You are on page 1of 51

1.

RIVER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
River Training
Various measures are adopted on a river to stabilize the river channel along a certain alignment
with a certain cross-section. These measures are required to be adopted because rivers in alluvial
plains frequently alter their courses and cause damage to land and property adjacent to their
banks.
1.1 Objectives and purpses ! river training "r#s
The main objectives of river training are as follows.
1. To provide safe passage for flood discharge without over flowing the banks for protection
of cultivated or inhabited areas.
. To prevent out-flanking of works like a bridge! weir or aqueduct constructed across the
river and to bring the river on to the work in a straight non tortuous approach
". To protect the banks from erosion and to improve the alignment by stabilizing the river
channel.
#. To deflect the river away from the bank which it might be attacking.
$. To provide minimum depth of flow and a good course for navigation purposes.
%. To transport efficiently the bed and suspended sediment load.
1.$ %&assi!icatin ! river training "r#s'
1. &igh water training
. 'ow water training
". (edium water training
High water training: )t is also called training for discharge. To provide for e*peditious disposal
of ma*imum flood and provide protection against damage due to floods. )t is mostly concerned
with the most suitable alignment and height of marginal embankments for disposal of floods. )t
also includes measures for channel improvement
Low water training: )t is used for providing sufficient depth for navigation during low water
season. This is achieved by contracting the width of the channel and is usually carried with the
help of groynes. Thus it can also be called +training for depths,.
Medium water training: )t is also called training for sediment. (edium water training is
undertaken to provide efficient disposal of bed and suspended sediment load and thus to preserve
river channel in good shape.
-ut of the three types of river training (edium water training is most important. This is so
because a river training work adopted to alter the river cross-section and alignment must
obviously be designed in accordance with stage of river at which ma*imum movements of the
sediment takes place during any period under consideration. .lthough there is ma*imum activity
of the bed of the river at high stage of flow! such stage is maintained only for a short duration.
-n the other hand! there is a little movement of sediment at low stages which persists for a long
duration. )n between the two! there is stage at which combined effect of forces causing sediment
1
movement and the time for which such forces are maintained is ma*imum. This is therefore the
most important stage as it has considerable influence on the river configuration.
1.( Di!!erent )et*ds ! river training "r#s
Various methods of river training including the bank protection are as follows
1. (arginal embankment or levees
. /uide banks or guide bunds
". /roynes or spurs
#. 0ut offs
$. 1itching of banks and provision of 'aunching aprons
%. 1itched island
2. (iscellaneous methods such as sills! closing dykes! bundling! etc
1.+ ,tud- ! *-drau&ic structures suc* as &evees. d-#es. and ersin cntr& structures
Margina& e)ban#)ent r &evees
These are earthen embankments provided to confine the flood water of the river within the
cross-section available in between the embankments. Thus spreading of flood water beyond
the marginal embankment is prevented. The alignment should follow the normal path of
meandering of the river. The retirement 3spacing away from the main channel4 of the
embankments is governed by technical 356#.2$7
8.$
4 as well as human considerations! as the
land falling on the river side of the embankments remain unprotected. The section of
embankment is usually governed by considerations for design of earthen dams. )f the
marginal embankments are likely to come in contact with high velocity of flow then the
water side of the embankment should be provided with pitching protection. 1rovide
launching apron if the embankment is close to the main river channel. 9or retired
embankments both of these are unnecessary.
E!!ects ! )argina& e)ban#)ents n river !&" during !&ds
The effect of confining of the flood waters of a river between marginal embankments or
levees is:
1. To increase the rate at which the flood wave travels down the stream.
. To increase the water surface elevation at floods.
". To increase the ma*imum discharge at all point downstream.
#. To produce the water surface slope of the stream on the upstream of the levee portion.
$. To increase the velocity and scouring action through the levee sections.
;ome of these effects will depend upon the embankment which is located too close or too far
from each other.
Merits ! river training b- )argina& e)ban#)ents
1. They prevent the spreading of flood water over large areas of flood plain. The spreading of
flood water cause considerable hardships to the inhabitants of the flood plain 3damage their
house and property4. This is avoided by providing the embankments
. )nitial cost of the embankment is low! although when raised subsequently they become
e*pensive.

". 0onstruction of embankment is easy and presents no difficulty! as it can be done by utilizing
local materials and unskilled labour.
#. <mbankments may be constructed in parts! provided the ends are properly protected.
De)erits ! e)ban#)ents
1. <mbankments cause raising of high flood levels
. <mbankments may fail by piping due to burrowing by small animals like crabs! worms! and
rats etc. .s such they need to be supervised closely during flood and protected as soon as
they are in danger.
". )n event of breach there is a sudden and considerable inflow of water which may cause
damage to the neighbor-hood and may result in the deposition of considerable quantities of
sand rendering vast areas unproductive. (ore over embankment breaches may result in
flooding almost the entire areas! protected by the embankment system.
#. )n a flood plain unprotected by embankments the flood water is spread over the plain during
every flood season and leaves a deposit of fine silt behind them as the recede. Thus the land
gets benefited by way of inundation irrigation as well as adding new fertile soil during every
flood season. =hen protected the land in the flood plain would be deprived of these benefits.
Design ! &evees'
;pacing between levees: 5 6 #.2$>7
8.$
'evel of top of levee ? &9' @ 9ree 5oard 3? 1m to 1.$m4
Top width of levee 6 "m! width is decided as per use
;ide slope depends upon:
314 Aature of material of which levee is composed
34 (ethod of construction
3"4 'ength of the time the levee is likely to be subjected to the wave action.
Bsual slope provided: 3a4 slope on the river side ":1 to $:1
3b4 'and side #:1 to 2:1
5anquette: is a terrace of earth added to the base of high levee on land side to prevent danger of
sloughing from seepage.
Gr-nes r ,purs'
/roynes are stone! gravel! rock or pile structures built at an angle to a river bank to deflect
flowing water away from critical zone to prevent erosion of the bank! to establish a more
desirable channel for flood control! navigation C erosion control. They are used on wide! braided
rivers to establish a well defined channel that neither aggrades nor degrades nor shifts its location
from year to year. )n this case the groynes may have long dikes at their outlets to help define the
channel and many kilometers of a river are controlled by groynes. /roynes are also used on
meandering rivers to control flow into or out of a bend or through a crossing.
/roynes do not restrict the regularized channel in a continuous way but produce new bank lines.
;ince groynes separate the spaces between the regulation line and the bank either making the
flow difficult or impeding the velocity of water in these spaces! they trap bed load and built up
new river banks. These are also called spur dikes or transverse dikes.
"
%&assi!icatin ! gr-nes
1. 0lassification according to the material of construction
3a4 1ermeable groynes
3b4 ;olid impermeable groynes
. 0lassification according to its height below flood level
3a4 ;ubmerged groyne
3b4 Aon submerged groyne
". 0lassification according to the function it serves:
3a4 .ttractive groyne 3inclined dDs4
3b4 Eeflecting groyne 3set at right angles4
3c4 Fepelling groyne
#. ;pecial types of groynes
3a4 Eenheys T G headed groyne
3b4 &ockey type groyne
3c4 5urma type groyne
Purpses ! gr-nes
The purpose has already been detailed earlier! it is summarized as under:
314 0ontacts a river channel C improves its depth.
34 1rotects the river bank.
3"4 ;ilts up the area in the vicinity by creating a stack flow
Per)eab&e Gr-nes' They permit flow of water through them. They dampen the velocity and
thus reduce the erosive action of the stream. )n case river water carries sediment load! the
groynes causes deposition of sediment load near it because of reduction of velocity. )t could then
be called ;<E)(<AT /F-HA<.
Advantages ! per)eab&e gr-ne'
1. 0heap 0onstruction
. ;mall quantities of stone are required for its construction and hence it is useful where stone is
0heap scarce.
". 5etter performance with respect to solid impermeable groynes
#. /royne does not change the flow abruptlyI hence there is no serious formation of eddy and
scour.
$. )t is more suitable for deep and narrow rivers.
%. ;ubmerged permeable groynes do not create turbulence and eddy conditions as in case of
submerged solid groynes.
Disadvantages'
Aot strong enough to resist shock C debris C logs. They are more suitable for the upper reaches
of the river.
T-pes ! per)eab&e gr-nes' 314 Tree /royne 34 1ile /royne
Tree Gr-ne' . tree groyne consists of trees held in position by thick wire ropes anchored
firmly on the bank and tied to a heavy buoy. The trees used for the groynes should be very leafy
with abundant branches. 5ranches! roots and twigs help trap sediment by reducing the flow
#
velocity. . tree groyne should be completed before the early floods. Tree groynes have been
successfully used:
314 To divert or deflect the current which is directly threatening erosion of a bund.
34 9or closing a river channel and opening the other.
3"4 To silt up a channel of the river at its source by checking the flow in it.
Pi&e gr-ne' These groynes are constructed with timber piles driven down in the river bed up to
Jm depth. The groynes consist of main verticals in two or three rows braced together by
transverses and diagonals. The timber main verticals are spaced to "m apart in or three
similar rows separated 1.$m to m apart. 5etween the main verticals there can be two
intermediates embedded at least 1.$m below bed. These are filled with alternate layers of bush
wood C stones. ;ometimes they catch silt! become sand bound and start acting as solid groynes.
To safeguard it against scour in such a case! it is protected by stone apron 1m thick having length
of "m along shank and %m along the nose. 1ermeable groynes are suitable for silt laden rivers. )f
the river has to be confined in a defined channel generally impermeable groynes are used.
Nn/sub)erged gr-nes 0 sub)erged gr-nes'
Nn/sub)erged gr-nes' &eight 6 &9'. 9or training rivers C protection of banks generally
non submerged groynes are used.
9oe deep rivers! depth is large! &9' is too high and as such submerged groynes can be used
where &eight K &9'.
;ubmerged groynes could be either permeable groyne or solid groyne. ;ubmerged permeable
groynes are considered better than solid groynes since former do not create turbulent C eddy
conditions as strong as with the latter. =here river bed is scoured submerged groynes can be
used as a curative measure.
;ubmerged groynes ? submerged sills ? submerged dykes.
%&assi!icatin accrding t !unctin served'
112 Attracting gr-ne' . groyne pointing downstream tends to attract the river flow
towards the bank on which it is provided. &ence the name is attracting groyne. ;uch
groyne causes the scour hole to form closer to the bank than the groyne inclined at
right angles to the bank or inclined slightly upstream! and therefore it tends to
maintain deep current close to the bank. .ttracting groynes usually make an angle of
%8
8
with the bank. &owever the angle of inclination of .ttracting groyne may be in
the range of "8
8
to %8
8
. 9urther in this case the main attack is on the uDs face. &ence
uDs face needs better protection compared to dDs.
The attracting groyne safeguards the opposite bank against the attack of the current as they
attract the current towards the bank attached to them. .ttracting groyne is not useful for bank
protection and may sometimes even endanger the adjacent banks since silting between
successive groynes is absent! it is not commonly used.
$
1$2 Repe&&ing gr-ne' . groyne pointing uDs tends to repel the river flow away from the
bank on which it is provided 3hence the name4. .ngle of inclination of Fepelling
/royne 3F./4 with bank varies from %8
8
to L8
8
. -n the uDs side of F./. a still water
pocket is formed and suspended sediment carried by the river gets deposited in the
pocket. The head of F./. causes disturbance in the flow at its nose and heavy scour at
the nose slightly dDs of it due to eddy formation. &ead of F./. needs a very long
protection because it is subjected to direct attack of a swirling current. .s compared
to .ttracting /royne! Fepelling /royne are more effective and do not cause any
trouble. .s such F./. are commonly used for purposes of bank protection and river
training.
1(2 De!&ecting Gr-ne' . groyne either perpendicular to the bank or pointing slightly
uDs and having relatively a short length tends to only deflect the flow without
repelling it. . deflecting groyne only gives local protection.
,pecia& t-pes ! gr-nes
Dene*-3s r T/4ead gr-ne' Bsually spaced L88m apart! its upstream cross groyne length 6
downstream cross groyne length.
4c#e- 4ead gr-ne r 4c#e- gr-ne' These have curved heads such that its shape is like
hockey stick.
%entra& cnsideratins in t*e design ! gr-nes
314 'ength of groyne: The length of groyne depends upon the position of original bank line and
the designed normal line of the trained river channel. Too long groynes constructed out of
easily erodible material are liable to damage and they may be e*tended gradually as silting
between them proceeds.
34 ;pacing: to .$ times the length of groyne at conve* banks. <qual to the length of groyne
on concave banks. Bse larger spacing for wider rivers than narrow rivers. .lso spacing
between groynes should not e*ceed five groyne length. . spacing of about groyne length
results in well defined channel for navigation. 'arger the ratio of groyne to river width!
stronger the local acceleration and thus greater hindrance to shipping. 1ermeable groynes can
be spaced wider apart than solid impermeable groynes. .n appro*imate formula for spacing
M'N is suggested as O3g'Dc

