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Pakistan Journal of Science (Vol. 64 No.

3 September, 2012

191
ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LAHORE SOIL, BASED ON
GEOTECHNICAL TESTING AND MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION USING X-RAY
DIFFRACTION
U. Shafique, M. S. Khan, A. Mustafa, S. Arif
*

Department of Geological Engineering, Uniersit! of Engineering an" #echnolog!, $ahore %a&istan
*
Department of Architure Engineering ' Design, Uniersit! of Engineering an" #echnolog!, $ahore %a&istan
(orrespon"ence author E)mail* chumairs+,-gmail.com
ABSTRACT: Engineering geological inestigation .as carrie" out to characteri/e the soil in the
$ahore area. Eleen samples .ere collecte" from arious locations from 01)1+ cm "epth. Mostl! these
samples are from green 2elt an" par&s .here original alluial "eposits e3ist. 4iel" an" la2orator! tests
.ere performe" to "etermine the geotechnical properties 2! a"opting stan"ar" test proce"ures. #he
mineralogical composition of the soil has 2een erifie" .ith 56D for all the samples. #he results
in"icate that geotechnical properties of the soil are as, "ensit! 1,.7+ K89m
7
, moisture content 2! oen
"rie" metho" 11.9+:, moisture content 2! spee"! moisture meter 19.01:, specific grait! 0.;,, liqui"
limit 70.<=:, plastic limit 01.1;:, friction angle 07.+;
o
, optimum moisture content ,.11: an" "r!
"ensit! 7.9;g9cm
7
.
#he 56D results clearl! sho.s that the soil in $ahore area is pre"ominatel!
compose" of >uart/, Muscoite an" (linoclore as ma?or minerals an" can 2e classifie" as silt! cla!.
Key wor!: Engineering geolog!, 5)6a! "iffraction, soil, alluial "eposits, characteri/ation.

INTRODUCTION
Engineering geological soil characteri/ation has
unique importance .ith respect to construction of
em2an&ments an" other engineering structures. #he
"ura2ilit! an" sta2ilit! of all the engineering structures
are "irectl! "epen"ant on soil t!pe an" its response un"er
loa"ing con"ition. (haracteri/ations of the arious soils
.ith respect to mineral composition hae 2een
inestigate" 2! using 5)6a! "iffraction an" performing
soil tests 2! a num2er of researchers @6ighi an" Elsass,
199=., Ghosh an" Datta, 0++1., Shafique et al., 0++9A.,
Manhaes et al., @0++0A "escri2e", B#he quaternar!
se"imentar! 2asin of (ampos Dos Go!taca/es, 6C,
Dra/il, is a lo. altitu"e plain .hich e3ten"s 1+ &m a.a!
from the Atlantic Ecean. Soil from this region has high
content of cla! minerals. #he se"iments of this 2asin
.ere "eposite" 2! the %arai2a Do Sul 6ier mean"ering
oer its floo" plain.F Keeling et al., @0+++A ma"e
geological characteri/ation 2! using 56D technique 2!
ta&ing samples as, B#he entire samples for each interal
.as groun" in a #ungston (ar2i"e ring mill an" sample
ta&en for quantitatie 56D.F
Accor"ing to Darroso et al. @0++1A, B5)ra!
spectrometr! is a non "estructie an" multi)elemental
technique .i"el! use" for elemental anal!sis. #his
technique has inherent comple3ities for quantitatie
anal!sis 2ecause of matri3 effects. Matri3 a2sorption is
the most important "etermining factor .hen accurate
measurements are require" for thic& samples. Gon/ale/ et
al. @0++7A hae anal!/e" the geological materials using
5)6a! "iffraction to quantif! the mineralog! of the
olcanic roc&s.
Garris an" Hhite @0++;A stresse" 3)ra!
"iffraction technique for soil minerals i"entification an"
e3plaine" its importance as B5)ra! "iffraction @56DA is
the technique most heail! relie" in soil mineralogical
anal!sis. 5)ra! "iffraction is a technique that proi"es
"etaile" information a2out the atomic structure of
cr!stalline su2stances. It is a po.erful tool in the
i"entification of minerals in roc&s an" soils. #he 2ul& of
the cla! fraction of man! soils is cr!stalline, 2ut cla!
particles are too small for optical cr!stallographic
metho"s to 2e applie". #herefore, 56D has long 2een a
mainsta! in the i"entification of cla!)si/e" minerals in
soilsF.
Since long researchers are inestigating the
geotechnical properties of soils to esta2lish an" support
the engineering structures. 4arooq et al., @0+1+A ma"e
geotechnical /oning of $ahore for shallo. foun"ation
"esign 2ase" on S%# "ata an" ealuate" allo.a2le
2earing capacit! for each /one. Ki2ria, et al., @0+1+A
ma"e a comparatie stu"! of pile anchor support s!stem
for "eep e3caation in alluial "eposits of $ahore. #he
mineralogical composition of soil is responsi2le for all
the engineering properties such as specific grait!, shear
strength, atter2urg limits, petro)ph!sical properties an"
soil classification. #herefore it is note.orth! for planning
point ie. that the soil 2e engineering geologicall!
characteri/e".
$ahore is one of important ur2an center of the
%a&istan .ith high rate of population gro.th, .here a
num2er of fl!oers, multi)stor! 2uil"ings, em2an&ments
Pakistan Journal of Science (Vol. 64 No. 3 September, 2012

