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THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF CAST AND
WROUGHT HASTELLOY C IS 70% ENHANCED
WHEN REMOVING THE UNWANTED COMPLEX
CARBIDES FROM THEIR MICROSTRUCTURE.

George A. Calboreanu, Ph.D.
A.R.Wilfley & Sons Inc.
Denver – CO.

Abstract.
The gamma matrix of all Hastelloy C materials contains non-coherent complex carbides
which are mainly located at the austenite grain boundaries. These complex carbides have
a large variety of sizes and shapes and they diminish the mechanical properties and the
corrosion resistance.

When carbides are removed through an optimized dissolution reaction the mechanical
properties of Hastelloy CW-2M increase significantly.
Tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are 25%, 17% and 95% higher then
minimum requirement of ASTM A494. The paper calls this material Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M.

The yield strength of wrought HC276 manufactured wi t h t he additional carbide
dissolution process is 22% higher than the yield strength of Std. HC276. The pulling test
was carried out on two specimens machined from a 4- inch diameter dissected bar-stock.
One half was additionally processed. The material is called Improved HC276.

The comparative corrosion performance of Improved and Std. Hastelloy CW-2M were
tested in the following applications:

1. Sulfuric acid - o ften Chemical Plants employ directly or indirectly pumps to dilute
concentrated sulfuric acid. A comparative corrosion test between Improved and Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M was accomplished in 95% sulfuric acid at 250
0
F. The corrosion
resistance of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M was 83% better than Std. Hastelloy CW-
2M. In 75-90% sulfuric acid at 150
0
F the corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-
2M is 0.95 MPY which is multifold lower than the published corrosion rate of
wrought Hastelloy C4.
2. Phosphoric acid - after 600 hours of service testing in a pumping fluid containing 91-
97% phosphoric acid, around 1% hydrochloric acid and traces of hydrofluoric acid at
257
0
F the number of corroded pits on 0.75 mm
2
surface of Improved Hastelloy CW-
2M was two, the number of corroded pits of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M was 38 while
A20 (CN7M) austenitic stainless steel had 72 pits.
3. Hydrochloric acid - in 6% hydrochloric acid at 140
0
F the corrosion rate of Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M was nil. This is an excellent achievement because the NACE
2
published compounded Iso-corrosion chart of hydrochloric acid doesn’t recommend
Hastelloy C, a less expensive material, for such operation.
4. Sodium Hypochlorite - t he corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M in 6%
sodium hypochlorite at 200
0
F is 0.14 MPY which is a multifold lower corrosion rate
than 46 MPY the NACE published corrosion rate of Std. Hastelloy C in 1.5-6%
sodium hypochlorite at 150-200
0
F. Under the circumstances in 6% sodium
hypochlorite applications Improved Hastelloy CW-2M may successfully replace
expensive titanium alloys.
5. Fluosilisic acid - is an important by-product in Phosphate Fertilizer Systems. Usually
plastic pumps are used in such applications nonetheless the pump seal is metallic.
Fluosilisic acid is extremely corrosive and the pump seal shouldn’t leak at any time.
In 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F the corrosion rate of Improved HC276 was 6 MPY
versus 45 MPY the corrosion rate of Std. HC276 and 7 MPY the corrosion rate of
Hastelloy C2000. Improved HC276 has significantly smaller, isolated and fewer pits
than Std. HC276. This result is remarkable because the weight losses through pitting
attack are generally low. Since then the seal components with Improved HC276 were
successfully introduced in service.

All the corrosion rates presented in this paper were calculated according to ASTM G1.

The carbide dissolution process is applicable for any shape or size of as-cast, wrought
and final machined Hastelloy C parts.

INTRODUCTION:

The Hastelloy C families of alloys are nickel-chromium- molybdenum based and they
have large application ranges due to their ability of successfully withstanding oxidizing
and some reducing corrosive attack. The chemical composition of the five Hastelloy C
alloys produced by the Metal Casting Industry is specified by ASTM A494 and is shown
in Table 1.
Table 1.
Element % # Alloy
C
Max.
Mn
Max.
Si
Max.
P
Max.
S
Max.
Mo Fe Cr W V Cb
(Nb)
Ni
1 CW-
12MW
0.12 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030
16.0
18.0
4.5
7.5
15.5
17.5
3.75
5.25
0.20
0.40
Rem.
2 CW-6M 0.07 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030
17.0
20.0
Max
3.0
17.0
20.0
Rem.
3 CW-2M 0.02 1.00 0.80 0.030 0.030
15.0
17.5
Max
2.0
15.0
17.5
Max
1.0
Rem.
4 CW-
6MC
0.06 1.00 1.00 0.015 0.015
8.0
10.0
Max
5.0
20.0
23.0
3.15
4.50
Rem.
5 CX
2MW
0.02 1.00 0.80 0.025 0.025
12.5
14.5
2.0
6.0
20.0
22.5
2.5
3.5
Max
0.35
Rem.

In the USA Hastelloy CW-2M and Hastelloy CW-6M are more frequently poured than
the other three Hastelloys. Both Hastelloys, CW-2M and CW-6M have excellent
castability, physical and mechanical properties a n d t hey ar e regularly used in
manufacturing “wetted end” pump components.
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The most common wrought Hastelloy C’s employed in pump constructions are HC276,
HC22 and HC4.