h4 K 1P where h is depth of mean discharge and c is 0hezyNs
coefficient 3appro*imate value #84.
3"4 ;ize and spacing best determined from model test
3#4 ;eries of groynes more useful than single
3$4 Aumber of groynes: )f the reach of the river to be protected is long or if single groyne is not
strong enough to deflect the current nor quite effective for silt deposition upstream or
downstream of itself! groynes when constructed in series with proper spacings are quite
effective as they create a pool of nearly still water between them which resists the current and
gradually accumulates silt forming a permanent bank line in course of time. =hile a series of
%
groynes is quite useful for protecting a bank! a single groyne suitably placed may be useful
for holding the river to a fi*ed point such as under a bridge or preventing its outflanking.
)n most cases a series of STREAM DEFLECTORS 3V.A<;4 constructed of wood panels or
metal 3i.e. floating drums with sheet metal vanes4 placed at suitable angle 3often almost parallel
to the bank4 and depth! can be used to either divert an eroding flood from river bank or on the
other hand to induce bed erosion C local deepening of the flow.
Pitc*ed Is&and'
. pitched island is an artificially created island in the river bed. )t is protected by some stone
pitching on all sides. . pitched island is created with sand core and boulder lining. To protect it
from scouring! a launching apron is also provided. The location! size and shape of pitched islands
are usually decided on the basis of model studies. 1itched island serves following purposes:
14 0reating an oblique approach upstream of weirs! barrages and bridges by training the
river bed to be a*ial.
4 Fectifying adverse curvature for effective sediment e*clusion.
"4 Fedistributing harmful concentration of flow for relieving attack on marginal bunds!
guide banks and river bends! etc.
#4 )mproving the channel for navigation.
. pitched island causes scour around it and thus redistributes the discharge on its two sides.
1itched island upstream of weirs and barrages have been found to be quite effective.
5an# ersin prtectin
Fiver bank protection may be carried out by
3i4 1lanting
3ii4 9aggoting 39aggots or 9ascines are bundles of branches! usually willows4
3iii4 Thatching
3iv4 (attresses! and articulated concrete mattresses
3v4 Fubble stone pitching
3vi4 =att ling
3vii4 /abions
3viii4 5agged concrete and concrete slabs! 9le*ible 5rick pitching
3i*4 .sphalt slabs! asphalt! asphalted concrete
3*4 ;oil cement blocks
3*i4 /eote*tiles: =oven or non woven fabrics! meshes! grids! strips! sheets and
composites of different shapes C constituents
)t is important to appreciate that any protective facing of banks must be continued to the river
bed and be provided with footing.
/overning criterion of bank erosion protection is wave height. 1referred type of protection is
MEumped rock riprapN. &and placed stone pitching 3where labor cost is low4! however! MEump
rock riprapN is better. )n the absence of availability of rock at a reasonable cost! alternatives of
concrete or asphaltic facing or soil cement protection may be used.
2
Du)ped rc# riprap 1du)ped stne riprap2
Fiprap of hard angular rock fragments is laid on a thick layer of rubble or quarry chips.
<*perience has proved that dumped riprap is the preferred type of slope protection for earth
dams. )t must be well graded from rock spalls to the ma*imum size required! and be composed
of dense! sound! durable rock fragments with acceptable shape factors. <*cept in rare instances
the riprap must be underlain by bedding layers of finer materials designed to act as filters to
prevent the embankment materials from being washed through the interstices in the riprap. The
size of the rock in the riprap blanket! to achieve satisfactory performance! will depend upon the
magnitude of the wave action upon the dam.
(ost design specifications for the riprap relate the criteria for selection of rock size and
thickness of riprap layer directly to the design of wave height. The following is an e*ample of
such a tabular type of specification.
Genera& re6uire)ents
314 9or embankment slopes :1 to #:1 dumped riprap shall meet the following criteria
3recommended by B; .rmy 0orps of <ngineers4.
(a*imum =ave
height 3m4
.verage size E
$8
3m4
(a*imum rock size
3kg4
'ayer thickness 3m4
8.88 G 8."8 8.8 #$ 8."1
8."8 G 8.%8 8.$ J1 8."L
8.%8 G 1.8 8."1 2 8.#%
1.8 G 1.L8 8."L %L8 8.%1
1.L8 G .#8 8.#% 11"# 8.2%
.#8 G ".88 8.%1 1L1# 8.J1
34 Fiprap should be well graded from a ma*imum size of at least 1.$ times the average rock
size to .$ cm spalls suitable to fill voids between rocks
3"4 Fiprap blanket shall e*tend to at least .#m below lowest water level! for river banks up
to bed and " to #m on river bed as toe trench.
3#4 Focks should be un-weathered! specific gravity greater than .%8! should meet soundness
and density requirements for concrete aggregate.
3$4 9ilter shall be provided between the riprap and embankment soils to meet the following
criteria.
(a*imum wave height 3m4 (inimum E
"$
size for filter 3cm4 9ilter thickness 3cm4
8.88 G 1.8 .$8 G ".$8 1$.18
1.8 G ".88 ".L8 G $.88
1.8 G .#8 - .$8
.#8 G ".%8 - "8.88
3%4 Ao filter is needed if embankment material meets the above requirements for E
"$
size. .
filter may not be required if the embankment consists of 0& 31lastic clay4 or 0' 3clay!
low plasticity4 with liquid limit greater than "8! resistant to erosion. 9ilter helps to
minimize the effect of frost heave or draw down pore pressure.
L
324 Thickness of riprap layer
3i4 /reater than 1.$>E
$8
rock size of weight =
"8
3ii4 t ? O=
ma*
DQ
r
P>>31D"4
3L4 9ailures may occur if there is
3i4 ;egregation of large! over size stones in the pockets in the layer! allowing the
bedding materials to be washed through the riprap.
3ii4 ;egregation of small! undersize stones in areas of riprap layer during placements!
permitting holes to be formed in the layer.
3iii4 Ao e*tension of primary riprap enough down the slope to below the line of attack
at minimum pool level
4and p&aced riprap
&and placed riprap consists of a single layer of a stones fitted together in a fashion similar to that
for dry rubble masonry and laid on a layer of finer bedding material. Aot better than dumped
stone riprap.
,i& ce)ent s&pe prtectin
;oil cement slope protection consists of a series of appro*imately horizontal layers of soil
cement compacted to 1$cm in stair step fashion up the embankment slope. The layers are usually
to "m wide! compacted to 1$cm vertical thickness and placed and compacted by standard soil
handling construction equipment. ;oil with a wide range of gradations may be successfully used
for soil cement. -rganic soils and those containing a high percentage of alkali-reactive minerals
should be avoided. The cement content varies from 2 to 1$R by volume of soil cement
depending upon soil characteristics.
Ot*er prtectin )easures
1re cast concrete block
0oncrete pavement
5ituminous 1avements
J
9ig. 1.1 ;ection of a levee
9ig. 1. .ttracting groyne
9ig. 1." ;ection of groyne
18
9ig. 1.# 1itced island
Guide ban#'
/uide banks are made for guiding the stream near a structure so as to confine it in a reasonable
width of the river. )t was first designed by 5ell in whose honor it is also sometimes known as
Bell’s Bund The design was further developed by S!ring and is known as /uide bank.
The guide bank usually consists of a heavily built embankment in the shape of bell mouth on
both sides of constricted channel. Bsually only one embankment is required if the other side is a
high and stable bank.
1.7. Design cnsideratin in cnstructin ! guide ban#s.

