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# 1

STATISTICS 2D03E – FINAL
QUESTIONS & SOLUTIONS
1) Let X be a random variable with probability density function

¡(x) = _
c(1 -x
2
),
û
-1 < x < 1
utherw|xe

a) What is the value of c?
c _ (1 -x
2
)Jx = 1
1
-1

c [x -
x
3
3
¸
-1
1
= c j[1 -
1
3
¸ -[-1 -
(-1)
3
¸[ = c j
2
3
+
2
3
[ =
4
3
c=1
c =
S
4

b) What is the cumulative distribution function of X?
F(x) =
S
4
_ (1 -x
2
)
x
-1
Jx =
S
4
_x -
x
3
S
+
2
S
_, -1 < x < 1

2) The lifetime of an electrical component has density function

¡(x) =
c
x
4
, x ¸ 2
Find the mean and variance of the lifetime of such a component.

First find c:

Mean Variance
]
c
x
4
«
2
Jx = 1
-
c
3
x
-3
[
2
«
= 1
c
24
= 1
c = 24

p = _ x¡(x)Jx
«

= _ x
24
x
4
«
2
Jx
= -
24
2
x
-2
_
2
«

=3
o
2
= _ x
2
¡(x)Jx -p
2
«

= _
24
x
2
«
2
Jx -9
= -24x
-1
]
2
«
-9
= 12 -9
=3

3) A committee of 5 is to be selected from a group of 6 men and 9 women. If the selection
is made randomly, what is the probability that the committee consists of 3 men and 2
women?

P(S mcn onJ 2 womcn)
[
6
S
¸ [
9
2
¸
[
1S
S
¸
= u.2S976u2

4) The following circuit operates if and only if there is a path of functional devices from
left to right. Assume that devices fail independently and that the probability of failure
of each device is shown. What is the probability that the circuit does not operate?

u.u2 ∗ (1 -u.99 ∗ u.99)
2
∗ u.u2 = 1.S84 ∗ 1u
-7

5) The compressive strength of samples of cement can be modeled by a normal
distribution with a mean of 6000 kilograms per square centimetre and a standard
deviation of 100 kilograms per square centimetre.
a. What is the probability that a sample's strength is less than 6250 Kg¡cm
2
?
P(X < 62Su) = P _Z <
62Su -6uuu
1uu
] = P(Z < 2.S) = Φ(2.S) = .99S8
b. What strength is exceeded by 95% of the samples?

P(X >. ) = u.9S
P(X ¸. ) = 1 -u.9S = u.uS
P [Z ¸
.-6000
100
¸ = u.uS

.-6000
100
= -1.64
. = -1.64(1uu) +6uuu = S8S6

6) Suppose that X and Y have joint pdf
¡(x, y) =
8
81
xy, û < x < S, u < y < x
Determine the marginal probability distribution of X.

¡
x
(x) = _ ¡(x, y)Jy = _
8
81
xyJy =
8
81
x
y
2
2
_
¡=0
¡=x
x
0
«

=
4
81
x
3
, u ¸ x ¸ S

7) Let X be a normal random variable with mean µ = 2 and variance o
2
= 1ó.
(a) Find P(3 < X < 4);
P_
S -2
4
<
X -2
4
<
4 -2
4
] = P_
1
4
< Z <
1
2
] = P(u.2S < Z < u.S)
= P(Z ¸ u.S) -P(Z ¸ u.2S) = u.691S -u.S987 = u.u928
(b) Find positive constant c such that P{X ¸ c] = û. 8531.
P{X ¸
c-2
4
] = û. 8531
c-2
4
= 1. û5
c=6.2

8) In a clinical study, volunteers are tested for a gene that has been found to increase the
risk for a disease. The probability that a person carries the gene (independently of
other people) is 0.1.
a. What is the mean number of people that have to be tested in order to find 4
people who carry the gene?

The number that have to be tested is negative binomial with p = u.1, r = 4
p =
¡
p
=
4
1¡10
= 4u

b. What is the probability that we will have to test at least 7 people in order to find
4 people who carry the gene?
P(X ¸ 7) = 1 -|¡(4) +¡(S) +¡(6)]
= 1 -j[
4 -1
4 -1
¸ (u.9)
4-4
u.1
4
+[
S -1
4 -1
¸ (u.9)
5-4
u.1
4
+[
6 -1
4 -1
¸ (u.9)
6-4
u.1
4
[
= u.9987
ur
P(lcss tbon 4 out o¡ tbc ¡irst 6 pcoplc corry tbc gcnc)
=[
6
u
¸ (u.1)
0
(u.9)
6
+[
6
1
¸ (u.1)
1
(u.9)
5
+[
6
2
¸ (u.1)
2
(u.9)
4
+[
6
S
¸ (u.1)
3
(u.9)
3

= u.9987

9) Shafts are classified in terms of the machine tool that was used for manufacturing the
shaft and conformance to surface finish and roundness specifications.
Tool 1 Roundness Conforms
yes no Total
Surface Finish
Conforms
yes 50 1 51
no 4 5 9
Total 54 6 60

Tool 2 Roundness Conforms
yes no Total
Surface Finish
Conforms
yes 45 4 49
no 8 6 14
Total 53 10 63

A shaft is selected at random. Let F
1
be the event that Tool 1 was used, and let F
2
be
the event that the shaft conforms to roundness specifications.
Find P(F
2
|F
1
).

P(E
2
|E
1
) =
S4
6u
= u.9

10) Given that F|X] = 4. Far|X] = 9, find
a. v|SX +2] = 9v|X] = 9 ∗ 9 = 81
b. E|SX +1u] = SE|X] +1u = S ∗ 4 +1u = Su

THE END