research these materials.
30
2
3. AUTHOR INFORMATION – Since the manuscript has yet to be written, it is important to
consider all possible authors to best optimize the execution of the book. Although Michael Munk
has not been asked directly, he did express his interest in working with future installments at the
release of the 2
nd
edition of The Portland Red Guide. While his interest was not particular to writing
the full manuscript, he did express willingness to work with future authors or write
forwards/introductions to future installments. We have included three potential authors/editors
for the Seattle edition.

Author Bio: James N. Gregory is the Harry Bridges Endowed Chair of Labor Studies. His
research and teaching centers on four aspects of 20th century United States history: (1) labor
history, particularly the history of American radicalism; (2) regionalism, both the West and the
South; (3) race and civil rights history; (4) migration, especially inside the United States. In
addition, he is active in the field of public history, directing a set of online public history projects
focused on the labor and civil rights history of the Pacific Northwest.

What is exciting and special about the author? Gregory is the director of The
Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights Projects, an online compilation of eleven
projects bringing together nearly one hundred video oral history interviews and
several thousand documents and digitalized newspaper articles. The material has
been used to compose films, slide shows, and lesson plans for teachers. The sight
has more than 600,000 visitors per year. One of the site’s eleven projects includes
Communism in Washington State. This site explores the controversial history of
the Communist Party in the Pacific Northwest from 1919 to the Present.

Author’s previous titles (including publisher, pub date, sales figures, etc.):
• The Southern Diaspora: How the Great Migrations of Black and White
Southerners Transformed America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 2005), Winner of the 2006 Philip Taft Labor History Book Prize
• American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), Winner of the 1991 Ray Allen
Billington Prize from the Organization of American Historians; winner of the
1990 Annual Book Award from the Pacific Coast Branch of the American
Historical Association
• “Teaching a City about its Civil Rights History: A Public History Success Story”
American Historical Association Perspectives (April 2007) —with Trevor Griffey
Potential Concerns: Gregory’s current research includes Red Seattle: Radical
Generations from the Knights of Labor to the WTO. There is no word yet on how
extensive this research is, nor is there any indication of how close this book is to
being published. Furthermore, would this relate too closely to The Seattle Red
Guide?

Author Bio: Dana Frank is a professor of History at the University of California, Santa Cruz,
whose research interests include U.S. social and cultural history, labor history, gender studies,
Evaluations of each candidate for
authorship required looking at
their qualifcations and potential
concerns, as well as all relevant
information on current projects.
Far Right: My letter to Dr. Gregory
31
July 14, 2011
James N. Gregory
118 Smith Hall
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
Dear Dr. Gregory,
As acquisitions manager for Ooligan Press, a student run, non-proft, general-trade press afliated with
Portland State University, I would like express our interest in your involvement in a series we began two years
ago with Te Portland Red Guide by Michael Munk. Te Red Guide series centers on documenting and cel-
ebrating the radical history of great American cities.
A guidebook to the city’s rich heritage of radical social dissent, Te Portland Red Guide takes the reader
beyond the common history book. Michael Munk tells stories that many have forgotten and links them to
physical sites within the city with maps, walking tours, and historical images. Organizations and people who
fought for equality and justice against the abusive powers of their day are outlined with the use of historical
documents and oral histories. In addition to being a guidebook, Te Portland Red Guide is an informal history
that expands readers’ perspectives of the city and its past.
We have slated the next installment of the series to cover the radical past of your very own Seattle, WA.
Tough Michael Munk did a marvelous job on our frst and second editions of the Red Guide series, we
realize that citizens of a particular urban area—specifcally those specializing in the very topic we wish to
explore—could bring a deep knowledge and passion for their city to the project. Te premise for the upcoming
Seattle edition is so closely linked with the work that you have done with Te Seattle General Strike Project,
Communism in Washington State, the Seattle Civil Rights and History Project, and the Pacifc Northwest
Labor and Civil Rights Projects, that we feel you best exemplify the level of expertise we are looking for to
chronicle Seattle’s radical past.
Your knowledge and work on the labor and civil rights reform in Seattle’s history is our reason for approach-
ing you frst for the opportunity to author this installment. Te Seattle Red Guide would be a perfect ft for
you, and we hope that you will strongly consider being its author.
32
We have included a copy of Te Portland Red Guide by Michael Munk, which we hope will provide you
with a spark of interest to join the future Seattle edition. Tough we are fexible about the Seattle installment’s
content, we would like the book’s design and fow to ft with its Portland companion and any installments that
may follow. How this comes about, as well as how the timeline and contractual matters are to proceed, will be
discussed in future correspondence between you and our acquisitions team, should you choose to accept our
ofer. Please respond at your earliest convenience, as we expect to begin the Seattle Red Guide project this fall.
Feel free to contact us with any concerns or questions before you make a defnitive decision. I am available
via email at acquisitions@ooliganpress.pdx.edu and would be happy to answer any questions you might have
about this project or Ooligan Press.
Tank you for your time and consideration.
Sincerely,
J. Adam Collins
Ooligan Press
Acquisitions Department
369 Neuberger Hall
724 SW Harrison Street
Portland, Oregon 97201
www.ooliganpress.pdx.edu
Editing
Tere is not enough
aspirin in the world...
…to keep me reading at my computer for that long. You thought I was going to
say “to keep me editing,” didn’t you? It’s true, I do not fnd my passion in editing
like many in the publishing industry. I consider myself a good editor, but it takes
a great efort to slow my brain to catch mistakes over the course of many edits.
It takes an even greater amount to keep me in front of my computer for that
extended period of time.
I still believe in hand editing. And though it may waste a lot of paper, do
not fret, I do recycle. I would rather print a manuscript, follow the line with my
fnger, and use a green pen to mark it up. I hate red ink. I think it reminds me
too much of the reprimanding X’s of grade school. Tat red ink is so restrictive
and constraining. Without sounding too idealistic, green ink feels so nurturing
and puts the mind in a state of growth.
35
Freelance Projects
B
ut back to being an editor. I do fully realize their importance, which is why I have worked to
refne my editing skills. Every writer needs one. And writers who do not think they need an editor
more than likely lack clarity that keeps their message from being mangled in their sentences. Te edi-
tor is perhaps the most pivotal member of the publishing house, and also the most plentiful position.
Tough my strengths lie in acquisitions and developmental editing, I am confdent in my grammar and
can successfully navigate a Chicago Manual of Style. I do not fear editing, but rather embrace it for the
meticulously obsessive grammar–sleuth it requires.
I was a member of the Editing department for only one term. In that time, we received no large edits,
only small ones that I feel are not adequate examples of my editing capabilities. Instead, I have included
two projects done during my personal time. Te frst is a series of menus written, edited, and designed by
me for my employer Mama Mia’s Trattoria. I do not include them in the design section because the style
guide was decided for me; I needed only to plug in the elements. However, editorially, it is all my work.
Te second is an ongoing developmental and copyedit of a close friend’s manuscript. Ryan Freeman,
currently of Columbus, OH, is still in the process of revising his queer thriller Highest Off ice. Tis will be
his frst attempt at publication. As a student of publishing, I have served as a guide to his approach for
publication, while providing my services as an editor. Tough my editing experience is limited, I plan to
supplement my income with side projects like these while looking for permanent employment.
36

Salads

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Regolare 10.95 Molto Grande 13.95

Spinach Salad
baby spinach, crispy pancetta, diced tomato & shaved red onion tossed in
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Caprese Burger
daily in-house ground ½ lb beef burger, house-made mozzarella cheese,
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Sandwiches
Chicken Parmesan Sandwich
our famous chicken parmesan topped with mozzarella cheese & pomodoro
sauce served on an Italian hoagie
8.95
Hot Italian Hoagie
a truly Italian sandwich: mortadella, capicola, & prosciutto, with provolone
cheese, sweet cherry peppers, red onions, oregano, red wine vinegar &
rosemary aioli, grilled to perfection on an Italian hoagie
8.95
Lobster Mac & Cheese
lobster, penne pasta, and pancetta in a creamy pecorino romano
cheese sauce dusted with toasted parmesan
13.95


We now have Regolare (6”) Personal Size Pizzas
Margherita 7.95
Pepperoni, Sausage, Pepperoni/Sausage and Verdura 8.95
When new items are added to
the menu, I write descriptions
based on the recipe. Menu
layouts are decided by a design
style guide.
37
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C������� ♥ ������� ���������� ��������
Quartino of either Tormaresca Chardonnay or Zellina Pinot Gris
Antipasto
(Choose One)
����� ���� ����� ♥ ��������� � ��������� ♥ ���������� ���������
���������� ���� ������� ♥ ����� ���� ���� �������� �������
�������� ���������� ♥ ����� �������� � ����� � ���� � �����
Quartino of either Frescobaldi Remole or Hey Mambo
Entrees
(Choose Two)
����� ����� ♥ T������ ♥ T������� ♥ �������� C���������
C������ ♥ ������� ��� C���� ♥ ��������
Quartino of either LaVelle Riesling or Provenza Chiaretto Rosato
Desserts
(Choose One)
������� ���� �������� ������ ����� � ������ �� ����������
��� �� ���������� �� ����� �� C����� ����� �� �����
For an additional $20 you will receive with each course your choice of the following wine pairings below
Valentine’s Menu
Dinner for Two
$49.95
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����� C������� �� ������� ������� ♥ ���� �� C������ ��������
�� ������� �������� ♥ �������� ���� C��� ����� ♥ C�������
Entrees
(Choose Two)
Quartino of either Frescobaldi Remole or Hey Mambo
����� ����� ♥ T������ ♥ T������� ♥ �������� C���������
C������ ♥ ������� ��� C���� ♥ ��������
Desserts
(Choose One)
Quartino of either LaVelle Riesling or Provenza Chiaretto Rosato
C������ ����� ♥ ����� �������� ♥ ����� ������� �������
C������� ♥ ������� ���������� ��������
Quartino of either Tormaresca Chardonnay or Zellina Pinot Gris
Antipasto
(Choose One)
������� ���� �������� ������ ����� � ������ �� ����������
��� �� ���������� �� ����� �� C����� ����� �� �����
For an additional $20 you will receive with each course your choice of the following wine pairings below
Valentine’s Menu
Dinner for Two
$59.95
38
PrefacePrologue

Bryan Hurst’s green L.L. Bean backpack looked tattered and unreliable as it hung stuffed with
ten pound introductory textbooks. Thick straps tugged at his shoulders and his name was embroidered
above the zipper. With a diminished posture, he plowed into his 9am AM class at Belmont University and
took a seat, rendering an irritated glance at a frumpy professor mindlessly shuffling lecture notes.
A moss colored cap pressed tufts of dark hair against his forehead, and a navy blue cardigan fit
snug around his lean shoulders. The muscles underneath were natural and firm; and while this may have
been an attention grabber, his gentle face invited conversation.
Moving from sleepy Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania to Nashville changed his perspective. It was
everyone knows your name to no one gives a fuck. But Bryan preferred it. He didn’t give a fuck either.
This was his time, and not to mention his small hometown was shitty compared to weekend binge
drinking on crowded downtown streets.
His parents, Mark and Teresa, owned and operated a general store that sold a myriad of
products, mostly catering to tourists and hikers. To say they lived on a modest budget was a stretch. But
what they lacked in income they made up for with faith-based connections.
Mark, a local youth pastor, knew the dean of Belmont University, a private Christian school
offering excellent post-grad opportunities and a strong Christian atmosphere. They helped their son find
a scholarship. It covered everything —- but his partying. Bryan sold plasma for that.
The University was packed with gays, Bryan among them, and it made life on campus a
complicated balancing act. They struggled choosing between Saturday night foam parties or evening
devotionals. Naked men usually prevailed, but shame and guilt pressed heavy on their hearts leaving
behind a trail of missed opportunities and regrettable choices for many. Some would never make peace
with these demons.
Sitting through an agonizing lecture on women’s suffrage Bryan pieced together his costume.
Club Play was hosting a Halloween party. Sexy Batman it is, hHe thought with a playful grin. All he
needed was black spandex and a bed sheet.
Bryan pounced from his seat the second class dismissed. He was tired with a sore throat and low
grade fever, but dedicated to the night’s festivities. Nothing would keep him from his new fFriend.
Reaching into his pocket he popped two pink cold and flu tablets, and chased them with a gulp of
Robitussin. A fuzzy feeling pulsed through his body within minutes as he madeof making it back to his
dorm. He landed face down on the mattress, unconscious for hours. It took the incessant beeping of his
phone alarm to bring him aliveto life.

Comment [JAC1]: A preface is about the book, a
note about the author, the story, or a guest author.
And would come before the prologue. A prologue is
a part of the story, or an introduction.
Comment [JAC2]: Adj
Comment [JAC3]: How many? What for?
Comment [JAC4]: V.C. = verb choice
Comment [JAC5]: I am wary of paragraphs of
pure character description. It’s best to describe
them in action. Also, hair color is important; hat
color not as much. i.e. “Impatiently tugging at tufts
of dark brown hair poking from beneath his ball
cap…”
Comment [JAC6]: Be more specific. College
was?
Comment [JAC7]: For a character who leaves us
after the prologue, this is probably extraneous
information.
Comment [JAC8]: This seems anticlimactic in
establishing him as a gay character. I’m not saying
make it a musical number, but in order for a gay
reader to connect with him, they have to feel he is
struggling with these two worlds even here. I don’t
think you need to relate it to the rest of the gays
(they), just our main gay.
Formatted: Font: Not Italic
Comment [JAC9]: VC
39

Walter was a constant fluctuation, living off his parent’s bounty. He had wavy black hair, an
emaciated 135 pound frame, and a plump extended nose passed onto him by his Jewish ancestry. He
owned it though. According to him, “The bigger the nose, the longer and thicker the cock”, and Bryan
knew first hand this wasn’t far from the truth— - in Walter’s case.
With no religion and few moral guidelines, Walter allowed himself free to experiment with
whatever substance and urge drifted his way. He was a heavy drinker, twink by nature, and reckless
head case; Bryan was pulled into his world like the tides to the moon.
This autumn season was comparatively harsh for Nashville, and skimpy caped crusader outfits
let the boys enjoy every the pinch of cold the night air offered. They locked arms and pranced down the
sidewalk, thankful the bar was just around the corner. Proximity to drugs and alcohol was Walter’s top
priority when shopping for rental property.
“I’ll get your cover.” Walter promised. They handed their money and jackets to a tank topped
lesbian with short gelled hair and camocamouflage -pants. She grunted like a pig as they glided by her.
“Skank,” Walter whispered, to which Walter whispered, “Skank.”
Inside there were no goblins or witches. No grim reapers or rotting corpses. Rather, every inch
of the club was packed with scantily clad men and women of all shapes and sizes. Fat, old, hot or not, a
successful costume was a ‘sexy’ costume.
“I’m going to find someone to buy us a few shots.” Walter’s cape followed behind him. He
disappeared to the bar.
Alone, Bryan noticed an unfamiliar wallflower. The man’s gaze sent a shiver down the small of
his back. It wasn’t that he looked scary, just creepy. Like the quiet loner kid who sat behind you in high
school.
He watched Bryan intently.
“Take it fast,” Walter hustled, and downed a shot.
Bryan ignored the man, but could feel eyes watching no matter where he went. Something was
off, it wasn’t the typical old-man-bar-creep who stalked you until he found enough courage to approach
and buy you a drink. This man was young, in his twenties, and had vicious eyes.
“I’m ready to go.” Bryan had to pry Walter off a sexy doctor to get his attention.
“I’m not. We have another hour,” Walter hissed, holding onto the end of a cheap stethoscope.
“I can just walk back and get my car. I’m not really drunk anyway.” Bryan waited for Walter to
break but was met with a cold uninterested shoulder. He stomped off to thumping music through a sea
of glittery queens.
Comment [JAC10]: Who is Walter?
Comment [JAC11]: Are they a couple? Just
friends with benefits? Making us care about a
relationship makes his death that much more
emotional.
Comment [JAC12]: Mixed metaphor?
Comment [JAC13]: Let’s not make this about
Walter.
Comment [JAC14]: Walter is with Bryan?
Formatted: Font: Italic
Comment [JAC15]: Instead of telling the reader
this or that he looked creepy, try making his actions
creepy and off.
Formatted: Font: Not Italic
40
Confident no one followed, he left the bar. From a distance he located his car and clicked his
automatic starter. Bracing himself against a powerful gust, Bryan took a run for it. He curled his arms
around his taut body and went for his Corolla. Reaching the door he checked the back seat to be on
safeout of habit. An eerie sensation rolled down his spine as he fastened his seatbelt.
Bryan obeyed every traffic law, and maintained an appropriate speed on his way home. His
breath was laced with alcohol and a DUI at 18 meant social suicide; he ten and two-ed it. In hindsight, a
night in jail would have been a welcomed alternative.
He drove careful, and unaware, scanning the parking lot of his housing community before
pulling into his usual spot. Bryan shared the unit with two other roommates, a straight couple. They
were homebodies who, as luck would have it, happened to be visiting family for the weekend.
Unlatching the deadbolt, Bryan moved into a dark foyer. He flipped the switch to his right as he
entered, but nothing happened. Using his iPhone cell phone as a flashlight he nervously travelled to the
kitchen for water. The refrigerator light worked and he stretched for a bottle of Dasani water.
He dropped his clothes on his bedroom floor and drowned in lush covers. The clock on his
nightstand read 2:47 before he closed his eyes and said a short prayer. He thought about his mother.
Bryan didn’t even get a chance to dream as.
Out of nowhere a gloved hand covered his mouth. Muffled by a powerful grip, Bryan
scratched and clawed to break free and catch a breath. But before he could get an upper hand a blunt
wooden cane bashed into his temple. His struggle was short-lived.
Finally cognizant, Bryan felt the cold metal floor of a jerky van. Thick tape obscured his mouth,
and altered the effectiveness of his hands and feet. He was alive, but completely incapacitated. A dark
head at the wheel looked forward, showing no signs of hesitation. There was no way of telling how
much time had passed.
The van came to a stop and the driver’s side door opened. Bryan recognized the crunch of
gravel as he pulled to the side of a road. When the cargo doors opened he knew immediately this was
the man from the bar. He was wearing a light fleece jacket over a black shirt, dark Wrangler jeans, and
steel toed boots. Bryan heard them stomp as he walked. If Bryan survived, he wanted to remember
every detail, no matter how minor.
“You did this to yourself,” the man explained.
Bryan pushed his tongue though his lips in hopes of diluting the adhesive on the tape. It ripped
out fine hairs around his chin as he worked, but he ignored the pain.
The man took thin wires from a toolbox and pulled Bryan out of the vcan by his left foot. Finally
getting the tape free Bryan let out a procession of shrieks.
Comment [JAC16]: This foreshadowing is a
little too literal.
Comment [JAC17]: It does? Why? Maybe if he
was living with his parents, but who is going to
punish him?
Comment [JAC18]: Another instance of
foreshadowing that just feels too easy.
Comment [JAC19]: Why nervous? Is there need
to set suspense yet? Because I don’t feel he should
be nervous. He’s home.
Formatted: Indent: First line: 0.5"
Comment [JAC20]: Let us hear them. Write
dialogue. These could be his last words. Also it helps
balance the suddenness of the end of the scene –
Bryan’s poor abrupt death.
41
“No one will hear you,” The man said with a southern drawl. He picked up a hammer and walked
to Bryan who lay on roughly paved asphalt.
“Please,” Bryan whimpered as tears flowed from his crystal blue eyes.
“I pray God has mercy on your pathetic soul.” He lifted the hammer dented the front of Bryan’s
skull. Blood splashed onto his cheeks, creating a reservoir that drained to his jaw. With some effort he
the man tied the body to a fence post and went to the van for a gas can to dowse his victim. Bryan was
dead before the match was even lit.

