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© 2012 Dr. Nandkishore D.Rao.

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Global Journal of Researches in Engineering
Mechanical and Mechanics Engineering
Volume 12 Issue 6 Version 1.0 Year 2012
Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal
Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA)
Online ISSN: 2249-4596 Print ISSN:0975-5861

Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance,
Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression
Ignition Engine Fuelled with Vegetable oil-

Ethanol Emulsion

By

Dr. Nandkishore D.Rao


Gulbarga University gulbarga India

Abstract -

In present experimental study, investigations are made on performance, emission and
combustion characteristics of constant speed diesel engine fuelled with straight vegetable oil –ethanol
emulsion at different compression ratios. Use of straight vegetable oil and its emulsion with ethanol for
diesel engine resulted in poor performance, higher emissions at compression ratio designed for diesel.
This was mainly due to higher viscosity of the fuel, longer delay period and poor air fuel mixing. Hence to
reduce the delay period an effort is made to increase the compression ratio and investigate the engine
performance, emission and combustion characteristics. The compression ratio of engine plays vital role in
creating air swirl, fuel vaporization, mixing of fuel air to prepare the combustible mixture. By increasing the
compression ratio the pressure and temperature in engine at the time of injection can be increased. This
improves the fuel evaporation, rate of pre-flame reactions in air-fuel mixture, more air fuel mixture
availability combustion during pre-mixed combustion and during combustion proceeds at faster rate.

GJRE-A Classification : FOR Code: 090201

EffectofvariationinCompressionRatioonPerformanceCombustionandEmissionCharacteristicsofCompressionIgnitionEngineFuelledwith
Vegetableoil-EthanolEmulsion










Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:









Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on
Performance, Combustion and Emission
Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine
Fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol Emulsion
Dr. Nandkishore D.Rao
Abstract - In present experimental study, investigations are
made on performance, emission and combustion
characteristics of constant speed diesel engine fuelled with
straight vegetable oil –ethanol emulsion at different
compression ratios. Use of straight vegetable oil and its
emulsion with ethanol for diesel engine resulted in poor
performance, higher emissions at compression ratio designed
for diesel. This was mainly due to higher viscosity of the fuel,
longer delay period and poor air fuel mixing. Hence to reduce
the delay period an effort is made to increase the compression
ratio and investigate the engine performance, emission and
combustion characteristics. The compression ratio of engine
plays vital role in creating air swirl, fuel vaporization, mixing of
fuel air to prepare the combustible mixture. By increasing the
compression ratio the pressure and temperature in engine at
the time of injection can be increased. This improves the fuel
evaporation, rate of pre-flame reactions in air-fuel mixture,
more air fuel mixture availability combustion during pre-mixed
combustion and during combustion proceeds at faster rate.
Keeping this in mind the compression ratio of engine is
increased from 17.5 to 18. Although lower compression ratio
results in inferior performance, the results at compression ratio
17 are also discussed to indicate the trend. It is observed that
increase in compression ratio increases the brake thermal
efficiency and reduces the BSEC while having lower emissions
with better combustion characteristics.
I. Introduction
imited amount of petroleum products and growing
environmental concerns caused interest in
developing the alternative fuels for internal
combustion engines. As an alternative fuels, the
vegetable oils and alcohols have received great
attention because these are biodegradable, renewable.
The edible oils are costly and can be used for human
consumption. Hence the non-edible oils can be used for
internal combustion engine.
In India, variety of non-edible oils like honge,
linseed, jatropha, karanji, Jaropha are available in
abundance and can be extracted from the trees grown
on a land which is not suitable for agricultural purpose.
Use of straight vegetable oil as an alternative fuel for
compression ignition engine is limited due to their very
high viscosity [1- 16]. Number of methods are available
for lowering the viscosity of vegetable oil. Among those
the trans-esterification produces the fuel with viscosity
and calorific value very close to diesel. But it requires
additional logistical support and skilled work force,
which adds the cost to the fuel. Blending of vegetable oil
with diesel reduces the viscosity, but this negates the
concept of complete replacement of petro-diesel.
Blending of vegetable oil with ethanol reduces the
viscosity and it addesses the environmental conceers.
But Vegetable oil –ethanol blending is possible only with
unhyrud ehthanol. It is very difficult to have unhyrus
ethanol in market. Blending of aqueous ethanol with
vegetable oil is limited due to presene of water in
ethanol. Hence a micro-emulsion of vegetable oil and
aqueous ethanol with normal butanol as an non-ionic
emulsifier is prepared for investigation. As the The
dilution of vegetable oil with ethanol is limited due to the
lower calorific value of ethanol, the present study is
restricted to 70% vegetable oil with appropriate
propryion of ethanol and butanol( ESVO-70).
Arthur W. Schwab and Everett H Pryde [17]
observed that it is not possible to blend hydrous ethanol
with soyabean oil, safflower and sesame oil. They used
normal butanol as emulsifier to make micro-emulsion of
above vegetable oils with ethanol of different purity .It
was also observed that with increase in percentage of
water in ethanol proportion of butanol to make emulsion.