The enhanced mechanical properties and corrosion resistance presented in this paper are
referring to heat treated cast Hastelloy CW-2M and wrought HC276.

THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, CORROSION RESISTANCE AND
MICROSTRUCTURE OF HASTELLOY CW-2M WERE TESTED ONLY ON
SAMPLES EXTRACTED FROM KEEL BLOCKS.

The difference between the amount and morphology of as-cast and heat treated complex
carbides is unessential. However the size, distribution and shape of complex carbides are
greatly influenced by the solidification rates of the molten metal – see Photo 1 through 4.



























Arrow “A” in Photo 1 shows the location which was magnified from X40 to X500 in
Photo 2.
The complex carbides in the Hastelloy CW-2M investment casting are either isolated




Photo 1 and 2 are SEM microstructural views of isolated spherical and irregular polygonal
shaped complex carbides in a small Hastelloy CW-2M investment casting. The
magnifications are X40 and X500.
Photo 3 and 4 are SEM microstructural views of the complex carbides continuous network
in a static sand poured Hastelloy CW-2M keel block. The size of the keel block is
considerably larger than the investment casting. The magnifications are X40 and X500.

A
Photo 1.
Photo 4. Photo 3.
Photo 2.
A
B
C
E
F
D
4
The complex carbides of the Hastelloy CW-2M investment casting are either isolated
spherical dots or irregular polygonal shaped with a length range of 5 – 20 mm.

Arrow “A” in Photo 1 shows the area which was magnified to X500 in Photo 2. Arrow
“B” is pointing to a three complex carbide formation. Due to the complex carbides
brittleness one out of the three carbides broke away during the metallographic sample
preparation. The “C” Arrows show the empty location of other two complex carbides
which were removed through sample grinding and etching. Arrow “D” in Photo 3
indicates the Hastelloy CW-2M keel block location which was magnified from X40 to
X500 in Photo 4. The main heat flow line in Photo 3 is shown with Arrow “E” and it
directly influenced the complex carbide solidification pattern. The complex carbide
configuration seen in Photo 4 is a continuous dot network and one large irregular
polygonal shaped complex carbide. Arrow “F” is pointing to the irregular polygonal
shaped complex carbide which was partially dislodged from the austenitic matrix at some
point in sample preparation.

The amount, shape and distribution of the complex carbides between the investment
casting and the static sand poured keel block are significantly different and they directly
influence the physical and mechanical properties of Hastelloy CW-2M.

Because the testing samples were extracted only from keel blocks all results discussed in
the paper are repeatable.

























Fig.1 is the front view of the cast keel block as specified by ASTM A781. The keel
block length is 6- inch.
Fig.2 shows the Std. Hastelloy CW-2M small investment casting which has a
completely different microstructure than the keel block.
B
C
C
B
A
A
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
D
E
5
The testing legs of the keel block seen in Fig.1 are detached along the A-A plan. Arrow D
shows the keel block riser whilst Arrow “E” points to one keel block leg. Both keel block
legs are detached from the riser and heat treated with the pertaining Hastelloy CW-2M
casting batch. In this way the microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical
properties are intrinsic related to identical chemical compositions and heat treatment.
Sections B-B and C-C show the dissection surfaces of the small investment casting from
which the metallographic sample was extracted.


























THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HASTELLOY CW-2M ARE
MAXIMIZED THROUGH COMPLEX CARBIDE DISSOLUTION.

Photo 6 and 7 are optical microstructure views of Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
The complex carbides are the product reaction of carbon with the refractory molybdenum
element and the major matrix elements of nickel, chromium, iron and silicon. The
solidification direction path is determined by the partition coefficients K
Mo
and K
Cr
that
govern solute redistribution during solidification. [1]

The three “A” Arrows in Photo 6 point to some complex carbides located at the grain
boundaries while the two “B” Arrows indicate that a few complex carbides are contained
in the austenite grain. Arrow “C” identifies one of the few heterogeneous inclusions
always present in static sand poured castings.

Photo 5 – shows the laboratory and service corrosion resistance testing sample extracted
from the keel block leg or a wrought product. The sample dimensions are 1x1x0.25 – inch
with a 0.25-inch diameter center hole.

Photo 5.
6

























The Hastelloy CW-2M microstructure with dissolute complex carbides is shown in
Photo7. After completing the dissolution process only a light gray contour indicates the
former complex carbide locations – see the two “D” Arrows.

Improved Hastelloy CW-2M without complex carbides has less microstructural features
therefore the heterogeneous inclusions are more visible – see the three “E” Arrows. The
mechanical properties per ASTM A494 and the mechanical properties of Hastelloy CW-
2M with dissolute complex carbides are shown in Table 2.

Table 2.
Hastelloy CW-2M Mechanical
Properties

ASTM A494 Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M
% Improvement
Tensile strength
[PSI]
Min. 72,000
90,000 +25
Yield strength
[PSI]
Min. 40,000
46,700 +17
Elongation [%]

Min. 20%
39% +95
Hardness [HBN]
160
Photo 6 is an optical microscopic view of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M. The network of complex
carbides is mainly located at the grain boundaries however some complex carbides are within
the austenite grain.
Photo 7 is the optical microscopic view of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M with dissolute
complex carbides.
30 mm
50 mm
Photo 6.
Photo 7.
D E A C B
7
























During the experimentation and implementation of the carbide dissolution process it was
established that is beneficial having a small amount of properly distributed complex
chromium carbides within t he austenitic matrix. Tensile strength, yield strength and
elongation of I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M increased 25%, 17% and 95% above the
minimum requirement of ASTM A494 – see Table 2 and Fig.3.
