Part One
October
Mid-autumn in Southern Ohio has few equals. Withered lLeaves accent emerging deep purple
skies of the early morning and dry lawns permeate the sweet smell of rotting foliage. In the backdrop, a
constant column of puffy clouds shadow a determined morning sun as migrating birds litter the air
struggling to reach the next destination. A thick and constant sense of melancholy invades life, staying
through winter.
Thin strips of sunlight cut through Teak blinds bringing Christian to his feet. Beside his
nightstand was a pair of soft leather house shoes, a Christmas gift from his mother two years prior. He
slid them on and whipped wiped the sleep from his eyes, stretching his arms and bending a curve in his
back.
Christian always shuffled through his house by 6 AMam. His morning ritual allowed for not a
minute later. He gets up, takes out his chocolate lab, drinks a steaming mug of tea, and stretches for his
morning run—. A a 5k, weather permitting. In the summertime he trades his morning tea for a
McDonalds iced coffee. But as a general rule of thumb Christian didn’t stray far from tried and truth
customs.
Even in youth Christian had a certain way of doing things, at a certain time, at a certain pace,
and in a certain mindset. It is how he kept his head on straight, how he made it through pharmacy
school, and managed with an abrasive father. He compromised a piece of his soul for the comfort that
accompanied OCD tendencies.
Nonetheless, Christian’s life had taken one unlikely turn after another. It was a series of
dissuading events that pressured him to stay in his hometown. But regardless of the effort, Blanchard
had become a magnet for the disenfranchised few who lost steam early in life.
As he ran down narrow village streets, some layered in brick, he recognized most of the faces he
passed. Many picking up morning papers and exchanging gossip with neighbors over fences and
evaporating coffee. With a nod or wave with at each encounter, he imagined living in a picturesque
Comment [JAC21]: Now I see why you kept out
aspects of his psychological character. His end so
soon also means we can remove some physical
character. These will all be forgotten anyway with
the introduction of the real main character.
Comment [JAC22]: Name her
Comment [JAC23]: Phrasing
Comment [JAC24]: This doesn’t really say
much. Be specific.
Comment [JAC25]: W.C.
Creation has never before
come so easily to me.
Design
I
consume books so that I can create them—create them with an intent I have never felt in my
work. And creation has never before come so easily to me. If there were ever a time and place
to make a case for myself it is here. I have placed this section as close as possible to the middle of
my graduate portfolio so that when it is idly opened, there is a greater chance you will open to
one of my designs. If that isn’t enough to tell you my love for this art, then let me tell you myself.
I love designing books—their interiors and their covers. I obsess over the smallest folio. I
love picking fonts. Warnock is by far my favorite for literature. It has a personality not often
inherent in classically shaped letters. I choose Joanna for poetry. Its light and airy crispness adds
to the white space on the page. I have other favorites that you will see in these concepts, and they
are always my frst choices when designing. If they don’t work, I will inevitably research and
fnd another, which will be added to my growing list of preferred fonts.
Before you, you have my strengths and my weaknesses bound and presented in a fashion
most do not have the ability to do. I am trained in dissecting stories, the craft of writing them,
and now the skills to present them. Combined with my continually growing knowledge of
Adobe’s Creative Suite, I know I can present that story in a way that will make someone pause
and consider its contents. Te opportunity to train under more experienced designers would help
me sharpen my design skills, which I would liken most to a mix of Peter Mendleson, Milan
Bozic, and Isaac Tobin. I favor the composition, a collage or images imposed on one another,
united by a font that encapsulates the environment created. I also adhere to the idea of simplic-
ity; objects in their natural states are beautiful, and their meanings are fuid and submissive.
I have chosen to show both fnished product and preceding versions of the design process.
I enjoy demonstrating my growth. Te editing process for design is one that I relish. I do not
mind throwing out ideas and trying new ones. I actively ask opinions of anyone around me as
I am working. It is my way of learning to see through others’ eyes instead of my own, so that I
do not become lost in my own romanticism.
I would love to continue work for those small independent presses that change the book
world, make it something new by presenting materials in innovative ways. Not everything
has to go digital. Tere are ways of printing texts that make a reader appreciate holding a book
again, and I’d love to be a part of the revolution and resurgence in the printed paged through
artfully crafted and experimental books.
45
Book Design and Production
T
hough the book publishing program does not teach us to be graphic designers, we are given an amaz-
ing crash course in Adobe’s Creative Suite with Book Design and Production. Te course does have a
starting level intended for those who have never used Adobe before, but I unfortunately was not aware of the
class. Te concepts you are about to see I am very proud of as my frst foray into book cover design. I feel that
I immensely compensated for my lack of a beginner’s course by catching myself up to the skills of the rest of
the class with online tutorials for the basics of the software. Luckily, I am very technologically literate. I will
continue to teach myself design skills via any brain I can pick, whether online forum, colleague, or apprentice-
ship. I am committed to this now, and it only took one term of work to lose myself in the artistic aspect of it.
I have always considered myself an artistic person. Until now, that trait had manifested itself only in my
writing. I doodled as a child and was told that I was talented. But I never pursued the practice. Now, I fnd my
creative eye is nurtured again through book design. I see images in a diferent way. Tough I have not yet begun
to incorporate original photographs, I am currently saving for a camera with the intention of improving my
photographic eye. I have also begun to doodle again. It’s amazing how one artistic outlet soon leads to another.
As I practice my hand at both, I hope to include original work in my book covers.
Tis frst assignment in Book Design and Production was to re-conceptualize previously published titles.
Te titles I have chosen are some favorites of mine. Keep in mind these are my frst designs. Tere are many
changes I would make to them now. Fonts, colors, efects—they would all change. But as they are I appreci-
ate the naiveté of their compositions. Tey evoke a blend of so many covers I have seen. Perhaps, I will come
back to them again, freshen them up with my current nuances. A friend told me I should then share them on
Twitter to see if I perk any interest; so maybe I will do just that.
46
The Body
Snatchers
Jack Finney
The Body Snatchers
“I warn you that what you’re starting to read is full of
loose ends and unanswered questions…Now if you
don’t like that kind of story, I’m sorry, and you’d bet-
ter not read it.”
On a quiet fall evening in the small, peaceful town of Mill
Valley, California, Dr. Miles Bennell discovered an insidious,
horrifying plot. Silently, subtly, almost imperceptibly, alien life-
forms were taking over the bodies and minds of his neighbors,
his friends, his family, the woman he loved— the world as he
knew it.
First published in 1955, this classic thriller of the ultimate
alien invasion and the triumph of the human spirit over an in-
visible enemy inspired three major motion pictures.
Jack Finney was the author of the much-loved and critically
acclaimed novel Time and Again, and its sequel, From Time to
Time. Best known for his thrillers and science fiction, a number
of his books were made into movies. Mr. Finney died in 1995.
J
a
c
k

F
i
n
n
e
y
T
h
e

B
o
d
y

S
n
a
t
c
h
e
r
s
Fiction/Science
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
Ju
b
ile
e
P
r
e
s
s
'
T
O
!
M
¡
N
G

I
¡
A
V
¡
N
Denise Giardina
“Brilliant, diamond-hard
fiction, heartwrenching,
tough and tender.”
—LOS ANGELES TIMES
BOOK REVIEW
S
i
o
x
m
I
×
o

H
v
n
v
v
×
Historical Fiction/
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
Ju
b
ile
e
P
r
e
s
s
This is the story of the miners and the union
they wanted, of the people who loved them
and the people who wanted to kill their
dreams.
A
nnadel, West Virginia, was a small town rich in coal,
farms, and close-knit families, all destroyed when the
coal company came in. It stole everything it hadn’t both-
ered to buy—land deeds, private homes, and, ultimately,
the souls of its men and women.
Four people tell this powerful, deeply moving tale: Ac-
tivist Mayor C.J. Marcum. Fierce, loveless union man
Rondal Lloyd. Gutsy nurse Carrie Bishop, who loved
Rondal. And lonely Sicilian immigrant Rosa Angelelli,
who lost four sons to the deadly mines.
They all bear witness to nearly forgotten events of his-
tory, culminating, in the fnal tragic Battle of Blair Moun-
tain—when the United States Army greeted 10,000 un-
employed pro-union miners with airplanes, bombs, and
poison gas. It was the frst crucial battle of a war that has
yet to be won.
“If we are very lucky, every few years there arrives a novel that is so
moving, so instantly successful…that it towers high over much else that is
being published. Storming Heaven is that novel for 1987.”
—The Cleveland Plain Dealer
“An excellent book, full of fne observations and vivid characters…Giar-
dina is a gifted writer.”
—Chicago Tribune
D
e
n
i
s
e

G
i
a
r
d
i
n
a
Te seeds of the dandelion represent
the pods that foated to earth and
replicated humans.
Fonts: Dante & Warnock
Left: Tis is one of my favorite
books by a West Virginian author. I
plan to update the cover and share it
with her.
Fonts: Baskerville, Goudy, Medici,
Minion, & Trajan
Far Right: My favorite cover of the
three. It represents the closing of the
characters’ lives.
Fonts: Flood, Kolo LP, & Minion
47
“Manic, knowckdown,
verbal comedy.”
—Robert Pinsky,
The Washington Post
Closing Time
C
l
o
s
i
n
g

T
i
m
e
Joseph Heller
the sequel to catch–22
“Tis fne novel shows the comic imagination of a national treasure at
work.” —Leslie Brody, Elle
“As hilarious as its predecessor.”
—Rex Bateson, Journal-Constitution
“Contains a richness of tone and of human feeling…Powerful and dis-
turbing.” —William Pritchard, The New York Times
“A lively, brilliant and infuential writer’s look back at the 20th-century
American culture he has seen.”
—Robert Pinksy, The Washington Post
M
ore than three decades afer Catch-22 captured the
conscience and imagination of a generation, Joseph
Heller has written a sequel to one of the most important
novels of the twentieth century. Closing Time revisits Yossar-
ian, Milo Minderbinder, Chaplain Tappman and others—the
characters who made Catch-22 unforgettable, now older, if
not wiser, facing not only the end of the century, but the ap-
proaching close of their lives.
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
J
u
b
i
l
e
e

P
r
e
s
s
Joseph Heller, whose novel Catch-22 has sold more than 10
million copies, is the author of fve other bestselling books. He
lives in East Hampton, New York.
J
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48
Re-designing a Classic
L
ast year, Ooligan began work on a classical collection of titles. Chosen from open domain works,
covers and interiors for fve titles are designed by Book Design and Production courses every term. At the
close of the term, the class votes on the best covers and interiors that are then published the following year.
Te cover at the close of this section was runner-up in my class.
I chose Te Scarlet Letter because of my love for it. It is perhaps my favorite classical title. I was very inter-
ested in giving it covers that spoke to multiple audiences. Tough we were only asked to come up with three
concepts, I could not stop and designed four.
Likewise, I tried multiple fonts for the text itself. Tis was my frst attempt at designing the interior of a
book. I found myself particularly attracted to folios and chapter headings. Tese are the aspects of the book we
as designers are most free to change and place as we see
ft, adding a personal touch of ourselves between the
covers. In the end, I believe I produced a very smooth
page that fows well for the reader’s eyes
I have since begun designing classics for myself.
Now that I have fnished the program, I will have more
free time to experiment with the text on page. I am
fascinated by those publishers who reproduce classics
with untried ways to present the text to a reader. I have
seen interiors with holes punched through, bright col-
ors and accents, and text boxes going in every direction.
Tis is one way to keep the text fresh and interesting
for current audiences, thereby securing their produc-
tion for future generations.
OOLI GAN CLASSI CS
The Scar let Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
F
irst published in 1850, Te Scarlet Letter
is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece and
one of the greatest American novels. Its themes
of sin, guilt, and redemption, women through
a story of adultery in the early days of Massa-
chusetts Colony, are revealed with remarkable
psychological penetration and understanding of
the human heart.
Hester Prynne is the adulteress, forced by
the Puritan community to wear a scarlet letter
A on the breast of her gown. Roger Chilling-
sworth, Hester’s husband, revenges himself with
calculating assaults on the frail mental state of
the man believes to have wronged him. Te re-
sult is an American tragedy of stark power and
emotional depth that has mesmerized critics
and readers for over a century and a half.
The Scarlet Letter
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
H
a
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o
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n
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T
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S
c
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L
et
t
e
r
49
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
F
irst published in 1850, Te Scarlet Letter
is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece and
one of the greatest American novels. Its themes
of sin, guilt, and redemption, women through
a story of adultery in the early days of Massa-
chusetts Colony, are revealed with remarkable
psychological penetration and understanding of
the human heart.
Hester Prynne is the adulteress, forced by
the Puritan community to wear a scarlet letter
A on the breast of her gown. Roger Chilling-
sworth, Hester’s husband, revenges himself with
calculating assaults on the frail mental state of
the man believes to have wronged him. Te re-
sult is an American tragedy of stark power and
emotional depth that has mesmerized critics
and readers for over a century and a half.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter
The Scarlet Letter
T
h
e

S
c
a
r
l
e
t

L
e
t
t
e
r
H
a
w
t
h
o
r
n
e
OOLI GAN CLASSI CS
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.50
H
a
w
t
h
o
r
n
e
F
irst published in 1850, Te Scarlet Letter is Na-
thaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece and one of the
greatest American novels. Its themes of sin, guilt, and
redemption, women through a story of adultery in the
early days of Massachusetts Colony, are revealed with
remarkable psychological penetration and under-
standing of the human heart.
Hester Prynne is the adulteress, forced by the
Puritan community to wear a scarlet letter A on the
breast of her gown. Roger Chillingsworth, Hester’s
husband, revenges himself with calculating assaults
on the frail mental state of the man believes to have
wronged him. Te result is an American tragedy of
stark power and emotional depth that has mesmer-
ized critics and readers for over a century and a half.
The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter
T
h
e

S
c
a
r
l
e
t

L
e
t
t
e
r
Tis cover speaks to more of a
female demographic and happened
to be my mother’s favorite. I love a
striking white cover. Tey grab my
attention faster than any other color.
Fonts: BlackAdderII, Didot, &
Warnock
Left: Tis was meant to market to
young adults, and was my teenage
sister’s favorite. Te intricacy of the
fower mirrors that of the plot.
Fonts: Didot, Scriptina, & Warnock
Right: Tis design is inspired by
Coralie Bickford-Smith’s beautiful
work with Penguin Classics.
Fonts: Apollo, Didot, Helvetica,
Warnock
50
The Scarlet Letter
The Scarlet Letter
T
h
e