190
for ring roa"s an" leee .or&s for protection against
floo"s in 6ai 6ier are un"er progress. #he focus of this
paper is to "etermine the geotechnical engineering
properties of the soil of $ahore through a num2er of tests
an" also to esta2lish mineralogical composition of
surface geolog! through 5)6a! "iffraction .hich greatl!
influences geotechnical properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Multi "isciplinar! approach has 2een a"opte" to
characteri/e the soil of $ahore, .hich comprise", fiel"
testing, soil sampling, la2orator! testing for geotechnical
properties an" 56D for the "etermination of
mineralogical composition. Glo2e Soil (haracteri/ation
4iel" %rotocol, 8ASA @0++1A .as use" for the ph!sical
characteri/ation in the fiel" to estimate structure, color,
consistenc!, te3ture an" car2onate content of the soil.
Soil sampling .as carrie" out 2! remoing the grass
roots an" egetation from the "epth of 01 cm to 1+ cm to
o2tain the intact samples from the alluial "eposits.
Geotechnical properties .ere "etermine" for all
the soil samples 2! follo.ing stan"ar" proce"ures
recommen"e" 2! AS#M. #he ma?or geotechnical tests
performe" are "ensit!, moisture content, specific grait!,
permea2ilit!, liqui" limit, plastic limit, stan"ar"
compaction test, "irect shear test an" grain si/e anal!sis.
En the 2asis of these tests, soil t!pe is "etermine".
5)6a! "iffractometer mo"el, B%anal!tic 5)ra!
Diffractometer .ith 5J%ert Soft.areF .as use" for
i"entification of cr!stalline soli"s 2ase" on their atomic
structure. #he samples .ere prepare" accor"ing to the
requirement of instrument manufacturer. Een "rie"
samples .ere grin"e" an" siee" to o2tain )<++ mesh
si/e po."er .hich .as place" in "ish 2efore positione"
in "etector cham2er. #he s!stem uses (u K ra"iation .ith
a .aelength of 1.1< A
+
. Eer! mineral has its o.n
"iffraction pea&s .hich are use" to i"entif! it.


F"#$ %$ Lo&'("o) *'+ o, !(-y 're' ")"&'(")# (.e !o"/ !'*+/")# +o")(!$

RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
En the 2asis of 4iel" %rotocol 8ASA @0++1A, the
soil .as ph!sicall! characteri/e" 2! performing fiel"
testingK the results are gien in #a2le 1. Samples
collecte" from arious locations, sho. "ifferent
properties. #he soil structure is mostl! compose" of
granular t!pe, ho.eer, at fe. places it is plat! t!pe. #he
consistenc! of the surface soil is gra"e" as fria2le. #he
presence of car2onate contents is reflecte" 2! most of the
samples. #he soil can 2e classifie" as silt! cla!.
En the 2asis of la2 testing to esta2lish
geotechnical properties a num2er of tests .ere performe"
on all the samples, the results are presente" in #a2le 0.
#he aerage alues of geotechnical properties for "ensit!
Pakistan Journal of Science (Vol. 64 No. 3 September, 2012

