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1. abbreviate shorten
Because we were running out of time, the lecturer had to abbreviate her speech.
2. abate subside or moderate
Rather than leaving immediately, they waited for the storm to abate.
3. abortive unsuccessful; fruitless
We had to abandon our abortive attempts.
. absolute complete; totally unlimited; certain
!lthough the "ing of #iam was an absolute monarch, he did not want to behead his unfaithful wife without
absolute evidence of her infidelity.
$. abstract theoretical; not concrete; non%representational
&o him, hunger was an abstract concept; he had never missed a meal.
'. abusive coarsely insulting; physically harmful
!n abusive parent damages a child both mentally and physically.
(. accelerate move faster
)n our science class, we learn how falling bodies accelerate.
*. accessible easy to approach; obtainable
We as+ed our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot.
,. accessory additional ob-ect; useful but not essential thing
#he bought an attractive handbag as an accessory for her dress.
1.. abscond depart secretly and hide
&he teller absconded with the bonds and was not found.
11. aberrant abnormal or deviant
/iven the aberrant nature of the data, we came to doubt the validity of the entire e0periment.
12. abeyance suspended action
&he deal was held in abeyance until her arrival.
13. adamant hard, infle0ible
1e was adamant in his determination to punish the wrongdoer.
1. adulterate ma+e impure by mi0ing with baser substances
)t is a crime to adulterate foods without informing the buyer.
1$. adversity poverty, misfortune
We must learn to meet adversity gracefully.
1'. abase lower; degrade; humiliate
!nna e0pected to have to curtsy to the "ing of #iam; when told to cast herself down on the ground before
him, however she refused to abase herself.
1(. abash embarrass
1e was not at all abashed by her open admiration.
1*. abdicate renounce; give up
When 2dward 3)) abdicated the British throne, he surprised the entire world.
1,. abet assist, usually in doing something wrong
#he was unwilling to abet him in the swindle he had planned.
2.. abject wretched; lac+ing pride
4n the streets of 5ew 6or+ the homeless live in ab-ect poverty, huddling in doorways to find shelter from
the wind.
21. abjure renounce upon oath
1e ab-ured his allegiance to the +ing.
22. ablution washing
1is daily ablutions were accompanied by loud noises that he humorously labeled 74pera in the Bath.7
23. abnegation renunciation; self%sacrifice
&hough Rudolph and 8uchess 9lavia loved one another, their love was doomed, for she had to wed the
+ing; their act of abnegation was necessary to preserve the +ingdom.
2. abominate loathe; hate
:oses scolded the idol worshippers in the tribe because he abominated the custom.
2$. abrasive rubbing away; tending to grind down
;ust as abrasive cleaning powders can wear away a shiny finish, abrasive remar+s can wear away a
listener<s patience.
2'. abrogate abolish
1e intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.
2(. absolve pardon =an offense>
&he father confessor absolved him of his sins.
2*. abstain refrain; withhold from participation
!fter considering the effect of alcohol on his athletic performance, he decided to abstain from drin+ing
while he trained for the race.
2,. abut border upon; ad-oin
Where our estates abut, we must build a fence.
3.. abysmal bottomless
1is arrogance is e0ceeded only by his abysmal ignorance.
31. accede agree
)f ) accede to this demand for blac+mail, ) am afraid that ) will be the victim of future demands.
32. acclimate ad-ust to climate or environment
4ne of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travellers to acclimate themselves to their new
and often strange environments.
33. acclivity sharp upslope of a hill
&he car could not go up the acclivity in high gear.
3. accolade award of merit
)n 1ollywood, an 74scar7 is the highest accolade.
3$. accord agreement
#he was in complete accord with the verdict.
3'. accost approach and spea+ first to a person
When the two young men accosted me, ) was frightened because ) thought they were going to attac+ me.
3(. accoutre e?uip
&he fisherman was accoutred with the best that the sporting goods store could supply
3*. accretion growth; increase
&he accretion of wealth mar+ed the family<s rise in power.
3,. accrue come about by addition
6ou must pay the interest that has accrued on your debt as well as the principal sum.
.. acidulous slightly sour; sharp; caustic
;ames was unpopular because of his sarcastic and acidulous remar+s.
1. acme pea+; pinnacle; highest point
Welles<s success in @itiAen "ane mar+ed the acme of his career as an actor; never again did he achieve such
popular acclaim.
2. acquiesce assent; agree passively
!lthough she appeared to ac?uiesce to her employer<s suggestions, ) could tell she had reservations about
the changes he wanted made.
3. acquittal deliverance from a charge
1is ac?uittal by the -ury surprised those who had thought him guilty.
. acrid sharp; bitterly pungent
&he acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been fired.
$. acrimonious stinging, caustic
1is tendency to utter acrimonious remar+s alienated his audience.
'. actuarial calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics
!ccording to recent actuarial tables, life e0pectancy is greater today than it was a century ago.
(. actuate motivate
) fail to understand what actuated you to reply to this letter so nastily.
*. acuity sharpness
)n time his youthful acuity of vision failed him, and he needed glasses.
,. acumen mental +eenness
1is business acumen helped him to succeed where others had failed.