The design of a guide bank involves the following considerations:
• The ultimate width to which an alluvial river can be constricted may be computed from
the relation
L 8 +.97
"
. where 7 is the ma*imum discharge in cumecs! ' is the width of the channel in
meters. .n e*tra allowance of 8R may be given for thickness of bridge piers etc.
• 'ength of upstream guide bank ? 1.$7 L to 1.7 L
• 'ength of downstream guide bank ? :.$7 L
11
;ig. 1.7 Guide ban#
;ig. 1.< La-ut ! Guide ban#
1
The two guide banks on both sides of stream can be made 3a4 parallel! 3b4 diverging! 3c4
converging at upper and 3d4 single guide bank depending upon local conditions. 5oth upstream
and downstream ends of the banks are curved gently so as to lead the flow along smooth lines.
The main parts of a guide bank are:
3i4 uDs curved head or impregnable head
3ii4 dDs curved head
3iii4 ;hank or a straight portion which join two curved heads
3iv4 ;lope and bed protection
3i4 BD; curved head:
The uDs end curvature has a central angle of 18
8
to 1#8
8
. )t is suggested that the value of F can
be calculated from the relation F ? 8.#$ ' depending on river velocities.
3ii4 EDs curved head: The curved dDs head ensures safety of approach embankment. The
radius of curvature of the dDs head may be kept as half of the uDs radius with a central
angle of #$
8
to %8
8
.
3iii4 ;ection of guide bund and material of construction
The material of construction of guide bank is the river sand available locally. ;ide slope is kept
:1 to ":1. )t should have sufficient top width which should not be less than #m so as to provide
sufficient carriage way. The free board usually adopted for the design varies from 1.$ to 1.$m.
The inside slope is protected by stone pitching! the total thickness of which varies from 8.# m to
8.% m. The stone pitching is 1 m above &9'. The thickness of stone pitching 3T4 as
recommended by )nglis is given by
The thickness of the pitching should be $R more at the impregnable head than for the rest of
the bank.
The rear side of the shank portion is not pitched! but is generally coated with 8." m to 8.% m
earth for encouraging vegetation growth so as to make it resistant against wind and rain.
3iv4 ;lope and toe protection
The toe of the slope is protected by the 'aunching apron. The quantity of stone in the apron
should be sufficient to cover a scoured face fully after the apron fans out while launching at a
slope of :1 with a thickness of 1.$T. )t is generally laid in a width equal to 1.$ E where E is
the depth of ma*imum anticipated scour below the bed! and has a thickness of 1.J T. The
ma*imum anticipated scour below &9' is taken as 0.F where F is the 'aceyNs normal scour
depth given by the relation
"
1
#2 . 8

,
_

¸
¸
·
#
"
R !
where 7 is the discharge and f is the silt factor. The value of 0 is generally assumed as .$ at
the noses of the guide banks! 1.$8 at the transition from the nose to the straight portion and 1.$
in the straight reaches of the guide bund. )nglis and Soglekar gave the following values for
ma*imum scour depth:
1"
( ) "
1
8% . 8 " T ·
• (a*imum scour depth downstream of bridge:
"
1
J . 1

,
_

¸
¸
·
#
"
D
s
• (a*imum scour depth around bridge piers:
"
1
J$ . 8

,
_

¸
¸
·
#
"
D
s
• (a*imum scour depth at nose of guide banks of a large radius:
"
1
" . 1

,
_

¸
¸
·
#
"
D
s
Arti!icia& cut!!'
To improve the flood capacity of a given reach and thereby reduce flood level in certain reaches!
an artificial cutoff may be introduced as a river training measure. This is generally done when
the loop length e*ceeds 1.$ to .$ times the chord length. )nitially a pilot cut is provided to carry
L to 18R of discharge and are permitted subsequently to develop the carrying capacity to about
#8R to $8R of the total river discharge. The design alignment and the cross section are governed
by the following considerations:
• The direction of cut should be tangential to the main direction of flow.
• .lignment of cut should be much flatter than the curvature of river.
• <ntrance to cutoff should be given bell mouth shape.
• The 'aceyNs regime formula will be considered for cross-section of cutoff.
• The pilot section should be made very deep as deeper sections develop rapidly.
<*ample: Eesign a guide bank required for a bridge on a river having the following particulars:
Eesign flood discharge ? $8888 cumecs
;ilt factor ? 1.18
5ed level of river ? 1"8.88m
&igh flood level ? 1#8.88m
;olution:
7 ? $8888 cumecsI f ? 1.18
'aceyNs water way ? #.2$ $8888 ? 18% m.
1rovide 8R more length to account for thickness of piers and end contractions due to piers and
abutments! ? 1 m
0ross length between banks ? ' ? 12# m.
Bpstream length of guide bank ?
. 1$J
#
$
m L ·
Eownstream length of the guide bank ?
. "1L
#
m
L
·
Fadius of the uDs curved head ? 8.#$ ' ? $2" m.
The uDs end of the guide bank may! therefore! be curved at 1#8
8
with the radius of $2"m.
Fadius of the dDs curved head may be kept as L2m with an angle of %8
8
at the center.
1#
Cross-section of the guide bank
The given &9' at the bridge site ? 1#8.88m
.ssuming free board ? 1.$ m!
'evel of top of guide bank equals 1#1.$ m. To be more safe and making an allowance for future
settlement etc.! the final level of top of guide bank is taken as 1#.88 m.
&eight of river bank above river bed ? 1#.8 G 1"8.8 ? 1.88m
Teep the top width of the bank as #.8 m and side slope as .1 3as per requirement and site
condition4.
The stone pitching and the launching apron must be provided on the slope of the water side
through the bank length. The rear side of the bank must also be pitched on the curve portion of
the band.
Design of stone pitching and apron
The thickness of stone pitching is given by
( ) . 1 . 8% . 8 "
1
m " T · ·
This can be kept 1.8 m above &9'! i.e.! up to level 1#1.88 m
Eepth of scour! F ? . 22 . 1% #2 . 8
"
1
m
#
"
·