S
c
a
r
l
e
t

L
e
t
t
e
r
H
a
w
t
h
o
r
n
e
Fiction
US $12.00
Canada $18.500
F
irst published in 1850, Te Scarlet Letter
is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s masterpiece and
one of the greatest American novels. Its themes
of sin, guilt, and redemption, women through
a story of adultery in the early days of Massa-
chusetts Colony, are revealed with remarkable
psychological penetration and understanding of
the human heart.
Hester Prynne is the adulteress, forced by
the Puritan community to wear a scarlet letter
A on the breast of her gown. Roger Chilling-
sworth, Hester’s husband, revenges himself with
calculating assaults on the frail mental state of
the man believes to have wronged him. Te re-
sult is an American tragedy of stark power and
emotional depth that has mesmerized critics
and readers for over a century and a half.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
O O L I G A N C L A S S I C S
I prefer to play with abstract images.
Tis cover was runner-up for
publication and gave the novel a
more modern feel.
Fonts: A Font with Serifs, Didot, &
Warnock
51
Te Scarlet Letter ;
A
:nvo×o or nr»voro rr×, in sad-colouied gaiments
and giey steeple-ciowned hats, intei-mixed with women,
some weaiing hoods, and otheis baieheaded, was assembled
in fiont of a wooden edifice, the dooi of which was heavily
timbeied with oak, and studded with iion spikes.
Te foundeis of a new colony, whatevei Utopia of human
viitue and happiness they might oiiginally pioject, have
invaiiably iecognised it among theii eailiest piactical neces-
sities to allot a poition of the viigin soil as a cemeteiy, and
anothei poition as the site of a piison. In accoidance with this
iule it may safely be assumed that the foiefatheis of Boston
had built the fiist piison-house somewheie in the Vicinity of
Coinhill, almost as seasonably as they maiked out the fiist
buiial-giound, on Isaac Johnson’s lot, and iound about his
giave, which subsequently became the nucleus of all the con-
giegated sepulchies in the old chuichyaid of King’s Chapel.
Ceitain it is that, some fifteen oi twenty yeais aftei the settle-
ment of the town, the wooden jail was alieady maiked with
weathei-stains and othei indications of age, which gave a yet
daikei aspect to its beetle-biowed and gloomy fiont. Te iust
on the pondeious iion-woik of its oaken dooi looked moie
antique than anything else in the New Woild. Like all that pei-
C I
T P D
s
Te text is set in Warnock 12pt.
Chapter numbers are set in 14pt,
while titles are set in 16pt to draw
more attention to them.
52
 Nathaniel Hawthorne
tains to crime, it seemed never to have known a youthful era.
Before this ugly edifice, and between it and the wheel-track of
the street, was a grass-plot, much overgrown with burdock,
pig-weed, apple-pern, and such unsightly vegetation, which
evidently found something congenial in the soil that had so
early borne the black flower of civilised society, a prison. But
on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the thresh-
old, was a wild rose-bush, covered, in this month of June, with
its delicate gems, which might be imagined to offer their fra-
grance and fragile beauty to the prisoner as he went in, and
to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in
token that the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to
him.
Tis rose-bush, by a strange chance, has been kept alive in
history; but whether it had merely survived out of the stern old
wilderness, so long after the fall of the gigantic pines and oaks
that originally overshadowed it, or whether, as there is fair
authority for believing, it had sprung up under the footsteps
of the sainted Ann Hutchinson as she entered the prison-door,
we shall not take upon us to determine. Finding it so directly
on the threshold of our narrative, which is now about to issue
from that inauspicious portal, we could hardly do otherwise
than pluck one of its flowers, and present it to the reader. It
may serve, let us hope, to symbolise some sweet moral blos-
som that may be found along the track, or relieve the darken-
ing close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow.
Te design style guide called for
larger margins. Te Ooligan Classics
series was meant to appeal to college
students and classrooms. Larger
margins left room for notes.
53
Te Scarlet Letter ,
T
nr ov»ss-vio: nrrovr :nr i»ii, in Piison Lane, on
a ceitain summei moining, not less than two centuiies
ago, was occupied by a pietty laige numbei of the inhabitants
of Boston, all with theii eyes intently fastened on the iion-
clamped oaken dooi. Amongst any othei population, oi at a
latei peiiod in the histoiy of New England, the giim iigidity
that petiified the beaided physiognomies of these good peo-
ple would have auguied some awful business in hand. It could
have betokened nothing shoit of the anticipated execution of
some noted culpiit, on whom the sentence of a legal tiibunal
had but confiimed the veidict of public sentiment. But, in that
eaily seveiity of the Puiitan chaiactei, an infeience of this kind
could not so indubitably be diawn. It might be that a slug-
gish bond-seivant, oi an undutiful child, whom his paients
had given ovei to the civil authoiity, was to be coiiected at
the whipping-post. It might be that an Antinomian, a Quakei,
oi othei heteiodox ieligionist, was to be scouiged out of the
town, oi an idle oi vagiant Indian, whom the white man’s fiie-
watei had made iiotous about the stieets, was to be diiven
with stiipes into the shadow of the foiest. It might be, too, that
a witch, like old Mistiess Hibbins, the bittei-tempeied widow
of the magistiate, was to die upon the gallows. In eithei case,
C II
T M P
s
I used a glyph obtained from the
font Nympette to adorn my chapter
headings. It’s intricacy is intended to
mirror the cover’s sketch
54
A Study of Type
T
his essay is included because it dem-
onstrates my enthusiasm for font. Also,
my portfolio would not feel complete with-
out a little bit of Whitman in its pages. It has
become a tradition of sorts for me. I frst wrote
about Whitman in a poetry class, in which
I discussed the various editions of Leaves of
Grass and their reception. For my undergrad-
uate senior seminar, I wrote about the usage
of his poetry in the flm Dead Poets Society.
Both were included in my fnal portfolio and
were used as writing samples for my graduate
school applications. You could say Whitman
has been a lucky charm for me.
And so I include him again. Tis time,
written for my Book Design and Production
fnal, I look at the side of Whitman with
which most are not familiar. Whitman the printer, typesetter, and bookmaker was every bit the pragmatist in
his practices as he was in his writing. But he was obsessive almost to a fault, which led to his self-publication.
If you do not read the essay, at least admire its design and the way the font fows on the page. It is Joanna,
one of my favorite fonts for its crisp and roomy breadth. Te sharp serif letterforms have a very modern texture. I
conclude with an extended colophon. My love for colophons has grown so much over the course of this program.
I used to not even know of their existence. Now, I become greatly disappointed if I do not fnd one.
A
Font
of
Whitman
AN EXPLORATION OF WHITMAN’S
ROLES AS BOOKMAKER,
TYPESETTER, AND PRINTER
A Book Design & Production Final
by
J. Adam Collins
55
2 J. Adam Collins
T
HIS LATENT MINE—
these unlaunch’d voices—
passionate powers,
Wrath, argument, or praise,
or comic leer, or prayer devout,
(Not nonpareil,BREVIER,bourgeois,long primer merely,)
These ocean waves arousable
to fury and to death,
Or sooth’d to ease and sheeny sun and sleep,
Within the pallid slivers
slumbering.
WALT WHITMAN, A Font of Type, 1880
A Font of Whitman 3
T
HIS IS NOT THE FIRST I have written on Walt Whitman. In fact, this is
the third. For an undergraduate poetry class, I wrote on his various
editions of Leaves of Grass—his reasons for releasing so many editions, his
constant struggles with fnances and fnding ways to build the books he
had written, and the reception of the works among a scrutinizing public.
For my senior seminar, I wrote on the transcendentalist’s inclusion in
the flm Dead Poets Society. I dissected his poetry as it was used there, the
very meaning effected by the tone of voice, the lines chosen, the scene in
which it is spoken. I used both of these essays to apply to every graduate
program on my list of hopefuls, and was accepted to nearly every one to
which I had applied. Thank you Walt Whitman. I must be writing some-
thing right about you.
I don’t know why I return to him. I am not an avid reader, though his
poetry does spark something as I read it, if not the physical act of writ-
ing, then at least a promise to myself to write when I had a moment. But
it does seem ftting that I return to Whitman again to explore a side of
him that I knew existed but had not studied through these newly acquired
lenses of a publisher. Walt Whitman the bookmaker. Walt Whitman the
typesetter. Walt Whitman the printer. He was more practiced in the physi-
cal labor of constructing a book than any other 19
th
century author. While
speaking with Horace Traubel in 1889, Whitman admitted: “I sometimes
fnd myself more interested in book making than in book writing: the
way books are made—that always excites my curiosity: the way books
are written—that only attracts me once in a great while” (4:233).
1
Now,
I return to Whitman, not for his language or images or his subtle way of
discussing his sexuality, but instead for his opinion on fonts, his habitual
grasp for control over the formation of his books, and his own idea of a
book’s perfect existence in the hands of readers.
Whitman’s passion for printing began at the age of twelve. He learned
typesetting as an apprentice on the Long Island Patriot under the direction
1 Citations from Horace Traubel’s With Walt Whitman in Camden (various publishers 1906-
1996) will be noted using the volume number followed by the page number).
56
4 J. Adam Collins
of William Hartshorne (Folsom). Whitman recalls these years near the
end of his life in the poem “A Font of Type.” He speaks of “This latent
mine” of the type-box and the many “unlaunch’d voices” that rely on
the printer to put their words into print (1). When it came to the word
on paper, print became more than “nonpareil, brevier, bourgeois, long
primer merely,” and instead became the combination of the author’s
words and their appearance on the page (3). Whitman understood a
typeface’s function, and in all likelihood visualized his poetry’s printed
form as he wrote. In his conversations with Traubel, Whitman boasted his
“anticipatory eye—[I] know pretty well as I write how a thing will turn
up in type—appear—take form (5:390). It was this anticipatory eye that
was the bane of Whitman’s relationship with his publishers and printers,
and ultimately led to Whitman’s insistence on creating two editions of
Leave of Grass himself.
While publisher’s found him diffcult to work with, Whitman came to
the book’s design with a set of standards as to how poetry should appear
when printed. In his essay “‘Damn ‘em, God bless ‘em!’: Whitman and
Traubel on the Makers of Books,” Gary Schmidgall outlines exactly how the
poet expected his books to be printed. A good-looking page to Whitman
was an open one, “a wide open one: words broadly spaced, lines with
a grin, page free altogether: non huddled,” even though his preference
for narrow margins contradicted this layout (1:266, Schmidgall 148).
Whitman loathed the large margins printers normally favored and instead
preferred them to be as narrow as comfortably possible for the reader.
His top margins were narrower than his bottoms and he always preferred
text to end just short of the end of the page, should his fnances allow
such an extravagance (148). However, money and the state of the paper
industry often limited Whitman’s ability to produce his works exactly as
he wanted.
At the time Whitman desired to print his frst edition of Leaves of Grass, no
publishers would take the work. It was a collection of twelve untitled poems
and with the industry on the fringes of a paper shortage, publisher’s saw
A Font of Whitman 5
no worth in the expensive printing of
something they had assumed would not
be well received. So, Whitman published
the frst edition himself. He designed the
cover, the font for the cover title, chose
the binding, and arranged the type. He
entrusted his close friend Andrew Rome
to do the printing (Folsom).
As for the cover, it is assumed that
Whitman conceptualized and executed
all designs and construction. Matt Miller
examines the poet’s meticulous crafts-
manship in his essay “The Cover of the
First Edition of Leaves of Grass.” For the
title itself, Whitman chose a folio using
an astonishingly large Scotch Roman font and embellished it with roots,
leaves, and other plant elements. The result became what typographers
refer to as “foriated lettering,” which was not uncommon in 19
th
cen-
tury type design (86). However, Whitman’s differed from other foriated
letters in their individual uniqueness, each letter “comprised of multiple
species of plants…the ornate level of its detail is striking” (86). The type
is asymmetrical and almost illegible from a distance, but this was seem-
ingly intentional—Whitman’s way of commenting on the raw nature of
poetry and the atmosphere in which it is written, the same environment
in which it must be consumed.
The rawness of the cover is carried into the title page, which is set in
the same Scotch Roman font with the nature elements now stripped away.
His name appears neither on the cover nor the title page, and the title sits
in open space as if to say it was created there, lives there, and grows there
with each reader. Miller asserts that it is “easy enough to imagine these
roots [of the cover title] disappearing into the cover, so that the title would
appear to be growing out of the text itself. That would portray an image
1st edition Leaves of Grass designed by Whitman
(1855)
57
6 J. Adam Collins
of a kind of linguistic organicism: a book
which gives seed to other words” (87). The
roots dangling from the bottom of the letter-
forms suggest that his words may be planted
anywhere, being pulled from the words
within. And his decision to include his own
portrait in the front matter of this frst edi-
tion implies that he has sprouted from these
roots, a product of the text, which existed in
nature all along, until he could harvest them
in the best way he knew how (89).
The designing of the poetry on the page
was often out of Whitman’s hands after
the frst two editions of Leaves of Grass. Poets
arrange their poetry with a specifc purpose
in mind, and Whitman was no different, though he took it a step further
than most with his insistence on certain fonts or margins. In those areas,
he would most always have his way. However, his preference for ending a
passage just before the end of the page was greatly affected by the paper
shortage. His poetry order too fell victim to high paper prices and pub-
lisher concerns on cost.
In 1865, Whitman sought to publish his new collection of poetry
entitled Drum-Taps. Ted Genoways discusses Whitman’s struggles to print
the collection in his essay “The Disorder of Drum-Taps.” It was here
that Whitman began to lose his creative intentions to the cost of paper.
Genoways observes that it “appears that the arrangement of the poems in
Drum-Taps was not of Whitman’s own choosing. Indeed, the poems were
radically reorganized in the midst of typesetting in order to accommodate
his typical shortage of money and resultant inability to buy the most basic
material he needed—paper” (100). Whitman had to take short poems
and place them in the white space of pages only half flled with text
in order to conserve space. Later, unhappy with the spatial arrangement
Title page of 1st ed. Scotch Roman font
stripped of embelishments.
A Font of Whitman 7
as opposed to a thematic one, Whitman
attempted to absorb the material into
a new edition of Leaves of Grass, literally
sewing it to the end of the collection,
creating the third edition which would
be published by a new reputable house,
Thayer and Eldridge (Folsom).
Though the more than six editions of
Leaves of Grass vary signifcantly, the basic
elements of Whitman’s original designs
remain. The ornate foriated type on the
cover was reduced to its original Scotch Roman font, but his poetry stayed
in his favored pica type. The typophile in him preferred the weight of a
small but heavy font (Schmidgall 147). He often discussed his various
qualms and ideologies with the fonts selected for his books, asserting
that what he cared about most was that it be easy for the reader to read:
“I think that pica is, after all, my type: it is so ample, so satisfes the eye;
and then I am inclined for quite narrow margins, plenty of good ink,
good genuine paper—the best stock. This goes a great way in particulars”
(7:97). In his opinion, a heavy stroke and a bold line made Leaves of Grass
look better, read easier, thereby enhancing the quality of his writing. No
ink should be spared (Schmidgall 147).
Surprisingly, Whitman made no original font of his own besides the
embellished foriated type of his cover. Had he done so, it would have
been interesting to see if he would have continued with his self-publish-
ing, every element existing as he had created. It should seem only ftting
that a typeface be created with Whitman in mind. So, some sixty years
after the frst printing of Leaves of Grass, one type designer set out to design
a font I believe Whitman would be proud to have in his books. In 2001,
Kent Lew set out to design a typeface simply called Whitman. The thought
put into the minute details of ligatures, dashes and special punctuation,
and decorative accessories make the type complex and beautiful enough
Eight editions of Leaves of Grass
58
8 J. Adam Collins
to bear the name of its muse. Lew created the
typeface after discovering “a newfound admira-
tion for Caledonia, designed by W.A. Dwiggins for
Mergenthaler Linotype Co. in 1939,” a new ven-
ture for the designer into the category of Scotch
Modern fonts.
Whitman was of course fond of the Scotch
fonts and heavy strokes. Keeping in mind the
usual airiness of poetry on paper, Lew drew from
the crispness of Eric Gill’s Joanna for its ability to
read well with running text. He kept the coun-
ters in the arched letters (h n m u) he favored so
much in Caledonia, and darkened the stroke so that
the font would work well in large and small capacities. The product is a
font that “at smaller sizes, the facets and corners are subsumed, adding
crispness to the characters without drawing undue attention. At larger
sizes, these same details begin to emerge and lend a distinctive quality to
the letterforms” (Lew). Perhaps, it would have been ftting for both the
cover and interior of Leaves of Grass.
In 2002, Whitman earned the attention of the Type Directors Club
of New York and was distinguished with a Certifcate of Excellence in
Typographic Design. This seems an honor that Walt Whitman might revel
in from whatever realm of existence he now inhabits. Though, however
proud and fattered Whitman may have been of a font designed after his
own credos, validated by esteemed colleagues, I imagine that for him it
would still not be quite right—“It’s all good but that lettering on the
cover: that’s weak pea-soup, dishwash…tried for his worst on that and
succeeded” (2:364).
1) Whitman 2) Caledonia 3)Joanna
A Font of Whitman 9
Folsom, Ed. “Whitman Making Books/Books Making Whitman: A Catalog
and Commentary.” The Walt Whitman Archive. http://www.whitman-
archive.org/criticism/current/anc.00150.html. 2005. Web.
Genoways, Ted. “The Disorder of Drum Taps.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review.
24.2 (Fall 2006): 98-117. Print.
Lew, Kent. “Whitman: A New Typeface.” Kentlew.com. www.kentlew.com/
Type/WhitmanSpecimen.pdf. 2002. Web.
Miller, Matt. “The Cover of the First Edition of Leaves of Grass. Walt Whitman
Quarterly Review. 24.2 (Fall 2006): 85-97. Print.
Schmidgall, Gary. “Damn ‘em, God bless ‘em!’: Whitman and Traubel on
the Makers of Books. Walt Whitman Quarterly Review. 24.2 (Fall 2006):
141-157. Print.
Whitman, Walt. “A Font of Type.” Leaves of Grass. Philadelphia: David McCay.
1891: 386. Print.
Works Cited
59
10 J. Adam Collins
Colophon
Walt Whitman had a very defned standard of design specs. Therefore
it was the intentions of this design to refect as many of his preferences
as possible with the resources available to this designer. Whitman enjoyed
white space on the page, but also very narrow margins. He also preferred
a more narrow top margin than bottom. For this reason, the top margin of
this design was set at .5 inches and the bottom was doubled to one inch.
Inside margins are set to .375 inches to allow for easy reading near the
fold. Outside margins are set to .25 inches to give the narrowest possible
margin with a comforatable amount of white space for the reader. Since
Whitman enjoyed white space on the page, the leading for this design is
set to 16 point, providing a good deal of white between the lines without
making the reader struggle when running from line to line. The large
leading also helped end the essay near the end of the page, which was a
preference for which Whitman had an obsession. In designing his own
poetry, he never began a poem in the middle of a page if it could not be
fnished on that page.
Whitman preferred small pica fonts. Futhermore, when designing the
Whitman font, Kent Lew used Joanna and Caledonia to create a hybrid of
heavy stroke with a crisp line. These were also features Whitman valued
in his chosen fonts. He felt crisp, airy letterforms added to his poetry
when combined with his words. The heavy stroke gave it a quality that
worked well in both large and small print. While it would have been ft-
ting to design this essay using Whitman, the $360 pricetag is beyond this
designer’s means. Therefore, Joanna was chosen, frst for its close relation
to Whitman, and second for its crisp and airy qualities which add to the
whitespace of the page. Whitman may have appreciated a heavier stroke,
but he did not always get his way.
Having adhered to as many of Whitman’s design specs as possible,
this document will conlcude in true Whitman fashion near the end of
the page.
60
Pacific Poetry Project
T
he PACIFIC POETRY PROJECT (or PPP) is Ooligan Press’s newest long-term undertaking. A portrait of contem-
porary poetry of the Pacifc Northwest, the projects frst anthology Alive at the Center brings together some
of the most celebrated poets of Portland, Seattle, and Vancouver, BC. I became involved with PPP as a member of
acquisitions and directed it as Production Manager during my second year. Following my two terms as Production
Manager, I had invested myself entirely in the title’s success and followed its progress to the Design department.
I created a series of fve covers for Alive at the Center. Using mainly a collage technique, I favored images imposed
on one another, molding their meaning into the messages the poetry embodied. All of these poets have a way of
describing nature—a collective appreciation and reverence—that exudes from the anthology, to the point that you
want to pull out your picnic basket, lay in the sun, and just immerse yourself in its colors and energy completely.
Tough it is focused on three urban centers, that does not necessarily mean that their poets reside there. Tey do still
call their respective states home, but have settled in coastal regions or the foothills of the Cascades. Tat diversity is
relevant in the collection. Urban versus rural. City versus suburb. Technology versus nature. And yet, these themes
are not dividing, but unifying, creating a quaint community forum of sorts, in which these two worlds exist in a
harmonious dialogue. I wanted to portray that harmony in the cover.
Following a series of cuts, my cover was picked from sixteen other contenders. It will be published in April of
2013. You may purchase it at your local bookstore. You have no idea how much joy it brings me to say those words.
But wait, there’s more. Te press later decided to publish the collection as three separate anthologies, each state
bound by its own unique cover. It is my honor and pleasure to place my work on these three titles as well, also to be
released in 2013. It is more than a graduate student of books could ever have envisioned for himself. And I thank
Ooligan Press for the opportunity.
Following are my practices, my trials, failures, and my success. Of the four titles, two are decided and completed.
You will fnd them as full page spreads. Te others are still in revision. Teir frst phases are represented here, and
they will be included upon their completion.
61
Alive
at the
Center
an anthology of poems from the pacifc northwest
A
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

C
e
n
t
e
r

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
OOLIGAN PRESS proudly presents cum quiam
am quo doluptatia alias quam diam et est, a
aute num vent reius.
Ehenda aut aut offctore minto venempel il-
lique omnis doles quam aciur?
Ed evene dolum dit veles pro delit, eate mo
consed quo voluptatem evelent usandist
eriam, santibusdae eum, occupiendis idignat
ut in perferovit ut re eatus sita venitiume eos
eos nis mo et exerit ex elibust ruptiur aspitia
quis et ipiti quam facipis quissit faccupt asitis
re quossimus que porrovid earibeate quam
quos de pliasseque nonsequiam cus, unt.
Ed exceaque provitem niminctur aliquis ese
esendae occus necae. Commolu ptaspelit
rehende nihillent eost, sument et ulluptatia
presedio etur sinctia nis acerfer ferferumquod
moluptas alit offcae volorpo rectur a que po-
rio. Dit quuntium dolor ra quaerum eos san-
dandae enis ut fuga. Ga. Et rerias qui aliqui
ius ut fugiatquis dolupis et estia que prerae
Featuring:
Carl Adamshick
Judith Barrington
Sarah Bartlett
Daneen Bergland
Lucas Bernhardt
Joseph Mains
Sid Miller
John Morrison
Carlos Reyes
Peter Sears
Scot Siegal
Mary Szybist
Vandoren Wheeler
Crystal Williams
John Sibley Williams
and many more...
Featuring:
Carl Adamshick
Judith Barrington
Sarah Bartlett
Daneen Bergland
Lucas Bernhardt
Joseph Mains
Sid Miller
John Morrison
Carlos Reyes
Peter Sears
Scot Siegal
Mary Szybist
Vandoren Wheeler
Crystal Williams
John Sibley Williams
and many more...
~ from Someone Special

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

OOLIGAN PRESS proudly presents cum quiam
am quo doluptatia alias quam diam et est, a
aute num vent reius.
Ehenda aut aut offctore minto venempel il-
lique omnis doles quam aciur?
Ed evene dolum dit veles pro delit, eate mo
consed quo voluptatem evelent usandist
eriam, santibusdae eum, occupiendis idignat
ut in perferovit ut re eatus sita venitiume eos
eos nis mo et exerit ex elibust ruptiur aspitia
quis et ipiti quam facipis quissit faccupt asitis
re quossimus que porrovid earibeate quam
quos de pliasseque nonsequiam cus, unt.
Ed exceaque provitem niminctur aliquis ese
esendae occus necae. Commolu ptaspelit
rehende nihillent eost, sument et ulluptatia
presedio etur sinctia nis acerfer ferferumquod
moluptas alit offcae volorpo rectur a que po-
rio. Dit quuntium dolor ra quaerum eos san-
dandae enis ut fuga. Ga. Et rerias qui aliqui
ius ut fugiatquis dolupis et estia que prerae
A
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

C
e
n
t
e
r
Alive at
the Center
an anthology of poems from the pacifc northwest
Tis window frame concept was
also one of the sixteen contenders
for the cover.
Fonts: Albertsthal Typewriter, Didot
Te photograph exuded the exact
harmony of technology and rural
living that I saw in the anthology.
So, I modernized it a little.
Fonts: Didot, ITC Kabel
62
alive at the center
a pacifc poetry project anthology
a pacifc poetry project anthology
alive at the center
Tis is a series of design edits of one
of my most imaginative concepts.
63
alive at the center
an anthology of poetry from the pacifc northwest
a
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
e
r

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
Featuring:
Carl Adamshick
Judith Barrington
Sarah Bartlett
Daneen Bergland
Lucas Bernhardt
Joseph Mains
Sid Miller
John Morrison
Carlos Reyes
Peter Sears
Scot Siegal
Mary Szybist
Vandoren Wheeler
Crystal Williams
John Sibley Williams
and many more...
OOLIGAN PRESS proudly presents cum quiam
am quo doluptatia alias quam diam et est, a
aute num vent reius.
Ehenda aut aut offctore minto venempel il-
lique omnis doles quam aciur?
Ed evene dolum dit veles pro delit, eate mo
consed quo voluptatem evelent usandist
eriam, santibusdae eum, occupiendis idignat
ut in perferovit ut re eatus sita venitiume eos
eos nis mo et exerit ex elibust ruptiur aspitia
quis et ipiti quam facipis quissit faccupt asitis
re quossimus que porrovid earibeate quam
quos de pliasseque nonsequiam cus, unt.
Ed exceaque provitem niminctur aliquis ese
esendae occus necae. Commolu ptaspelit
rehende nihillent eost, sument et ulluptatia
presedio etur sinctia nis acerfer ferferumquod
moluptas alit offcae volorpo rectur a que po-
rio. Dit quuntium dolor ra quaerum eos san-
dandae enis ut fuga. Ga. Et rerias qui aliqui
ius ut fugiatquis dolupis et estia que prerae
alive at
the center
contemporary poems from seattle, wa

