NDT TRAINING PROGRAM

ULTRASONIC METHOD

PRACTICAL & THEORRITICAL EXERCISE
Revision : 02




ASNT
Continuing
Education
In Nondestructive
Testing













The American Society for Nondestructive Testing




Page 1 of 19 Rev.: 02

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page
• EXPERIMENT 1........................................................................................ 2
• EXPERIMENT 2........................................................................................ 3
• EXPERIMENT 3........................................................................................ 4
• EXPERIMENT 4........................................................................................ 5
• EXPERIMENT 5........................................................................................ 6
• EXPERIMENT 6........................................................................................ 7
• EXPERIMENT 7 – A ................................................................................ 8
• EXPERIMENT 7 – B.................................................................................. 10
• EXPERIMENT 8........................................................................................ 12
• EXPERIMENT 9........................................................................................ 13
• EXPERIMENT 10...................................................................................... 14
• EXPERIMENT 11...................................................................................... 15
• EXPERIMENT 12...................................................................................... 16
• EXPERIMENT 13...................................................................................... 17
• EXPERIMENT 14...................................................................................... 18














Page 2 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 1


1. OBJ ECTIVE : Calibration of longitudinal wave in steel from 0 – 200 mm.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single and Twin normal 4 MHz probes and cables.
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block













4. TEST METHOD : 1. Place the probe in position A. Adjust delay control and time
base control to obtain indications exactly at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and
10.0. Now the equipment is calibrated for 100 mm steel.
2. Place the probe in position B, indication will appear at 10.0.
3. Place the probe in position C, no indication will appear on
screen.
4. Place the probe in position B. Adjust delay control and time
base control to obtain indications exactly at 5.0 and 10.0.
Now the equipment is calibrated for 200 mm steel.
5. Place the probe in position C, indication will appear at 10.0

5. REPORT : Draw all indications appear on the screen.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. In step 3, no indication will appear on screen, explain why?
2. Is it necessary to recalibrate when probe or probe cable are
changed ? Explain your answer.
3. Is it possible using step 1 to measure aluminum thickness up
to 100 mm?. Explain your answer.








A
B
C


Page 3 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 2


1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of linearity and resolution of Ultrasonic Set.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Set.
2. Single and twin normal 2 MHz and 4 MHz probes and cables
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1.

3. SCANNING :









4. TEST METHOD : A. Horizontal linearity.
1. Place the probe in position A. Calibrate the equipment for
250 mm steel.
2. Note the exact position of each indication.

B. Vertical linearity.
1. Calibrate the equipment for 100 mm steel. Adjust the fine
gain control to obtain the amplitude of the 1
st
indication
80% FSH. Note the amplitude of other indications.
2. Adjust the fine gain control to obtain the amplitude of the
1 st indication 100%, 60%, 40% and 29% FSH. Note the
amplitude of other indications.

C. Resolution.
1. Calibrate the equipment for 100 mm steel.
2. Place the probe in Position B to obtain three indications.
3. Adjust the fine gain control to obtain the amplitude of the
3
rd
indication 80% FSH. Note the position, amplitude and
width of all indications.

5. REPORT : Draw all indications appear on the screen.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. Does the horizontal linearity, vertical linearity and
resolutions meet the requirements of the Code?
Explain your answer 1.
2. What does the linearity and resolution depend on ?.


A
B


Page 4 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 3

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Calibration of longitudinal waves in steel from 0 – 100 mm.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Set.
2. Single and twin normal 4 MHz probes and cables.
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1

3. SCANNING :














4. TEST METHOD : 1. Place the probe in position A. Adjust delay control and
time base control to obtain indications exactly at 2.0,
4.0, 6.0 etc
2. Place the probe in position P. Note the position of the
indications on the screen.

5. REPORT : Draw all indication appear on the screen.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. What is the main difference between the display from a
single and twin probe?.
2. To measure thickness up to 20 mm which probe should be
used? Explain your reason !.
3. What is the dead zone?. Which does probe give the he least dead
zone.
4. Measure dead zone of each probe!









A
B
10
5


Page 5 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 4


1. OBJ ECTIVE : Comparison of various couplants.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set
2. Single normal 4 MHz probe and cable.
3. Couplants
4. Calibration block V1
5. Test Piece.

3. SCANNING :














4. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment for 50 mm steel.
2. Place the probe in position A using glycerin couplant.
3. Adjust the gain control to obtain the 1
st
indication 100%
FSH. Note the amplitude of the other indications.
4. Repeat step 2 and 3 for the other couplants.
5. Repeat step 2 to 4 on a rough steel test piece ( position B).