$.. adage wise saying; proverb
&here is much truth in the old adage about fools and their money.
$1. addendum addition; appendi0 to boo+
;ane<s editor approved her new comparative literature te0t but thought it would be even better with an
addendum on recent developments in literary criticism.
$2. addle muddle; drive craAy
&his idiotic plan is confusing enough to addle anyone.
$3. adherent supporter; follower
)n the wa+e of the scandal, the senator<s one%time adherent ?uietly deserted him.
$. adjunct something attached to but holding an inferior position
) will entertain this concept as an ad-unct to the main proposal.
$$. adjuration solemn urging
1er ad-uration to tell the truth did not change the witnesses< testimony.
$'. adjutant staff officer assisting the commander; assistant
&hough Wellington delegated many tas+s to his chief ad-utant, Bord 9itAroy #omerset, #omerset was in no
doubt as to who made all ma-or decisions.
$(. admonish warn; reprove
1e admonished his listeners to change their wic+ed ways.
$*. adorn decorate
Wall paintings and carved statues adorned the temple.
$,. adroit s+illful
1is adroit handling of the delicate situation pleased his employers.
'.. adulation flattery; admiration
&he roc+ star thrived on the adulation of his groupies and yes%men.
'1. advent arrival
:ost !mericans were unaware of the advent of the 5uclear !ge until the news of 1iroshima reached them.
'2. adventitious accidental; casual
1e found this adventitious meeting with his friend e0tremely fortunate.
'3. adversary opponent; enemy
Batman struggled to save /otham @ity from the machinations of his wic+ed adversary, the ;o+er.
'. adverse unfavorable; hostile
adverse circumstances compelled him to close his business.
'$. advert refer to
#ince you advert to this matter so fre?uently, you must regard it as important.
''. advocate urge; plead for
&he abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves.
'(. aegis shield; defense
Cnder the aegis of the Bill of Rights, we en-oy our most treasured freedoms.
'*. affable courteous
!lthough he held a position of responsibility, he was an affable individual and could be reached by anyone
with a complaint.
',. affected artificial; pretended
1is affected mannerisms irritated may of us who had +nown him before his promotion.
(.. affidavit written statement made under oath
&he court refused to accept his statement unless he presented it in the form of an affidavit.
(1. affiliation -oining; associating with
1is affiliation with the political party was of short duration for he soon disagreed with his colleagues.
(2. affinity +inship
#he felt an affinity with all who suffered; their pains were her pains.
(3. affirmation positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to ta+e an oath
8espite &om<s affirmation of innocence, !unt Dolly still suspected he had eaten the pie.
(. affix attach or add on; fasten
9irst the registrar had to affi0 his signature to the license; then he had to affi0 his official seal.
($. affluence abundance; wealth
9oreigners are amaAed by the affluence and lu0ury of the !merican way of life.
('. affront insult; offend
!ccustomed to being treated with respect, :iss @halloner was affronted by 3idal<s offensive behavior.
((. agape openmouthed
#he stared, agape, at the many strange animals in the Aoo.
(*. agenda items of business at a meeting
We had so much difficulty agreeing upon an agenda that there was very little time for the meeting.
(,. agglomeration collection; heap
)t too+ wee+s to assort the agglomeration of miscellaneous items she had collected on her trip.
*.. aggrandize increase or intensify; raise in power, wealth, ran+ or honor
&he history of the past ?uarter century illustrates how a Dresident may aggrandiAe his power to act
aggressively in international affairs without considering the wishes of @ongress.
*1. aggregate sum; total
&he aggregate wealth of this country is staggering to the imagination.
*2. aghast horrified
1e was aghast at the nerve of the spea+er who had insulted his host.
*3. agility nimbleness
&he agility of the acrobat amaAed and thrilled the audience.
*. agitate stir up; disturb
1er fiery remar+s agitated the already angry mob.
*$. agnostic one who is s+eptical of the e0istence of +nowability of a god or any ultimate reality
&he agnostic demanded proof before she would accept the statement of the minister.
*'. agog highly e0cited; intensely curious
We were all agog at the news that the celebrated movie star was giving up his career in order to enter a
*(. agrarian pertaining to land or its cultivation
!s a result of its recent industrialiAation, the country is gradually losing its agrarian traditions.
**. alacrity cheerful promptness
1e demonstrated his eagerness to serve by his alacrity in e0ecuting the orders of his master.
*,. alchemy medieval chemistry
&he changing of baser metals into gold was the goal of the students of alchemy.
,.. alcove noo+; recess
&hough their apartment lac+ed a full%scale dining room, an alcove ad-acent to the living room made an
ade?uate brea+fast noo+ for the young couple.
,1. alias an assumed name
;ohn #mith<s alias was Bob ;ones.
,2. alienate ma+e hostile; separate
1er attempts to alienate the two friends failed because they had complete faith in each other.
,3. alimentary supplying nourishment
&he alimentary canal in our bodies is so named because digestion of foods occurs there.
,. alimony payments ma+e to an e0%spouse after divorce
Because &ony had supported &ina through medical school, on their divorce he as+ed the court to award him
E$.. a month in alimony.