Prommes K. wanchareon et al [18] used diesel-

biodiesel-

ethanol blend for running diesel engine. They
found that the calorific value, cetane number, flash point
of above blend was lower than diesel. The heating value
of the blends containing

lower than 10% ethanol was not
significantly different from diesel. As far as the
emissions of the blends, it was found that CO and HC
reduced significantly at high engine load, where as NO
x
increased,

when compared to diesel.

S.Jindal [19] conducted investigations on
performance of diesel engine fuelled with jatropha
methyl ester at different compression ratio and injection
pressure. It was observed that the engine performance
and emissions improved significantly with increase in
compression ratio from 17.5 to 18.

Nitesh Mohite et al. [20] conducted study on
performance characteristics on variable compression
ratio diesel engine with diesel-ethanol blends. It was
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observed that with increase in compression ratio
improved the engine performance.


For diesel engine, the compression ratio
determines the state of air and fuel mixture at the end of
compression. With higher compression ratios the air-fuel
temperatreture and pressure becomes high which
accelerates the preflame reactions which results in lower
delay period and better rate of

combustion.

II.

Experiment and Procedure

In this study, the variable compression ratio
engine was run with ESVO-70 at different compression
ratios to evaluate the performance, emission and
combustion characteristics. The results are compared
against the ESVO -70 and diesel at standard settings.

a)

Vegetable oil –Ethanol Emulsion

The vegetable oil –ethanol emulsion was
prepared in fuel testing laboratory using the vegetable
oil (Honge oil) with 95% pure ethanol and normal
butanol. The test fuel under investigation had 70%
vegetable oil and remaining ethanol and butanol in
required proportion to ensure non saperation in different
constituents of emulsion. The properties of diesel,
ethanol, butanol and emulsion were tested in laboratory
using standard test procedures and are listed in Table 1.

Table 1:

Properties of diesel, ethanol, butanol, Honge oil and Micro emulsion

Properties

Diesel

Ethanol

Butanol

Neat Honge oil


Micro-emulsion

(ESVO-70)

Viscosity in Cst (at 30° C)

4.25

1.2

3.67

40.25

10.12

Flash point (°C)

79

21

29

190

38

Fire point (°C)

85

25

32

210

45

Carbon residue (%)

0.1

---

---

0.64

0.25

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

42700

27569

33254

37258

34049

Specific gravity(at 25° C)

0.833

0.78

0.81

0.925

0.885

b)

Experimental set-

up

Diesel engine test rig used for investigations
comprised of a single cylinder,

water cooled, constant
speed, four stroke, variable compression ratio diesel
engine connected to an eddy current dynamometer for
loading. The set up (Fig. 1) includes necessary
instruments for measureing online cylinder pressure,
injection pressure, crank

angle, fuel consumption

the
piezoelectric sensor fitted in cylinder head to measure
cylinder pressure. An individual piezoelectric sensor was
used to measure in-cylinder pressure and fuel line
pressure.

Rotameter was used for measuring cooling
water and calorimeter water flow. Thermocouples were
used for measurement of temperature of exhaust gas,
cooling water and calorimeter inlet and outlet. These
signals were sent to data acquisition system and to
computer for further processing. The software displays
the P-V and P-Θ

diagrams. The specifications of engine
and sensors used are given in Table 2.















Fig. 1

:

Schematic diagram of experimental setup

1
3

1
4

3

4

8

5

6




2

7

1

1

9


12

Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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1-Test engine, 2-Eddy current dynamometer, 3-
fuel burette, 4-Fuel filter, 5-Fuel injection pump, 6- air
box with U tube water Manometer, 7-TDC marker and
speed sensor, 8- Data acquisition system and loading
device, 9-Exhaust gas calorimeter, 10-Smoke meter,
11-four gas analyzer, 12-computer, 13 & 14 Fuel tanks.