,
_

¸
¸
9or straight reach of guide bank! (a*imum scour ? 0.F.! where 0 ? 1.$ for the straight portion.
(a*imum scour ? 1.$ F ? 1.$ * 1%.22 ? 8.J2 m.
F.'. at ma*imum anticipated scour ? 1#8 G 8.J2 ? 11J.8" m.
Eepth of ma*imum scour! E ? 1"8 G 11J.8" ? 18.J2 m.
'ength of apron ? 1.$ E ? 1.$ * 18.J2 ? 1%.#$ m.
9or curvilinear transition portion of guide bank! (a*imum scour ? 0.F.! where 0 ? 1.$ for the
transition from the nose of the guide banks to the straight portion.
(a*imum scour ? 1.$ F ? 1.$ * 1%.22 ? $.1% m
F.'. of ma*imum scour ? 1#8 G $.1% ? 11#.L# m
Eepth of ma*imum scour E ? 1"8 G 11#.L# ? 1$.1% m
'ength of apron ? 1.$ E ? 1.$ * 1$.1% ? .2# m.
Thickness of launching apron ? 1.JT ? 1.J * .1 ? #. m.
$. RIVER NAVIGATION
$.1 ,cpe and de!initin
1$
)n the modern times! towing through water is not only required for transporting purposes! but is
also required for recreational boating. &owever! boating and floating of ships through the natural
rivers is not always safe. Fapids and sandbars may create problems! and may require
considerable time to be passed. )solated rocks! fallen trees! debris and other obstructions may
create constant hazards! and may damage or even wreck the boats! streamers! or ships being
towed through such waterways. )t is! therefore! absolutely essential that all the waterways
through which the boats or ships are to be towed! must be made completely safe.
The chief requirement for navigating though a waterway is the availability of sufficient water
depth in the waterway. . minimum water depth of about .2 meters is generally required for
navigating safely and economicallyI although a depth of about ".2 meters is generally aspired in
the final developments of a navigable waterway. .vailability of lesser depth in the rivers may
completely eliminate the possibility of towing the ships through such rivers or may cause
increased unit cost of transport.
$.$ Varius re6uire)ents ! navigab&e "ater"a-s
There is no rigidity about the requirements of a good navigable waterway! since it al depends
upon the e*tent and type of traffic likely to pass through it. &owever! the various general
requirements are enumerated as below:
314 ;ufficient water depth is available so as to pass the more heavily loaded barges cheaply and
economically.
34 The width of the waterway is sufficiently more than the width of the tow itself.
3"4 The radii of the bends should not be sharp and should be high enough to allow the ma*imum
length of the ship to pass through them.
3#4 The alignment of the waterway should be as straight as possible! because a highly irregular
alignment increases the circuitry or length in e*cess of air line distance which the barge tow
must travel. The e*isting channels generally have a length about $8 percent greater than the
air-line distances.
3$4 The flow velocities should not be high! as they may cause substantial reduction in the true
speed for tows moving upstream and thereby increasing the time of transit and the cost of
transport per kilometer. The speed of most of the barge tows in still water is of the order of
.LmDsec. The flow velocities of the order of 1 mDs may! therefore! cause sufficient reduction
in true speed 3i.e. .L G 1.8 ? 1.L mDs4 and hence! should not e*ceed such a value.
3%4 )n order to minimize the transit time! the time required for the tow to pass through locks
should be minimum. )n certain cases! where the lock is not large enough to accept the entire
tow! the tow is generally broken and taken through the lock in potions. This increases the
time lost in locking and thereby increasing the transit time and the cost of transport. &ence!
sufficient sized locks should be ensured for economic and better transport.
1%
324 <fficient and adequate terminal facilities for unloading the barges for transferring the cargo
effectively must be ensured for economic and better navigation.
$.1( Varius )easures adpted !r ac*ieving navigabi&it-
There are three basic methods which are generally adopted for improving a river for navigation.
These are:
314 -pen channel methods
34 'ock and dam arrangements
3"4 0analization
They are described below:
112 Open c*anne& )et*ds. )n the open channel methods! the e*isting waterway is
improved to such an e*tent as to make navigation possible. This improvement natural
waterway is possible only if the following conditions are satisfied:
3i4 ;ufficient discharge is available in the river throughout the year or at least for a
reasonable portion of the year.
3ii4 The e*isting river is having a satisfactory alignment without e*cessively sharp
bends.
3iii4 The river bed slope is reasonably flat so that the flow velocities are not e*cessive.
3i.e. they are within 1 mDs or so4.
3iv4 The river width is not too small and is such that it can be improved economically
for modern barge tows.
3v4 The material of the river bed and banks should permit satisfactory treatment by
one or more of the open channel methods.
)f the above requirements are appro*imately satisfied! the channel can be economically
improved and made fit for navigation. 5ut if the available conditions are far too short of
requirements! open channel methods may prove to be highly uneconomical! and! therefore!
should not be considered. &owever! these requirements and factors may be controlled to some
e*tent by some suitable measures. ;ay for e*ample! if the discharge in the river during lean
periods is very low! while the average annual flow is adequate! reservoirs may be constructed so
as to store water and augment the supplies during lean weather flows. ;imilarly! very sharp
bends may be eliminated by cut off channels! provided the resulting channel slopes remain
within limits.
The various works and techniques that may by involved in improving the channel by the open
channel methods are
3a4 0onstructing and Fegulating the flow through storage reservoirs
12
3b4 <*cavation and Eredging.
3c4 0ontraction works
3d4 5ank stabilization.
3e4 ;traightening the waterway by artificial cut offs.
3f4 Femoval of snag! debris and other obstructions
These techniques are generally required together as one of them may rarely provide the
necessary required improvement. These techniques are described below:
3a4 ,trage reservirs. The storage reservoirs generally store water during high flows and
can release the required amount of water during lean-flows! so as to make downstream
navigation possible even during periods of low weather flows. &owever! the construction
and planning of storage reservoirs for navigation alone is not generally justified
economically. &ence! reservoirs are mostly planned under multipurpose projects! where
navigation may be one purpose of that project. (oreover! the storage reservoirs can
augment low supplies for navigation! only if the reservoir is situated at the head of a
relatively short navigable reach.
This is becauseI as the distan$e #rom the reser%oir to the na%iga&le ri%er'rea$h in$reases(
reser%oir'releases ha%e to &e in$rease so as to allow #or transit losses due to see!age(
e%a!oration( et$ The releases must also &e made mu$h in ad%an$e so as to allow #or
tra%el time to the na%iga&le rea$h and their )uantit* has to &e su##i$ient e%en a#ter
redu$tion due to $hannel storage
3b4 E=cavatin and dredging. &uge amounts of e*cavations are generally required for
clearing sand bars and filled channel sections in order to make it fit for navigation.
5esides the basic initial e*cavations! continuous desilting and proper maintenance is
required in order to keep the waterway fit for navigation. These e*cavations from the bed
and banks of the waterway are generally carried out by dredging by means of dredgers.
Three types of dredgers are generally used. They are:
1i2 Dipper dredgers. They are merely floating power shovels and are used on small
projects.
1ii2 Ladder dredgers. They have an endless chain of buckets for bringing the e*cavated
material up to the surface. The cuttings carried by buckets are discharged on a &elt
$on%e*or which is disposed of through a sta$+er $on%e*or at the rear of the dredger.
;ince the stacker conveyors 3generally called s!oil sta$+ers4 are limited in length to
about 188 meters or so! ladder dredgers cannot be used when the e*cavated material
3i.e. spoils4 are to be discharged at a considerable distance from the dredge.
1iii2 Suction dredgers. )n these dredgers! the cuttings and water are collected in suction
pipes! and the mi*ture is then discharged by pumping through a pipe supported by
floats 3called spoil pipe4 into the desired spoil area. . line diagram of this operational
process is shown in 9ig. .1.
1L
9ig. .1 'ine plan of an ordinary suction dredge called Eust pan dredge.
. section dredge cannot operate in rocky or boulder river reaches. The suction head of these
dredges is provided with jets or rotating blades so as to loosen the bed material and also with
suction openings through which the soil and water mi*ture enters into the suction pipe. These
dredgers can make cuts of about 18 m wide through sand bars! and various such parallel cuts
can be made in order to achieve a wider channel.
3c4 %ntractin "r#s. 0ontraction works are those engineering works which are
constructed in order to change a wide shallow river into a narrow deep riverI or to close
off the river creeks 3small branches4 and thus to divert the entire water into the main
river. =hen the bed and bank material of a river is course grained with little cohesionI a
shallow wide channel! or at low water! a number of channels will develop. ;uch
situations may be corrected with the help of spurs or groynes. Bnder the process! rivers
carrying huge sediment loads can be corrected with the help of properly placed
permeable spurs called sal 5alli Eykes made of sal ballies! driven at some suitable
distance center to center in rows across the river current and braced at top. The function
of permeable sal balli dykes is to slow the current and thus promote silting in the dyked
area. The concentration of flow in the narrower section also encourages deepening of
channel. ;everal years are allowed for the effect of the structures to develop.
;imilarly! the rivers carrying a little sediment load can be corrected by properly placed
impermeable spurs or jetties which shall divert the flow! thereby confining the entire water in
a smaller width and thus deepening the same.
3d4 5an# stabi&i>atin. . good navigable channel must have stable banks. =hen the river
banks are not stable and start caving! the river starts meandering! creating bends! which
may obstruct the path of longer barge tows. (oreover! scouring at concave banks and
silting at conve* banks take place due to meandering. &ence at bends! sufficient depth
will prevail at least near the concave side. 5ut the targets! i.e. the crossings jointing the
1J
two successive bends! will definitely develop shallower channels with cross bars by the
deposition of sediment scoured from the upstream bend. )t is in these crossings that the
controlling depths for navigation occur.
;pur or groynes! when suitably and intelligently placed! may prove to be useful in bank
stabilizationI because a spur placed along the concave bank shall promote silting. 5anks may
be protected more easily by !it$hing or by re%etments The entire concave bank is generally
protected by pitching. The loosely dumped stone called apron or riprap is generally used! and
it is e*tended from top of bank to beyond the toe of the underwater slope. This e*tension of
revetment in the bed is essential so as to avoid the failure of revetment due to scour and
consequent undermining of the underwater edge of the revetment.
The revetment must be fle*ible so as to adopt itself to the surface on which it is placed.
(oreover the revetment must be relatively impervious so as to avoid! the washing of fines
through it. )t must also be strong enough to resist the flow currents. Various types of
revetments are used. 0oncrete mattresses in the form of concrete blocks placed in wire
meshes may sometimes be used! when ordinary stone dumping over a graded filter is not
provided due to non-availability of stone in the nearby areas. Bncompacted asphalt paving is
also finding a use in developed countries! and is under serious investigations. 0ompacted
asphalt paving and monolithic concrete paving are not generally used! as they are liable to be
cracked and damaged by uplift pressures.
3e4 ,traig*tening b- arti!icia& cut/!!. ;ince the development of a cut-off eliminates sharp
bends which are undesirable for navigation! artificial cut-offs may sometimes be used
advantageously. . pilot cut is made and allowed to develop 39ig. .4. These cut offs
have been used with success to avoid future caving and meandering.
9ig. . Eevelopment of a cut off
3f4 Re)va& ! snag. debris and t*er bstructins. 1resence of debris! trees! isolated
rocks! and other obstructions! not only pose a direct hazard to the barge tows! but also
promote the formation of sand bars. They must! therefore! be removed effectively in
order to ensure safe and economical navigation. Eifferent methods and equipments may
be used in different cases! depending upon the circumstances of each case. Tractors!
8
winches! derrick barges! e*plosives! etc. may be required in the process of clearing the
waterway obstructions.
1$2 Lc# and da) arrange)ents. The arrangement consists of dams which create a series
of slack water pools through which the traffic can move with locks to lift the vessels from
one pool to the ne*t. 'ock and dam construction may be adopted where e*isting site
conditions are not favourable for adopting open channel methods described earlier. This
arrangement is a se$ond $hoi$e to o!en $hannel methods )n this arrangement! water is
required for lockages! sanitary releases! evaporation! percolation! etc. This requirement of
water is much less than that required for open channel procedures. &ence! when the
available water is less! these arrangements may have to be adopted.
The slack water pools behind the dams will submerge the rapids and channel bends and thus
overcoming those problems. 9urther! because of their relatively large areas of cross-sections!
the velocities in these pools shall be low enough as to cause lesser reduction in true speed of
the barge tow moving upstream.
'ock and dam arrangements are suitable only on rivers bringing only a little sediment load.
This is becauseI highly silt laden river water shall fill up the pools rapidly. (oreover!
suitable sites for construction of small dams must be available for providing such
arrangements.
1(2 %ana&i>atin. . totally new channel cut is provided artificially around an otherwise
impassable obstruction or between two navigable rivers. ;uch a cut is generally
economical only when a short length of new channel opens a large length of e*isting
waterways. 0onstruction of a new channel connection between two e*isting waterways is
also sometimes adopted! so as to ensure a continuous traffic way. &owever! canalization
is a costly process! as the per kilometer cost of canal! capable of passing modern barge
tows! is normally very high! and are adopted when very short lengths are required.