In Photo 8 the A-A Arrows indicate the pulling tensile directions. Arrow “B” points
toward the fractured surface location on which fractography analyses were completed.
Fig. 3 bar graph shows the mechanical properties of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M
versus the min. request of ASTM A494. Tensile strength, yield strength and
elongation are 25%, 17% and 95% higher than the minimum requirement of ASTM
A494.

Photo 8.
A A
B
Photo 8 shows the tested
tensile specimen of
Improved Hastelloy CW-
2M as specified by
ASTM A370.
0
20
40
60
80
100
KSI / %
UTS Yield EI
Mechanical properties
Hastelloy CWE-2M with dissolute complex carbides.
Hastelloy CW-2M according to ASTM A494
90
72
46.7
39%
40 20%
8
Photo 9 and 10 are SEM fractography views at X15 and X2000 magnification of the area
adjacent to the fractured surface of the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M sample.
Arrows “1”, “2” and “3” show that the slip planes are moving parallel and unimpeded
within t he Improved Hastelloy CW-2M austenite grain. Nevertheless the slip planes
movement stops at the grain boundaries. As expected each grain has its own slip planes
and they have different orientations from those of the neighboring grains.





















Arrow “4” points to a grain boundary of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M. Generally all grain
boundaries of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M are free of complex carbide and dislocation
pile ups.

Concluding remarks of the complex carbide dissolution influence on the high mechanical
properties of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
· The mechanical properties of I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M increased significantly
through complex carbides dissolution. Tensile strength, yield strength and elongation
are 25%, 17% and 95% higher than the minimum requirement of ASTM A494.
· The fractography of the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M pulling tested specimen showed
that slip planes are parallel moving and without restrain inside the austenite grain while
the grain boundaries are free of complex carbides and dislocation pile ups.








Photo 9 and 10 are SEM views at X15 and X2000 magnification of the area adjacent to
the fractured surface of the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M tensile tested specimen.
Photo 9. Photo 10.
1
2 3
4
9
EVALUATING THE DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT, SIZE, SHAPE AND
DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMPLEX CARBIDES IN STD. AND IMPROVED
HASTELLOY CW-2M.




























The microstructure of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M has two types of complex carbides:
· High density spread dot shaped complex carbides which most of time are touching
each other – see Arrow “F”.
· Larger and fewer irregular shaped complex carbides. These carbides are located inside
or outside the scattered dot carbide cloud – see Arrow “B” and “C”.

At X2000 magnification the presumably dot complex carbide areas seen in Photo 11 and
12 are actually empty spaces because the complex carbides were almost entirely removed
in the course of sample preparation – see Photo 13. Depending on the plan of cut some
holes are deeper or shallower – see Arrow “D” and “E”. Arrow “A” indicates a 20x20
mm
2
surface which contains 148 holes.





Photo 11, 12 and 13 are SEM views of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M. The microstructure
magnification in Photo 11 and 12 is X500 while the magnification in Photo 13 is X2000.
Photo 11.
Photo 12.
Photo 13.
A
D
E
B C
F
10




















The few complex carbides of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M seen in the SEM views at
X500 magnification in Photo 14 and 15 are different than the complex carbides of Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M, respectively:
· The dot complex carbide number within the 20x20 mm
2
surface identified with Arrow
“A” is 48 and they never contact each other.
· The larger and irregular shaped complex carbides with one exception are coherent with
the austenite matrix - see Arrow “B”
· Arrow “C” points to a larger and undamaged complex carbide. Evidently the sample
preparation didn’t affect the integrity of the complex carbides contained in the
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M matrix.


Concluding remarks on the complex carbide number, brittleness and distribution in Std.
and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
· In a 20x20 mm
2
surface the average dot complex carbide number of Std. Hastelloy CW-
2M is 148 versus 48 of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M. This is a 77% reduction of the dot
complex carbide number when manufacturing Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
· During the metallographic sample preparation the dot complex carbides of Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M broke away while the dot complex carbides of Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M remained intact.
· The dot complex carbides of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M aren’t connected contrary to
the dot complex carbides of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M. Removing the connected dot
complex carbides of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M i n sample preparation produced empty
ditches which increased the material corrosion rate.

Photo 14 and 15 are SEM microstructure views at X500 magnification of Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M.
Photo 14. Photo 15.
A
B
C
11
· All the larger and irregular shaped complex carbides of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M are
dislodged from the matrix whilst the majority of the complex carbides are unaltered in
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
· The higher brittleness and number of complex carbides in Std. Hastelloy CW-2M
inflict holes or ditches which become corrosion initiation sites and diminish the
corrosion resistance.


QUANTIFYING THE HARMFUL INFLUENCE OF THE COMPLEX CARBIDES
ON THE CORROSION RATE OF STD. AND IMPROVED HASTELLOY CW-2M
IN HOT CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID.

Generally Hastelloy C alloys have a modest corrosion resistance in hot concentrated
sulfuric acid compared to other Ni-base materials. However every pump manufacturer is
interested in increasing the performance of Hastelloy C alloys in such operations because
chemical plants are often using directly or indirectly pumps to dilute concentrated
sulfuric acid.