Table 2 : Specification of Engine









c) Emission measurement
The exhaust gases are sampled from exhaust
line to measure carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbon,
and oxides of nitrogen present in exhaust gases. A four
gas analyzer (model- ECO Gas 4; Make –Manatec







electronics India,) is used for CO, HC, and NOx
measurement. A smoke meter (model- Ecosmoke -B;
make- Mantac Electronics, India) is used for measuring
the smoke emissions. The measurement range and
accuracy of the instrument is mentioned in Table 3.
Table 3

:

Specification of Gas

analyser and Smoke meter







d)

Experimental Procedure

Initially, engine was allowed to run with diesel
fuel at no load till engine condition stabilizes. The engine
was then tested at no load, 25%, 50%, 75 %and 100 %
load conditions at compression ratio set by
manufacturer. For each load the engine was run for 4-5
minutes till engine parameters stabilizes. At every load
was repeated for three times and readings were
averaged. The engine then tested with ESVO-70 at
same setting to obtain base line data. The experiments
were repeated at different compression ratios. The
compression ratios at which the experiment was
conducted were 17, 17.5 and 18. Even though it was
known that at lower compression ration the engine
performance deteriorates, experiment was conducted at
compression ratio of 17 to study the trend in results at
different compression ratios. The highest compression
ratio used was 18 because it was limited due to
structural constraints of engine.
The performance of the engine at different loads
and compression ratio settings was evaluated in terms
of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC), Exhaust gas temperature (EGT).
The combustion characteristics was evaluated in terms
of cylinder pressure variation (P
c
), Net heat release rate
(NHRR), rate of Pressure rise (RPR). The emission
characteristics were measured in terms of carbon
monoxide emissions (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon
emissions (UBHC), oxides of nitrogen (NO
x
) and smoke
opacity (SO).
III.

Results and Discussion

a)

Performance Parameters

i.

Brake

thermal efficiency

The variation of brake thermal efficiency with
load at different compression ratio is presented in fig. 2.
At preset compression ratio, the brake thermal efficiency
with ESVO-70 is 24.4% as compared to 31.85% for
diesel. This is due to lower heating value of the test fuel.
It is observed that increasing the compression ratio from
17.5 to 18, the brake thermal efficiency improved by
5.01%. This is because at higher compression ratio

the
rate of

combustion of emulsion increases which results
in better thermal efficiency.

ii.

Brake specific Fuel consumption

The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for
vegetable oil –emulsion is higher than diesel due to the
fact that emulsion of vegetable oil has lower heating
value as compared to diesel. Therefore more emulsion
fuel is required to develop same power as that of diesel.
It is observed that as the compression ratio is increased,
Sl.No

Parameter

Specification

1

Type

Four stroke direct injection single cylinder diesel
engine

2

Software used

Engine soft 8.5

3

Nozzle opening pressure

200 bar

4

Rated power

3.5 KW @1500 rpm

5

Cylinder diameter

87.5 mm

6

Stroke

110 mm

7

Compression ratio

12 to 18

8

Injection pressure/advance

200 bar/23° bTDC

Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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Machine Measurement Parameter Range Resolution
Gas Analyser
CO (Carbon Monoxide) 0-15% 0.01%
CO
2
(Carbon Dioxide) 0-19.9% 0.1%
NO
x
(Oxides of Nitrogen) 0-5000ppm 1ppm
HC(Hydrocarbon) 0-20000ppm 1ppm
Diesel smoke meter Opacity 0-99.9% 0.1%
BSFC for ESVO-70 decreases. This is due to the fact
that at higher compression ratio, the rate of combustion
of emulsion increases which results in better thermal
efficiency thereby decreasing the BSFC (Fig. 3).

Fig. 2 : Variation in Brake Thermal efficiency with compression ratio
iii. Exhaust gas Temperature
Fig.4 shows variation in exhaust gas
temperature with compression ratio. It is found that the
exhaust gas temperature is lower at 18 CR as compared
to 17.5 CR. This may due to the fact that with increase
in compression ratio the air temperature increases which
accelerates the rate of combustion, more complete
combustion results in lower losses during exhaust. It
can be observed from

net heat release diagram.

Fig.

3

:

Variation in Specific fuel consumption with compression ratio

Fig.

4

:

Variation in Exhaust gas temperature with compression ratio

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 25 50 75 100
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%
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Load (%)
Diesel at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 25 50 75 100
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(
k
g
/
k
W
-
h
r
)
Load (%)
Diesel at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0 25 50 75 100
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G
a
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T
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p
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a
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(
°
C
)
Brake Power (kW)
Diesel at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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b)

Combustion Parameters

i.