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
Featuring:
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
and many more...
Alive at the Center, the frst volume of Ooligan’s
Pacifc Poetry Project, encapsulates
the contemporary poetic environment of the
Pacifc Northwest region by featuring
poems from major cities in the region. This
volume includes poetry from Portland,
Seattle, and Vancouver, B.C.
Assembled and edited by three defnitive poets in
each city, Alive at the Center is not
just a poetry compilation—it’s a cultural
conversation between urban centers whose
unique perspectives share a common landscape.
This anthology brings together
more than 200 distinctive poems from writers
who are separated by distance, but
united by region and art form. The work
celebrates the individual spirits of these
writers, the Pacifc Northwest, and the
resurgence of the nation’s active literary
atmosphere.
The Pacifc Poetry Project aims to be a
continuous anthology. Each subsequent
volume intends to explore a different set of
cities, granting each collection a singular
harmony of voices and a fresh focus.
a
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
e
r
Tis design focuses on the human
form. Its similarity in composition
to the fnal anthology cover led me
to reuse it for the Seattle anthology.
It is still in editing stages. Te fnal
will be a much simpler design.
64
Alive at
the Center
A
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

C
e
n
t
e
r
an anthology of poems from the pacifc northwest

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
Featuring:
Carl Adamshick
Judith Barrington
Sarah Bartlett
Daneen Bergland
Lucas Bernhardt
Joseph Mains
Sid Miller
John Morrison
Carlos Reyes
Peter Sears
Scot Siegal
Mary Szybist
Vandoren Wheeler
Crystal Williams
John Sibley Williams
and many more...
OOLIGAN PRESS proudly presents cum quiam
am quo doluptatia alias quam diam et est, a
aute num vent reius.
Ehenda aut aut offctore minto venempel il-
lique omnis doles quam aciur?
Ed evene dolum dit veles pro delit, eate mo
consed quo voluptatem evelent usandist
eriam, santibusdae eum, occupiendis idignat
ut in perferovit ut re eatus sita venitiume eos
eos nis mo et exerit ex elibust ruptiur aspitia
quis et ipiti quam facipis quissit faccupt asitis
re quossimus que porrovid earibeate quam
quos de pliasseque nonsequiam cus, unt.
Ed exceaque provitem niminctur aliquis ese
esendae occus necae. Commolu ptaspelit
rehende nihillent eost, sument et ulluptatia
presedio etur sinctia nis acerfer ferferumquod
moluptas alit offcae volorpo rectur a que po-
rio. Dit quuntium dolor ra quaerum eos san-
dandae enis ut fuga. Ga. Et rerias qui aliqui
ius ut fugiatquis dolupis et estia que prerae
alive at
the center
an anthology of poems from the pacifc northwest
a
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
e
r

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
Featuring:
Carl Adamshick
Judith Barrington
Sarah Bartlett
Daneen Bergland
Lucas Bernhardt
Joseph Mains
Sid Miller
John Morrison
Carlos Reyes
Peter Sears
Scot Siegal
Mary Szybist
Vandoren Wheeler
Crystal Williams
John Sibley Williams
and many more...
OOLIGAN PRESS proudly presents cum quiam
am quo doluptatia alias quam diam et est, a
aute num vent reius.
Ehenda aut aut offctore minto venempel il-
lique omnis doles quam aciur?
Ed evene dolum dit veles pro delit, eate mo
consed quo voluptatem evelent usandist
eriam, santibusdae eum, occupiendis idignat
ut in perferovit ut re eatus sita venitiume eos
eos nis mo et exerit ex elibust ruptiur aspitia
quis et ipiti quam facipis quissit faccupt asitis
re quossimus que porrovid earibeate quam
quos de pliasseque nonsequiam cus, unt.
Ed exceaque provitem niminctur aliquis ese
esendae occus necae. Commolu ptaspelit
rehende nihillent eost, sument et ulluptatia
presedio etur sinctia nis acerfer ferferumquod
moluptas alit offcae volorpo rectur a que po-
rio. Dit quuntium dolor ra quaerum eos san-
dandae enis ut fuga. Ga. Et rerias qui aliqui
ius ut fugiatquis dolupis et estia que prerae
Right: One of my favorites of the
anthology concepts. I saved it for use
in the prior Seattle cover.
Fonts: Didot, ITC Kabel
Below: Te frst concept of the
fnal cover.
65

Hopefully the best quote ever!!

~ from Someone Special
Featuring:
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
Xxxx Xxxxxxxxx
and many more...
Alive at the Center, the frst volume of Ooligan’s
Pacifc Poetry Project, encapsulates
the contemporary poetic environment of the
Pacifc Northwest region by featuring
poems from major cities in the region. This
volume includes poetry from Portland,
Seattle, and Vancouver, B.C.
Assembled and edited by three defnitive poets
in each city, Alive at the Center is not
just a poetry compilation—it’s a cultural
conversation between urban centers whose
unique perspectives share a common landscape.
This anthology brings together
more than 200 distinctive poems from writers
who are separated by distance, but
united by region and art form. The work
celebrates the individual spirits of these
writers, the Pacifc Northwest, and the
resurgence of the nation’s active literary
atmosphere.
The Pacifc Poetry Project aims to be a
continuous anthology. Each subsequent
volume intends to explore a different set of
cities, granting each collection a singular
harmony of voices and a fresh focus.
a
l
i
v
e