5. REPORT : Draw in one chart correlation between the amplitude of the
indications and the type of couplants.
6. QUESTIONS : Which is the best couplant?.












A B


Page 6 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 5

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of Probe Index and Probe Angle.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Set.

2. Single Angle 4 MHz 45°, 60°, and 70° probes and cables.
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1.

3. SCANNING :













4. TEST METHOD : A. Probe index.
1. Place the probe in position A
2. Adjust the time base control to obtain one indication
on screen..
3. Move the probe to and fro to obtain a maximum indication.
4. Note and mark the position of the probe scale which
coincide with the V1 prove. This mark is the probe Index.

B. Probe Angle
1. Place the probe in position B
2. Adjust the time base control to obtain one indication on
screen.
3. Move the probe to and fro to obtain a maximum indication
from the prespex.
4. Note the position of angle scale on V1 which coincide with
the Probe Index. This scale is the Probe Angle.

5. REPORT : Report the Probe Index and Probe Angle of each probe.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. Is the Probe Index and Probe Angle acceptable?
2. What other method may be used to check the Probe Index
and Probe Angle?.

B
A


Page 7 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 6

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Calibration of transverse wave in steel 0 – 125 mm.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Set.
2. 2. Single Angle 4 MHz 45°, 60°, and 70° probes and cables.
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1. and V2.

3. SCANNING :












4. TEST METHOD : A. Using V1
1. Place the probe in position A.
2. Adjust the probe position and the time base control to
obtain 1 st maximum indication at scale 10.0.
3. Adjust the delay control to move the 1 st indication from
scale 10.0 to 0.0.
4. Adjust the time base and delay control to obtain the 1 st
indication at 0.0 and the 2
nd
indication at 10.0 exactly.
5. Adjust the delay control to move the 1 st indication from
0.0 to 10.0. Now this equipment is calibrated for 100 mm.

B. Using V2
1. Place the probe in position B.
2. Adjust the probe position and the time base control to
obtain 1 st maximum indication at scale 2.5 and 10.0.
Now the equipment is calibrated for 100 mm.

5. REPORT : Draw all indication appear on screen.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. Why shall methode A and B be done in such a way.
2. How could you obtain 125 mm range following thus
procedures?.



A
B


Page 8 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 7 - A

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Assessment of vertical beam spread from a transverse probe.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single angle 4 MHz 45°, 60 , and 70 probes and cable.
3. Couplant.
4. Beam spread block.
5. Calibration block V1 or V2

3. SCANNING :




o

o


o






4. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment for 100 mm steel.
2. Place the probe in position A directed to the 1
st
hole.
3. Move the probe to obtain the maximum indication of the
1 st hole and adjust the gain control to obtain the amplitude
100% FHS. Note the beam path length (BPL =So), the
stand of distance ( SOD =Xo ) and the depth of the hole d ( Yo ).
4. Move the probe forward until the amplitude is reduced to
10 % FSH ( 20 dB drop ). Note the BPL ( S1 ), SOD ( X1 ) d ( Y1 ).
5. Move the probe backward until the amplitude becomes
larger, move further until the amplitude is reduced to10%
FSH. Note the BPL ( S2 ),SOD (X2) AND d (Y2)
6. repeat step 2 to 5 for the the 2
nd
hole, 3 rd hole

5. REPORT : Plot the correlation between X and Y of each probe on
a graphic paper.

6. QUESTIONS : 1. What is the probe angle of each probe?
2. What is the total beam spread of each probe?
Compare the result to the theoretical value



A


Page 9 of 19 Rev.: 02


VERTICAL BEAM ASSESSMENT RECORD


Beam path length
( BPL = S )
Stand of distance
( SOD = X )
Depth of hole ( d = Y
)
No.
(So) S1 S2 Xo X1 X2 Yo Y1 Y2
Remarks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10









Page 10 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 7 - B

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Assessment of vertical beam spread from a transverse probe.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single angle 4 MHz 45°, 60 , and 70 probes and cable.
3. Couplant.
4. Beam spread block.
5. Calibration block V1 or V2

3. SCANNING :




o

o


o






4. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment for 100 mm steel.
2. Place the probe in position A directed to the 1
st
hole.
3. Move the probe to obtain the maximum indication of the
1 st hole and adjust the gain control to obtain the amplitude
100% FHS. Mark the index point to the Beam spread block ( Xo )
4. Move the probe forward until the amplitude is reduced to
10 % FSH ( 20 dB drop ). Mark the index point to the Beam spread
block ( X1 )
5. Move the probe backward until the amplitude becomes
larger, move further until the amplitude is reduced to10%
Mark the index point to the Beam spread block ( X2 )
6. Repeat step 2 to 5 for the 2
nd
hole, 3 rd hole, etc.