The comparative corrosion performance test between I mproved and Std. Hastelloy CW-
2M was accomplished in 95% sulfuric acid at 250
0
F. The testing point is shown with
Arrow “A” on the sulfuric acid Iso-corrosion of wrought Hastelloy C4 – see Fig.4.
At the end of 72 hours laboratory test the corrosion rates of Std. and Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M were 130 MPY versus 71 MPY – see Arrow “B” and “C” in Fig. 4. The
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M renders 83% lower corrosion rate than Std. processed
Hastelloy CW-2M.

The bar graph in Fig. 5 illustrates the comparative corrosion rate in 95% sulfuric acid at
250
0
F of wrought Hastelloy C4, Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M.
Service results showed similar outcome.


















Fig. 4 shows the
Iso-corrosion
chart of Hastelloy
C4 in sulfuric
acid. The two red
lines identify the
laboratory testing
conditions.
A
B
C
Fig. 4.
12




















Photo 16 and 17 are SEM sample surface views of corroded Std. and Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M. The samples were tested in the same bicker for 72 hours. Std. Hastelloy CW-
2M corroded extensively along the dendritic boundaries – see the two “A” Arrows i n
Photo 16. The white colored primary, secondary and tertiary dendritic arms are without
any corrosion attack while the spaces between them are severely corroded – see “B” and
“C” Arrows.

This finding agrees with the published study accomplished on the solidification process
of welded Hastelloy C. Although it was originally assumed that the undercooling of the
dendritic tip is negligent the solute rejection ahead of the solidification front can be
significant. [1]
















Fig. 5 bar graph illustrates the corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M, Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M and wrought HC4.
155
130
74
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
M
P
Y
Wrought HC4 Std, CW-2M Improved, CW-2M
Fig. 5
Photo 16.
Photo 17.
A B
E
C
D
73 mm 73 mm
13





The surface of the I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M sample has significantly less corrosion
damage than the Std. Hastelloy CW-2M sample. Both “D” Arrows are pointing to the
locations of possible former complex carbide grain boundaries. The round corroded pits
seen in Photo 17 – two of them are shown with the “E” Arrows – are probably the former
sites of heterogeneous inclusions.

Photo 18 shows the field tested SEM sample surface of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M. At
the end of four service testing weeks in 75-90% sulfuric acid at 150
0
F the corrosion rate
was 0.95 MPY which is “excellent” according to the NACE ranking.


























The two “A” Arrows point to the tip of the austenite dendritic arms and they have the
highest corrosion resistance. The “B” Arrows show the beginning of an intergranular
corrosive attack along the austenite grain boundaries while the “C” Arrow shows t he
former location of a heterogeneous inclusion which dissolute and commenced shaping
into corrosion pit.

Photo 16 and 17 are SEM corroded surface views of Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-
2M after completing a 72 hours corrosion test in 95% concentrated sulfuric acid at
250
0
F.
Photo 18 is the SEM surface view of the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M service tested
sample. The test was accomplished in 75 – 90% concentrated sulfuric acid at 150
0
F.
After four weeks of field testing the corrosion rate is 0.945 MPY.
120 mm
B
A
C
Photo 18.
14
Concluding remarks established on the comparative corrosion resistance test of Improved
and Std. Hastelloy CW-2M in hot concentrated sulfuric acid.

· The corrosion attack of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M in 95% sulfuric acid at 250
0
F starts in
two locations, the grain boundaries and around the dendritic tips of the austenite grains.
· After 72 hours of testing under laboratory conditions the corrosion rate of Std. and
Improved Hastelloy C are 130 MPY and 74 MPY. This represents 83% better
corrosion resistance of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M versus Std. Hastelloy CW-2M.
· During a four week field corrosion test in 75-90% sulfuric acid at 150
0
F the corrosion
rate of I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M was 0.95 MPY. This is a multifold enhanced
corrosion resistance over the published corrosion rate of wrought Hastelloy C4.
· Based on the superior corrosion resistance of I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M when
requested pumps are supplied with the new material.
· Photo 19 and 20 show the front and backside of the A7 frame 4 Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M final machined “case plate”.























COMPARATIVE SERVICE TESTED CORROSION RESISTANCE RESULTS
OF A20 (CN7M), STD. AND IMPROVED HASTELLOY CW-2M
ACCOMPLISHED IN A FERTILIZER PLANT.
The following are the pumping parameters:
· 91-97% phosphoric acid;
· 0.96% hydrochloric acid;
· 0.19% hydrofluoric acid;
· 115
0
C (257
0
F) operating temperature;
Photo 19 and 20 are front and backside views of a final machined A7 frame 4 Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M “case plate”.
Photo 19. Photo 20.
15
· The field test of Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M started on 11/21/2006 and ended
on 12/17/2006 – a total of 600 hours.
· The A20 (CN7M) test began on 11/27/2006 and ended on 12/17/2006 – a total of 480
hours.
· The test was briefly interrupted three times to check the weight losses of the testing
coupons.


Table 3 was completed by the customer.

Table 3.