,$. allay calm; pacify
&he crew tried to allay the fears of the passengers by announcing that the fire had been controlled.
,'. allege state without proof
)t is alleged that she had wor+ed for the enemy.
,(. allegory story in which characters are used as symbols; fable
Dilgrim<s Drogress is an allegory of the temptations and victories of the human soul.
,*. alleviate relieve
&his should alleviate the pain; if it does not, we shall have to use stronger drugs.
,,. alliteration repetition of beginning sound in poetry
7&he furrow followed free7 is an e0ample of alliteration.
1... alloy mi0ture as of metals
alloy of gold are used more fre?uently than the pure metal.
1.1. allude refer indirectly
&ry not to allude to this matter in his presence because the topic annoys him.
1.2. allure entice; attract
allured by the song of the sirens, the helmsman steered the ship toward the reef.
1.3. allusion indirect reference
the allusions to mythological characters in :ilton<s poems bewilder the reader who has not studied Batin.
1.. alluvial pertaining to soil deposits left by running water
&he farmers found the alluvial deposits at the mouth of the river very fertile.
1.$. aloof apart; reserved
#hy by nature, she remained aloof while all the rest conversed.
1.'. aloft upward
&he sailor climbed aloft into the rigging.
1.(. altercation noisy ?uarrel
&hroughout the altercation, not one sensible word was uttered.
1.*. altruistic unselfishly generous; concerned for others
)n providing tutorial assistance and college scholarships to hundreds of economically disadvantaged youths,
2ugene Bang performed a truly altruistic deed.
1.,. amalgamate combine; unite in one body
&he unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body.
11.. amass collect
&he miser<s aim is to amass and hoard as much gold as possible.
111. amazon female warrior
2ver since the days of /ree+ mythology we refer to strong and aggressive women as amaAons.
112. ambidextrous capable of using either hand with e?ual ease
! switch%hitter in baseball should be naturally ambide0trous.
113. ambience environment; atmosphere
#he went to the restaurant not for the food but for the ambience.
11. ambiguous unclear or doubtful in meaning
1is ambiguous instructions misled us; we did not +now which road to ta+e.
11$. ambivalence the state of having contradictory or conflicting emotional attitudes
&orn between loving her parents one minute and hating them the ne0t, she was confused by the
ambivalence of her feelings.
11'. amble moving at an easy pace
When she first mounted the horse, she was afraid to urge the animal to go faster than a gentle amble.
11(. ambrosia food of the gods
ambrosia was supposed to give immortality to any human who ate it.
11*. ambulatory able to wal+
1e was described as an ambulatory patient because he was not confined to his bed.
11,. ameliorate improve
:any social wor+ers have attempted to ameliorate the conditions of people living in the slums.
12.. amenable readily managed; willing to be led
1e was amenable to any suggestions that came from those he loo+ed up to; he resented advice from his
121. amend correct; change, generally for the better
1oping to amend his condition, he left 3ietnam for the Cnited #tates.
122. amenities convenient features; courtesies
)n addition to the customary amenities for the business traveler %% fa0 machines, modems, a health club %%
the hotel offers the services of a butler versed in social amenities.
123. amiable agreeable; lovable
1is amiable disposition pleased all who had dealings with him.
12. amicable friendly
&he dispute was settled in an amicable manner with no harsh words.
12$. amiss wrong; faulty
#eeing her frown, he wondered if anything were amiss.
12'. amity friendship
#tudent e0change programs such as the 20periment in )nternational Biving were established to promote
international amity.
12(. amnesia loss of memory
Because she was suffering from amnesia, the police could not get the young girl to identify herself.
12*. amnesty pardon
When his first child was born, the +ing granted amnesty to all in prison.
12,. amoral non%moral
&he amoral individual lac+s a code of ethics; he should not be classified as immoral.
13.. amorous moved by se0ual love; loving
8on ;uan was +nown for his amorous adventures.
131. amorphous shapeless; vague; indeterminate
;ohn was sub-ect to panic attac+s that left him prey to vague, amorphous fearsF he +new he was terrified,
but could neither define nor e0plain the cause of his terror.
132. amphibian able to live both on land and in water
9rogs are classified as amphibian.
133. amphitheater oval building with tiers of seats
&he spectators in the amphitheater cheered the gladiators.
13. ample abundant
1e had ample opportunity to dispose of his loot before his police caught up with him.
13$. amplify enlarge
1er attempts to amplify her remar+s were drowned out by the -eers of the audience.
13'. amputate cut off part of body; prune
When the doctors had to amputate &ed "ennedy<s leg to prevent the spread of cancer, he did not let the loss
of his leg +eep him from participating in sports.
13(. amok in a state of rage
&he police had to be called in to restrain him after he ran amo+ in the department store.
13*. amulet charm; talisman
!round her nec+ she wore the amulet that the witch doctor had given her.
13,. anachronism something or someone misplaced in time
#ha+espeare<s reference to cloc+s in ;ulius @aesar is an anachronism; no cloc+s e0isted in @aesar<s time.
1.. analgesic causing insensitivity to pain
&he analgesic ?ualities of his lotion will provide temporary relief.