a
t

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
e
r
alive at
the center
contemporary poems from vancouver, bc
Tis is my favorite of the city
anthologies. However, I agree with
its critique that it doesn’t match with
the others in their consideration of
the human form. Te fnal is still in
revision.
66
Te back cover copy was inspired
by Irene Costello’s design for the
anthology.
Fonts: Bodoni
I designed the individual city
anthology covers on my Windows
PC after buying Creative Suite for
myself. Tis meant I had no access
to the Mac’s Didot. Bodoni is a
close friend of Didot, having been
infuenced by its thick and thin
strokes, though Bodoni is heavier.
67
Tis image mirrors the composition of
the fnal anthology cover to follow—
two images imposed on one another.
And also focuses on the human form.
Tis is the one city anthology cover
that is in its fnal revision.
68
Te back cover layout, logo, spine,
title, and front cover banner are all
unifying parts of the collection and
will reamin constant.
69
Te hands represent technology and
urban living, while the bird stands
for nature. Te two, though at frst
appearing hostile, actually nurture
each other and live in harmony.
Fonts: 1942 Report, Didot
And the social media battlefeld.
Marketing
G
ood publicity is free publicity. And free publicity is so easy to come by with
the continually growing realm of social media. Working with a student
press afliated with a university has really taught these graduate students the
value of a dollar. We take advantage of any free marketing we can, because the
budget is not there for us to do much more than print some swag and throw
a small launch party. Terefore, as marketers, we have become familiar with
the tried and true methods of networking, both in person and online, and the
exchanging of services. Tese tactics not only expand our telephone book, but also
create ties with other organizations that may be more likely to help again in the
future.
Social media has become a staple of society. It is unavoidable at this point.
Everyone will interact with social media in some way at some point in their life,
even if they do not want to. But while some may call it invasive to our personal
bubbles, businesses have logged on in droves to take advantage of what you like.
And it has worked. We keep in touch with the businesses we love by simply hit-
ting “Like” and they are forever tied to us through a continual data stream of
life events.
If I took nothing else from my experience with marketing at Ooligan, I
understand the value of free press and the rapid exchange of word of mouth
websites like Facebook and Twitter now cultivate. I have focused a great deal of
my exploration of marketing towards online campaigns and would venture to
say that businesses’ dependence on social media will only grow with leaps and
bounds over the next few years. So it is important that we meet our customers
here, show them the value of the company and our willingness to interact with
them on a personal level, even if it is not in person. It is important that we use
these sites as promoters of not only ourselves, but also our brand, our company,
and our work.
73
Academic Translation
“On defning marketing: fnding a new roadmap for marketing”
By Christian Grönroos
From Marketing Teory 2006 6:395
Abstract: After the American Marketing Association updated its marketing defnition, stressing the importance of
value for customers and customer relationships, Christian Grönroos has deconstructed the defnition, interpreting how
each section of it applies to not only a marketing department’s relationship with the consumer, but also the relationship
of the company as a whole to its consumer. In his alternative defnition of marketing, Grönroos suggests that the role of
marketing a product does not lie wholly with the marketers, but instead with the entire company – full-time market-
ers in collaboration with the part-time marketers of other departments, who must understand their own relationships
with consumers based on customer interaction, support, and coproduction issuing a co-creative process. From a small
publisher’s perspective, this means invigorating the press, embedding each worker with an appreciation for customer
relationships and listening to patron concerns and ideas, invoking the process of marketing rather than forcing a per-
ceived and mainstreamed value onto the buyer. Every department must consider their interaction with the end user
and work to establish relationships. In strengthening a marketing perspective in the press as a whole, instances of con-
structing and implementing more customer interfaces will be proposed, with the aid of internal company marketing, so
that customers gain more value from the press through opportunities to coproduce and co-create.
A shift in power
In the tradition of marketing, the exchange of goods has signifed the success of a marketing campaign.
Te sale of a product demands the production of it, thereby driving the marketing of that product to derive
from how the product sells. Tis puts the power of marketing into the hands of corporate decision makers,
Marketing Theory in Publishing
74
who make their decisions based on the sale. Marketing then becomes a tactical issue as opposed to a strategic
issue. When power relies too much in the hands of corporate boards, the voice of the consumer is lost to the
sound of cash registers and the importance of the marketer’s relationship with the customer is diminished. Tis
too diminishes the relevance of marketing in the eyes of buyers – marketers vying and bidding for a place of
exposure to audiences who might not otherwise care. Tis creates negative and stressed relationships between
marketer and buyer, but also marketer and corporate.
A shift has recently occurred in marketing in which the value of customer relations has been glorifed.
With the new defnition of marketing, a closer look at the sale of product will show that this sale is facilitated
through interactions with the end-user. Terefore, it is this interaction, or the building of customer relations
which becomes a central marketing concept. Tis emphasizes the process of marketing rather than the structure
of it, encompassing all areas of customer interaction and relationship building tools.
In relation to the small press, this means the implementation of marketing in all departments. Often, with small
publishing houses, there is a predetermined target audience. Tis audience of course has room to expand, but for all
intents of what is to be published, books are geared toward a particular audience. It is this audience which is more
likely to become return customers and customers with which relationships should be established. How then can
various departments appeal to creating these relationships? What follows are some considerations of how the press
as a whole might appeal to these relationships by involving the consumer in the creative process but also the produc-
tion of the books they will read. Whether through social media, events, newsletters, polls, or customer suggestions/
feedback, all eforts to establish a relationship with consumers have the potential to translate into sales or general
interest in the company and products, thereby nurturing customer connections and continued business.
Te value of a customer and the customer’s value
Te idea of value-in-exchange, or the exchange of ready-made values in a product for money, is a way of
delivering value to customers. Tat is to say that the product is packaged with pre-established values which the
consumer may not acquire until the product is delivered. Tis is the old defnition of marketing, driven by the
sale of a product rather than customer needs.
In Grönroos ’s new defnition of marketing, the customer should get the product’s value through the actions
and activities of marketing, which is more specifcally, the interaction with the customer, but also the cus-
tomer’s interaction and experience with the product. Grönroos calls this value-in-use and summarizes it by
emphasizing that “value is not what goes into goods and services, it is what customers get out of them; in other
75
words, value emerges in the customers’ space rather than in the producer’s space” (399). Tis can be created by
the customer in isolation or co-created by the customer and supplier through interactions with them.
In small presses, the value of the books published is only understood by customers once the product is
read. Tis, for the most part, has always been true in the success of books. No matter the design of the book,
the marketing materials used, or the blurbs and reviews giving praise, a book is primarily sold through other
readers’ experiences with it and word of mouth. How then can small publishers capitalize on this in order to
boost sales? Book publishers cannot tell readers the value of a book; readers must realize its value themselves.
Given the opportunity to place a book into the hand of a potential reader, there are aspects of the book
which are meant to draw particular audiences, thereby generating some kind of value in a potential reader.
While the covers of books are used to attract attention, readers must see the value in what they are reading.
Te back cover or inside folds of jacket-covers generally are the frst place readers go to gain value from the
book before buying. As publishers, these are the most important parts of the book which gain reader interest.
Te description of the book must embody not only the plot, but also the themes which a reader might fnd
important. Should a summary appeal to a reader, the book will more than likely be bought. Furthermore, read-
ers actively look for their favorite authors or look for authors which align with their values. An author bio is
another crucial part of the book jacket/cover. Tese bios not only give a glimpse into the lives of authors but
also market their other works, which may or may not be published by the same publisher. More attention and
press-wide input into these two aspects of the cover will help drive sales, as these are the frst places readers
will look for values or interests similar to their own. Should a cover, in conjunction with the values gained from
book summaries and author bios, lead to the sale of a book, a relationship is established with the buyer.
Customer relationships
Once a book is sold, it is important to maintain a relationship with the buyer. But how can a small press
establish a relationship with a buyer they have never met? In Ooligan’s case, a relationship can be established
through the press’s mission statement, which is included in the back of every book. Tis mission statement
appeals to the values of customers by promising devotion to sustainable publishing and also in educating
future publishers by being a teaching press. Tese values would be important to any customers who are writ-
ers, members of the publishing industry, educators, or citizens devoted to green methods of production. By
adhering to these practices with the production of all books, Ooligan establishes relationships with a broader
audience, thereby generating interest in the press as a whole.
76
Grönroos states that marketing is a process. Terefore, it cannot merely be the sale of one book that gener-
ates a relationship with a buyer. It is what is incorporated into the book, the sale of the book, and the appeal
to reader values that facilitate a relationship. But how is this relationship maintained? Grönroos believes that
“customers do not immediately turn from an of state of not having their goals satisfed or not having value, to
an on state of having them satisfed or having value. Tere must be a process from the of state to the on state
with at least some intermediate state that is facilitated by marketing” (405). Tat is to say, the relationship is
established through a series of promises to be kept by the business. Once a customer sees the value of these
promises in relation with their own, they may become repeat buyers and strengthen their relationship with the
company.
However, it is not just the consumer’s responsibility to strengthen this relationship, nor is it only
the marketer’s. Te responsibility lies with the press as a whole, taking advantage of any opportunity in
which customer interaction may be obtained. Grönroos asserts that “marketing needs a customer focus
throughout the organization, thus involving both full-time marketers totally or predominantly trained
to take a customer focus, and part-time marketers, who when performing their tasks from the outset are
not at all or only partly trained to take a customer focus” (405). In a small press, this means that opera-
tions departments should seek ways to engage customers, perhaps through conferences, author events,
or a presence in social events. In digital departments, it could mean a more interactive role with social
media, gaining customers input, opinions, or interactions through polls, blogs, social media events, or
interactive ebooks or phone apps. No matter the department, there may be opportunities to strengthen
these customer relations by merely showing up to events, answering customer queries, taking suggestions,
and valuing a customer’s time.
By keeping promises and creating a more interactive social front, a press may not only facilitate rela-
tionships with a customer, but nurture the opportunity for return buying and growing customer interest.
It is important to note that a relationship can never be forced on a buyer who does not want one. Tis
goes back to the notion of value-in-use over value-in-exchange. It is not the prepackaged product which
generates value. Values also cannot be forced onto a customer. It is the customer’s use of the product and
their connection with the company through like-values that begin the relationship. When these values
are realized and strengthened through a stronger social presence, the two work together to aid future
business.
77
Appendix, or methods Ooligan can use to facilitate customer relationships through marketing
Ooligan Press has many values with which customers can relate. Being a press devoted to sustainable pub-
lishing and the education of publishing appeals to customers with like values. But also, the press’s mission to
give voice to underrepresented cultures and present Pacifc Northwest ideals helps to gear published works
towards specifc audiences. Tese become the press’s promises to their customers, thereby strengthening rela-
tionships and coinciding with their values. Besides the content of the press’s books and the mission of the press
as a whole to educate and lead the way in sustainable publishing, other methods may be used to strengthen
customer relationships and appeal to customer values.
Te social media front is the single most efective way to get in touch with the press’s audience. Trough
Facebook, twitter, goodreads, and blogs, buyers can be informed of press events and see the company’s eforts
to interact with its customers. But on an ofensive front, in what ways can social media be used to approach
customers with values they might see in our products or give customers the ability to co-produce these values
in future products? Book summaries are a good way of showing the customer value in a product, but samples
may be an even better method. Many authors post samples of their books, even if it is the frst twenty pages
of a manuscript, onto blogs or websites in order to generate interest. Tis could be a very strategic method of
gaining interest in specifc books which may need a boost in sales. Tese samples could be posted to Facebook
or the press website.
Furthermore, in the way that author bios appeal to reader values, interviews with authors on social media
sites would be a great way to stir talk about the press’s authors. Twitter events in which potential or current
customers can ask the author questions allow the buyer to become a part of the creative process. By asking their
own questions, they may create their own value in the product.
Tere are other ways in which potential or return users could become a part of the creative process through
social media. Tough the design of the book ultimately lies with the design department, it would not hurt to
gain the input of customers. Trough Facebook, blog, or twitter polls, the design department could post pos-
sible book covers for future titles and see which appeals more to a potential buyer. Also, in the area of a book
series, such as Red Guide, customer input could be used to determine which city could be used for the next
installment. When we appeal to the wants of a customer, more sales will be generated.
In keeping with the promise of being a sustainable press, blogs about the process of sustainable bookmaking may
appeal to conservationist consumers. If they see the value in the press’s procedures for making a book, they may see
the importance of becoming one of our customers or continuing a relationship with the press. Furthermore, the
78
press’s presence beyond social media would also assist these relationships. Ooligan should be seen working with
other business with similar values and practices, thereby extending our audience. Tis not only gains more custom-
ers, but also strengthens relationships by adhering to our promise given in our mission statement.
Once customers see the value of being repeat buyers and supporting the goals of the press, how do we keep
these relationships beyond the sale? Some methods beyond social media to keep these relationships in check
which should be considered may include social events, email or address capture, and opportunities for consum-
ers to give back to the press. Tese methods are a way for not only the press to interact with its customers, but
for the customers to interact with the press.
Social events are the one means to gain face time, those social interactions which strengthen a relationship
by putting a name to a face and a smile. One social event a press should consider would be author signings or
author events, even if kept small and private so as not to use much revenue. Tese events help a customer to
see more value in the product they may purchase by aligning with the values of the author who wrote it. Tis
gives a buyer the opportunity to ask questions, seek answers, or merely compare ideas. Te most important
impact this makes is to be a part of the creative process, in which their value in the product is derived from the
information they gain. Other ideas may include collaborations with other business in the way of sustainable
conferences. Tis will show customers the press’s eforts to remain green and also give them the opportunity to
be a part of the process, giving suggestions, asking questions about how they might help, and securing future
business of products that follow in like manner.
In order to help secure future business and relationships with customers, Ooligan should develop a way to
capture customers email or physical addresses. Tese addresses would not come from big vendors like Amazon,
but instead from the face-to-face interactions or sales through small vendors, like private bookstores. Again,
it is important not to force this relationship on a customer, but instead, give them the opportunity to willingly
grant access to this information. Tis could be done with bookmarks asking them to sign up for an emailed
newsletters or updates on products. It could be as simple as pointing them to social media accounts. Inserts in
books that can be used as bookmarks would be an efective way of continually reminding buyers of our com-
pany, thereby generating interest in future works. Once these email or physical addresses are captured, we may
notify buyers of future products, but more importantly, let them know of opportunities and events in which
they might see us in person.
Once a relationship has been established and customers see the value in our press, it is important that they
also see their role in continuing the values they hold dear. Being an educational press, we are one in need
79
of constant support. A relationship is defned not only by what we can give to our customers, but also what
they can contribute to the continued support of a company in which they see value. Ways of gaining sup-
port from customers would not only be in having a presence at sustainable events of author events in which
donations may be received, but also in events centered solely around the press, in which customers might be
able to interact with the methods of book publishing or see the ways in which sustainable practices may be
continued. Ooligan’s yearly conference Write to Publish is an excellent way to establish these connections,
and other methods should be researched and brainstormed in which interested peoples may be involved in
the press. Ofensively, the press could do other things to gain support, such as putting donation envelopes in
books sold locally. Since we mainly market ourselves to a local audience, it is crucial to show the local audience
the importance of keeping the press around. Showing them their own values living and breathing in the press
may invigorate them to help support it. It is in this way that a relationship grows, instilling in the customer a
passion for our work so that we may provide future works which they might be passionate about.
In conclusion, it is evident in exploring these various methods of generating interest and sales that market-
ing becomes the responsibility of the press as a whole. It is the responsibility of design, external promotions,
acquisitions, and operations, all of which have substantial interaction with the populace in which they might
be able to establish relationships. As these relationships grow, consumers see the importance of continuing the
relationship as the press facilitates it through publications and interactions. Te relationship becomes a give
and take on both parts, guaranteeing future support and business.
Works Cited
Grönroos, Christian. “On defning marketing: fnding a new roadmap for marketing.” Marketing Teory.
2006:6. Pp 395-416.
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T
he Book Marketing and Promotion course required us to choose one backlist Ooligan title and
update the marketing plan. My partner, Tristan Knight, and I chose Oregon Stories, a collection of per-
sonal narratives from Oregon authors celebrating the unique culture of the state. We saw promise in the 150
authors included in the anthology, especially in the area of social media. Te marketing plan for the title
was extensive, but no suggestions were made for social media publicity and tapping into those many people
attached to the book.
Sustaining a successful marketing plan meant reminding Ooligan audiences of the book’s existence a year
after printing. None of the marketing activities we added to the plan require
much time. A DYI letter campaign encouraging authors to discuss the book
through local or online venues, as well as opportunities for online book review
blogs were just a few suggestions we made. Te important thing is that each
prospect for publicity is free. Saving resources is just as key to a efective cam-
paign as selling books.
Updating the Marketing Plan
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Oregon Stories Marketing Plan
1
Oregon Stories Marketing and Publicity Plan
Title: Oregon Stories
Author: Ooligan Press
Description: This collection of over 150 personal narratives from everyday Oregonians explores
the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of the people who live in this unique state. Oregon
Stories shows why people love this state and why Oregonians strive to keep it unique and
beautiful while celebrating its rich history and diverse experiences. Drawing from the
Oregon150’s Oregon Stories project, this book collects the histories of the people that make this
place home.
Categories: History/Regional/Short Stories
Ship Date: March 2010
Pub Date: April 2010
Format and Length: Trade paperback, approx. 180 pages
Audience: Residents of Oregon, residents of the Pacific Northwest, readers with familial ties to
Oregon, those interested in regional short stories, non-fiction readers, people who love the
Oregon outdoors, nature lovers, those who like tranquil reads, elders, those interested in
Oregon’s history
Markets: major book stores, local independent stores, historical societies, gift shops with
interest in Northwest products, Make in Oregon stores, gift shops at National forest or forestry
sites that have gift shops, travel/visitor information shops
Marketing and Publicity Budget
• N/A
Print Run
• N/A
Author Tour
• 3-city author tour including: Portland, Oregon City, Newport or other areas on the coast
o This could be done with the DIY kits given to the authors for marketing
themselves
o The Portland location could be organized by Ooligan or could be organized
individually by the authors themselves
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Oregon Stories Marketing Plan
2
o The Oregon Stories team should be in contact with authors after DIY kits are sent
out in order to organize readings
• National drive-time radio tour including N/A
• Regional author appearances in Portland, Oregon City, Newport, and publicity and
promotion in conjunction with the author’s speaking engagements in Portland, Oregon
City, Newport, other areas where the locations of authors is high – see above information
regarding the author tour
Targeted Publicity in Print
• These publications should be contacted once we have the available PDF for Oregon Stories
• Should use specific template available for this type of contacting
• Need to access information/list of historical journals that might feature or review Oregon
Stories
o Excerpts in Eugene Magazine, The Oregonian, Willamette Week,, Portland Monthly,
Newport News Times
o Features in Eugene Magazine, The Oregonian, Willamette Week, Portland Monthly,
Newport News Times, other local newspapers,
o Reviews in Eugene Magazine, The Weekly, Portland Monthly, The Oregonian, The
Register Guard, Willamette Week, Newport News Times, The Clackamas Review,
also see online media for review
o Also: Oregon Live daily blog: http://blog.oregonlive.com/todayinoregon/index.html
o Oregon Historical Quarterly: http://www.ohs.org/research/quarterly/
• Review mailing targeting
o Update lists of local print media to contact for publicity and/or review
o Should contact all local media (both print and news media) relevant to the
authors’ locations
o Based on the author information we have read and made conclusions about over
Winter Term 2010
Radio, TV, and Other Media Opportunities
• Regional radio appearances in OPB (Targeted)
o OPB press contact: http://pressroom.opb.org/contact/
o This could be done in conjunction with events going on in the local vicinity
• National television appearances: most likely N/A
• Regional television appearances in OPB (targeted): see above link for contact
• Publicity in conjunction with Oregon Historical Society and Museum Exhibit: Oregon:
Yours, Mine and Ours; Oregon's 150 Year Celebrations
o Oregon Historical society contact: http://www.ohs.org/about-ohs/contact-us.cfm
o Upcoming exhibits information: http://www.ohs.org/exhibits/upcoming/index.cfm
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Oregon Stories Marketing Plan
3
o Contact http://www.oregon150.org/ for more information about Oregon150
events
• Testimonials
o Brainstorm on where to gather these, could be placed on Ooligan site and Oregon
Stories site, as well as on Twitter
o Could contact authors to get blurbs about their experience with the project
• Internet podcast interviews on Ooligan Press Website
o Contact Digital Content workgroup
o Interviews could be conducted for the book’s authors, as well as those in the
book’s production
o Content could also include information about the Oregon150 project
• Interview on Oregon Historical Society Website (targeted): See Historical Society contact
information above
• Also contact the Southern Oregon Historical Society: http://www.sohs.org/
• Also contact Oregon Coast History Center: http://www.oregoncoast.history.museum/
Social Media Opportunities
Twitter
• Ooligan Press account: Keep the account alive with updates on publications. Whether
every few days or weekly, a link could be posted to the book’s site along with a blurb or
an author quote. Post updates to blog site. Book giveaway.
• Authors’ accounts: The numerous authors of Oregon Stories could tweet about their
involvement in the book and post a link to the press’s website. This could generate more
sales by reaching a broader audience across the nation. Also, host twitter interview
campaigns.
• Ooligan Press student accounts: For those feeling generous with their time to help out
the press, a short mention of a book from Ooligan Press from time to time greatly
multiplies our ability to reach more customers.
Facebook
• Ooligan Press account: In like fashion, post frequently about Ooligan books. With
Facebook, we have the ability to add photos of the book and perhaps even sample
chapters. Post updates to blog site.
• Authors’ accounts: The contributors to Oregon Stories could mention the books in their
profiles and from time to time in their status updates to generate interest.
• Ooligan Press student accounts: Ooligan students could mention Ooligan books in their
profiles and “Like” titles to expose them to potential consumers.
Goodreads
• Author account: Create author goodreads account and link book. Post quotes, questions
and encourage goodreads users to review the book. Host a book giveaway.
• Ooligan account: Update Ooligan’s goodreads account and add the book as one of its
top reads. Post updates to blog site.
Ooligan website and Ooligan campaign
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Oregon Stories Marketing Plan
4
• Use Ooligan website blog to promote books instead of department assignments. Instead
of students blogging about anything in design, they should be required to talk about the
design of one of our books. Same goes with acquisitions—it will give an insight into
what we’re doing and promote the book.
• While working on the book, take pictures and videos of students working on projects.
This gives up content to put up on the social media sites. Plus, students will be excited
and want to post the photos and videos on their own personal Facebook pages.
YouTube
• Create book trailer
• Create small videos (mini trailers or sneak peeks) about some of the different stories. Tell
a few of the stories, but through video. This hopefully will tease the rest of the stories and
make people want to read more
• Post videos of “making of the book” that includes fun things from the different
department areas
• Post interview with the different authors. Make this personal and a look inside their
working environment or life.
Flickr
• Post photos of making of the book, sketches from the book cover, art work, photos
relevant to the book, photos highlighting places in the book, anything relevant to the
press and the book. This should be set up as a general Ooligan Press Flickr account so we
have a wide range of content to post. Use links for Oregon Stories and link to Twitter,
Facebook, Goodreads, ect…
Targeted Publicity Online
Blogs to contact for review:
Local/Regional Blogs that Review
• We should plan to assign specific people to contact each blog to ask for a review once the
PDF of Oregon Stories is available for distribution
• Use the template letter formatted specifically for this type of contacting
Dojo Writer
http://www.writersdojo.org/blog/jeffselin
“Mostly irreverent and curious thoughts from the publisher on writing, literary arts and
professionalism, and the Pacific Northwest literary scene.” – Introduction
Seeing Indigo
http://www.indigoediting.blogspot.com/
This site is the blog of a local freelance editing organization. They post book reviews, literary
events, and publishing news.
Oregon Books
http://www.oregonlive.com/books/
This blog is a local book review site on the popular Oregon Live website.
85
Oregon Stories Marketing Plan
5
Paper Fort
http://www.paperfort.blogspot.com/
“Paper Fort is a production of Literary Arts and is edited by Susan Denning. She welcomes your
comments at susan@literary-arts.org.” – From the site’s description
PDX Writer Daily
http://www.pdxwriting.blogspot.com/
A site that features reviews and on local authors and books.
Portland Mercury Books Section
http://www.portlandmercury.com/books/Section?oid=22147
“Alison Hallett provides excellent reviews of local literature, as well as books from authors who
are in town for a reading.” – Reading Local: Portland
PowellsBooks.Blog
http://www.powells.com/blog/
This blog features book news, reviews of authors, and of published titles.
Reading Local: Portland
http://portland.readinglocal.com/
This site features reviews and author profiles of the “book scene” in Portland.
Rose City Reader
http://rosecityreader.blogspot.com/
A local reader chronicles reviews and lists of books she has read. This blog has been featured in
The Oregonian and looks to have a large readership.
Willamette Week Words
http://wweek.com/words/
This blog features book reviews.
WOOTS: Writers Outside of the Schools
http://www.witspdx.com/
This blog features local work from students in the public school districts. Their reviews are not
as strong of a focus, but they may like to feature the work of the local students of Ooligan.
• Authors’ websites could feature book
o Would need to poll the authors to see if they had a well-read website on which
they would be willing to feature Oregon Stories
Other Targeted Promotion
• Promotion on and the author’s websites: N/A
• Website publicity and book give-away on Ooligan site
o Could design a book contest that we could advertise through Ooligan
• Promotion targeting magazines including:
o Need to brainstorm ideas for other print media, including magazines
Book Launch and Event Opportunities
• See below for Portland events:
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DIY Marketing Campaign
Dear ________,
Greetings from Ooligan Press at Portland State University. More than a year has passed since the release of
Oregon Stories. We continue to be enthusiastic about this title, and hope that you are still as excited as we. In an efort
to continue the publicity of the book and take every advantage of potential marketing opportunities, we hope that
you will join us in donating a little bit of your time to get knowledge of the publication to an even broader audience.
Here are just a few ideas on how you can help promote the book in your area, many of which require little
time or efort:
• Blogging about the book or reminding viewers of your blog about its existence.
• Mentioning the book in Facebook profles, status updates, notes, or just an image of the cover with a
caption mentioning your involvement.
• Twitter posts about your involvement with the project from time to time.
• Attending and planning author readings at local bookstores, cofee shops, or libraries.
• Planning or attending events coinciding with important Oregon historical dates in which the book
might be promoted (i.e. state birthdays, Historical Society and Museum fundraisers/events, newswor-
thy dates in history).
• Contact your local periodicals and publications. You never know when they might fnd your involve-
ment with the project interesting.
• Plan a happy hour night-out at a favorite restaurant, or a get-together at a community space. Many
of the Oregon Stories contributors live in close proximity to one another, and, combined, could have an
evening’s worth of readings and storytelling.
• Keep the spirit of the book alive! Suggest the book to new Oregonians in your neighborhoods, town
hall or council meetings, or neighborhood events or celebrations.
87
We hope that you will join us in continuing public knowledge of this publication. Every available opportu-
nity is the potential for a new audience for you and Ooligan Press. If you would like to contact other contribu-
tors in your area, please let us know, and we will provide you with any necessary information. Likewise, we will
contact you if any relevant possibilities arise.
If any of these ideas sound interesting or possible, or if you have any ideas for the continued promotion of
the title, please don’t hesitate to contact us. We can supply bookmarks and copies of the books to be used at the
events and would be more than willing to help facilitate publicity – we’d love to hear about any Oregon Stories-
related events you are planning. Tank you for your continued support of the title. We know Oregon Stories has
yet to reach even a fraction of the audience who would enjoy it. With our combined resources, knowledge, and
experience, we feel confdent that this title’s promise is just beginning to be realized by our growing audience.
Best regards,
Marketing
Ooligan Press
369 Neuberger Hall
724 SW Harrison Street
Portland, Oregon 97201
ooligan@ooliganpress.pdx.edu
88
The Marketing Ripple
Redefning the Writer’s Space through Social Media
I
t’s hard to escape the grip of social media. It is in our homes, ofces, classrooms, and always in our
pockets. A Nielsen’s 2011 report “State of the Media: Te Social Media Report” found that today, “4 in 5
active internet users visit social networks and blogs.” Allow me to astound you with a few other facts. Tis sta-
tistic even applies to our older generations, as the 55 and older demographic is actually fueling the use of social
media through the mobile internet faster than any other age range. Social media usage accounts for twenty-
three percent of all internet time (I know, I thought it’d be higher too). Websites like Facebook and Twitter
even infuence us ofine, as more brands and companies surge to rally their supporters behind their products.
Sixty percent of users will generate company or product reviews; ffty-three percent of all users actively follow
a brand via a social media site (Nielsen). With all this socializing online, it’s easy to see why companies, and
sometimes even people, must work to market themselves in new and innovative ways.
What does this mean for physical networking, shaking hands, rubbing elbows? While Facebook is not
physical touch or introductions, it does allow for a wide audience and exposure within seconds of logging on.
And for those careers that thrive on as much exposure as possible, as quickly as possible, it means a greater
chance at success. Social media can help skyrocket a career when one topic or hash-tag in a status update could
connect you with millions of people sharing a similar interest.
Segue to the writer. Te writer – one who has always depended on the ancient art of conversation, hand-
shaking, smiling, and just being so gosh-darn marketable. Publishers have always asked their authors to market
themselves in some capacity. Book signings used to be the rage. Radio and TV interviews sell books (I heard
a marvelous statistic but could not verify: authors featured on NPR have a surge in their book sales the day
following their radio interviews, unlike any other interview results). But book signings are not the rage any-
more. Publishing houses don’t want to spend the money to send an author to a bookstore where books aren’t
being sold and people are not attending. Energy spent on obtaining a covetous television interview can instead
be put into blogging or adding content for readers to a website. In the age of social media, authors are more
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accessible, more interactive, and this is advantageous not only to the author trying to publish the next great
American novel, but also the publishers trying to sell them. Best of all, it’s free. Free marketing and publicity
all in one place.
Social media has become a crux on which we base our interests, our goals, our ideas, and our successful
mantras. And it is in this way that the writers of today connect with their readers. Tey have come of of their
pedestal, from an era where writers were the elite of the literary community, and placed themselves on level
ground with the readers who adore them. We will look at the ways in which social media helps to not only
cultivate a relationship with the audience of a book, but also, helps with its very creation, marketing, and build-
ing of a literary community.
Creationism: how a book is written with social media
In the beginning was the word, and the word was with its author and the word was its author – until the
time it could be delivered to its reader. Before the age of social networking, authors generally fnished a manu-
script before shopping it to agents or publishers. Yes, there were developmental editors who could help the plot
issues of the book, but for the most part, the book was created and written solely by its author. Now, with the
integration of writing and social media, a book may be infuenced by its readers as it is being created.
Figment.com is an example of one such social networking site. Combining a Facebook-like network with
writing workshops, Figment positions itself by highlighting the advantages of having others read your material
before it is sent to the publishing house. Calling on young writers, the website not only hopes to foster a new
writing community, but also provide for publishers a direct look into what future readers and writers are enjoy-
ing. By the time the website went public, some publishers immediately started seeing the beneft and jumped
on board. For a small fee, publishers like Running Press Kids could post excerpts of their latest writers in the
hopes of getting them in front of young readers who were reading similar topics (Bosman).
Te main advantage to the site is the user’s ability to interact with authors. My sister, Renae Collins, age
fourteen, is a frequent user of Figment and an avid writer. However, she says she “did not write hardly as often
as she does now thanks to her friends on Figment” (Collins). Renae says friends in the same manner as she
does when speaking about those she sees at school. However, when I inquired if she actually knew the people
who read her work, she answered, “No, I haven’t met any of them. But I have read their stuf and they have
read mine. So, it’s like I know them. We both like and read the same things. We share it anytime something
new comes to us” (Collins). And that, she says, is the extent of their communication.
90
I have always read my sister’s work. It is the one talent we share and I relished being able to critique and
workshop with her, giving her the pointers of a more “experienced” writer, being twelve years older than she.
However, as she becomes more active on Figment, I have found my sister is less likely to ask my opinion. Te
work she sends me is more concise and better executed. I took this opportunity to ask her why.
My fourteen year old sister had asked me to not be ofended by her use of a social media site, and it was my
frst time hearing such a plea. I had been replaced by some twenty or thirty young adult users of the site, and
yet her writing had improved, her grammar was exemplary, and her stories began to strike chords of which I
did not know my sister was capable. Social media had indeed improved her writing.
Other sites have jumped on this bandwagon as well. Red Lemonade (redlemona.de) is still in its beta stage,
but wants to make proft of of this idea of social network writing. Tey do not have an “About” section as
of yet, but explain themselves as a site “with the writer in mind—you’ll retain all rights. When you’re ready
to publish, just let us know, or you can shop it elsewhere—we’re totally open” (redlemona.de). Like Figment,
Red Lemonade promises interaction with other authors in order to better your work. “Hone your work, share
your insight. Red Lemonade aims to make manuscript review and submission a vibrant part of the publishing
process. Te community will get your writing there, then, if you like, we can help you with the rest.” Tough
manuscripts posted here are generally fnished, rather than works in process, it still allows the author to make
changes until they feel their work is publishable. At that point, Red Lemonade editors and agents suggest
changes and then can submit the work to a publisher for you.
Both Figment and Red Lemonade have changed the way in which an author constructs their manuscript.
More than just bouncing of ideas of other writers and readers, it allows the readers’ input to actually be incor-
porated into the story, possibly changing the plot line completely. Renae’s writing practices include posting a
book chapter by chapter and asking specifc readers’ opinions, sometimes even completely removing elements
of a story if the audience does not like the direction it’s headed. When she is happy with the passage, she opens
the forum to all her followers and invites them to read the latest installment (Collins). It’s getting her noticed
I submit something to Figment and within a day it has been read at least fve times, sometimes
more, because now I have so many followers. Everyone on the site is passionate about writing
and reading, and they love to read other new writers. I get compliments all the time about how
I should get published, what I should fx, if my character is boring…Please don’t be ofended,
brother! I’ll be sure to send you more stuf. (Collins)
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and read more and more frequently, leading to the ultimate goal of marketability and hopefully publication. It
is what every author seeks after all. And the perfect manuscript, edited time and time again, can only get you
closer to that notoriety.
Digital Presence: a writer’s key to staying in your head
Authors have begun to fock to Facebook and Twitter, and hybrid sites like Goodreads.com. It is all about
accessibility. Tese are just a few examples of the ways in which authors can not only be in front of readers and
fans, but also publishers, agents, and important professionals in the industry. Te outlet here is not necessarily
to sell books. Tough sales coming from status updates are certainly a plus, tweets are not going to lead to a
bestseller. Instead, social media is about building and sustaining an audience, coloring the professional writer’s
life with personal and relatable experiences through photos, videos, and commentary on contemporary issues.
Lauren Cerand, writer for Poets and Writers and social media consultant, says that an author’s experience
with social media should be about creating a dialogue with fans. Any exposure is good, and that “exposure
could be a breakthrough that heralds success because it leads to the next shot at the limelight. Rather than
angling for a specifc kind of coverage in a specifc kind of outlet, I encourage authors to see things from the
perspective of sustained momentum, and to do things that will continually advance their interests, and, ulti-
mately, their careers” (Cerand). It does not fall on the author to sell their book, though what author wouldn’t
at any opportunity. But it does fall on the author to sustain their own career by nurturing a relationship with
their readers. It isn’t possible to answer every fan letter if you are Stephen King, but social media allows open
dialogue to express views that in turn contributes to a writer’s sustainability.
Local young adult author Amber Keyser uses a variety of networks to feed her audience content. Besides
writing her books, Keyser blogs for VivaScriva.com created by a band of Portland writers. Te blog is her
primary, content-based outreach to the writing community, flling a niche for writers and, from marketing
prospective, building relationships with people who might do blog reviews for her and the other scrivas at
some point. Te site has a nice article at this very moment giving authors pointers for websites, another crucial
part of a writer’s digital presence.
Keyser also has a website for which she blogs, keeping readers updated about various aspects of her profes-
sional career, including her current projects and successful deals. Keyser keeps her site updated, but does not
spend an excessive amount of time on it. She says it “is a way to keep interested fans up to date on things I
read, events I speak at, and quirky things I’m contemplating.  I don’t work hard to drive trafc here.  It is more
92
important for me to have new content for people who visit my website” (Keyser). She recognizes the need
to have new material for her fans just as much as clueing them in on her life and who she is as a person. Te
website is for the devoted reader, though Keyser noted that she as a reader does not visit other author sites or
blogs as frequently as she would like. So, she understands why her own readers probably do not frequent hers.
Tis is diferent than her usage of other social media sites. Additionally, Keyser manages accounts on
Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest. Her energy spent on each varies, but all are used to be within reach of any-
one in the industry. She uses Pinterest mainly to flter her ideas into one container and maintain personal
brainstorming space. Her Facebook “tends to be more personal than professional but it keeps the people who I
actually know up to speed on my professional activities.  I haven’t hit the point where I need to switch to a fan
page approach” (Keyser). In her opinion, the fan page removes her a bit from personal connection, establishing
herself as an entity, almost a product, instead of a person.
Twitter is Keyser’s favorite means of connection. Her blog is auto-tweeted to it so that an array of profes-
sionals and followers can be involved in all of her successes.
Trough the various connections that she makes, Keyser has access to an unlimited set of eyes, which can
then look at her Twitter page and be directed to all other areas of her digital presence. Networking mainly
with professionals heightens her chance at publication, representation, and sell-through to more readers, thus
increasing her literary clout. It also very quickly downloads the current media and literary news into one short
feed, keeping her up-to-date on industry news.
Compare any of Keyser’s social networking pages with that of a more commercial author, and the diver-
sity in uses of social media is clear. Anne Rice, successful and established writer of more than two decades,
comes to Facebook and Twitter knowing that her fans are constantly watching. She does not have to work
to keep viewers by creating new content, but instead uses the platforms as a dialogue on social and economic
issues.
I have come to love it.   I use this to build relationships with writers, librarians, bloggers,
transmedia, and flm people.  I also love it because it flters the blogosphere for me.  It’s the
main way I fnd out what’s going on in kidlit.  My presence is far more about my professional
persona, which is accurate but not a complete version of me.   I participate in #kidlitchat or
#yalitchat when I can.  I only follow people who look interesting (not just to general follow-
back). (Keyser)  
93
Tis is one example of what Laura Cerand suggests to writers – fnd a niche or topic, point with a direct
question, and start a conversation with which readers can relate. For one client she suggested “he pose a par-
ticular question—concerning reading series that take place in art galleries—on Facebook. Tis is how buzz
starts. It is a matter of starting to speak, igniting that desire for interaction, commentary, and conveyance of
ideas that powers social media” (Cerand). While Keyser does this on her Facebook at times, the questions are
not directed at readers so much as the persons close to her, those who actually know her. In Rice’s case, most
of her posts are geared at highlighting a specifc issue, and then generating reader response. Tis is especially
pleasing to those who share her Catholic faith or who admire her fght for LGBT equal rights. Tese are not
meant to sell books in any capacity. Tey keep readers interested and tuned in. It is also important to note that
Rice’s very successful career makes her a great candidate to use Facebook’s fan page. Tis establishes her as an
entity, but not an unobtainable one, because she is always personally answering fan questions and encouraging
more discussion through responses.
All of this social network buzz-generation seems like it would take a lot of time, but Keyser let me know
that it never becomes too distracting or time consuming for her; she knows how to “shut it down,” unplug and
focus on her writing. She informs me that on a serious writing day, she will check Twitter in the morning for
about ffteen minutes. On a more leisurely writing day, she normally keeps her tweetdeck (a version of Twitter
highlighting trending topics) open for a majority of the day. In general, she estimates she spends “maybe 45
minutes a day on average on social media.  For me it’s not too hard to shut it down, but I know that for many,
many writers social media is a black hole of doom.  Tat’s why many use Freedom
1
” (Keyser). She blogs a couple
of times a day, and incorporates this into her writing routine by using it as a warm-up or cool down exercise.
Like Keyser, Rice posts everyday on social media, sometimes up to four times in a day. Cerand sees this as
the most conducive means to staying in the readers’ head. She suggests to her clients “to develop a channel of
communication that serves and grows their existing audience with a mix of relevant news and just enough per-
sonal disclosures to keep it human and enjoyable as a medium for social exchange. You choose where to draw
the line” (Cerand). Te key is consistency, but not annoyance. Tuned-in, but not noisy. Readers want to know
that their authors are there, diligently typing away at their novel, but not a hermit who will not relinquish his
dark den of a room to come out and greet their adoring fans.
1 Macfreedom.com features a product called Freedom designed to foster productivity. Marketing to
writers, the program locks the net so that the user can get more work done. At $10 a month, authors such as
Nick Hornby fnd it invaluable to getting out of the distracting rabbit hole of the World Wide Web.
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Twiller: combining the quill and Twitter
In August of 2008, a New York Times journalist Matt Richtel coined the term “Twiller” in an article he
used to introduce a new method of writing he envisioned for social media. Richtel was working on writing
a thriller using only the medium of Twitter. Releasing the novel in a series of tweets, Richtel said that the
project was talked about with much confusion, but gained followers every day. He describes his novel as being
about “a man who wakes up in the mountains of Colorado, sufering from amnesia, with a haunting feeling
he is a murderer. In possession of only a cellphone that lets him Twitter, he uses the phone to tell his story of
self-discovery, 140 characters at a time” (Richtel). I assume the idea did not take of, because Richtel’s Twitter
is back to being status updates about his blog, but it certainly is a new twist on writing for social media, and if
done correctly, could be a great way to market current projects.
Author John Wray fgured out a creative way to not only market his current novel, but also keep ideas that
could have been lost on the cutting room foor. Before his third novel Lowboy was published, Wray found him-
self having to cut an extraneous character he had grown particularly fond of. Instead of deleting him forever,
Wray decided to give his Twitter over to the character Citizen and tweet about his life in story form starting
from the time he wakes up in the apartment of a dentist. Te character gave Wray two things: frst, his publish-
ers had asked him to set up a Facebook and Twitter account and second, he hated flling it with content about
himself. Citizen could have an infnite amount of content.
In an interview with Te Awl columnist Esther Zuckerman, Wray said that there was no actual name for
what he does, though he joked that “twovel” seemed ftting. He feels that the “term ‘Twitter novel’ is problem-
atic because it functions very diferently from a novel; it functions very diferently from a story; it functions
very diferently from a prose poem or a paragraph” (Zuckerman). Tere in-lies what he sees as the problem
with previous attempts at Twitter fction like Richtel’s. With a new medium, a new way of thinking about
writing is required. To come at a project such as this with the idea of creating a book or novel is just not prac-
tical. Instead, Wray looked at his limited container and formed the story around what he could do. What is
produced is a unique look into a fctional character’s everyday imagined life, right down to what he’s thinking
when he sees a condom lying out or when a man with a green wig passes him on St. Patty’s day (Zuckerman).
However, more than just an exploration of one of his most beloved characters, Wray attributes the experience
to an improvement in his writing. He says the 140 character limit is “one of the most benefcial things from
a literary standpoint of the whole Twitter set up, because it really forces you to consider what’s necessary and
what’s not in a given line of writing…the fact that Twitter’s format is so diametrically opposed to [long text],
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it’s actually very healthy for me to realize how much you can say in a very small space” (Zuckerman). Tough
he is not sure how long he will keep up the project, Wray fnds time for Citizen whenever he needs a good
exercise in concise language or just for a break to let the writer’s block melt away.
Book Trailers and Social Media Consultants: spending $$$ to make $$$ with social media
If there is any indication that our society is skewing towards a visual centric entertainment industry, it is the
book trailer. A book trailer is a form of marketing employed by publishing houses that uses the eye stimulat-
ing tactics of movie trailers to solicit sales. Te frst book trailer was produced by Circle of Seven Productions
in 2002 and the term itself is coined and owned by the company (www.cosproductions.com/about). Te pro-
duction company prides itself in being the leading producer of book trailers, and markets heavily to authors
instead of publishing houses. Terefore, upon perusing their list of book trailer titles, a majority are self-pub-
lished works, authors trying to get their title noticed in the endless sea of self-publication.
A book trailer’s cost to a writer or company varies based on quality of the work. Some may do full pro-
duction value; others may only show a series of pictures. Here on some titles worth checking out on Youtube
(simply type the title followed by “book trailer”): Sense and Sensibility and Sea Monsters, Night of the Living
Trekkies, Abraham Lincoln Vampire Hunter, Mrs. Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children, or our very own Ooligan
Press’s Te Portland Red Guide. Tese examples show the vast array of production value that is possible with
book trailers.
Back to this notion of the industry skewing towards visual aspects – it is a quality that most authors loath.
Rye Barcott, author of It Happened on the Way to War: A Marine’s Path to Peace, says that the book trailer almost
made his eforts of writing seem a waste of time. It detracts from the power of his achievement, since “the
experience of reading a book unfolds over hours, and sometimes days. It takes time and commitment to draw
knowledge and meaning form the narrative,” which is then undermined by the creation of a book trailer, seem-
ingly handing the book’s narrative over to the reader in just two or three minutes of screen time (Barcott).
However, Barcott does understand that it sells his book.
Book trailers are usually shot months before a book’s release and encapsulate the major themes of the
title. Michael Hyatt, chairman of Tomas Nelson Publishers, the largest Christian publishing company in the
world, highlights the fve benefts of book trailers on his blog. For Tomas Nelson Publishers, book trailers are
important to:
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Upon viewing Tomas Nelson Publisher’s various book trailers, it is evident that they more than likely pro-
duced them themselves, but the production quality is still very good.
Other publishers, such as Quirk Books, seem to spend a great deal of money on their book trailers. Te
average price of a book trailer can run in the tens of thousands, or it can simply be shot with the camera on a
phone (Barcott). It all depends not only on how much you want it to be noticed, and also the budget for the
title.
We have touched on the budget of the book when talking about author signings, book tours, and T.V.
interviews. All of those things that publishers no longer wish to pay for because no one is attending? Well
now, their money can be spent on a trailer, which can be posted again and again for free, with the hopes that
it will become viral. An author’s book tour, after factoring in food, lodging, and travel expenses, would more
than likely cost more than the production value of a trailer. So, publishers began to ask themselves, which is
more likely to get the book noticed? Tere is always money in the book’s budget for marketing, and the caliber
of trailer is decided by the depth of the budget. It’s safe to say that a large part of a marketing budget is spent
on trailers now, while book swag and collateral is not used nearly as frequently.
Tis is just one example of how the budget of a book or the budget of the author is changing to keep up
with the age of social media. Circle Seven Productions markets themselves specifcally to authors of self-
published titles, making money of of what most would now deem a necessary part of a book’s production.
However, the expanse of social media in general can be daunting to most, especially if the author is inexperi-
enced or just beginning their career. Luckily there are people willing to make money of of this as well.
Public relations have been an integral part of the business world, nurturing relationships between company
and consumer. But today, more and more public relations consultants are specializing in the role of social
media consultant. Jason Falls of socialmediaexplorer.com makes a good case for authors on social media, cit-
ing his own changes in revenue after entering the worlds of Facebook and Twitter as an author. He used his
experiences to found Social Media Explorer and now sells his services as a consultant for social networking
• Sell our internal team on the project.
• Create intrigue and initial buzz.
• Provide a tool for fans to use in spreading the word. Tey can post links on Twitter and
Facebook or even embed them in their own blogs.
• Generate ancillary content and promotion on eRetailer sites.
• Introduce prospective readers to the book in a way that can’t be done traditionally. (Hyatt)
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(Falls). Social media is Falls’ way of building clout that then turns into revenue: “You’re still going to have to be
a stud at lots of other things before you can make ‘published author’ translate to more dollars” and social media
is a good outlet to get the ball rolling” (Falls).
So, from time to time, perhaps social media does cost some money. Te author unfamiliar with the terrain
can hire someone to do it for them. Publishers needing book trailers can hire someone to do it for them. Te
idea, of course, that the revenue generated from the eforts far outweighs the onetime expense.
Conclusion
Social media will continue to be more diverse. Every day, new ways to connect are emerging, and the venues
in which to connect are becoming much more specifc. Just last month, I joined a national social networking
site for queer poets. Q-poetry.ning.com is a way for LGBT poets from across the nation to connect, share
and workshop their poetry, and keep each other informed of queer reading events. I too can attest to a social
network improving my skill. Tere is a tone and language specifc to queer poetry that I had not honed in my
own writing. Now, exposure to hundreds of queer poets’ work, as well as advice on how to better my own, has
helped me to identify that voice within myself. It’s a beautiful interaction, this type of self-discovery, and I
imagine my sister has felt the same self-gratifcation with her experiences at Figment.com.
Social media allows for this content specifc camaraderie. Search for any type of writing group within
Google and you are bound to fnd a niche with experts willing to help you sharpen your skills. It strengthens
not only an author’s work but also their presence in the world, getting their name to millions of people. In
Amber Keyser’s opinion it is the key to a successful career:
If interest is generated, you keep readers. If you keep readers it equals dollars. It’s a simple marketing tactic that
has been implemented by publishing houses since their creation, only now it can be done in a much cheaper,
faster, more efcient way.
In general, I like social media for the community aspect…I’m not convinced that it sells books
(yet), but I haven’t had a big release since I’ve been so active on Twitter. But I do think that it
creates a sense that people “know” me and hopefully fnd my comments interesting and useful.
I try to be helpful. I think that means they will advocate for me and spread the word on my
books when they come out. I like the idea of marketing circles, ripples going ever outward from
circle to circle. (Keyser)
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Tis topic has made me think about my own use of social media in a much more business minded way. I
have always had separate entities for my social media sites. Goodreads.com is a social media site for writers
and readers, connecting people through the titles they read. At Goodreads I am a reader, viewing my favorite
authors’ most beloved titles and interacting with them by reading the books they read and adding my own
review, which would appear on the same page as the one they might have done. In this digital space, I could
potentially sit right next to my favorite author. On Facebook, I am more social and less professional, connect-
ing mainly with friends and family, and less with professional contacts. Twitter is my professional handle. I
connect with writers, readers, publishers, agents, and any other professional contacts I generate throughout my
career. Tis is not the place for friendships for me, but instead a place to network and hopefully one day land
that perfect connection that gets me a job or a great book deal. Like Keyser, I use Pinterest as a brainstorming
container, snagging screenshots of my favorite book covers that will hopefully inspire the next one I have the
pleasure of designing.
Tese sites are an extension of my life, as odd as that sounds. Tey are a means of staying tuned in, con-
nected, and aware of my surroundings. I know more about the industry now than I did two years ago. Yes, I am
getting my masters degree, so a majority of my knowledge comes from there. However, there is something else
that is needed than just the knowledge provided by books. I think that is evidenced by my most recent suc-
cesses of publication of my poetry, my book cover publication, and the internship I landed at Relium Media.
Tey were all helped by social media, if not a direct cause of my interaction, then at least infuenced by them.
At my fngertips, I have decades upon decades of experienced individuals who feel connected to you just
because they can see a picture and a short description of who you are. Sometimes that is enough. Sometimes
a handshake is better. Now, more than ever, one leads to the other.
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Works Cited
Barcott, Rye. “Why Book Trailers Are Now Essential to the Publishing Industry.” Mashable.com. 31 March
2011: 1 page. Web. 4 June 2012. <http://mashable.com/2011/03/31/book-trailers/>.
Bosman, Julie. “Figmnet.com Aims for Young Readers and Writers.” New York Times. 5 Dec 2010: 1 page.
Web. 1 Jun. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/06/books/06fgment.html>.
Cerand, Lauren. “Social Media for Authors: Forever in Search of Buzz.” Poets and Writers. 1 May 2011: 2
pages. Web. 1 Jun. 2012. <http://www.pw.org/content/social_media_for_authors_forever_in_search_
of_buzz>.
Collins, Renae. Telephone Interview. 31 May 2012.
Falls, Jason. “Te Business of Writing Books.” Social Media Explorer. 9 May 2012: 1 page. Web. 5 June 2012.
<www.socialmediaexplorer.com/media-journalism/the-business-of-writing-books/>.
Hyatt, Michael. “How Publishers are Using Book Trailers to Sell Books.” Michael Hyatt: Intentional
Leadership. June2010: 1 page. Web. 5 June 2012. <http://michaelhyatt.com/how-publishers-
are-using-book-trailers-to-sell-books.html>.
Keyser, Amber J. Facebook.com. Web. 1 June 2012. <http://www.Facebook.com/amber.j.keyser>.
Keyser, Amber J. “Re: Questions for my fnal paper.” Message to J Adam Collins. 04 Jun 2012. E-mail.
Keyser, Amber J (@amberjkeyser). Twitter.com. Web. 1 June 2012. <https://twitter.com/#!/amberjkeyser>.
Nielsen Company. “Social media report: Q3 2011.” Nielson. Nielsen, 2011. Web. 7 Jun 2012. <http://blog.
nielsen.com/nielsenwire/social/>.
Rice, Anne. Facebook.com. Web. 1 June 2012. <http://www.Facebook.com/annericefanpage>.
Rice, Anne (@AnneRiceAuthor). Twitter.com. Web. 1 June 2012. <https://twitter.com/#!/AnneRiceAuthor>.
Richtel, Matt. “Introducing the Twiller.” New York Times. 29 Aug 2008: 1 page. Web. 1 Jun 2012. <http://
bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/08/29/introducing-the-twiller>.
Richtel, Matt (@mrichtel). Twitter.com. Web. 5 June 2012. <https://twitter.com/#!/mrichtel>.
Wray, John (@JohnWray). Twitter.com. Web. 6 June 2012. <https://twitter.com/#!/John_Wray>.
Zuckerman, Esther. “Writing Fiction on Twitter: Meet John Wray’s Citizen.” Te Awl. 25 Mar 2011: 1 page.
Web. 2 June 2012. <http://www.theawl.com/2011/03/writing-fction-on-twitter-meet-john-wrays-
citizen >.
Washing my hands of you
is no longer a possibility.
Digital
I
have a natural aversion to ebooks. It’s not that I don’t appreciate their place
in the technologically savvy audiences who live on their tablets or cell phones.
I do see their convenience for the frequent fyer, the packrat who has no space for
books, or the romance reader who is embarrassed by toting around Fabio’s covers.
But for me, nothing can replace a book. I currently own every book I have ever
read since the age of eighteen—yes, even all those literature texts of undergradu-
ate school. A majority of the books I read as a child are still housed in my parents’
home. Books are my only collectable, and I obsess over how they are displayed
in my room. I do not borrow. I do not lend. And I do not buy ebooks because it
would require me buying the printed version as well to adorn my bookshelves.
You see my dilemma? Ebooks are simply not for me.
To date, I have only purchased two ebooks. Tey were both required reads for
Ooligan classes and print versions were not available. I do not own an ereader.
Tough I do plan to buy a tablet in the near future, I will in all likelihood never
read a book from its screen. Tat being said, I realize that I must embrace this
reading revolution in some capacity. Ebook sales are on the rise. Younger gen-
erations are jumping on board. And self-publication options, generally sold as
ebooks, are fooding the market with more books than traditional publishing
houses can produce each year.
Te digital revolution of reading is at a pivotal point. We can continue on
this road we’re on, black and white text, simple format, and limited design aes-
thetics. Or publishers, designers, and coders can take this opportunity to really
reformat the book for digital consumption. Teir needs to be something new—
something that places the digital book on a whole diferent playing feld than
their printed counterparts. What can we get from a digital book that we print
cannot ofer? How can we digitally enhance the reading experience to make it
more attractive to people like me, people who can’t let go of the starchy smell of
leafng through pages?
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My First Ebook
I
was a member of the Digital department during my frst term with Ooligan. Tough I had limited
html experience, I decided to take on the project of creating an ebook for the press. Good Friday, the second
in a historical fction trilogy about Abraham Lincoln, was the book I was assigned to format for digital publi-
cation. Luckily, the press had ePub templates which made the coding process a lot simpler. After plugging in
all the elements of the story, I merely had to make sure each line of code was complete and error free.
Te project took me nearly the entire term. And though I did not have to write every line of code from
scratch, I learned a lot about designing for digital readers and how code translates on the screen. Viewing the
ebook from Adobe Digital Editions, I could see how errors afected the fnal product, and learned what tags
did to the text. I feel confdent enough that I could do this again given the opportunity. As I become more
fuent in my code-writing abilities, I hope to experiment with the way an ebook is presented to its readers,
incorporating elements that you cannot get from printed text.
Tere is an opportunity with digital distribution that publishers have not yet tapped to give more with their
ebooks. On this cusp of a digital revolution in reading, I hope that I might be a part of that transition. Even
if I do not purchase ebooks, I can still appreciate their value to the changing publishing world. Tey are the
future of the industry. Tey only need an entrepreneurial mind to realize their full potential.
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Ooligan provided templates for
creating ePubs. Combined with my bit
of knowledge of HTML, I succeeded
in creating my frst ebook.
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Tis is the Adobe Digital Editions
view of my ebook. It’s too bad I don’t
have the ereader with which to enjoy it.
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Re-envisioning the Distribution Model
As a fnal project for the Publications Management course, my group was assigned the task of rethinking the the dis-
tribution model for digital data. Seems a simple enough task, right? We created a mock company called Bandwagon
Inc, which housed and distributed digital content to publishers. Following are selections from our fnal presentation, in
which our company, our methods, and our conclusions are outlined. Tank you to Kylie Byrd, Alyson Hofman, Poppy
Millikan, Brittany Torgerson, Casey Woodworth, and McKenzie Workman for their participation in this study.
Executive Summary
As digitally consumed content becomes more and more popular, the role of the traditional distribution
company becomes uncertain. Tis case study aims to analyze and develop a hypothetical distribution company
in the digital marketplace. Bandwagon, Inc. would house text, audio, and video content pertaining to Portland,
Oregon events, locations, and culturally relevant news. Te content would be re-coded for multiple web for-
mats, then categorized and cross-listed into a searchable database. People and companies looking to create
new digital content related to Portland locations could buy licenses to this content for reuse and repackaging.
Traditional Distribution and the Need for a New Model:
Traditionally, the distribution of content in the publishing industry has meant the movement of physical
books between printers, warehouses, publishers, and retail outlets. Cost is calculated by weight or quantity,
speed of delivery, and other physical factors. Digital content, on the other hand, requires no trucks or planes,
scales or boxes. Frequently, digital content is transferred among consumers, retailers, and content developers,
skipping traditional distribution altogether. In this environment, the distributor sufers.
Distribution ofers services other than the movement of physical objects. Distributors have national and
international relationships with retail outlets, an ability to reach audiences outside the scope of the content
creator, and sales forces that understand how to sell to those audiences. Content creators can track sales fg-
107
ures through their distributor’s database, enabling the creators to see which markets purchase their products.
Distributors store products, often shufing them into warehouses nearer to the product’s primary market.
Tese factors—wide reach, sales teams, sales tracking ability, and product storage—are useful to the creators
of digital content just as they are to the creators of physical content. Because distributors focus on these tasks
rather than the culling, editing, and production of content, they are more suited to performing this role than
the content creator, even in the digital realm.
Bandwagon, Inc. ofers one example of how distribution might continue to perform these services for digi-
tal content creators. Many consumers don’t necessarily want to buy entire “books” worth of information—they
only want a section or chapter, especially in the case of nonfction. In the digital world, not only is this possible,
it’s almost outrageous not to make information available to the public in distinct pieces. As a distributor of
solely digital content, Bandwagon could jump on this opportunity.
About Bandwagon
Mission Statement:
Our goal is to make reliable Portland-centric information accessible to the people and companies that need
it. Bandwagon collects digital, Portland-centric content from multiple media sources in a variety of formats,
including text, image, video, and audio. We divide this information into discrete units and then make the indi-
vidual licenses for these units available for purchase. Tis license allows the buyer to repackage or repurpose
the content in new ways.
Both elements of the service—the selling of content and the purchasing of content—are aimed at publish-
ers, writers, researchers, universities, website and app developers, and print and television media. We aim to
become the leader in the constantly evolving information market. We seek to connect media companies in new
ways by facilitating the exchange of digital information.
Our Products:
Bandwagon’s products would be as varied and unique as our customers. After the business is established
and content providers agree to let us house their digital material for distribution—there are a lot of rights and
contracts to be worked out frst—we would proceed with catering to our customers. Te great thing about a
business like this is that many clients could act as both suppliers and customers. Te digital pipeline would
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continually feed back into the company and reemerge as new product. Te process of creating a product would
look something like this:
1. A customer signs up for Bandwagon in search of information. After paying a certain amount for their
chosen level of membership, said customer has the ability to freely roam the site as the database pro-
vides them with materials relevant to their searching needs. For the purpose of this example, the cus-
tomer is an app developer, looking for content on Portland’s food carts.
2. After specifying search criteria, the Bandwagon database collects information on Portland’s food carts
from all the digital materials supplied by our growing list of content providers. Materials produced
from a search engine could include images and videos of food carts, food reviews and articles, books
(or relevant chapters of books) on the subject, etc. Te customer can look at the abstract of each text
document, preview images and videos, and choose from this information the most relevant materials to
aid him in developing his app.
3. Tis chosen material would be placed into a singular container, ordered according to the customer’s
needs, and produced as one digital document. In the company’s beginning stages, this document would
more than likely exist as a .pdf or .epub fle. If Bandwagon were to eventually become successful and
gain notoriety, other formats would be included for other digital platforms.
4. Because Bandwagon operates on a subscription model, the customer can return to the site as many
times as necessary to assemble information. Since all materials are digital and almost instantaneous-
ly updated, Bandwagon can notify the customer of updates to requested information, recommend
related documents, or push to the forefront new content that has been collected since the customer’s
last login.
5. Our customer, the app developer, uses the content provided to produce an interactive app on Portland’s
food carts. Let’s assume that during this process, the designer also produced his own material. He took
videos of interviews with chefs or customers. He included reviews written on the best or worst estab-
lishments. Perhaps he catalogued images of every food cart that exists in the city.
6. After the app is successfully executed, the app developer may choose to share that information with
Bandwagon, allowing us to house the new data he has collected on Portland food carts, in the hopes
that this content can be repackaged and sold to another Bandwagon customer in the future.