The calculated corrosion rates are shown in Fig. 6 bar graph.





















dark green
acid
93 1.75/24 -0.88
29.385
0
-0.85
32.186
9
-0.64
31.927
3 12/17/2006
dark green
acid
95 1.808/23 -0.77 29.561 -0.73
32.294
7
-0.53
32.024
8
12/11/2006
dark green
acid
97
1.832/24
°
-0.49 29.645 -0.42
32.396
0
-0.36
32.081
4
12/3/2006
dark green
acid
97
1.832/24
°
29.791
2
-0.22
32.462
4
-0.20
32.131
6
11/27/2006
91
1.723/22
°
32.532
8
32.197
0
11/21/2006
(%) kg/l@
O
C
loss
(%)
weight
loss
(%)
weight
loss
(%)
weight
Visual
Diagnosis
H
3
PO
4
Theoretic
al conc.
Acid
Density
ALLOY 20 HAST C CW2M C
Date
dark green
acid
93 1.75/24 -0.88
29.385
0
-0.85
32.186
9
-0.64
31.927
3 12/17/2006
dark green
acid
95 1.808/23 -0.77 29.561 -0.73
32.294
7
-0.53
32.024
8
12/11/2006
dark green
acid
97
1.832/24
°
-0.49 29.645 -0.42
32.396
0
-0.36
32.081
4
12/3/2006
dark green
acid
97
1.832/24
°
29.791
2
-0.22
32.462
4
-0.20
32.131
6
11/27/2006
91
1.723/22
°
32.532
8
32.197
0
11/21/2006
(%) kg/l@
O
C
loss
(%)
weight
loss
(%)
weight
loss
(%)
weight
Visual
Diagnosis
H
3
PO
4
Theoretic
al conc.
Acid
Density
ALLOY 20 HAST C CW2M C
Date
Fig. 6 shows the
corrosion rates of A20
(CN7M), Std. and
Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M.
9.90
12.97
19.40
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
C
O
R
R
O
S
I
O
N

R
A
T
E
CW2MC CW2M A20
MATERIAL
Fig. 6.
Imp. CW-2M Std. CW-2M
16

Improved Hastelloy CW-2M has 31% lower corrosion rate than Std. Hastelloy CW-2M
and 99% lower corrosion rate than A20 (CN7M).

`

























Arrows “A”, “D” and “B” point to three different shapes of corroded pits seen in Photo
21, 22 and 23. Arrow “C” in Photo 23 shows a shallow pit initiation location on the
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M sample. Arrow “E” in Photo 22 identifies an intergranular
corroded line which most likely is positioned within the former complex carbide area
located along the austenite grains of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M.

The main corrosion damage of all three alloys is pitting which depends on the solution
corrosivity, the specimen area and exposure time.
Generally mass loss alone is not a good indication of pitting damage. It is commonly
recommended to evaluate the relative resistance of alloys to pitting through a
combination of mass loss and visual inspection like density, depth and size of the
pits. [2]

The following is the density of the corroded pits counted on a 0.75mm
2
surface:
· 72 pits for A20 (CN7M);
· 38 pits for Std. Hastelloy CW-2M;
· 2 pits for Improved Hastelloy CW-2M;
Photo 21, 22 and 23 are SEM surface views at X100 magnification of the corroded
A20 (CN7M), Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M samples.
Photo 21: A20
(CN7M)
72 Corroded pits
Photo 22: Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M
38 Corroded pits
Photo 23: Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M
2 Corroded pits
A
B
C
D
E
17















































Photo 24, 25 and 26 are SEM corroded surface views at X800 magnification of the
A20 (CN7M), Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M samples.
Fig 7 is a bar graph
representation of the
corrosion pits counted on
a 0.75 mm
2
sample
surface of A20 (CN7M),
Std. and Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M.
2
38
72
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
N
U
M
B
E
R

O
F

P
I
T
S
Imp.
CW-2M
Std.
CW-2M
A20
MATERIAL
Fig. 7.
Photo 24: A20
(CN7M)
Photo 25:
Std. Hastelloy
CW-2M.
Photo 26:
Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M.
A
B
D
C C
C
E
E
E
18

Arrows “A”, “B” and “D” in Photo 24 and 25 show corroded pits on the A20 (CN7M)
and Std. Hastelloy CW-2M samples. The pit identified with Arrow “B” isn’t fully
developed. The three “E” Arrows seen in Photo 24, 25 and 26 show local corrosion attack
on the three alloys in sites where corrosive pits aren’t developed yet.
The corrosion pits grow gravitationally however if during testing the coupon is tilted the
corrosive product from inside the pit rolls downwards and produces a damaging corrosive
path like shown with the three “C” Arrows in Photo 24 and 25.

Concluding remarks on the corrosion resistance of A20 (CN7M), Std. and Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M in a service application containing 91-97% phosphoric acid, 0.96%
hydrochloric acid and 0.19% hydrofluoric acid at 115
0
(257
0
F).
· The field duration test was 600 hours for Std. and Improved Hastelloy CW-2M and
480 hours for A20 (CN7M).
· The intensity of the corrosive pitting attack was established through mass loss and
pit density.
· The corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M was 31% lower than the Std.
Hastelloy CW-2M and 96% lower than A20 (CN7M).
· The following pit density was counted on a 0.75 mm
2
sample surface: Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M = 2 pits, Std. Hastelloy CW-2M = 38 pits and A20 (CN7M) =
72 pits.
· Contrary to Std.

Hastelloy CW-2M, the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M is without
any corrosive attack along the austenite grain boundaries.