11. analogous comparable
#he called our attention to the things that had been done in an analogous situation and recommended that
we do the same.
12. analogy similarity; parallelism
6our analogy is not a good one because the two situations are not similar.
13. anarchist person who rebels against the established order
4nly the total overthrow of all governmental regulations would satisfy the anarchist.
1. anarchy absence of governing body; state of disorder
&he assassination of the leaders led to a period of anarchy.
1$. anathema solemn curse; someone or something that is despised
1e heaped anathema upon his foe.
1'. anathematize curse
&he high priest anathematiAed the heretic.
1(. anchor secure or fasten firmly; be fi0ed in place
We set the post in concrete to anchor it in place.
1*. ancillary serving as an aid or accessory; au0iliary
)n an ancillary capacity 8octor Watson was helpful; however, 1olmes could not trust the good doctor to
solve a perple0ing case on his own.
1,. anecdote short account of an amusing or interesting event
Rather than ma+e concrete proposals for welfare reform, Dresident Raegan told anecdotes about poor
people who became wealthy despite their impoverished bac+grounds.
1$.. anemia condition in which blood lac+s red corpuscles
&he doctor ascribes her tiredness to anemia.
1$1. anesthetic substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness
1is monotonous voice acted li+e an anesthetic; his audience was soon asleep.
1$2. anguish acute pain; e0treme suffering
3isiting the site of e0plosion, Dremier /orbachev wept to see the anguish of the victims and their families.
1$3. angular sharp%cornered; stiff in manner
1is features, though angular, were curiously attractive.
1$. animadversion critical remar+
1e resented the animadversions of his critics, particularly because he realiAed they were true.
1$$. animated lively
1er animated e0pression indicated a +eenness of intellect.
1$'. animosity active enmity
1e incurred the animosity of the ruling class because he advocated limitations of their power.
1$(. animus hostile feeling or intent
&he animus of the spea+er became obvious to all when he began to indulge in sarcastic and insulting
1$*. annals records; history
)n the annals of this period, we find no mention of democratic movements.
1$,. anneal reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling
!fter the glass is annealed, it will be less sub-ect to chipping and crac+ing.
1'.. annihilate destroy
&he enemy in its revenge tried to annihilate the entire population.
1'1. annotate comment; ma+e e0planatory notes
)n the appendi0 to the novel, the critic sought to annotate many of the more esoteric references.
1'2. annuity yearly allowance
&he annuity he set up with the insurance company supplements his social security benefits so that he can
live very comfortably without wor+ing.
1'3. annul ma+e void
&he parents of the eloped couple tried to annul the marriage.
1'. anodyne drug that relieves pain; opiate
1is pain was so great that no anodyne could relieve it.
1'$. anoint consecrate
&he prophet #amuel anointed 8avid with oil, crowning him +ing of )srael.
1''. anomalous abnormal; irregular
1e was placed in the anomalous position of seeming to approve procedures that he despised.
1'(. anomaly irregularity
! bird that cannot fly is an anomaly.
1'*. anonymity state of being nameless; anonymousness
&he donor of the gift as+ed the college not to mention him by name; the dean readily agreed to respect his
1',. antagonistic hostile; opposed
8espite his lawyers< best efforts to stop him, the angry prisoner continued to ma+e antagonistic remar+s to
the -udge.
1(.. antecede precede
&he invention of the radiotelegraph anteceded the development of television by a ?uarter of a century.
1(1. antecedents preceding events or circumstances that influence what comes later; early life; ancestors
Before giving permission for 8rummie to marry 2stella, :iss 1avisham had a few ?uestions about the
young man<s birth and antecedents.
1(2. antediluvian anti?uated; ancient
&he antediluvian customs had apparently not changed for thousands of years.
1(3. anthropoid manli+e
&he gorilla is the strongest of the anthropoid animals.
1(. anthropologist student of the history and science of human+ind
!nthropologists have discovered several relics of prehistoric humans in this area.
1($. anthropomorphic having human form or characteristics
Drimitive religions often have deities with anthropomorphic characteristics.
1('. anticlimax letdown in thought or emotion
!fter the fine performance in the first act, the rest of the play was an anticlima0.
1((. antipathy aversion; disli+e
1is e0treme antipathy to dispute caused him to avoid argumentative discussions with his friends.
1(*. antiquated obsolete; outdated
!ccustomed to editing his papers on word processors, Dhilip thought typewriters were too anti?uated for
him to use.
1(,. antiseptic substance that prevents infection
)t is advisable to apply an antiseptic to any wound, no matter how slight or insignificant.
1*.. antithesis contrast; direct opposite of or to
&his tyranny was the antithesis of all that he had hoped for, and he fought it with all his strength.
1*1. anvil iron bloc+ used in hammering out metals
!fter heating the iron horseshoe in the forge, the blac+smith pic+ed it up with his tongs and set it on the
1*2. apathetic indifferent
1e felt apathetic about the conditions he had observed and did not care to fight against them.
1*3. apathy lac+ of caring; indifference
! firm believer in democratic government, she could not understand the apathy of people who never
bothered to vote.
1*. ape imitate or mimic
1e was suspended for a wee+ because he had aped the principal in front of the whole school.