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Tis is just one example of how a content buyer could potentially become a content provider for Bandwagon.
But this may not always be the case. Customers are not, of course, required to share content they have gathered,
but in establishing a relationship with our company, this would be encouraged. In the future, it might be worth
considering a clause in our content provider’s contracts requiring the sharing of any new information that may
be produced using our services. Tis would ensure a constant stream of revenue from our most valued custom-
ers/providers and solidify the foundation of the company.
What We Learned:
We fnished this project with very diferent ideas about the company than we started with. Our expectation
at the beginning was that this business was something we could conceivably accomplish in the real world, like
the other projects in the class. We realized quickly, however, that this type of business is beyond our qualifca-
tions; the traditional job assignments like editor and publisher (jobs we are qualifed to do) don’t actually ft
the needs of this business. But just because we can’t launch this business ourselves doesn’t mean we didn’t learn
a lot from the process. Some interesting things that came up included:
• We were surprised by the strong resistance on the part of potential content providers. Tis was
probably the frst time most of us encountered the fght between new and old, digital and print,
frst hand.
• We now understand the traditional distribution model pretty thoroughly. We had to reorient our think-
ing from Publisher to Distributor, which seemed a useful exercise.
• Copyright lawyer and Ooligan adjunct faculty Michael Clark was very, very excited about this project’s
potential, but liked neither the name Where, Inc. nor Bandwagon, Inc. because he thought they’d be
trademarked already.
• Tis project gave us a unique way of thinking about the nature of content and the future of digital
consumption.
• We gained an understanding of the complicated structure of licensing agreements.
After acknowledging that we can’t create this business with our current skill sets, and then trying out some
stuf anyway, there are things that we would have done diferently in retrospect. Tese include:
110
• Approaching content providers diferently. Many of them had a difcult time understanding the proj-
ect, and sometimes they couldn’t seem to grasp that it was only hypothetical. We might have asked for
information in a more focused way.
• Talking to an investor from the beginning. One of the biggest problems with this idea is that this busi-
ness isn’t particularly attractive from an investment standpoint because it’s business to business. Had we
known this at the start, we might have modifed the central concept to refect this concern.
Conclusion
How to make the Bandwagon system more attractive:
• Create a business-to-consumer model instead of business-to-business, or fgure out a way to facilitate
the interaction directly between authors/publishers and consumers
• Teaming with a distribution company who already has an established infrastructure and existing busi-
ness relationships within the industry
• Don’t focus so much on free content: people don’t pay for things they can easily have for free, so we have
to make the service about delivering the right content in the right format
Viability of a Company like Bandwagon:
At some point the current distribution model will change. As people involved in the publishing industry
we need to understand how the current model works so that we take advantage of the changes. Many content
providers that we contacted were reluctant to consider the Bandwagon concept. We think it was because the
digital landscape changes so quickly, and change makes people nervous. If someone can fnd a way to explain
the Bandwagon concept clearly and make people understand the potential benefts, they will be more success-
ful in building relationships with content providers.
Te end product of this project was not what we thought it would be at the outset. When we frst began
discussing Bandwagon, it took us a couple of weeks to fully understand the scope of the project. By the time
we actually got started on the query emails, three weeks had passed. We also realized fairly early in the process
that unlike the other groups in the class, we didn’t have the skills, connections, or capital to start this business
ourselves.
However, it was interesting to discuss the industry in which we’ve been so immersed from a diferent angle.
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In the future, it will be necessary to fnd a new distribution model for digital content. As content becomes
more readily available in multiple formats, styles, and lengths, the ability for the customer to buy just the por-
tion they want will become increasingly appealing. In short, someone will make a lot of money from this idea,
but it won’t be us, it probably won’t be in exactly this format, and it won’t be tomorrow. We would have done
many things diferently in retrospect: we would have made appointments in person, contacted distribution
companies, and talked to an investor earlier in the process. If this were a real project, we would need to do
wide-scale surveying and focused market research over a longer period of time.  
We learned a lot about the publishing and distribution industries, the possibilities of new media, and group
dynamics. Most importantly, we learned the importance of catering for a felt need and presenting a fully devel-
oped, specifc model through which this need can be addressed. Tis includes not only producing an appealing
and necessary product, but also an easy to understand and attractive system.
& Internship
Building blocks lead to
skyscrapers in our minds.
Leadership
T
hough much of the work from my management experience with Ooligan
Press is displayed in its respective sections of this portfolio, I feel that I must
refect on my time spent with each. I held two terms as Acquisitions Manager
and two terms as the Pacifc Poetry Project Production Manager. Te practice
gained from these two roles will be invaluable to my future in publishing. Here,
I will discuss my actions as manager, the knowledge I took from the position,
and the implications for my future.
During my fnal two terms in the program, I began an internship with
Relium Media. Acting as their publishing liaison, I will refect on my assign-
ments for the company, how they have helped me to further understand the
traditional publishing model, and also how that work will fow into other forms
of media.
Tese positions have empowered me to take the lead in endeavors close to my
heart as well. Tis section will conclude with a project I started in the summer
before my graduation. Tough still in its beginning stages, the project holds a
great deal of promise already, and I can’t wait to focus all of my attention on it
after graduation.
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Acquisitions Management
A
s manager of in-house projects of the acquisitions department, it was my responsibility to keep work
fowing on current manuscripts. Since students were generally assigned to this department for their frst
term with the press, it was necessary to not only keep a smooth transition of projects from member to mem-
ber, but also introduce new Ooligans to the time sensitive schedule of producing titles. Working with another
acquisitions manager of the slush pile meant teamwork was essential to keeping with our production schedule
of expected titles every year.
If manuscripts are not being submitted to the press, then it is the in-house manager’s task to generate ideas
which could lead to future titles. During my frst term as manager, I instated a bi-weekly brainstorming ses-
sion to our meetings. Members of the department were required to come in with an original concept for a
manuscript, to be placed in a bank of ideas which could be used should the slush pile elicit less than desirable
stories. At the end of each term of my management, these ideas were cut down to a top fve, which were stored
in a document to which future managers would have access. If the practice continues, this ensures the press
will have viable ideas for manuscripts should a dry spell ever occur. Te Seattle Red Guide was an example of
a title pitched as a result of these brainstorming sessions. I took the lead on this project, developing its pitch
with a team of other acquisitions members. Post pitch acceptance, it was my responsibility to keep work on the
title going, ensuring an agreement was reached with an author, creating an in-house tipsheet for the press, and
curating a fnalized manuscript to be passed on to the editing department.
Any titles from the slush pile voted to be accepted by the department were passed to the in-house manager.
With these projects, it was my responsibility to assign a team to pitch the manuscript to the executive commit-
tee. For the title Close is Fine, I aided co-manager Rachel Haag in assembling a group to undertake the title’s
pitch. Having worked closely with the author during the developmental edit of the manuscript, Rachel took
the lead on the project, which allowed me to focus my attention on researching and fnding an author for Te
Seattle Red Guide.
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I have already discussed the outcome of this search, and what I learned from the process of approaching a
potential author. However, another valuable lesson I learned from these experiences was the speed with which
projects must be followed through. It is easy for an idea to lose steam, especially when members are continu-
ally changing. At Ooligan, members of a given department are generally only around for three to six months
before moving to another department to learn another skill set. Tis is diferent from a normal press where
permanent acquisitions editors are able to fnish work on a project they begin. Being a manager at Ooligan
meant learning fexibility, working at the varying speeds of rotating members, and catching new members up
on continuing work.
I value my leadership qualities and undertake any opportunity to apply them to a project I am passionate
about. I enjoy rallying the team and fnding others’ strengths to ensure a constant fow is demanded of their
work. It is my knack for time management which helped me guarantee all members obtained enough hours to
fll their required timecard, and also which led me to the position of production manager for the Pacifc Poetry
Project’s frst title Alive at the Center.
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Production Management
P
roduction management was a very time sensitive position. And since I am very schedule oriented,
it was an environment conducive to my work ethics. As manager of the Pacif ic Poetry Project, it was my
job to ensure that all poetry from the editors of our three urban centers was obtained in timely fashion.
Te many poets of this anthology were selected by these editors, being tasked to select up to eighty pages
of the poetry of their choice. When I assumed the management position, the deadline for these submis-
sions was drawing to a close, which required that I politely prod for them to be delivered promptly. In the
end, I found my experiences working with editors Susan Denning (of Portland), David D. Horowitz (of
Seattle), Bonnie Nish and Daniela Elza (both of Vancouver, BC) to be very enlightening. I learned the
crippling difculties of miscommunications and the importance of deadlines to the entire press. It was a
situation that fostered professionalism and establishing trusting relationships.
When the full manuscript did not arrive on time, the stall in work afected the press as a whole.
Editing did not have enough work for its many members. Design could not get started on a cover until
the manuscript’s title was selected from one of the poems in the anthology. And production came to a
standstill. Tis became a true test of my leadership qualities. It was my charge to keep work going.
Te Pacif ic Poetry Project is more than just one book. It was started as an ongoing portrait of contem-
porary poetry of the Pacifc Northwest, therefore the project was to become a brand of Ooligan, under
which many products could be generated. During this lull in the production time-
line, I took the opportunity to invigorate excitement in the project again by rallying
a brainstorming session for potential products under the franchise. I also looked
ahead on the title’s timeline to see what other work could be started.
Te frst mission was to establish a logo for the brand. Te creation of this logo
was tasked to a team from the design department. Within my frst term as pro-
duction manager, the press had selected a fnal logo which would be used on all
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products of the project, including the website, social media pages, and every book to follow the upcoming
anthology.
Next, future products of the anthology were discussed as well as potential promotional events for the
debut of PPP. On the social media front, a Free Poetry Friday would highlight poems to be included in
the anthology as sneak peeks to the collection. As selections from the regional editors arrived, I enlisted
the help of the marketing and editing departments to generate editor and poet bios, to be used on the
various press websites. With the executive committee’s help, it was decided that the anthology encom-
passing these three metropolises would also be sold as separate city anthologies, to be marketed to the
states from which they derived.
When the full manuscript was assembled, it was passed to the editing and design departments. During
my second term as production manager, I worked closely with these departments’ managers to ensure
work was completed in a timely manner. Editing began a copyedit of the poetry and contacted the poets
to obtain rights to their work. Meanwhile, design managers worked with me to create a design brief, in
which we outlined specifcs of the trim size and key images to be included or excluded from the fnal
cover. As designers read the manuscript, they were tasked with picking out underlying themes which
could be portrayed in the cover.
As work continued in these areas, the marketing department was asked to begin assembling the tip-
sheet for our distributor Ingram. Tey also began listing possible media contacts for promotion or reviews
and venues for author readings, while soliciting blurbs for the anthology from noted poets of the area.
Overseeing all of this eforts, ensuring deadlines were met on the production schedule, required a great
deal of multitasking. Tis is luckily a well-honed attribute of my skills set. I am great at keeping work
motivated, but am also great at generating projects during a pause in progress. If one element of produc-
tion is coming to a close or halted in its tracks, there is always more which can be accomplished, freeing
up more time whenever a real emergency surfaces. A pause is not an emergency. It is exactly what it is—a
pause, which gives time for refection on just what else can be completed.
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Relium Media
M
y final two terms in the book publishing program were spent interning with Relium Media.
Relium is a new company working to present stories in an unprecedented way. Te term is trans-
media storytelling, which is the delivery of a large, epic story arc over multiple platforms. Te company’s
frst franchise, Angel Punk, is a supernatural adventure set in a fantastical present day Earth. Currently,
the team has produced digital and print comics, internet shorts, and merchandise, and is set to release a
graphic novel, board game, young adult novel, and movie in the next year. Te story arc is divided into
stand alone tales for these platforms, but is also produced chronologically should a consumer become
hooked on the adventures of the main heroine Mara Layil.
My position in the company partnered me with young adult author Amber Keyser, who was contracted
to write the Angel Punk YA trilogy. Tough a few members of the team were familiar with the publishing
industry, this eclectic mix of diferent media meant that not all had worked with the timeline of publish-
ing a book. When all platforms for delivering the storyline are tied chronologically, it is necessary for
all of the team to understand those expectations of the publishing process so that they might properly
plan for their own installment in the series. Te frst novel follows the three comics already released and
precedes the plot of the movie.
All former perceptions of the cutting room foor are abolished when watching the dynamics of a
Relium team meeting. In a small conference room in a startup building in Southeast Portland, the writ-
ers of Angel Punk comics, novels, and script come together with Relium founders and their specialists
in social media, marketing, and fnance. And that is pretty much the extent of the team. What follows
is an enthusiastic, cofee-fueled discussion of how each storyline’s formation afects the overall story arc
of the world. Tat is the interesting appeal of such an editing environment. Tough specifcs of the story
may be changed based on one writer’s decision to kill a character or end a scene diferently, the deleted
story element does not have to be removed completely. It can still exist as a part of the Angel Punk world
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and be revised as a side-adventure in the form of a short story or internet production. Te possibilities
are endless. Furthermore, I was exposed to the editing process of a book-length manuscript, something
I unfortunately did not get to take part in with Ooligan Press. I have watched the Angel Punk novel go
through two edits so far, and was also asked to pinpoint key sections of the manuscript which could be
used as new material for the story line by providing back story to characters or expanding on scenes
through multiple character perspectives told through their ideal media venue.
My duties at Relium not only aided the team in understanding the role of publishing in their endeavor,
it also helped me to explore the various methods of publication. My frst assignment was to explain the
traditional publishing timeline and the internal structure of a press. I was given the time allotted for a
team meeting to present the many ways of approaching a press with a manuscript, the expected time for
production, and the basics required of starting a house, should the company consider beginning their
own. After deliberation, Keyser and the shareholders of Relium decided that it was not in their best inter-
est to start an imprint of their own and that beginning the process by submitting to slush piles would be
too pressing on their own production timeline for the movie and graphic novels.
Tis presentation was followed by another in which we explored alternative means of publication,
including self-publication, Amazon Encore, and book packagers. I was asked to look at case studies of
successful examples of each and to give my own opinion on which would be the best ft for Relium. In
the end, it was decided that Relium could act as a book packager and work with Keyser’s agent to fnd
the best outlet for the novel, or a company would be found who could package the book and then solicit
it to publishers with the help of their agents.
What I learned in researching for these presentations was invaluable to furthering my understanding
of alternative means of publishing. It has generated ideas in my head that might take shape in the form of
my own company in the future. I have learned about the dynamics of presenting a story through diferent
media outlets. Te graphic novels, comics, and movie are there to visually immerse the audience, while
the novels and other written plots of the story aid in giving depth to the characters so that readers will
want to continue the adventure through other platforms. It is a genius concept for storytelling, especially
in an age where digital media is encroaching on all forms of the entertainment industry. Tis way, sales
feed into each other, success in one hopefully leading to the success of others.
I have also learned about these other industries a great deal. I witnessed the professional atmosphere
of vying for investors willing to reach into their pockets. I got to sit in on talks about contracts for comics
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and board games. I have been invited to flming when it begins this summer, which is an industry I cannot
wait to be involved in. My work with Relium has proven to be my most valuable experience of my gradu-
ate studies. I am thrilled to have been asked to continue work with them throughout the summer, with
the hopes of actually writing ancillary content for their websites and designing swag for their products.
When the trend of transmedia storytelling takes of for them, I am honored to say that I have been a part
of it almost from the very beginning. And I thank Relium, its founders Scott Nelson and Kevin Curry,
and author Amber Keyser for the opportunity.
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123
Queer Poetry Salon
I
want to contribute to the growth of queer writing. In the past year, I have been following a group
out of NYC called Te Wilde Boys, founded by Alex Dimitrov. It is a hybrid reading group centered on a
workshop environment for queer poetry. A mix of younger and more established gay poets, it is a place for dis-
cussion and development of identity, poetry, and the lives of its members. I believe the writing community is
beginning to lose touch with this valuable tool of workshopping. Rarely do writers come together with the sole
intention of improving each other, growing their storytelling abilities by asking the opinions of others. Too often
do poetry readings become a place to spout your latest words with the stubbornness to say, Tis is fnished; there is
no improving this work.
I wish to see a revival in writers supporting each other, pushing a depth in others’ work that a mere reading can-
not achieve. I wish for queer writers to come together and push the mold of literature that has been constricted by
the gender roles that no longer portray the base of American society. As we move towards an unprecedented age
of acceptance and equality, it is important that our writing refect that struggle, give a picture of the period that
has liberated many from the uncomfortable restraints of sociosexual lobotomies. Tis is an age of self-exploration
and realization. And the cannon created by this generation of out and proud gay writers will fnd its natural place
among the great authors of our past who could not so easily discuss who they were.
Following my graduation, I will undertake the role of rallying the queer poets of Portland to defne this culture
in our city. Tis will take shape as a queer poetry salon (the name of which is yet to be decided). Tis meeting
of writers will foster the creation of LGBTQ poetry in Portland and establish a community in which they can
openly express their sexual desires, their struggles with acceptance, and their triumphs in the pursuit of equality.
More than a place to read and workshop poetry, the group will act as a liaison to all queer arts in Portland and will
collaborate with civil rights events wherever they might take part in the city. Because you see, literature nurtures
growth, growth leads to understanding, and understanding leads to acceptance. Tere is power in words, and it’s
time for our words to be read and heard by the community that has helped to build them.
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I have begun harvesting these poets I fnd myself reading with at various events around the city. Already, Aleks
Stefanova (founder of the social media site Q-Poetry.com) and Elizabeth Jake Hart (member of the Portland
Poetry Slam) have invested their time in this endeavor with me. By the fall of 2012, we hope to have sent out a
mass call for queer poets of Portland to join us for our frst event. Centered on the act of creating poetry, I imagine
these nights to begin with a socializing hour in which poets of like styles may gather to workshop their work.
Every meeting will conclude with a reading, celebrating those pieces poets have published or simply can’t wait to
share. Special events will include inviting musicians, artists, flm directors, performers, and writers of other genres
in the LGBTQ community. As the group becomes more established, perhaps zines or anthologies can be made
of the poetry we create together.
Together we can build a home for ourselves. Together we can attract the minds of others like us, collectively
nurturing this inner need to be recognized, to step out of the closet, and break the bonds that have stifed our
equality for too long. I believe everything in my life has prepared me for this. I feel confdent in my ability to grow
something big and benefcial for the advancement of understanding from the power of spoken word. Look for us
soon. Our voices have been quiet for too long.
Te Wilde Boys
Attn: Alex Dimitrov
adimitrov@gm.slc.edu
Subject: Queer Poetry Salon
Alex,
Tank you so much for getting back to me via Facebook. I have been admiring Te Wilde Boys for
some time from afar and have wanted desperately to fnd something similar in Portland, OR. I moved
here a year and a half ago, and sought out a gay poetry workshop or group, and was only able to fnd spo-
Te following is a letter to Te Wilde Boys founder Alex Dimitrov, asking for advice on how to start a similar group.
Tough he has not sent a full response, he has promised to get back to me as soon as his schedule slows. He seemed very
enthusiastic about the idea.
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radic readings around the city. Tere are feminist workshop groups, lesbian poetry nights, erotic poetry
nights, etc. But I have been unable to pinpoint a central place for queer poets to meet and do more than
read. I fnd my writing benefts greatly from this interaction.
So, as you can imagine, when I found out about Te Wilde Boys via the NY Times article, I was elated.
Tat is what Portland needs! Our literary community breathes with a frankness and outspokenness that
seems to normally surround an urban queer community, however I believe what makes ours unique is...
well, its weirdness. Portland is weird, therefore its queers are weird, and they own it! It is a quality I love
and think that when put into a central meeting of creative minds can evolve to strengthen and reach out
to the larger LGBT community, as well as others.
At the moment, I am preparing for graduation from my MA program, so in these preliminary stages, I
am trying to fnd the core group of some 5-10 poets to begin the decision making process. Once a what,
when, where, who, and how are decided, I plan to open invitations to the larger gay poet community. But I
was hoping to ask for your advice on how to get started. What steps did you take? What was your primary
way of reaching out? What would you do diferently?
I have begun a spreadsheet of some 20-30 contacts around the city. Tese were generated in only
the past couple days via Facebook outreach. Beyond that, I plan to write an article this summer,
hopefully to be published in some local LGBT zines, in order to discuss the importance, or rather
the necessity for queer poetry to the voice of the current LGBT generation. Should a core group
already be formed and decisions made, the article would serve as an ofcial invite to our frst round
of participants. I would love for the article to include comments on Te Wilde Boys, as well as from
the founder himself, if you would do me the honors. If so, I’d be happy to email you a list of ques-
tions or talk via skype or telephone. Tanks again for your response. I hope to talk to you soon.