(. %ANAL ;ALL, AND DIVER,ION 4EAD ?OR@ ,TRA%TARE,
(.1. %ana& !a&&s
1
(.1.1. De!initin. =henever the available natural ground slope is steeper than the designed bed
slope of the channel! the difference is adjusted by constructing vertical falls or drops in the canal
bed at suitable intervals.
9ig. ".1 . fall or drop
. drop in a natural canal bed will not be stable and! therefore! in order to retain this drop! a
masonry structure is constructed. ;uch a structure is called a canal fall or a canal drop.
(.1.$. Prper &catin. The location of a fall in a canal depends upon the topography of the
country through which the canal is passing. )n case of the main canal! which does not directly
irrigate any area! the site of a fall is determined by considerations of economy in cost of
e*cavation and filling versus cost of falls.
The e*cavation and filling on two sides of a fall should be tried to be balanced! because the
unbalanced earthwork is quite costly. 5y providing a larger drop in one step! the quantity of
unbalanced earth work increases but at the same time the number of fall reduces.
.n economy between these two factors has to be worked out before deciding the locations and
e*tent of falls.
)n case of branch or distributary channels! the falls are located with consideration to commanded
area. The procedure is to fi* the 9;' required at the head of the off-taking channels and outlets
and mark them.
The 9;' of the canal can then be marked! as to cover all the commanded points! thereby
deciding suitable locations for falls in canal 9;'! and hence! in canal beds.
The location of the falls may also be influenced by the possibility of combining it with a bridge!
regulator! or some other masonry workI as such combinations often result in economy and better
regulation. =hen a fall is combined with a regulator and bridge! it is called a fall-regulator with
road bridge.
(.1.(. T-pes ! !a&&s

Various types of falls have been designed and tried since the inception of the idea of fall
constructions came into being. The important types of such falls! which were used in olden days
or are being used in modern days! are described below:
112 Ogee !a&&s.
The ogee type fall was constructed in olden days on projects like /anga canal. The water was
gradually led down by providing conve* and concave cures! as shown in 9ig. "..
9ig. ". -gee fall
The performance of such a fall was found to have the following major defects:
3i4 There was heavy draw-down on the upstream side! resulting in lower depths! higher
velocities and consequent bed erosion. Eraw-down may also affect the supply in a
distributary situated just upstream of fall.
3ii4 Eue to smooth transition! the kinetic energy of the flow was not at all dissipated! causing
erosion of downstream bed and banks.
'ater! it was converted into a much better type called Vertical )mpact type.

1$2 Rapids.
)n some areas! long rapids at slopes of 1:1$ to 1:8 3i.e. gently slopping glacis4 with boulder
facings! were provided. They worked quite satisfactorily! but were very e*pensive! and hence
became obsolete.
1(2 Trape>ida& ntc* !a&&s.
The trapezoidal notch fall was designed by Fied in 1LJ#. )t consists of a number of
trapezoidal notches constructed in a high crested wall across the channel with a smooth
entrance and a flat circular lip projecting downstream from each notch to spread out the
falling jet 39ig. "."4.
"
9ig. "." Trapezoidal notch fall
The notches could be designed to maintain the normal water depth in the upstream
channel at any two discharges! as the variation at intermediate values is small.
&ence! the depth-discharge relationship of the channel remains practically unaffected by
the introduction of the fall.
)n other words! there would neither be drawdown nor heading up of water! as the channel
approaches the fall.
These falls remained quite popular! till simpler! economical! and better modern falls were
developed.
1+2 ?e&& t-pe !a&&s r c-&inder !a&&s r sip*n "e&& drps.
This type of a fall consists of an inlet well with a pipe at its bottom! carrying water from the
inlet well to a downstream well or a cistern.
The downstream well as shown in 9ig. ".# is necessary in the case of falls greater than 1.L m
and for discharges greater than 8.J cumecs.
The water falls into the inlet well! from where it emerges near the bottom! dissipating its
energy in turbulence inside the well.
#
9ig. ".# ;iphon well drop
These types of falls are very useful for affecting larger drops for smaller discharges. They
are commonly used as tail escapes for small canals! or where high leveled smaller drains
do outfall into low leveled bigger drains.
172 ,i)p&e vertica& drp t-pe and ,arda T-pe !a&&s.
. raised crest fall with vertical impact 39ig. ".$4 was first of all introduced on ;arda 0anal
;ystemI owing to its economy and simplicity.
The necessity for economic falls arose because of the need of construction of large number of
smaller falls on the ;arda 0anal ;ystem.
9ig. ".$ ;imple vertical drop fall
$
1<2 ,traig*t g&acis !a&&s.
)n this type of a modern fall! a straight glacis generally slopping :1 is provided after a
raised crest. The hydraulic jump is made to occur on the glacis! causing sufficient energy
dissipation. They are suitable up to %8 cumecs discharge and 1.$ m drop.
192 Mntague !a&&s.
The energy dissipation on a straight glacis remains incomplete due to vertical component of
velocity remaining unaffected. The (ontague profile is given by the equation!
3".14
where U ? The horizontal ordinate of any point of the profile measured from
the dDs edge of crest.
H ? Vertical ordinate measured from the crest level.
B ? )nitial velocity of water leaving the crest.
9ig. ".% (ontague type fall
1B2 Eng&is !a&&s r ba!!&e !a&&s.
. straight glacis type fall when added with a baffle platform and baffle wall as shown in 9ig.
".2! was developed by <nglis. They are suitable for all discharge and for drops of more than
1.$ m. The baffle fall is provided at a certain height and distance from the toe of the glacis! so
as to ensure the formation of the jump on the baffle platform.
%
,
g
,
- . + ·
#
9ig. ".2 5affle fall or <nglis fall
(.1.+ Design princip&es ! varius t-pes !
!a&&s
1. Design ! a trape>ida& ntc* !a&&
. notch fall provides a proportionate fall. The
whole width of the channel is divided into a
number of notches. The crest may be kept higher
than the bed level of the canal! but the weir
openings should not e*ceed the bed width of the
canal upstream.
Disc*arge !r)u&a. The discharge passing
through one notch of a notch fall can be
obtained by adding the discharge of a
rectangular notch and a V G notch.
9ig. ".L . sketch showing a trapezoidal notch
The discharge passing through a trapezoidal
notch such as given in 9ig. ".L is given by

1
]
1

¸

+ ·
D $ D "

tan
$
#
.
"

H lH g Cd
α

1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
D $ D "
$

tan
$

.
"

H lH g Cd
3".4
2
)f

tan
α
is represented by n! then
[ ]
D $ D "
. # . 8 .
"

nH lH Cd " + ·
3"."4
where 0d ? 0oefficient of discharge V 8.2$
∴ [ ]
D $ D "
# . 8 J.L1 * 8.2$ *
"

nH lH " + ·
or [ ] nH l H " # . 8 .
D "
+ · 3".#4
The above discharge equation contains two unknowns l and n. 9or solving this equation! two
values of 7 and corresponding values of & must be determined. )t is a common practice to
design notches for full supply discharge 37
188
4 and half supply discharge 37
$8
4 with values of &
equal to the normal water depths in the channel in the respective cases. 'et the normal water
depths in the channel be represented by y
188
and y
$8
respectively. Then &
188
? y
188
! and &
$8
? y
$8
.
The depth of water in the channel at $8R discharge 3i.e. y
$8
4 can be appro*imately evaluated in
terms of full supply depth 3y
188
4 as follows:
'et
%# . 8
.* C / · 3TennedyNs <q. for vel. in channels4
Aow
/ A " . ·
Bsing / B A . ≈
=e have
/ * B " . . ·

%# . 8
. . C* * B ·
or
%# . 1
. . * B C " ·

%# . 1
188 188
. . * B C " ·
and
%# . 1
$8 $8
. . * B C " ·
or
%# . 1
188
$8
188
$8

,
_

¸
¸
·
*
*
"
"
or
%# . 1
1
188
$8
188
$8

,
_

¸
¸
·
"
"
*
*

( ) %% . 8 $ . 8 %# . 1
1
· ·
188 $8
. %% . 8 * * ·
3".$4
Nu)ber ! ntc*es. The number of notches should be so adjusted by hit and trial method that
the top width of the notch lies between
#
"
to full water depth above the sill of the notch.
L
Ntc* piers.
The thickness of notch piers should not be less than half the water depth and may be kept more if
they have to carry a heavy super structure. The top length of piers should not be less than their
thickness.
E=a)p&e (.1. Eesign the size and number of notches required for a canal drop with the
following particulars:
Full su!!l* dis$harge 0 1 $ume$s
Bed width 0 23 m
FS de!th 0 45 m
Hal# su!!l* de!th 0 43 m
Assume an* other re)uired data i# re)uired
,&utin. The bed width of the canal is % m. <ach notch at top should be roughly equal to 9.;.
depth i.e. 1.$ m. ;o let us! in the first trial! provide " notches.
∴9ull supply discharge through each notch ?
"" . 1
"
#
·
cumecs.
9rom equation 3".#4 we have
[ ] nH l H " # . 8 .
D "
+ ·
Bsing [ ]
188
D "
188
# . 8 . n* l H " + ·
where
"" . 1
188
· "
m $ . 1
188
· *
=e have ( ) [ ] $ . 1 . # . 8 . . "" . 1
D "
188
n l * + ·
or
[ ] n l % . 8 1.L# * . "" . 1 + ·
or "% . 8 % . 8 · + n l 3i4
Aow! using ( ) [ ]
$8
D $
$8
. # . 8 . . * n l * " + ·
where
%2 . 8

"" . 1
$8
· · "
m * 8 . 1
$8
·
we have ( ) [ ] 1 * # . 8 8 . 1 . . %2 . 8
D $
n l + ·
or " . 8 8.# · + n l 3ii4
;ubtracting 3ii4 from 3i4 we get
8% . 8 . 8 · n
. 1" . 8 · n
1utting the value of n in 3ii4 we get
" . 8 8.1" * # . 8 · + l
or #L . 8 · l say! :.$7 ).
J
5y this trial! we find the top width
H . tan $ . 8 α + ·
H n. $ . 8 + ·
$ . 1 * 1" . 8 $ . 8 + ·
1J$ . 8 $ . 8 + ·
m. 1.$ of depth full than the less much is which m 8.#$ say ##$ . 8 ·
increase to necessary is it !
#
"
to 1 near it make to and width! top the increase order to )n FSD th
reduced. are notches
of number when ! proportion direct in increase will notches " for obtained and of values The
notches. of number the reducing by done be can which : and
n l
n l
)n other words! the values of l and n will become " times! when number of notches are reduced "
times. Thus! when we provide only one notch instead of " notches! the values of n and l will
triple.
;imilarly! when we use notches against "! i.e.! D" times! the values n and l will become 1.$
times of those obtained for " notches.
Hen$e when we use 6 not$hes( %alues will &e
8.8 8.1" * $ . 1 · · n
m 8."8 8.$ * $ . 1 · · l
and Top width m. 8.%L 8.#$ * $ . 1 · ·
;ince the top width is still quite low! we may use only one notch.
7hen we use onl* one not$h( the %alues will &e
n 0 8 * 348 0 389
l 0 8 * 365 0 3:5 m
To! width 0 8 * 315 0 485 ; FSD <O=>
8 1 1
11