197
1,.7+ K89m
7
, moisture content 2! oen "rie" metho"
11.9+:, moisture content 2! spee"! moisture meter
19.01:, specific grait! 0.;,, liqui" limit 70.<=:, plastic
limit 01.1;:, friction angle 07.+;
o
, optimum moisture
content ,.11: an" "r! "ensit! 7.9;g9cm
7
.
#hese results
hae 2een compare" .ith the reporte" result for
geotechnical properties. 4arooq et. Al., @0+1+A "escri2e"
their conclusion as, B#he su2surface soils of the stu"!
area 2asicall! consists of 1 to ; meter thic& top stiff to
er! stiff, cohesie cla!e! Silt9Silt! (la!F. #his
classification presente" for soil of $ahore area is in goo"
agreement .ith our fin"ings.
T'0/e %$ P.y!"&'/ &.'r'&(er"1'("o) o, !o"/ !'*+/e! ,ro* L'.ore 0'!e o) F"e/ Pro(o&o/ NASA 234456$

S'*+/e
No
Lo&'("o) S(r-&(-re Co/or Co)!"!(e)&y Te7(-re C'r0o)'(e!
6)1

8e. $ecture #heaters
@UE#A
Granular Dar& 6e""ish Dro.n 4ria2le (la! Strong
6)0

Sta"ium @UE#A Granular Dar& 6e""ish Dro.n 4ria2le San"! $oam Strong
$)1

American 8ational
School
Granular 6e""ish Dro.n 4ria2le San"! $oam Strong
$)0

#he $ahore $!ceum %lat! Dar& Dro.n 4ria2le $oam Slight
$)7

Cail 6oa" Granular Dar& Dro.n 4ria2le Silt! (la! Slight
$)<

4.( (ollege
Granular
.ith >uart/
Dar& Dro.n 4ria2le $oam Strong
$)1

%reston Uniersit! %lat! Strong Dro.n 4ria2le Silt! (la! Strong
$)=

%un?a2 (ollege Granular Strong Dro.n 4ria2le (la! $oam Strong
$);

%U Camiah Mas?i" Single Grain Dro.n 4ria2le $oam 8one
$),

Hafaqi (olon! Granular Dar& 6e""ish Dro.n 4ria2le Silt! (la! Slight
$)9

E3po (enter Granular Dar& 6e""ish Dro.n 4ria2le Silt! (la! Slight

T'0/e 3$ Geo(e&.)"&'/ +ro+er("e! o, (.e !o"/ ") L'.ore 0'!e o) /'0 (e!(!$

S'*+/e
No
Lo&'("o)
De)!"(y
2KN8*
9
6
Mo"!(-re Co)(e)(
S+e&","&
Gr':"(y
2 G
!
6
Per*e'0"/"(y
2&*8!e&6
A((er0er#;! /"*"(
S(')'r Co*+'&("o)
Te!(
So"/
Ty+e
O:e)
Dry
2<6
S+eey
Mo"!(-re
*e(er
2<6
L"=-"
L"*"(
2<6
P/'!("&
L"*"(
2<6
O+("*-*
*o"!(-re
&o)(e)(
2<6
Dry
e)!"(y
2#8&*
9
6
6)1

8e. $ecture
#heaters
@UE#A
0+.0; 1=.11 01 7.1 )))) 09.;+ 01.+< 7.0 <.9< ))))
6)0

Sta"ium
@UE#A
1=.11 0.; 9.=1 0.7 1.7+ x 1+
)=
71.1 01.1; )))) ))))
Silt!
(la!
$)1

American
8ational
School
19.11 9.0 1=.,0 0.; 1.<+ x 1+
)1
71.,7 01.=1 )))) ))))
Uniform
Silt
$)0

#he $ahore
$!ceum
1;.97 9.< <.=+ 0.= 1.=; x 1+
);
77.97 0+.;< )))) )))) (la!
$)7

Cail 6oa" 19.7< 1,.= 0,.,; 0.; 7.=1 x 1+
)=
7,.<7 17.9+ 11 7.;=
Silt!
(la!
$)<

4.( (ollege 1;.,, 1<.= 01.91 0.; 0.1= x 1+
);
0=.+, 00.=7 )))) )))) (la!
$)1

%reston
Uniersit!
1,.01 17.; 9.1; 0., <.=; x 1+
)=
7+.91 0+.01 )))) ))))
Silt!
(la!
$)=

%un?a2
(ollege
1<.,, 1.0 ,.;+ 7 7.=1 x 1+
)=
71.9, 0<.1= )))) ))))
Silt!
(la!
$);