Cheers!
J. Adam Collins
Ooligan Press
adam.collins@ooliganpress.pdx.edu
What’s a writer to do when he only uses
black pens and all that’s left are blue?
Poetry
I
am a writer by practice, not yet by trade. Tat part will come when I feel
comfortable enough with the writing I pour out on a daily basis. It so hap-
pens that I am just now falling in love with my poetry. It used to be a secret act.
I was afraid to let others read it. Troughout my college career, I took part in
classroom and peer workshops, familiarizing myself with my poetic voice. Now,
I go to readings frequently and have even worked up the nerve to bring my own
words to the mic.
Multiple people and tests have told me I should be a public speaker—my
mother, Jung, Myers Briggs, Tom Rath’s Strengthfnder, a palm reader in South
Beach. But there is something diferent about speaking the passion put into poetry;
something about the ebb and fow of syllables across lips, joy straight from the soul,
the pains experienced causing spit to collect on the microphone from all the power
behind them. It is a satisfyingly bulimic experience. It requires a diferent voice.
I record my poetry, now. Listen to it daily so the words get stuck in my head.
If someone asks me to read, I’m ready. If some whiskey-induced night spurs a
poetry reading in a hot tub, how many would you like to hear? I practice in the
shower. I read to the mirror. I will say a line twenty times just to get the tone of
one word right. Because I am falling in love with my poetry, I am also falling
in love with the way it sounds on my voice, or anyone else’s. And that’s how I
know I am comfortable enough to share it with the world.
Undoing
Tere are acres in the way you move, a foundation in your stance—toes cutting through the grass, heels rocking,
carving a home for us. I think I heard us here years ago, back when courage was a thing we slung over our shoulders
and vanity was etched in the crevices of our palms. I heard us like eggs frying, heard us like the heavy sigh of dust
resting fnally, heard us like the old Indian prayers running down the gutters. But now, ground broken, walls put
up, courage is a thing found in the bottom cupboard—a jar collecting pennies. Tis shanty was built too soon.
I was asleep while you danced the felds alone, sowing seeds with your pirouettes. I became accustomed to
the morning bringing you wrinkles, dew clinging to your crow’s feet, because your work is never fnished.
You play the part of the rain, the sun, scarecrow, the bee cross–pollinating (you’ve created a new hybrid),
earthworm, consumer. Your one man show draws quite the crowd—sagging fence heavy with the weight
of those many hands. Ten, they come knocking. Soon, they will seek handouts. But our spot of earth is
eroding. Te door creaks with indigestion. Te panes let go of their windows. I took the hands from the
clock and watched the termites eat the foor, even while the linens stayed fresh. But I closed the blinds long ago.
130
Somebody’s Mother
Bred from iron skillet gravy,
she felt saved by mountains,
saved by Jesus Christ,
saved by Fabio in a loincloth
with oversized sword in hand
(beneath the covers with a fashlight),
but vulnerable in the trailer park,
where she learned that
less is more,
you can’t skip rocks
when the stones are too large,
gay only means happy,
and neighbors can’t be trusted.
 