THE CORROSION RATE OF IMPROVED HASTELLOY CW-2M IN 6%
HYDROCHLORIC ACID AT 60
0
C (140
0
F) IS NIL.


Hydrochloric acid is extremely hazardous and generates a ver y reducing corrosive
environment. Fi g. 8 shows the NACE published compounded hydrochloric acid Iso-
corrosion chart which defines five temperature – acid concentration areas. The metals
contained within these individual regions have a corrosion rate lower than 20 MPY.












\



Fig. 8 shows the NACE published
compounded Iso-corrosion chart in
hydrochloric acid. The five
temperature – acid concentration
areas define the metals which have
corrosion rates lower than 20 MPY.
60
A
1 6
Fig. 8.
19


Hastelloy C is part of #1 area. At higher temperatures the corrosion resistance of such
materials decreases consequently the recommended hydrochloric acid concentration
decreases and vice versa.

According to the Iso-corrosion chart at 60
0
C (140
0
F) Hastelloy C withstands only 1%
concentrated hydrochloric acid. After 72 hours of testing in 6% hydrochloric acid at 60
0
C
(140
0
F) the corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M was nil. The pumps
manufactured with I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M for this application were shipped in
service and performed well.
































The machined marks seen in Photo 27 through Photo 30 are sharp, unaltered and free of
corrosion attack. In 6% concentrated hydrochloric acid at 60
0
C (140
0
F) the corrosion
resistance of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M is multifold higher than the NACE published
data for Std. Hastelloy C.
Photo 27, 28, 29 and 30 are sample surface views at X100, X500, X1000 and X5000
magnification of the Improved Hastelloy CW-2M tested coupon in 6% hydrochloric
acid at 60
0
C (140
0
). The corrosion rate was nil.
Photo 27. Photo 28.
Photo 29.
Photo 30.
20

Concluding remarks on the “excellent” corrosion resistance provided by I mproved
Hastelloy CW-2M in 6% concentrated hydrochloric acid at 60
0
C (140
0
F).
· Generally Hastelloy C materials have some corrosion resistance in reducing
corrosive environments. Nonetheless the corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-
2M in 6% concentrated hydrochloric acid at 60
0
C was nil.
· Based on this “excellent” corrosion rate established during a laboratory test the
service pumps build with I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M were shipped to the
customer and they performed well.
· Improved Hastelloy CW-2M has multifold higher corrosion resistance than the
NACE published data of the compounded hydrochloric acid Iso-corrosion chart.

IMPROVED HASTELLOY CW-2M HAS “EXCELLENT” CORROSION
RESISTANCE IN 6% SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AT 200
0
F.
Even at low temperature not many metals have good corrosion resistance in sodium
hypochlorite. It is widely accepted that the only metal which has consistent good
performance in sodium hypochlorite is titanium.

The comparative corrosion rate of titanium, zirconium and Hastelloy C published by
NACE in 1.5-6% NaOCl, 12-15% NaCl and 1% NaOH at 150-200
0
F is shown in
Table 4. [3]

Table 4.
Material Corrosion rate
[MPY]
Titanium 0.1
Zirconium 4
Std. Hastelloy C 46

Improved Hastelloy CW-2M and titanium have similar corrosion rates when they were
tested together in 6% sodium hypochlorite at 200
0
F and 4% sodium hypochlorite at
200
0
F. During the 72 hours corrosion test the sodium hypochlorite solution was refreshed
after each 24 hours of testing. The results are shown in Table 5.

Table 5.
Material Corrosion rate in 6%
NaOCl at 200
0
F
[MPY]
Corrosion rate in 4%
NaOCl at 200
0
F
[MPY]
Titanium nil Nil
Improved Hastelloy
CW-2M
0.14 Nil




21
When Std. Hastelloy CW-2M pumps are used the sodium hypochlorite solution colors
slightly yellow. Such coloration is unwanted by customers. During the laboratory tests of
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M in sodium hypochlorite at the very beginning the solution
became slightly yellowish nevertheless it quickly changed and remained pure white.

Concluding remarks established on the “excellent” ranked corrosion performance of
Improved Hastelloy CW-2M in 6% sodium hypochlorite at 200
0
F.
· The NACE published corrosion rate of Hastelloy C in 1.5 – 6% sodium
hypochlorite at 150 – 200
0
F is 46 MPY.
· Improved Hastelloy CW-2M and titanium have 0.14 MPY and nil corrosion rates in
6% sodium hypochlorite at 200
0
F.
· Under the circumstances Improved Hastelloy CW-2M can replace titanium in some
sodium hypochlorite pumping applications. Such a material change provides
important savings.

THE YIELD STRENGTH OF IMPROVED HC276 IS 22% HIGHER THAN THE
YIELD STRENGTH OF STD. HC276.

The chemical composition of HC276 used to comparatively test the mechanical
properties, the corrosion resistance in fluosilisic acid and microstructure of Std. and
Improved HC276 is shown in Table 6.
Table 6.





Fig. 9 is a cross-section view of a 4- inch diameter Std. HC276 dissected bar-stock – see
Arrows “A-A”. One half was additionally processed while the other was kept as-
purchased.