%U Camiah
Mas?i"
11.== 1.1 9.1; 0.9 0.79 x 1+
);
7<.+9 01.+9 1= 7.;0 (la!
$),

Hafaqi
(olon!
01.=7 1=.; 01.=7 0.9 )))) 09.1+ 0+.00 )))) )))) ))))
$)9

E3po (enter 19.,1 1,., 7<.<1 0.9 )))) 71.1= 0=.11 11 7.<; ))))
A:er'#e >'/-e! 1,.71 11.9+ 1;.=7 0.;,
1.=; x 1+
);
)))
1.<+ x 1+
)1

70.<= 01.1; 10.7 7.9;


Pakistan Journal of Science (Vol. 64 No. 3 September, 2012

19<
Mineralogical composition of the soil is er!
important. It has great 2earing on the engineering
properties. #he 56D metho" is one of the er! useful
metho"s, .hich is applie" to fin" out the mineralogical
composition of soil. All the samples .ere anal!/e" .ith
5)6a! "iffraction to "etermine the mineralogical
composition of the soil, the results in"icate that the ma?or
mineralogical composition for all the samples remain
similar. #he results from three selecte" locations are
gien in #a2le 7. Eur results for mineralogical
composition "etermine" 2! 56D are compara2le .ith the
internationall! reporte" alues @Sm!th et al., 199;A for
the similar cr!stal structures. #he intensit! cures an"
stic& pattern for all the three ma?or minerals, >uart/,
Muscoite an" (linochlore is gien in 4igure 0 an" 7
respectiel!.
T'0/e 9$ M")er'/ &o*+o!"("o) o, !o"/ !'*+/e! ,or (.ree !e/e&(e /o&'("o)! ,ro* !(-y 're'$

Lo&'("o) Re,$ Coe
Co*+o-)
N'*e
C.e*"&'/ For*-/' S&ore S&'/e F'&(or
8e. $ecture
#heater UE#
++)++7)+,<9 Muscoite G
<
K
0
@Al,4eA
=
Si
=
E
0<
10 +.+,;
+1)+;9)10;+ (linochlore
@Mg
0.9=
4e
1.11
4e
.17=
Al
1.0;1
A
@Si
0.=00
Al
1.7;=
E
1+
A @EGA
,

1+ +.1+1
+1)+,1)+1+< >uart/ SiE
0
;1 +.=11
Sa2/a/ar
++)+<=)1+<1 >uart/, s!n SiE
0
;7 +.999
+1)+;9)10;+ (linochlore
@Mg
0.9=
4e
1.11
4e
.17=
Al
1.0;1
A
@Si
0.=00
Al
1.7;=
E
1+
A @EGA
,

7, +.009
++)++7)+,<9 Muscoite G
<
K
0
@Al,4eA
=
Si
=
E
0<
7, +.+1,
Dagh)e)Cinnah
++)+<=)1+<1 >uart/, s!n SiE
0
;1 1.+10
++)++7)+,<9 Muscoite G
<
K
0
@Al,4eA
=
Si
=
E
0<
<< +.+=1
+1)+;9)10;+ (linochlore
@Mg
0.9=
4e
1.11
4e
.17=
Al
1.0;1
A
@Si
0.=00
Al
1.7;=
E
1+
A @EGA
,

71 +.1=1


4ig. 0. Intensit! (ures for soil sample from one selecte" site, 8e. $ecture #heaters UE#

Stic& pattern @MuscoiteA Stic& pattern @>uart/, s!nA Stic& pattern @(linochloreA
F"#$ 9$ S("&? +'((er) e:e/o+e 0y XRD ,or *'@or *")er'/! ,or L'.ore !o"/$
Pakistan Journal of Science (Vol. 64 No. 3 September, 2012

191
Co)&/-!"o)!* #he geotechnical properties an"
mineralogical composition of the soil, "etermine" 2!
fiel" ' la2orator! testing an" 56D, confirms that the
$ahore soil is compose" of silt! cla!. #he 5)6a!
"iffraction proi"es an eas! an" fast metho"olog! for
mineral i"entification in soil an" its geological origin an"
"epositional enironment histor! can 2e "epicte". #he
ma?or mineral composition for $ahore soil is >uart/,
Muscoite an" (linochlore, .hich sho.s that the alluial
"eposit receie" se"iments from metamorphic origin.
A&?)ow/e#e*e)(* #he authors are grateful to the
Uniersit! of Engineering an" #echnolog! $ahore for
proi"ing the research facilities. Special than&s are to Dr.
An.ar $atif, Department of %h!sics for his support in
56D testing of the samples
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