"J . 8
tan

tan

· · ·
− −
n α
;ince this condition gives us top width ? 1."$ m! which is o.k.! we may provide one notch!
centrally placed in the given channel of % m width. The section of notch to be adopted is shown
in 9ig. ".J.
9ig. ".J ;ection of notch
3<*ample ".14.
$. Design ! a sip*n "e&&
drp
. siphon well drop is adopted
for smaller discharges and
"8
larger drops. The main features of the design involve determining the size of the inlet well and
that of the pipe. . suitable size for the outer well! a proper provision of water cushion at the
bottom of the inlet well! the bed and side slope pitching in the canal upstream as well as
downstream! for suitable lengths! are also provided. The size of the inlet well and that of the
siphon pipe are determined on the following considerations w.r. to 9ig. ".18.
9ig. ".18 0onsiderations in siphon well drop.
9irst of all! the size of the trapezoidal notch is determined so as to pass the designed discharge by
using eqn. 3".#4 in the same way. Then let V
1
be the velocity over the notch! V

be the velocity of
entry in the pipe! and V
"
be the velocity through the pipe. .ll these values of velocities can be
determined easily as below:
notch over the flow of .rea
discharge supply 9ull
1
· /
opening4 of diameter assumed 3for entry at opening of .rea
discharge supply 9ull

· /
diameter4 assumed 3for pipe of .rea
discharge supply 9ull
"
· /
The head loss between the inlet well and the dDs 9;' is then given by &
'1
as
"1
( )
3".%4 e*it4 to due 3loss

4 length pipe assumed in the loss the 3i.e.

t4 enlargemen sudden to due loss the 3i.e.

V
entry4 to due loss . . 3

$ . 8

"

"

"

1
g
/
L
gd
L/ #
g
/
e i
g
/
H
L
+

+

+ ·
Tnowing all the above values! &
'1
can be determined! and thus the F.'. of water surface level in
the inlet well 3i.e. dDs 9;' @ H
1
4 can be determined.
Aow appro*imate F.'. of center of pressure 30.1.4 of the trapezoidal waterway through the notch
? uDs canal bed level @ W 9;E 3which can be calculated4.
Then the height 3H4 of the center of pressure above the water level in the inlet well
? F.'. -9 0.1. G F.'. of water in inlet well
? 3Tnown4
Aow using the equation
>

1
*
g.
/ · 3".24
where U and H are the coordinates of the jet 3issuing from center of pressure4 w.r.t. the water
surface level in the inlet well.
? E)n <8:> $an &e deri%ed as &elow:

U ? V
1
>

t 3after a time t4
H ?

1
gt

O using ; ? ut @

1
gt

and u ? 8! we have ; ?

1
gt

P
H ?

1
g.

1

,
_

¸
¸
/
.
The value of U can be determined. 9inally the diameter of the inlet well may be kept as about 1.$
times the value of U.
<*ample ".. Eesign the salient dimensions of a siphon well drop given the following
particulars:
Fall 0 8@ m
"
U
H
V
1
*
g.
/

1
·
Aeneral ground le%el 0 B 42882 m
Full su!!l* de!th 0 :5 $m
Bed le%el u!stream 0 B 426@8 m
Dis$harge 0 4 $ume$
Bed width u!stream and downstream 0 61 m
;olution. 9or a trapezoidal notch! we have the discharge equation 3".#4 as
[ ] nH l H " # . 8 .
D "
+ ·
.t full supply discharge! we have
( ) [ ]
188
D "
188 188
# . 8 . n* l * " + ·
188
*
? 9.;.E. ? 8.2$ m
188
"
? 9.;.7. ? 1 cumec
∴ ( ) ( ) [ ] 2$ . 8 # . 8 2$ . 8 . 1
D "
n l + ·
or 8.%J ? l B 8."n 3i4
.t $8R full discharge! we have
[ ]
$8
D "
$8 $8
# . 8 4 3 . n* l * " + ·
188 $8
%% . 8 * * ≈
3<quation ".$4
? 8.%% * 8.2$
? 8.$ m.
cumec $ . 8
$8
· "
∴ ( ) ( ) [ ] $ . 8 # . 8 $ . 8 . $ . 8
D "
n l + ·
8.%# ? l B 8. n 3ii4
;ubtracting 3ii4 from 3i4 we get
8.8$ ? 8.1 n
n 0 8.$

8
8# . 1#

or ! $ . 8

tan · ·
α α
;ubstituting this value of n in 3ii4 we get
l 0 321 C 36 * 35
l 0 8.%# G 8.18 ? 8.$#
&ence! provide a trapezoidal notch in the steining of the inlet well! with 8.$# m bottom width
and each side inclined to an angle of 1#.8#
8
with the vertical.
Aow the width of water 3at 9;'4 flowing over the notch
? 8.$# @ 8.$ * 38.2$4
? 8.$#@ 8."2$
? 8.J1$ m.
""
Velocity 3V
1
4 over the notch
notch over the flow of .rea
. . " S F
·

mDsec
8.2$ *

J1$ . 8 $# . 8
1
+
·
1.L"mDsec
mDsec
8.2$ * 2" . 8
1
·
·
Aow assume that the diameter of the pipe used be 1 m.
∴The velocity V
"
through the pipe
( )
mDsec.
1
#
1

π
·
? 1.2 mDsec.
.lso assume that the diameter of the opening at the inlet of pipe be 8.$ m.
∴The velocity of entry into the pipe 3/
6
4
( )
mDsec.
$ . 8
#
1

π
·
? $.1 mDsec
Aow! loss of head between the inlet well and the dDs 9;' is given by <quation 3".%4.
g
/
gd
L/ #
g
/ /
g
/

4 3

$ . 8

"

"

"

+

+

+ ⋅ ·
.ssume that the length of the pipe is kept as 1 m and
# ′
? EarcyNs coefficient of friction be
taken as equal to 8.81! we then have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
J.L1 *
2 . 1
*1.8 J.L1 *
1.2 1 * 81 . 8
J.L1 *
2 . 1 1 . $
J.L1 *
1 . $
$ . 8

1
+ +

+ ⋅ ·
L
H
? 1.7: )
∴F.'. of water surface in the inlet well
? dDs 9;' @ 1.$8
OEDs 9;' ? uDs 9;' - fall
? 31%.L" @ 8.2$4 G ".L4 ? 1$J.2L4P
"#
? 1$J. 2L @ 1.$8
? 1<1.$B.
.ppro*imate F.'. of the center of pressure 30.1.4 of the trapezoidal waterway through notch
? uDs canal bed level @ W 9;E
?1%.L" @
"
2$ . 8
? 1%.L" @ 8.$
? 1<(.:B
∴&eight H of 0.1. above water level in the inlet well
? 1%".8L G 1%1.L
? 1.L8 m.
Aow using <qn. 3".24! we have
*
g.
/

1
·
or
g
, /
.

1
·
?
( )
J.L1
1.L8 * * L" . 1

? 1.11 m.
Aow the diameter of the inlet well may be kept as about 1.$ .( i.e. 1.$ * 1.11 ? 1.%%$ m! say 1.2
m. Teep the diameter of the dDs outlet well as say 1. m.
.lso provide a water cushion at the bottom of the inlet well. The complete details are shown in
9ig. ".11.
"$
9ig ".11 Eetails of <*ample "..
"%
+. Design ! a ,arda t-pe !a&&
Lengt* ! t*e crest. The length of the crest is kept equal to the bed width of the canal.
;ometimes for future e*pansion! the crest length may be kept equal to 3bed width @ depth4.
9ig. ".1 Fectangular crest for ;arda type fall.
9ig. ".1" Trapezoidal crest for ;arda type fall
"2
,*ape ! t*e crest. . rectangular crest with both faces vertical has been suggested for
discharges under 1# cumecs. The top width is kept equal to d $$ . 8 and the minimum base
width is kept equal to

A
d h +
·
3Take / ? for masonry4 where d is the height of the crest
above the downstream bed level and h is the head over the crest.
9or discharge over 1# cumecs! a trapezoidal crest with top width equal to d h $$ . 8 + with
upstream side slope of 1:" and downstream side slope of 1:L is adopted.
%rest &eve&. The following discharge formula is used to determine the height of the crest.
% D 1
D "
d
0 7

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
t
B
H
H L g 3".L4
where 0
d
? 8.#1$ for rectangular crest
? 8.#$ for trapezoidal crest
' ? 'ength of crest
5
t
? Top width of crest.
&eight of the crest above bed ? y G &
3assuming h ? & i.e. neglecting velocity of approach4
where y is the normal depth of channel 3upstream4.
Apstrea) "ing "a&&. 9or trapezoidal crest! the upstream wing walls are kept segmental with
radius equal to $ to % times & and subtending an angle of %8
8
at center! and then carried
tangential into the berm as shown in 9ig. ".1#.
9ig. ".1# Bpstream wing walls for Trapezoidal crest of ;arda Type fall
Apstrea) prtectin. 5rick pitching in a length equal to upstream water depth may be laid
on the upstream bed! slopping towards the crest at a slope of 1:18. Erain pipes should also be
"L
provided at the bed level in the crest so as to drain out the uDs bed during the closer of the
channel.
Apstrea) curtain "a&&.