5. REPORT :1.Draw all the holes with the correct ordinate as in the Beam spread
block on the a graphic paper.
2. Draw the X1 and X2 of each the hole horizontally
3. Connect all the holes , X1 and X2

6. QUESTIONS : 1. What is the total beam spread of each probe?
2. Compare the result to the theoretical value


A


Page 11 of 19 Rev.: 02



VERTICAL BEAM ASSESSMENT RECORD


Stand of distance
( SOD = X )
Remarks No.

No. of hole
/ depth
Xo X1 X2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10









Page 12 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 8


1. OBJ ECTIVE : Construction of DAC curve.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single angle 4 MHz 45° , 60° , and 70° probes and cable
3. Couplant
4. Basic Calibration Block
5. Calibration block V1 or V2

3. SCANNING :



o

o

o






4. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment in term of plate thickness.
2. Place transparent sheet on the screen. Mark the scale and
note the probe angle on the transparent sheet.
3. Place the probe in position A directed to ¼ T hole.
Maximize the amplitude and then use the gain control to
obtain amplitude 80% FSH ( =100 % DAC ).
Mark the indication peak on the sheet and note the gain
control position ( G1 ).
4. Adjust the gain control to obtain 50% DAC and 20% DAC
and mark each peak on the sheet. Readjust the gain control
to G1.
5. Repeat step 3 to 4 for 1 / 2 T, 3 / 4 T and 5 / 4 T holes.

Note : If the amplitude of 100 % DAC of any hole is less than
20 % FSH, add the gain until the amplitude is 80% FHS.
Note the gain control position ( G2 )

5. REPORT : Plot the DAC curve of each probe.






Page 13 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 9

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of transfer of losses.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw detector set
2. A pair of single angle 4 MHz 45°, 60°, and 70° probes and
cable.
3. Couplant.
4. Calibration block V1
5. Test piece.

3. SCANNING :

















4. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment in term of plate thickness
2. Use two identical probes and place the probes in position A.
3. Maximize the amplitude and adjust the gain control to
obtain amplitude 80% FSH. Note the gain control position
( G1 ).
4. Repeat step 2 to 3 for the test piece and note the gain
control position ( G1 ).
5. REPORT : Calculate Transfer of Losses of each probe ( G2 – G1 ).












Page 14 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 10


1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of flaw size using 6 dB drop and equalization
technique.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Set.
2. Single or twin normal probe and cable
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1
5. Test pieces.

3. SCANNING :










4. SENSITIVITY : 100% FSH of back wall +6 dB.

5. TEST METHOD : A. 6 dB drop.
1. Calibrate the equipment for 50 mm steel.
2. Place the probe on flawless part of the test piece, note the
thickness. Adjust the gain control to obtain amplitude 100%
FSH.
3. Move the probe to obtain a flaw indication, maximize the
amplitude and adjust the gain control to obtain 100% FSH
from the flaw indication. Note the flaw depth.
4. Scan the surface of the test piece to obtain flaw amplitude
50% FSH ( 6 dB difference ). Mark the probe position on
the surface, this mark indicate the edge of the flaw.
5. Move the probe to the other direction to obtain the other
edge of flaw ( 50 % FSH flaw amplitude or 6 dB
difference )

B. Equalization Technique.
1. Repeat step A 1 to 5 except the flaw amplitude is equal to
the back wall amplitude.

6. REPORT : 1. Draw the B and C scan of the flaw.
2. Compare the result of 6 dB drop to the equalization
technique!
7. QUESTIONS : Which technique give the most accurate result !


Page 15 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 11

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of flaw size using 20 dB drop.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single angle 4 MHz 45° , 60° , and 70° probes and cable
3. Couplant.
4. Calibration block V1 or V2.
5. Test Pieces.