Balance 3.38 15.40 16.23 0.76 5.28 0.42 0.07 <0.01 % weight
concentration
Ni W Mo Cr Co Fe Mn Si C Element
Balance 3.38 15.40 16.23 0.76 5.28 0.42 0.07 <0.01 % weight
concentration
Ni W Mo Cr Co Fe Mn Si C Element
Fig. 9.
A
A
D=4”
Fig. 9 is a cross-section view of a
4-inch Std. HC276 diameter bar-
stock which was mechanically
dissected through diameter – see
Arrows “A-A”.
One half was additionally
processed.

22
The mechanical properties of Std. and Improved HC276 were tested with specimens
extracted from the “half radius” distance of the 4- inch diameter dissected HC276 bar-
stock. The results are shown in Table 7.
Table 7.












Tensile strength, elongation, ROA and hardness of Std. and Improved HC276 have minor
differences however the yield strength of Improved HC276 is 22% higher than the yield
strength of Std. HC276.

THE AVERAGE AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE OF IMPROVED HC276 IS ABOUT
50% SMALLER THAN THE AUSTENITE GRAIN DIMENSION OF STD.
HC276.

Photo 31 and 32 are SEM microstructure views of Std. and Improved HC276 at X500
magnification. The average grain length of Std. HC276 is 120 mm whereas the average
grain length of Improved HC276 is 80 mm. The grain length of Improved HC276 was
50% diminished with the additional process.


















Photo 31 and 32 are SEM microstructure views at X500 magnification of Std. and
Improved HC276.
163 75 62 69,500 110.000 Improved
HC276
156 72 63 57,000 110,000 Std.
HC 276
Hardness
[HBN]
ROA
[%]
Elongation
[%]
Yield
[PSI]
Tensile
[PSI]
Mechanical properties
Material
163 75 62 69,500 110.000 Improved
HC276
156 72 63 57,000 110,000 Std.
HC 276
Hardness
[HBN]
ROA
[%]
Elongation
[%]
Yield
[PSI]
Tensile
[PSI]
Mechanical properties
Material
Photo 31. Photo 32. 1 2
4 3
120 mm 80 mm
23
Arrows “1” through “4” in Photo 31 and Arrows “Spectrum #1” through “Spectrum #4”
in Photo 32 indicate the locations in which EDS – Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy –
were performed. The selected points are located in the middle of the austenite grain,
closed to the grain boundaries and at the grain boundaries. A total of eight chemical
compositions were collected. The chemical composition ranges of molybdenum,
chromium, nickel, iron and silicon of Std. and Improved HC276 are presented in Table 8.
Table 8.
















The molybdenum, chromium, iron and silicon composition ranges of Std. and Improved
HC276 are nearly identical however the nickel content range of Improved HC276 is
significantly smaller.

The difference between the upper and lower nickel content spread of Std. HC276 is
5.696%. This difference was diminished to 1.502% in Improved HC276 which indicates
that Improved HC276 is a more homogenous alloy.

Concluding remarks found on the higher yield strength, smaller grain size and chemical
homogeneity conferred by Improved HC276.
· The comparative investigation of mechanical properties, grain size and chemical
composition ranges between Std. and Improved HC276 were conducted on two half
samples taken from a 4- inch diameter dissected bar -stock. One half had the
additional process.
· The yield strength of Improved HC276 was 22% higher than the yield strength of
Std. HC276. Tensile strength, elongation, ROA and hardness of the two materials
have close values.
· The average austenite grain length of I mproved HC276 is 50% smaller than the
average grain length of Std. HC276.
· Eight EDS analyses of Improved and Std. HC276 showed that the nickel content
variation range was reduced from 5.696% to 1.502%. Since nickel the major
element of every Hastelloy is homogenously distributed Improved HC276 is a
better material than Std. HC276.

0.439
0.697
4.975
5.040
76.121
77.623
9.777
10.664
7.077
8.524
Improved HC276
Dif.=
0.203
Dif.=
0.426
Dif.=
5.696
Dif.=
0.555
Dif.=
0.695
Dif.=
0.258
Dif.=
0.065
Dif.=
1.502
Dif.=
0.887
Dif.=
1.447
0.488
0.691
4.603
5.029
70.570
76.266
10.241
10.796
7.754
8.449
Std. HC276
Si Fe Ni Cr Mo
Element ranges of eight EDS readings
[% weight] MATERIAL
0.439
0.697
4.975
5.040
76.121
77.623
9.777
10.664
7.077
8.524
Improved HC276
Dif.=
0.203
Dif.=
0.426
Dif.=
5.696
Dif.=
0.555
Dif.=
0.695
Dif.=
0.258
Dif.=
0.065
Dif.=
1.502
Dif.=
0.887
Dif.=
1.447
0.488
0.691
4.603
5.029
70.570
76.266
10.241
10.796
7.754
8.449
Std. HC276
Si Fe Ni Cr Mo
Element ranges of eight EDS readings
[% weight] MATERIAL
24
THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF IMPROVED HC276 IS MULTIFOLD
HIGHER UNDER LABORATORY AND SERVICE CONDITIONS THAN STD.
HC276 AND HG30.

Photo 33 shows a HG30 “rotary seal housing” which failed in service after 13 weeks. The
pumping application was 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F.





















According to the NACE published corrosion resistance t ables for this application the
corrosion rate of HG30 is between 2 – 20 MPY which is ranked “very good”. However
the service corrosion rate was much higher than 20 MPY.