Fast forward to young adulthood.
She has given up on makeup
and does not see herself
as one Fabio might rescue,
swinging in from his mighty vine,
loincloth blowing, making her blush.
“I am woman,” she says.
“Hear me vacuum.”
And vacuum she does well,
pregnant belly pushing,
one hand stirring the pot,
one hand following the red print,
ears on the husband,
eyes on the neighbor.
She gives birth on the linoleum.
 
Fast forward four babies.
She is still pushing, stirring,
reading the red print,
looking for why Junior is diferent,
how to revive the spirit,
what she did wrong,
the proper way to wash her husband’s feet,
how to make fve barley loaves
and two fsh last a year.
 
Fast forward to retirement,
and there is none.
Grandchild spit–up over her shoulder,
with one hand, she stirs the pot
for her son and his college–educated
girlfriend. With the other, she
hides money under the foor boards—
hardwood foors, no carpet to vacuum.
Te neighbor stops by every Sunday
for a few cold ones, but Jesus doesn’t.
She eats chocolate before dinner,
plucks grays out of her head
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Thank You Mr. Frost
For pointing out
the one less traveled by.
I have been told the other is chock–full
of unmanned chainsaws and surveyors—
a constant buzz flling
the clenching stomachs of birds,
slap–knee braying opening the choke.
You may not recognize it now.
Tough the foliage still whispers
your name after nearly a century,
it can never get the pronunciation quite right.
I can only hear the cost of the lost
embossed cross against
the constant hum and grind.
What did you see in the undergrowth?
Because now, I feel its yearning
for the naturalist, the hippie
looking for an acre naturally plotted,
ready to yield his crop. It needs to be created. Needs
stones thrown to judge the distance. Buzz and chaw.
It needs an impressionable mind to ask,
which is now less traveled?
before dying it red,
and goes to the park at night
to bathe naked in the fountain,
as if it’s the creek of her mountain.
 
Fast forward to feebleness.
Her husband memorialized in red
for his devotion to God,
a place in the bed beside him
saved for her.
Her epitaph already written,
it says,
“She was one found beneath the covers
with a fashlight,
curtains closed, mascara on,
and Fabio in a loincloth
beneath her fngertips.”
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Forums

Today, I visited the place where a man will sprout.
I know because I planted him there
using a concoction found on a web–forum.
5 strands of male hair.
I used my own, not only because
they were easiest to get,
but because I hoped he might be similar.
3 olive pits.
4 rose petals to every thorn,
although this ratio was allowed to vary.
2 eucalyptus leaves.
(I increased this by 3; call it a bias decision).
16 ounces of milk.
Te recipe failed to mention how long I would wait,
what his memories might consist of,
a mind void of experiences, lacking observation.
I counted on his ignorance.

Today, I visited the place where a bud
has poked above the fallen foliage.
Te only sign of him is a tuft of brown hair,
green, delicate stem. Tree months since planting;
I must inquire of the forums again:
How to keep a plant alive through winter.
But they only address indoor plants.
For encouragement, I play him music
I hope he will like, or rather,
music he will like when he is grown.
New movements of today as well as
the classics that shaped them.
Beethoven, Sinatra, Jackson, Spears.
I read to him daily,
selections of King—Martin Luther and Stephen—
Jane Eyre, Paradise Regained,
verses from the New Testament, the Koran,
the Tao–Te–Ching.
While I’m away, I play for him audio books
in Portuguese, French, and Japanese
and imagine his someday conversations.

Today, I visited the place where a man has grown,
head attached to the sturdy stalk from which he hangs,
full, bearing fruit, and heavy;
a place I frequent less often,
though the books still play on.
A year since planting.
I consult the forums for advice:
To what end is free will made obsolete?
What is your view of nature versus nurture?
But I would leave him anyway,
abandon my responsibility,
133
and feel the weight lift, which
in a year, had left me bent and lame.
Afterwards, he would fall to the ground, ripe;
the stem upright once more, no longer needed
for the nutrients it once provided.
He would need me,
maybe love me.
And I could only wonder how he would fare.
To John
A procession no one can follow—after
we act as though they cannot actually see
the tripping of our toes, whiskey–heavy
from this bacchanalia. Tese nights
are for the ancients, so I must rip you
in two, then again. A quarter is for me. Te rest
fall and nuzzle in the sheets, folding over.
Whenever we kissed, remember I asked.

Whenever we kissed, remember? I asked:
fall and nuzzle in the sheets, folding over
in two. Ten again, a quarter is for me. Te rest
are for the ancients. So I must rip you
from this bacchanalia. Tese nights—
the tripping of our toes, whiskey–heavy—
we act as though they cannot actually see
a procession no one can follow after.
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eavesdropping
i hear the pillow sigh from seven hundred miles
as you return to the bed that embraces you
—or maybe accepts you in a non–habit–forming way.
the distance may be more or less or much more;
i only know it to be from thumb to forefnger
on the map to where i believe you to be.
i cannot see you. i can only hear you
day after day. steps on creaky hardwood.
shower curtain opening. the held–back whimper
of heartbreak; i can hear your teeth clench.
fngernail clippings falling on the foor.
a cough, a moan, frst puf of every cigarette.
i often sidestep pointless chatter with
those i don’t know.
and people fnd it odd when on
warm, dry days i do not wear my shoes for
fear of missing your conversations on buddhism,
your overzealous applause for karaoke,
meanderings through city streets as the dog leads you.
there are nights when i stay awake with you resonance.
i imagine you sitting, legs crossed, french doors open
in some city loft apartment. wind and horns.
i sit in my chair. there with you, hearing with you;
and then it’s quiet. your mind silenced by sleep.
if i don’t breathe, maybe your dreams,
your ambitions will echo.
propped up in bed, i wait for the sheets to whisper,
hoping with closed eyes that it will be you pulling back
the warmth that covers me, as you alleviate
the burden on my ears,
removing them and placing each in a cup of
warm water on the nightstand.
and for tonight i can return to
the bed that embraces me
—or maybe accepts me in your habit–forming way.
135
My Lesbia
My love is deaf—he has taken to
turning out and over
for anyone willing to read to him
the classifeds or Catullus’s
plea for a thousand and a hundred kisses.
He plays it back for me with headphones
and commentary.
Tis is what I’m missing
and I’ve already missed so much.
 
My love is blind—he has taken to
going out, along, and down
for olive skin and almond eyes.
He peels of tattoos
before returning home,
and stares at the mirror in a dark bathroom --
scars glowing, larger every day. It’s only when in bed
that he fnally opens his eyes.
 
My love is broken—he has taken to
tripping up and on
words littering a sidewalk.
Speech like peanut butter, he
pulls them from his pockets,
pulls them from his ears and nose with tweezers,
pulls them from the bottoms of his shoes.
He doesn’t know the diference
between what’s said and what needs to be.
 
My love is sick—he has taken to
wishing for and despite
a sudden change in weather --
with desperation in his whispers.
He scratches names into the walls while I sleep.
I paint over them each morning
and wash my hands until the soap loses its cherry scent,
because I can never fnd your name.
 
My love is sick and broken.
136
Men to Move My Mountain
Oh, mountains of West Virginia,
we were born and raised together,
got pushed around for lunch money
together, both fought for equality
at the price of inequality, put on
the dole together, dated high
school sweethearts until growing
pains crushed us together,
grew like moss on the north
side of two trees next to
each other, both got unionized,
gave each other the fu while
building a home together,
exploited, strip-topped, hollowed out,
but proud of these,
o’r yonder, them thar hills.
Together—until the day that I lef.
But mountains of Oregon,
oh Oregon,
how you have caught my eye
from your street corner
where you peddle your paintings.
Oh, white-capped like a garter
around the thigh mountains
of Oregon. Ask me to stay for one more
drink, please mountains of Oregon.
Make me sleep until noon
so that I can hold
you mountains of Oregon.
Let me be your benefciary,
your benevolent institution,
your beautiful brogue, the
incessantly broken minstrel
ruminating on your
volcaniclastic smile, steeping
in your dilettantish swagger,
making me virile
like a slack-jawed juvenile.
Appalachia, you were sun-dressed,
rolling like the curled biceps
of your men. We found each other
then got lost again all in
less than half a lifetime because
you hid me in the rocky shallows
of your rivers, stuck somewhere
between hills of maples and
God’s thumbnail. You hid me,
Appalachia, and now you’re
no longer returning my calls.
137
Mountains of Oregon, my Cascadia,
bust my bones along the dimples
of your craggy mouths. Tis
salty skim of water cresting
bleaches me to translucent skin.
I would never go home again,
if only you were to ask me to
come comb your beaches day by day,
mount and melt your glaciers
in the night. Ask it of me,
and I will stay, to listen in your caves
for those words that men would say
to make me sway and swoon.
Your scent, your strong jaw ridges,
stubbled evergreen, glowing
lightly in the moon—
it’s enough to make me
waste away the majority
of my days. Or sleep
at least until noon.