1*$. aperture opening; hole
#he discovered a small aperture in the wall, through which the insects had entered the room.
1*'. apex tip; summit; clima0
1e was at the ape0 of his career.
1*(. aphasia loss of speech due to in-ury or illness
!fter the automobile accident, the victim had periods of aphasia when he could not spea+ at all or could
only mumble incoherently.
1**. aphorism pithy ma0im
!n aphorism differs from an adage in that it is more philosophical or scientific.
1*,. apiary a place where bees are +ept
!lthough he spent many hours daily in the apiary, he was very seldom stung by a bee.
1,.. aplomb poise; composure
Wellington<s nonchalance and aplomb in the heat of battle always heartened his followers.
1,1. apocalyptic prophetic; pertaining to revelations; especially of disaster
1is apocalyptic remar+s were dismissed by his audience as wild surmises.
1,2. apocryphal untrue; made up
&o impress his friends, &om invented apocryphal tales of his adventures in the big city.
1,3. apogee highest point
When the moon in its orbit is furthest away from the earth, it is at its apogee.
1,. apoplexy stro+e; loss of consciousness followed by paralysis
1e was crippled by an attac+ of apople0y.
1,$. apostate one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs
Because he switched from one party to another, his former friends shunned him as an apostate.
1,'. apothecary druggist
)n 1olland, apothecaries still sell spices as well as ointments and pills.
1,(. apothegm pithy, compact saying
Droverbs are apothegms that have become familiar sayings.
1,*. apotheosis deification; glorification
&he Roman empress Bivia envied the late emperor his apotheosis; she hoped that on her death she, too,
would be e0alted to the ran+ of a god.
1,,. appal dismay; shoc+
We were appalled by the horrifying conditions in the city<s -ails.
2... apparition ghost; phantom
1amlet was uncertain about the identity of the apparition that had appeared and spo+en to him.
2.1. appease pacify; soothe
We have discovered that, when we try to appease our enemies, we encourage them to ma+e additional
2.2. appellation name; title
1e was amaAed when the witches hailed him with his correct appellation.
2.3. append attach
) shall append this chart to my report.
2.. application diligent attention; =secondary meaning> apply
Dleased with how well &om had whitewashed the fence, !unt Dolly praised him for his application.
2.$. apposite appropriate; fitting
1e was always able to find the apposite phrase, the correct e0pression for every occasion.
2.'. appraise estimate the value of
)t is difficult to appraise old paintings; it is easier to call them priceless.
2.(. appreciate be than+ful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of
Bittle 4rphan !nnie truly appreciated the stoc+s 8addy Warbuc+s ave her, whose value appreciated
considerably over the years.
2.*. apprehend arrest = a criminal>; dread; perceive
&he police will apprehend the culprit and convict him before long.
2.,. apprehensive fearful; discerning
1is apprehensive glances at the people who were wal+ing in the street revealed his nervousness.
21.. apprise inform
When he was apprised of the dangerous weather conditions, he decided to postpone his trip.
211. approbation approval
Wanting her parents< regard, she loo+ed for some sign of their approbation.
212. appropriate ac?uire; ta+e possession of for one<s own use
&he ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for the )ndians< use.
213. appurtenances subordinate possessions
1e bought the estate and all its appurtenances.
21. apropos with reference to; regarding
) find your remar+s apropos of the present situation timely and pertinent.
21$. aptitude fitness; talent
&he counselor evaluated his aptitudes before advising him about the career he should follow.
21'. aquiline curved, hoo+ed
1e can be recogniAed by his a?uiline nose, curved li+e the bea+ of the eagle.
21(. arable fit for plowing
&he land was no longer arable; erosion had removed the valuable topsoil.
21*. arbiter person with power to decide a matter in a dispute; -udge
!s an arbiter in labor disputes, she has won the confidence of the wor+ers and the employers.
21,. arbitrary unreasonable or capricious; tyrannical
&he coach claimed the team lost because the umpire made some arbitrary calls.
22.. arbitrate act as -udge
#he was called upon to arbitrate the dispute between the union and the management.
221. arboretum place where different varieties of trees and shrubs are studied and e0hibited
Wal+ing along the treelined paths of the arboretum, Rita noted poplars, firs, and some particularly fine
222. arcade a covered passageway, usually lined with shops
&he arcade was popular with shoppers because it gave them protection from the summer sun and the winter
223. arcane secret; mysterious
What was arcane to us was clear to the psychologist.
22. archaeology study of artifacts and relics of early man+ind
&he professor of archaeology headed an e0pedition to the /obi 8esert in search of ancient ruins.
22$. archaic anti?uated
7:ethin+s,7 7thee,7 and 7thou7 are archaic words that are no longer part of our normal vocabulary.
22'. archetype prototype; primitive pattern
&he Broo+lyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect :anhattan with Bong )sland
and 5ew ;ersey.
22(. archipelago group of closely located islands
When he loo+ed at the map and saw the archipelagoes in the #outh #eas, he longed to visit them.