Arrow “A” shows a transgranular corrosion attack while Arrow “B” indicates an
intergranular corroded line. Arrow “C” points to a corrosion roughened area produced
through general corrosion.

This “must solve problem” was approached by running a corrosion test of Improved and
Std. HC276 in 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F. After 72 hours of testing the corrosion rate
of Improved HC276 was 6 MPY versus 45 MPY corrosion rate of Std. HC276. This
renders a 7.5 lower corrosion rate of Improved HC276 over Std. HC276. Based on these
results all the HG 30 parts were replaced with I mproved HC276. After 18 months of
service the Improved HC276 pump parts continue to run successfully.






Photo 33 shows a returned
HG30 “rotary seal housing”
which miserable failed after 13
weeks in service.
A
B
C
Photo 33.
25
Photos 33 through 38 are SEM surface views of Improved and Std. HC276 corrosion
tested samples at X200, X1500 and X7000 magnifications.




















Arrow “A” in Photo 34 shows that Improved HC276 has parallel vertical corroded lines.
In Std. HC276 the width of the corrosion lines is larger and some of the corrosion lines
are inclined – see Arrows “C” and “B” in Photo 35.

Improved HC276 has fewer and shallower corrosion pits – see Arrow “D” in Photo 36
while Std. HC276 has deeper and more numerous corrosion pits – see Arrows “E” and
“F” in Photo 37.


















Photo 34 and 35 are SEM surface views of the Improved and Std. HC276 corrosion
tested samples at X200 magnification.
Photo 36 and 37 are SEM surface views of the Improved and Std. HC276 corrosion tested
samples at X500 magnification.
Photo 35. Photo 34.
C
A
B
Photo 37. Photo 36.
F
E
D
26


















The pit seen with Arrow “G” in I mproved HC276 of Photo 38 is shallow and has
microscopic crevice lines. Arrow “H” points to a significantly larger pit in Std. HC276
which developed vertically. Nonetheless adjacent to the main pit a harmful penetration
channel is identified - see Arrow “I” in Photo 39. The entire surface of the Std. HC276
sample is cross hatched with damaging crevice corrosion lines.

Concluding remarks regarding the lower corrosion rate of Improved HC276 in 20%
fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F established under laboratory and service conditions.
· Subsequent to 13 weeks of service in 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F the “rotary seal
housing” and the other seal components in HG30 failed. They were successfully
replaced with Improved HC276.
· After more than 18 months in service the Improved HC276 parts continue to run
successfully.
· Under laboratory conditions in 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F the corrosion rate of
Improved HC276 was 6 MPY versus 45 MPY the corrosion rate of Std. HC276.
The corrosion resistance of Improved HC276 is 7.5 fold higher than Std. HC276.













Photo 38 and 39 are SEM surface views of Improved and Std. HC276 corrosion tested
samples at X7000 magnification.
Photo 38.
H
I
G
Photo 39.
27
FINAL CONCLUSION:
1. An optimized dissolution reaction of the harmful complex carbides was developed
through a proprietary process. When using this method the mechanical properties of
Hastelloy CW-2M increased significantly. Tensile strength, yield strength and
elongation are 25%, 17% and 95% higher than the minimum requirement of ASTM
A494.
2. The corrosion resistance of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M in 95% sulfuric acid at 250
0

F is 83% better than Std. Hastelloy CW-2M. In 75-90% sulfuric acid at 150
0
F the
corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M is 0.95 MPY. This corrosion rate is
multifold lower than the published corrosion rate of wrought Hastelloy C4.
3. The carbide dissolution process is applicable for any shape of as-cast, wrought and
final machined parts.
4. In 91-99% phosphoric acid, 0.96% hydrochloric acid and 0.19% hydrofluoric acid at
257
0
F the corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M was 31% lower than the
corrosion rate of Std. Hastelloy CW-2M. The corroded pit numbers on 0.75 mm
2
surface of I mproved Hastelloy CW-2M was two while the corroded pit numbers of
Std. Hastelloy CW-2M is 38.
5. Generally Hastelloy C materials have some corrosion resistance in reducing
environments like hydrochloric acid nonetheless the corrosion rate of Improved
Hastelloy CW-2M in 6% hydrochloric acid at 140
0
F is nil.
6. The corrosion rate of Improved Hastelloy CW-2M in 6% sodium hypochlorite at
200
0
F is 0.14 MPY. This value is multifold lower than 46 MPY the NACE published
corrosion rate of Hastelloy C in 1.5-6% sodium hypochlorite at 150-200
0
F.
7. The yield strength of the Improved HC276 is 22% higher than the yield strength of
Std. HC276.
8. In 20% fluosilisic acid at 140
0
F the corrosion rate of Improved HC276 was 6 MPY
versus 45 MPY the corrosion rate of Std. HC276. This is a 7.5 fold change for the
better. The Improved HC276 pump parts used in this application are successfully
running for more then 18 months while the previous parts failed after 13 weeks.




Bibliography.

1) Perricone M. J., Du Pont J.N. and Chieslak M.J. “Solidification of Hastelloy
alloys: an Alternative Interpretation” published in Metallurgical and Materials
Transactions A – Volume 34A, May 2003.
2) “CORROSION” – ASM International, Volume 13, Ninth Edition, page 232.
3) “Process Industries Corrosion” – published by NACE, Library of Congress
Catalog Card #86-62318, page 306.