1
1
brick thick upstream curtain wall is provided! having a depth
equal to Wrd of water depth.
I)pervius cncrete !&r. The total length of impervious floor can be determined by
5lighNs theory for small works and by ThoslaNs theory for large works. The minimum length
of floor on dDs of the toe of the crest wall should be
? O3water depth @ 1.m4 @ dropP.
The floor thickness required on the downstream side can be worked out for uplift pressures
3using minimum thickness of 8.# m to 8.% meter4 and only a nominal thickness of 8." meter
is provided on upstream side.
%istern. The length and depth of cistern can be worked out from the following equations.
'
c
?
L
H H ⋅ ⋅ $ 3".J4
U ?
( )
" D
.
#
1
L
H H ⋅
3".184
where '
c
? The length of the cistern in meters
U ? 0istern depression below the downstream bed in meters
& ? &ead of water over the crest! including velocity head! in
meters! i.e. ? 3uDs T<' G 0rest level4.

D"nstrea) prtectin. The dDs bed can be protected with dry brick pitching. The length of
the dDs pitching is given by the values of Table ".1 or " times the depth of downstream water!
whichever is more. The pitching may be provided between two or three curtain walls. The
curtain walls may be

1
1
brick thick and of depth equal to X the downstream depth or as given
in Table ".1. 3minimum ? 8.$ m4.
Table ".1 ;ize of curtain walls
&ead over the
crest & 3meters4
Total length of
dDs pitching 3m4 Femarks
0urtain walls
Ao Eepth in meters
Bp to 8." m ".8 .ll slopping down at 1 in 18 1
8." to 8.#$ ".8 @ Twice HL &orizontal up to end of
masonry wings and then
slopping down at 1:18
1
8.#$ to 8.%8 #.$ @ , 1
8.%8 to 8.2$ %.8 @ , 1
8.2$ to 8.J8 J.8 @ , , 1
8.J8 to 1.8$ 1".$ @ , ,
1.8$ to 1.8 1L.8 @ , ,
1.8 to 1.$8 .$ @ , ,
,&pe pitc*ing' .fter the return wing! the sides of the channel are pitched with one brick on
edge. The pitching should rest on a toe wall

1
1
brick thick and of depth equal to half the
downstream water depth.
"J
D"nstrea) "ings' Eownstream wings are kept straight for a length of $ to L time
L
H H ⋅
and may then be gradually warped. .ll wing walls must be designed as retaining walls. ;uch a
wall has a base width equal to Wrd its height.
<*ample "." Eesign a 1.$ meter ;arda type fall for a canal having a discharge of 1 cumecs!
with the following data:
Bed le%el u!stream 0 4383 m
Side slo!es o# $hannel 0 4:4 m
Bed le%el downstream 0 4345 m
Full su!!l* le%el u!stream 0 4315 m
Bed width uDs and dDs 043 m
Soil 0 Aood loam
Assume Bligh’s Coe##i$ient 0 2
;olution
'ength of crest: ;ame as dDs bed width ? 18 m.
0rest level. . rectangular crest is provided since the discharge is less than 1# cumecs. The
discharge formula is given by

% D 1
D "
d
0 7

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
t
B
H
H L g
C 8 1.B+.L.4
(D$
O4D5
t
P
1D<
.ssume top width of the crest as 8.L m.
1$ 8 1.B+ = 1: = 4
(D$
* 4
1D<
D1:.B2
1D<
4
7D(
8 :.<$B
4 8 :.9< ).
Ve&cit- ! apprac*V
a
?
( ) $ . 1 $ . 1 18
1 arg
⋅ +
·
Area
e Dis$h

8 :.<E< )Dsec.
Ve&cit- *ead 8
J.L1 *
4 %J% . 8 3

·
g
/
a
8 :.:$7 ).
uDs TEL 8 uDs ;,L F Ve&cit- *ead
8 1:+.7 F :.:$7 8 1:+.7$7 )
Reduced &eve& ! t*e crest 8 1uDs TEL G 42
8 1:+.7$7 G :.977
8 1:(.99 ).
Ase crest &eve& ! 1:(.99 )eters
4eig*t ! t*e crest abve uDs !&r
8 1:(.99 G 1:(.:
8 :.99 ).
#8
,*ape ! crest
?idt* ! t*e crest 15
t
2 8 :.77. d
"*ere d 8 4eig*t ! t*e crest abve dDs bed
8 1:(.99 G 1:1.7
8 $.$9 )
5
t
8 :.77. d
8 :.77. 2 .
8 :.B$E ).
@eep :.B7 ) "idt* ! t*e crest.
T*e t*ic#ness at base 8

d h +
8
( )

2 . 8$ . 8 2$$ . 8 + −
8

2 . 2" . 8 +
8 1.7 ).
The top shall be capped with 8 cm thick 0.0. 1::#.
Apstrea) "ing "a&&. )t shall be splayed straight at an angle of #$
8
from the uDs edge of the crest
and shall be embedded by 1.8 m into the berm. -n the dDs side! wing walls are kept straight and
parallel up to the end of the floor and joined to return walls.
Apstrea) prtectin 1.$ m long brick pitching 3equal to uDs water depth4 is laid on the uDs bed!
slopping down towards the crest at 1:18! and three drain pipes of 1$ cm diameter at the uDs bed
level should be provided in the crest so as to drain out the uDs bed during the closure of the canal.
Apstrea) curtain "a&&. (a*imum depth of uDs curtain wall
?
"
u
*
8
"
$ . 1
8 :.7 )
1rovide 8.# m * 8.L m deep curtain wall on the uDs.
%istern Eepth of cistern!
( ) ( ) ( )
deep. m 8." say ( 8.2" 1.8J1 U
#
1

1.1# U
#
1
1.$ U 2% . 8
#
1
.
#
1
%%2 . 8 " D " D
· · ·
· · ·
L
H H .
R.L. ! cistern 8 1:1.7 G :.(
8 1:1.$ ).
(.$ ?eir DrpsD Drp ,tructures
Erop structures and weirs are small dams placed across a waterway to provide for changes in
gradient! slow water velocities and reduce erosion by. =ater flow is directed through the weir
into a stilling basin where the energy of the flow is dissipated.
#1
0ritical factors in the success of such structures are the proper engineering of the drop structure
itself to withstand hydraulic pressure and to prevent outflanking. (any weir structures will
require a stilling basin.
;tructures may vary from low gabion walls to very large earth dams lined with mattresses. They
are classified according to the shape of the downstream face at the center of the flow.
The most common weirs are vertical structures. The downstream face of a vertical weir is flush.
These structures are often used on small streams! usually in a system of weirs. &igh vertical
weirs require a stilling basin which may be created by constructing a scour apron and counter
weir from gabion mattresses.
;tepped weirs differ slightly from vertical weirs. The addition of stepped downstream faces
provides for some energy to dissipation at each level. ;tepped weirs are appropriate for small
structures in waters without heavy sediment loads. ;tepped structures are often constructed with
some degree of batter.
=here larger structures are required or bearing capacity of soils is limited! sloped weirs are most
appropriate. ;loped weirs are ramped on both the upstream and downstream faces. .s with
vertical structures! sloped weirs may require a stilling basin.
9ig. ".1$ . photo showing a weir dropDErop structure
The drop is located so that the fillings and cuttings of the canal are equalized as much as
possible. =herever possible! the drop structure may also be combined with a regulator or a
bridge. The location of an offtake from the canal also influences the fall site! with offtakes
located upstream of the fall structure.
#
".". &ead regulators
. canal head regulator is provided at the head of the offtaking canal and serves the following
functions:
i. )t regulates the supply of water entering the canal
ii. )t controls the entry of silt in the canal
iii. )t prevents the river floods from entering the canal
The regulator is aligned at right angle to the weir! but slightly larger angles are now considered
preferable for providing smooth entry of water into the regulator as shown in 9ig. ".1$.
9ig. ".1$ .lignment of 0anal &ead Fegulator
The water from the under sluice pocket is made to enter the regulator bays so as to pass the full
supply discharge into the canal. The ma*imum height of the gated openings called &ead ;luices
will be equal to the difference of pond level and crest level of the regulator. The entry of silt into
the canal is controlled by keeping the crest of the head regulator by about 1. to 1.$ meters
higher than the crest of the under-sluices. )f silt e*cluder is provided! the regulator crest is further
raised by about 8.% to 8.2 meter. ;ilt gets deposited in the pocket! and only clean water enters the
regulator bays. The deposited silt can easily be scoured out periodically and removed through the
under sluice openings.
The crest level of the regulator called sill level, is not only governed by silt considerations! but is
also governed by the discharge considerations. The full supply discharge has to pass through the
regulator openings! the heights of which will be equal to the difference of pond level and sill
level. The smaller the height of the openings! the larger will be the width of the openings.
#"
. regulator is provided with a very wide and a shallow waterway. Therefore! a drowned weir
formula is used to calculate the discharge.
9ig. ".1% Erowned weir discharge formula
( )
1
]
1

¸

− + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
"

"
1 1

"

% % d
h h h B g C " 39ree weir equation4 3".114
( )
% d
h h g h B C " + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
1
3Erowned weir equation4 3".14
Total discharge 7 ? 7
1
@ 7

· "
( )
1
]
1

¸

− + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

"

"
1

"