22*. archives public records; place where public records are +ept
&hese documents should be part of the archives so that historians may be able to evaluate them in the
22,. ardor heat; passion; Aeal
"atya<s ardor was contagious; soon all her fellow demonstrators were busily ma+ing posters and handing
out flyers, inspired by her ardent enthusiasm for the cause.
23.. arduous hard; strenuous
1er arduous efforts had sapped her energy.
231. argot slang
)n the argot of the underworld, she 7was ta+en for a ride.7
232. aria operatic solo
!t her :etropolitan 4pera audition, :arian !nderson sang an aria from 5orma.
233. arid dry; barren
&he cactus had adapted to survive in an arid environment.
23. aristocracy hereditary nobility; privileged class
!mericans have mi0ed feelings about hereditary aristocracyF
23$. armada fleet of warships
Gueen 2liAabeth<s navy was able to defeat the mighty armada that threatened the 2nglish coast.
23'. aromatic fragrant
:edieval sailing vessels brought aromatic herbs from @hina to 2urope.
23(. arraign charge in court; indict
!fter his indictment by the /rand ;ury, the accused man was arraigned in the @ounty @riminal @ourt.
23*. array marshal; draw up in order
1is actions were bound to array public sentiment against him.
23,. array clothe; adorn
#he li+ed to watch her motherarray herself in her finest clothes before going out for the evening.
2.. arrears being in debt
1e was in arrears with his payments on the car.
21. arrogance pride, haughtiness
&he arrogance of the nobility was resented by the middle class.
22. arroyo gully
Cntil the heavy rains of the past spring, this arroyo had been a dry bed.
23. articulate effective; distinct
1er articulate presentation of the advertising campaign impressed her employers.
2. artifacts products of primitive culture
!rchaeologists debated the significance of the artifacts discovered in the ruins of !sia :inor and came to
no conclusion.
2$. artifice deception; tric+ery
&he &ro-an War proved to the /ree+s that cunning and artifice were often more effective than military
2'. artisan a manually s+illed wor+er
!rtists and artisans ali+e are necessary to the development of a culture.
2(. artless without guile; open and honest
Red Riding 1ood<s artless comment, 7/randma, what big eyes you haveH7 indicates the child<s innocent
surprises at her 7grandmother<s7 changed appearance.
2*. ascendancy controlling influence
Dresident :arcos failed to maintain his ascendency over Dhilippines.
2,. ascetic practicing self%denial; austere
&he wealthy young man could not understand the ascetic life led by the mon+s.
2$.. asceticism doctrine of self%denial
We find asceticism practiced in many monastries.
2$1. ascribe refer; attribute; assign
) can ascribe no motive for her acts.
2$2. asceptic preventing infection; having a cleansing effect
1ospitals succeeded in lowering the mortality rate as soon as they introduced asceptic conditions.
2$3. ashen ash%colored; deadly pale
1er face was ashen with fear.
2$. asinine stupid
6our asinine remar+s prove that you have not given this problem any serious consideration.
2$$. askance with a sideways or indirect loo+
Boo+ing as+ance at her ?uestioner, she displayed her scorn.
2$'. askew croo+edly; slanted; at an angle
When he placed his hat as+ew upon his head, his observers laughed.
2$(. asperity sharpness =of temper>
&hese remar+s, spo+en with asperity, stung the boys to whom they had been directed.
2$*. aspersion slanderous remar+
8o not cast aspersions on her character.
2$,. aspirant see+er after position or status
!lthough ) am as aspirant for public office, ) am not willing to accept the dictates of the party bosses.
2'.. aspiration noble ambition
6outh<s aspirations should be as lofty as the stars.
2'1. assail assault
1e was assailed with ?uestions after his lecture.
2'2. assay analyAe; evaluate
When they assayed the ore, they found that they had discovered a very rich vein.
2'3. assent agree; accept
)t gives me great pleasure to assent to your re?uest.
2'. assert state strongly or positively; insist on or demand recognition of =rights, claims, etc>.
When ;ill asserted that nobody else in the -unior class had such an early curfew, her parents !sserted
themselves, telling her that if she didn<t get home by nine o<cloc+ she would be grounded for the wee+.
2'$. assessment estimation; appraisal
) would li+e to have your assessment of the situation in #outh !frica.
2''. assiduous diligent
)t too+ Rembrandt wee+s of assiduous labor before he was satisfied with his portrait of his son.
2'(. assimilate absorb; cause to become homogenous
&he manner in which the Cnited #tates was able to assimilate the hordes of immigrants during the
nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries will always be a source of pride.
2'*. assuage ease; lessen=pain>
6our messages of cheer should assuage her suffering.
2',. assumption something ta+en for granted; the ta+ing over or ta+ing possession of
&he young princess made the foolish assumption that the regent would not ob-ect to her !ssumption of
2(.. assurance promise or pledge; certainty; self%confidence
When /utherie gave /uiness his assurance that rehearsals were going well, he spo+e with such assurance
that /uiness was convinced.
2(1. asteroid small planet
asteroids have become commonplace to the readers of interstellar travel stories in science fiction
2(2. astigmatism eye defect that prevents proper focus
!s soon as his parents discovered that the boy suffered from astigmatism, they too+ him to the optometrist
for corrective glasses.