Cylinder pressure, net rate of Heat release and
rate of pressure rise

Fig. 5 and fig. 6 represents the effect of
compression ratio on cylinder pressure and het heat
release rate at full load condition. With change in
compression ratio, the in-cylinder pressure and net heat
release rate changes due to the change in air
temperature and pressure at the end of compression
stroke. On increasing the compression ratio, the peak
cylinder pressure reaches to higher value and to lower
value with decreasing the compression ratio. This may
be due to

the fact that with increased compression ratio,
the density of air fuel mixture increases, better mixing of
unburnt and brunt charge occurs which result in fast and
efficient combustion. This increases the peak pressure
and rate of heat release. It is observed that at 17 CR the
peak pressure is lower and the peak rate of heat release
shifts away from TDC, during expansion stroke. This
shows that at 17 compression ratio more fuel is injected
during longer delay period which burns in expansion
stroke. The rate of pressure rise improved with increase
in compression ratio due to faster rate of fuel
combustion (Fig. 7).

Fig.

5

:

Variation in Cylinder pressure with compression ratio

Fig. 6

:

Variation in Heat release rate with compression ratio

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
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a
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Crank Angle (° CA)
Diesel at 17.5
CR
ESVO-70 at 17
CR
Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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Fig.

7

:

Variation in Rate of pressure rise with compression ratio

c) Emission Parameters
i. Unburnt Hydrocarbon emissions
Fig 8 shows a drop in hydrocarbon emissions
with increase in compression ratio because of better
combustion. This marginal drop in hydrocarbon
emissions is due to combined effect of increase in air
temperature at the end of compression stroke, reduced
charge dilution and increase in quench areas in
combustion chamber. The HC emissions are reduced to
47 ppm at 18 CR as compared to 50 ppm at 17.5 CR.
whereas with reduction in compression ratio the
hydrocarbon emissions are increased due to slow rate
of burning.
ii.

Carbon monoxide emissions

Fig 9 shows the variation in carbon monoxide
emissions at different compression ratio. It is observed
that with increase in compression ratio the carbon
monoxide emissions are decreased due to better
combustion. At higher compression ratio, less dilution of
charge with residual gases accelerates the carbon
oxidation. Whereas at lower compression ratio the
carbon monoxide emissions are increased due to more
dilution of fresh air with residual gases and lower
compression temperature, poor mixing of fuel air
because of lower swirl intensity.






Fig.

8

:

Variation in Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions with compression ratio

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 25 50 75 100
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a
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p
r
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r
i
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(

b
a
r
/
°
C
A
)
Load (%)
Diesel at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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Fig. 9 : Variation in Carbon monoxide emissions with compression ratio
iii.

Oxides of Nitrogen emissions

It is observed that the NO
x

emissions increase
with increase in compression ratio. This may be due to
the fact that with increase in compression ratio the
combustion pressure and temperature increases which
accelerates the oxidation of nitrogen. On other hand at
lower compression ratios the combustion take place
during expansion stroke which results in lower
combustion temperature and pressure. These results in
lower NO
x

emission (Fig. 10).

iv.

Smoke emissions

From fig. 11 it is observed that the smoke
opacity at compression

ratio of 18 is least as compared
to other compression ratios. Since at higher
compression ratio, better combustion may take place
inside the engine cylinder due to stronger swirl, higher
air temperature which results in lower smoke emissions.


Fig.

10

:

Variation in Oxides of Nitrogen with compression ratio


0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0 25 50 75 100
C
a
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m
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s

(
%
)
Load ( %)
Diesel at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 25 50 75 100
S
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O
p
a
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i
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y

(
%
)
Brake Poweer ( kW)
Series1
ESVO-70 at 17 CR
ESVO-70 at 17.5 CR
ESVO-70 at 18 CR
Effect of variation in Compression Ratio on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of
Compression Ignition engine fuelled with Vegetable oil- Ethanol emulsion
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Fig.

11

:

Variation in Smoke Opacity with compression ratio

IV.

Conclusion

In prsent investigation ,experiments are
conducted to evaluate the effect of compression ratio on
performance, Combustion and emission characteristics
of diesel engine fuelled with micro-emulsion of
vegetable oil with ethanol.

Trials with different compression ratio (17, 17.5
and 18) reveled that the increase in compression ratio
improves the engine perfromance. The highest engine
prerfomance is obtained at compression ratio of 18 at
which bsfc improves by 11.2% and brake thermal
effciency by 13.3%. As far as emissions are concerned,
increase in compression ratio leads to reduction in
hydrocarbon emissions, carbon monoxide emissons
and smoke opacity. Higher NOx emissions are
observed with increase in compression ratio.The peak
pressure, rate of heat relase and rate of pressure rise
increses with increase in compression ratio.

It can be cocluded that the engine fuelled with
emulsion performed better at compression ratio of 18 as
comprated to other compression ratios.

V.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the support provided
by Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Bidar,
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,

Hyderabad,

Apex innovations Sangli and local oil suppliers and
those who helped directly or indirectly in this research
work.

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Anastopoulos. “Tobacco seed oil as an alternative
diesel fuel: physical and chemical properties”.
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