% % d
h h h B g C
@
( )
% d
h h g h B C + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1
3".1"4
The values of 0
d1
and 0
d
may be taken as 8.$22 and 8.L8! respectively.
where h ? difference of the upstream and downstream water level! i.e.! 3pond level G ma*imum
anticipated 9;' of canal after making due allowance for future silting up of canal4.
h is called utilized head or working head or designed head for the regulator! and is
taken as half of available head! where available head is equal to the difference fof pond
level and actual 9;' of canal.
h
v
? head due to velocity of approach
5 ? clear width of waterway
h
1
? depth of downstream water level above the crest
i.e.! 3ma*imum anticipated 9;' of canal minus sill level4
=hen all other variables are fi*ed and known! value of clear waterway width 354 can be
calculated.
##
The gate controlled opening is provided from the sill level to the pond level. Euring high floods!
the water level in the river pocket will be much higher than the pond level. To avoid spilling of
this water over the gates! a F.0.0. wall is provided from the pond level up to river &9'. This
wall spans for the entire length of the regulator and will rest over the piers of the regulator bays.
This wall is known as 5reast "a&&. and will be subjected to vertical self-weight and horizontal
water pressure acting against it from the upstream side.
<*ample ".1: The head regulator of a canal has " openings each " m wide. The water is flowing
between the upper and lower gates. The vertical opening on the gate is 18 m. The head on the
regulator is 8.#$ m 3.fflu*4. )f the upstream water level rises by 8.8 m! find how much the
upper gates must be lowered to maintain the canal discharge unaltered.
9ig. ".12: 3<*ample ".14
;olution:
The width of regulator openings ? " spans of " m each
? J m
=hen the gate opening is 1 m! the discharge can be calculated by submerged orifice formula.
8.#$ * J.L1 * J4 * 1 3 % . 8 · ⋅ ⋅ · gh A C "
d
3i4
)n the second case! when upstream water level rises by 8. m! let the gate opening be * meter to
keep the discharge unaltered.
8.%$ * J.L1 * J4 * 3 % . 8 E gh A C "
d
· ⋅ ⋅ · 3ii4
<quating 3i4 and 3ii4!
8.#$ * J.L1 * J4 * 1 3 % . 8 8.%$ * J.L1 * J4 * 3 % . 8 E ·
%$ . 8 #$ . 8 1 E ·
4 %$ . 8 3 #$ . 8

E ·
. &ence! the gate must be lowered by an amount 1 G 8.L" ? 8.12 m
".#. Bnder sluices
. comparatively less turbulent pocket of water is created near the canal head regulator by
constructing under-sluice portion of the weir. . divide wall separates the main weir portion from
#$
the under-sluice portion of the weir. The crest of the under-sluice portion of the weir is kept at a
lower level than the crest of the normal portion of the weir.
The crest level of the head regulator is also kept higher than the crest level of the under-sluices!
so that only silt free water is admitted into the canal through the head sluices. ;ilt gets deposited
over the under-sluice floor! and may be periodically removed over the crest of under-sluice and
towards downstream side of the river by opening these gate-controlled openings 3under-sluices4.
;ince the under-sluices help in removing the silt from near the regulator! they are also called
scouring sluices.
;ill of the under-sluice pocket is kept at or slightly above the deepest river bed and about 8.J to
1.L meters below the sill of the canal head regulator. The length of the under-sluice pocket
between the divide wall and the head regulator may be taken as 1.$ m the upstream length of the
divide wall.
9ig. ".1L Bnder-sluices lengh! l
&owever! this length is governed by the dischargeing capacity of the under-sluices! which should
be sufficient to enable them to serve their main functions. The discharging capacity of under-
sluices may be selected as follows:
3iii4 They should be able to ensure sufficient scouring capacity! for which the discharging
capacity should be alteast twice the full supply discharge of the main canal at its head.
3iv4 They should be able to pass the dry weather-flow and low floods during the months
e*cluding the rainy season! without the necessity of dropping the weir shutters.
3v4 They should be able to dispose of 18 t8 1$R of the high flood discharge during severe
floods.
The spans of the under-sluices should be wide enough 3usually 18 to 8 m4 in order to be
sufficient in scouring action.
Divide ?a&&
#%
The divide wall is a masonry or a concrete wall constructed at right angle to the a*is of the weir!
and separates the weir proper from the under-sluices. The divide wall e*tends on the upstream
side beyond the beginning of the canal head regulatorI and on the downstream side! it e*tends up
to the end of loose protection of the under-sluices.
The main functions served by the divide wall are:
i4 )t separates the under-sluices from the weir proper. ;ince the crest level of the under-
sluices is lower than that of the weir proper! the two must be separated! and this is done
by the divide wall.
ii4 )t helps in providing a comparatively less turbulent pocket near the canal head regulator!
resulting in deposition of silt in this pocket and! thus! to help in the entry of silt-free water
into the canal.
iii4 Eivide wall may keep the cross-currents! if at all they are formed! away from the weir.
0ross currents lead to vortices and deep scours! and therefore! prove hazardous to weirs.

".$. ;ilt e*cluders
;ilt e*cluders are those works which are constructed on the bed of the river! upstream of the head
regulator. The clearer water enters the head regulator and the silted water enters the silt e*cluder.
. silt e*cluder consists of a number of rectangular tunnels running parallel to the a*is. The
bottom layer of water which is highly charged with silt and sediment will pass down the tunnels
and escape over the floor of the under-sluice way! since the gates of the under-sluice ways shall
be kept open upto the top of tunnels.
#2
9ig. ".1J ;ilt e*cluder
+. 4HDROPO?ER PLANT ,TRA%TARE,
9araday had shown that when a coil is rotated in a magnetic field! electricity is generated. Thus!
in order to produce electrical energy! it is necessary that we should produce mechanical energy!
which can be used to rotate the coil. The mechanical energy is produced by running a prime
mover 3known as turbine4 by the energy of fuels or flowing water. This mechanical power is
converted into electrical power by electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of the
turbine! and is run by the turbine. The electrical power! which is consequently obtained at the
terminals of the generator! is then transmitted to the area where it is to be used for doing work.
The plant or machinery which is required to produce electricity! i.e.! the prime mover and
electric generator! is collectively known as the p"er p&ant. The building! in which the entire
machinery along with other au*iliary units is installed! is called the p"er *use.
#.1. Types and classification of hydropower structures
+.1.1 %&assi!icatin ! 4-drp"er P&ants n t*e 5asis ! 4-drau&ic %*aracteristics
-n the basis of this classification! the hydro plants may be divided into the following types:
i4 Fun-off river plants
ii4 ;torage plants
iii4 1umped storage plants
iv4 Tidal plants
i2 Run/!! river p&ants
These plants are those which utilize the minimum flow in a river having no appreciable pondage
on its upstream side. . weir or a barrage is sometimes constructed across a river simply to raise
and maintain the water level. ;uch a scheme is essentially a low head scheme and may be
suitable only on a perennial river having sufficient dry weather flow.
Fun-off river plants generally have a very limited storage capacity! to supplement the normal
flow. Therefore! a small storage capacity! called pndage. is provided for meeting the hour to
hour fluctuations of load or of stream flow over a day. =hen the available discharge at site is
more than the demand! i.e.! during off-peak hours! the e*cess water is temporarily stored in the
pond on the upstream side of the barrage! which is then utilized during the peak hours.
ii2 ,trage p&ants
. storage plants have an upstream storage reservoir of sufficient size! so as to permit sufficient
carry-over storage from the rainy season to the dry season! and thus to develop a firm flow. )n
this scheme! a dam is constructed across the river! and the power house may be located at the
foot of the dam. The power house may sometimes be located much away from the dam. )n such
#L
cases! the power house is located at the end of tunnels which carry water from the reservoir. The
tunnels are connected to the power house machines by means of pressure penstocks.
iii2 Pu)ped strage p&ants
. pumped storage plant generates power during peak hours! but during the off-peak hours! water
is pumped back from the tail water pool to the head water pool for future use. The pumps are run
by some secondary power from some other plant in the system. The plant is thus primarily meant
for assisting an e*isting thermal plant or some other hydel plant.

9ig. #.1 Typical section through pumped storage plant
Euring peak hours! the water flows from the reservoir to the turbine and electricity is generated.
Euring off-peak hours! the e*cess power available from some other plant is utilized for pumping
water back from the tail pool to the head pool. This minor plant thus supplements the power of
another major plant. )n such a scheme! the same water is utilized again and again and no water is
wasted.
9or heads varying between 1$ to J8 m! reversible pump turbines have been deviced! which can
function both as turbine as well as a pump. ;uch reversible turbines can work at relatively high
efficiencies and can help in reducing the cost of such a plant. ;imilarly! the same electrical
machine can be used both as a generator as well as a motor by reversing the poles.
iv2 Tida& p&ants
Tidal plants for generation of electric power are the recent and modern advancements! and
essentially work on the principle that there is a rise in sea water during high tide period and a fall
during the low ebb period. The water rises and falls twice a dayI each fall cycle occupying about
1 hours and $ minutes. The advantage of this rise and fall of water is taken in a tidal plant. )n
other words! the tidal range! i.e.! the difference between high and low tide levels is utilized to
generated power. This is accomplished by constructing a basin separated from the ocean by a
partition wall and installing turbines in openings through this wall.
=ater passes from the ocean to the basin during high tides! and thus running the turbines and
generating electric power. Euring low tide! the water from the basin runs back to ocean! which
can also be utilized to generate electric power! provided! special turbines which can generate
power for either direction of flow are installed. ;uch plants are useful at places where tidal range
is high. The tidal range at this place is of the order of 11 meters.
#J
+.1.$ %&assi!icatin ! 4-drp"er P&ants n t*e 5asis ! Operating 4ead n Turbines
-n this basis! the plants may be divided into the following types:
i4 'ow head scheme 3head K 1$ m4.
ii4 (edium head scheme 3head varies between 1$m to %8 m4
iii4 &igh head scheme 3head 6 %8 m4.
i2 L" *ead sc*e)e
. low head scheme is one which uses water head of less than 1$ meters or so. . run-off river
plant is essentially a low head scheme. )n this scheme! a weir or a barrage is constructed to raise
the water level! and the power house is constructed either in continuation with barrage or at some
distance downstream of the barrage! where water is taken to the power house through an intake
canal.
ii2 Mediu) *ead sc*e)e
. medium head scheme is one which uses water head varying between 1$ to %8 meters. This
scheme is thus essentially a dam reservoir scheme. )t has features somewhere between low head
and high head scheme.
iii2 4ig* *ead sc*e)e
$8
9ig. #. Fun-off river plant
9ig. #." Eiversion canal plant
. high head scheme is the one which uses water head of more than %8 m. . dam of sufficient
height is! therefore! required to be constructed! so as to store water on the upstream side and to
utilize this water throughout the year. &igh head schemes up to heights of 1L88 meters have been
developed in some countries of the world.
#.. Eifferent accessories
The different accessories of hydropower plants are used along with the major structures. They
are essential for functioning of the hydro electric power.
$1
9ig. #.# 1lan of a high head scheme 9ig. #.$ ;ection through a high head scheme