2(3. astral relating to the stars
#he was amaAed at the number of astral bodies the new telescope revealed.
2(. astringent binding; causing contraction; harsh or severe
&he astringent ?uality of unsweetened lemon -uice made swallowing difficult.
2($. astronomical enormously large or e0tensive
&he government seemed willing to spend astronomical sums on weapons development.
2('. astute wise; shrewd
&hat was a very astute observation.
2((. asunder into parts; apart
&heir points of view are poles asunder.
2(*. asylum place of refuge or shelter; protection
&he refugees sought asylum from religious persecution in a new land.
2(,. asymmetric not identical on both sides of a dividing central line
Because one eyebrow was set mar+edly higher than the other, William<s face had a particularly asymmetric
2*.. atavism resemblance to remote ancestors rather than to parents; reversion to an earlier type;
:artin seemed an atavism to his &uscan ancestors who lavished great care on their small plots of soil.
2*1. atheistic denying the e0istence of /od
1is atheistic remar+s shoc+ed the religious worshippers.
2*2. atone ma+e amends for; pay for
1e +new no way in which he could atone for his brutal crime.
2*3. atrocity brutal deed
)n time of war, many atrocities are committed by invading armies.
2*. atrophy wasting away
Dolio victims need physiotherapy to prevent the atrophy of affected limbs.
2*$. attenuate ma+e thin; wea+en
By withdrawing their forces, the generals hoped to attenuate the enemy lines.
2*'. attest testify; bear witness
1aving served as a member of a grand -ury, ) can attest that our system of indicting individuals is in need
of improvement.
2*(. attribute essential ?uality
1is outstanding attribute was his +indness.
2**. attribute ascribe; e0plain
) attribute her success in science to the encouragement she received from her parents.
2*,. attrition gradual wearing down
&hey decided to wage a war of attrition rather than to rely on all%out attac+.
2,.. audacious daring; bold
!udiences cheered as Bu+e #+ywal+er and Drincess Beia made their audacious, death%defying leap to
freedom and escaped 8arth 3ader<s troops.
2,1. audit e0amination of accounts
When the ban+ e0aminers arrived to hold their annual audit, they discovered the embeAAlements of the
chief cashier.
2,2. augment increase
1ow can we hope to augment our forces when our allies are deserting usI
2,3. augury omen; prophecy
1e interpreted the departures of the birds as an augury of evil.
2,. august impressive; ma-estic
3isiting the palace at 3ersailes, she was impressed by the august surroundings in which she found herself.
2,$. aureole sun<s corona; halo
:any medieval paintings depict saintly characters with aureols around their heads.
2,'. auroral pertaining to the aurora borealis
&he auroral display was particularly spectacular that evening.
2,(. auspicious favoring success
With favorable weather conditions, it was an auspicious moment to set sail.
2,*. austere strict, stern
1is austere demeanor prevented us from engaging in our usual frivolous activities.
2,,. austerity sternness; severity; lac+ of lu0uries
&he austerity and dignity of the court were maintained by the new -ustices, who were a strict and solemn
3... authenticate prove genuine
!n e0pert was needed to authenticate the original 3an /ogh painting, distinguishing it from its imitation.
3.1. authoritarian favoring or e0ercising total control; non%democratic
&he people had no control over their destiny; they were forced to obey the dictates of the authoritarian
3.2. authoritative having the weight of authority; dictatorial
We accepted her analysis of the situation as authoritative.
3.3. autocrat monarch with supreme power
1e ran his office li+e an autocrat, giving no one else any authority.
3.. automaton mechanism that imitates actions of humans
Bong before science fiction readers became aware of robots, writers were creating stories of automation
who could outperform humans.
3.$. autonomous self%governing
&his island is a colony; however, in most matters, it is autonomous and receives no orders from the mother
3.'. autopsy e0amination of a dead body; postmortem
&he medical e0aminer ordered an autopsy to determine the cause of death.
3.(. auxiliary offering or providing help; additional or sub%sidiary
&o prepare for the emergency, they built an au0iliary power station.
3.*. avarice greed for wealth
"ing :idas<s avarice has been famous for centuries.
3.,. aver state confidently
) wish to aver that ) am certain of success.
31.. averse reluctant
1e was averse to revealing the sources of his information.
311. aversion firm disli+e
&heir mutual aversion was so great that they refused to spea+ to one another.
312. avert prevent; turn away
#he averted her eyes from the dead cat on the highway.
313. aviary enclosure for birds
&he aviary at the Aoo held nearly 3.. birds.
31. avid greedy; eager for
1e was avid for learning and read everything he could get.
31$. avocation secondary or minor occupation
1is hobby proved to be so fascinating and profitable that gradually he abandoned his regular occupation
and concentrated on his avocation.
31'. avow declare openly
) must avow that ) am innocent.
31(. avuncular li+e an uncle
!vuncular pride did not prevent him from noticing his nephew<s shortcomings.
31*. awe solemn wonder
&he tourists gaAed with awe at the tremendous e0panse of the /rand @anyon.
31,. awl pointed tool used for piercing
#he used an awl to punch additional holes in the leather belt she had bought.
32.. awry distorted; croo+ed
1e held his head awry, giving the impression that he had caught cold in his nec+ during the night.