3. SCANNING :



o









4. SENSITIVITY : 100 % FSH of u Ø 1.5 mm hole of V1 +6 dB.

5. TEST METHOD : 1. Calibrate the equipment in term of plate thickness.
2. Place the probe in position A directed to 1.5 holes.
Maximize the amplitude, adjust the gain control to obtain
amplitude 100% FSH and add 6 dB. Note the gain control
position ( G1 ).
3. Place the probe in position B directed to the side drilled
holes of the test piece.
4. Maximize the flaw amplitude and bring to 100% FSH using
the gain control adjustment. Note the BPL (So) and SOD
(Xo).
5. Move the probe forward until the flaw amplitude is 10%
FSH ( 20 dB difference ). Note the BPL ( S1 ) and SOD
(X1).
6. Move the probe backward to obtain the 10% FSH ( 20 dB
difference ) and note the BPL. ( S2 ) and SOD ( X2 ).
7. Repeat step 3 to 6 for the other flaws.

5. REPORT : Draw the flaw location and size of the test piece using at least
to probes.




Page 16 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 12

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of flaw location and flaw size using DAC curve
in butt weld joint of plate and pipe.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single or twin normal 4 MHz probe and single angle 4 MHz
45°, 60°, and 70° probes and cables.
3. Couplant.
4. Calibration block V1 or V2.
5. Flaw Location Slide and Beam Spread.
6. DAC Curve.

3. SCANNING :














4. SENSITIVITY : 100% DAC +transfer of losses

5. SIZING : DAC Curve

6. TEST METHOD : 1. Draw the cross section of the weld of transparent sheet.
2. Draw the center line of weld and the scanning limits on both
side of weld.
3. Check the lamination which may occur in the plate / pipe.
4. Check the root indication of the weld.
5. Scan the weld using 45° and 60° or 70° probe between the
scanning limits to obtain flaw in the weld.
6. Locate the flaw in using Flaw Location Slide.
7. Size the flaw using DAC curve.

7. RESULT : Draw the flaw location and size in B and C scan ( cross
sectional and plan view ).

8. QUESTION : Suggest the type of the flaw.



Page 17 of 19 Rev.: 02


EXPERIMENT 13

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of flaw location and flow size using 6 dB and
20 dB drop in butt weld joint of plate and pipe.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single or twin normal 4 MHz probe and single angle 4 MHz
45°, 60° , and 70° probe and cables.
3. Couplant.
4. Calibration block V1 and V2.
5. Flaw Location Slide and beam Spread.

3. SCANNING :












4. SENSITIVITY : 100% FSH of Ø 1,5 mm hole of V1 +6 dB +transfer of
losses.

5. SIZING : 6 dB drop for the flow length,
20 dB drop for he flaw height.

6. TEST METHOD : 1. Draw the cross section of the weld on transparent sheet.
2. Draw the center line of weld and the scanning limits on both
side of weld.
3. Check the lamination, which may occur in the plate/pipe.
4. Check the root indication of the weld.
5. Scan the weld using 45° and 60° or 70° probe between the
scanning limits to obtain flaw in the weld.
6. Locate the flaw using. Flaw Location Slide and Beam
Spread.
7. Size the length and they height of the flaw using 6 dB and
20 dB drop.

7. RESULT : Draw the flaw location and size in B and C scan ( cross
sectional and plan view ).

8. QUESTION : Suggest the type of the flaws.


Page 18 of 19 Rev.: 02

EXPERIMENT 14

1. OBJ ECTIVE : Determination of flaw location and flaw size using 6 dB and
20 dB drop in T joint welded plate.

2. EQUIPMENT : 1. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector set.
2. Single pr twin normal 4 MHz probe and single angle
45°, 60°, and 70° probes and cables.
3. Couplant
4. Calibration block V1 or V2.
5. Flaw Location Slide and Beam Spread.

3. SCANNING :












4. SENSITIVITY : 100% FSH of Ø 1.5 mm hole or V1 +6 dB +transfer or
losses.

5. SIZING : 6 dB drop for the flaw length,
20 dB drop for the flaw height.

6. TEST METHOD : 1. Draw the cross section of the weld on transparent sheet.
2. Draw the reference line of weld and the scanning limits on
both side of weld.
3. Check the lamination which may occur in the plate.
4. Check the root indication of the weld.
5. Scan the weld using single/twin normal probe from under
wath of the weld.
6. Scan the weld using 45° and 60° or 70° probe from any
possible plate surface.
7. Locate the flaw using Flaw Location Slide and Beam
Spread.
8. Size the flaw length using 6 dB drop and the flaw height
using 20 dB drop.

7. RESULT : Draw the flaw location and size in B and C scan ( cross
sectional and plan view ).
8. QUESTIONS : Suggest the type of the flaws.


Page 19 of 19 Rev.: 02















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