321. axiom self%evident truth re?uiring no proof
Before a student can begin to thin+ along the lines of 2uclidean geometry, he must accept certain principles
or a0ioms.
322. azure s+y blue
aAure s+ies are indicative of good weather.
1. babble chatter idly
&he little girl babbled about her doll.
2. bacchanalian drun+en
2mperor 5ero attended the bacchanalian orgy.
3. badger pester; annoy
#he was forced to change her telephone number because she was badgered by obscene phone calls.
. badinage teasing conversation
1er friends at wor+ greeted the news of her engagement with cheerful badinage.
$. baffle frustrate; perple0
&he new code baffled the enemy agents.
'. bait harass; tease
&he soldiers baited the prisoners, terroriAing them.
(. baleful menacing; deadly
@asting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the re-ected suitor stole off, vowing to have his revenge.
*. balk stoop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue
&he chief of police bal+ed at sending his officers into the riot%torn area.
,. balk foil
When the warden learned that several inmates were planning to escape, he too+ steps to bal+ their attempt.
1.. ballast heavy substance used to add stability or weight
&he ship was listing badly to one side; it was necessary to shift the ballast in the hold to get her bac+ on an
even +eel.
11. balm something that relieves pain
9riendship is the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love.
12. balmy mild; fragrant
! balmy breeAe refreshed us after the sultry blast.
13. banal hac+neyed; commonplace; trite
1is fre?uent use of cliches made his essay seem banal.
1. bandy discuss lightly; e0change blows or words
&he president refused to bandy words with reporters at the press conference.
1$. bane cause of ruin
Bac+ of public transportation is the bane of urban life.
1'. bantering good%naturedly ridiculing
&hey resented his bantering remar+s because they misinterpreted his teasing as sarcasm.
1(. barb sharp pro-ection form fishhoo+, etc.; pointed comment
&he barb from the fishhoo+ caught in his finger as he grabbed the fish.
1*. bard poet
&he ancient bard 1omer sang of the fall of &roy.
1,. barefaced shameless; bold; unconcealed
#hoc+ed by 1uc+ 9inn<s barefaced lies, :iss Watson prayed the good Bord would give him a sense of his
unregenerate wic+edness.
2.. baroque highly ornate
!ccustomed to the severe, angular lines of modern s+yscrapers, they found the flamboyance of baro?ue
architecture amusing.
21. barrage barrier laid down by artillery fire; overwhelming profusion
&he company was forced to retreat through the barrage of heavy canyons.
22. barrister counselor%at%law
/alsworthy started as a barrister, but when he found the practice of law boring, turned to writing.
23. barterer trader
&he barterer e0changed trin+ets for the natives< furs.
2. bask lu0uriate; ta+e pleasure in warmth
bas+ing on the beach, she rela0ed so completely that she fell asleep.
2$. bastion stronghold; something seen as a source of protection
&he villagers fortified the town hall, hoping this improvised bastion could protect them from the guerrila
2'. bate let down; restrain
Cntil it was time to open the presents, the children had to bate their curiosity.
2(. bauble trin+et; trifle
&he child was delighted with the bauble she had won in the grab bag.
2*. bawdy indecent; obscene
#he too+ offense at his bawdy remar+s.
2,. beatific giving bliss; blissful
&he beatific smile on the child<s face made us very happy.
3.. beatitude blessedness; state of bliss
/rowing closer to /od each day, the mystic achieved a state of indescribable beatitude.
31. bedizen dress with vulgar finery
&he witch doctors were bediAened in their gaudiest costumes.
32. bedraggle wet thoroughly
We were so bedraggled by the severe storm that we had to change into dry clothing.
33. befuddle confuse thoroughly
1is attempts to clarify the situation succeeded only on befuddling her further.
3. beget father; produce; give rise to
4ne good turn may deserve another; it does not necessarily beget another.
3$. begrudge resent
) begrudge every minute ) have to spend attending meetings.
3'. beguile amuse; delude; cheat
) beguiled himself during the long hours by playing solitaire.
3(. behemoth huge creature; something of monstrous siAe or power
#portcasters nic+named the linebac+er 7&he Behemoth.7
3*. beholden obligated; indebted
#ince ) do not wish to be beholden to anyone, ) cannot accept this favor.
3,. behoove be suited to; be incumbent upon
)n this time of crisis, it behooves all of us to remain calm and await the instructions of our superiors.
.. belabor e0plain or go over e0cessively or to a ridiculous degree; assail verbally
&he debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring his point.
1. belated delayed
1e apologiAed for his belated note of condolence to the widow of his friend and e0plained that he had -ust
learned of her husband<s untimely death.
2. beleaguer besiege
!s soon as the city was beleaguered, the life became more subdued as the citiAens began their long wait for
outside assitance.
3. belie contradict; give a false impression
1is coarse, hard%bitten e0terior belied his innate sensitivity.
. belittle disparage; depreciate
Darents should not belittle their children<s early attempts at drawing, but should encourage their efforts.
$. bellicose warli+e
1is bellicose disposition alienated his friends.
'. belligerent ?uarrelsome
Whenever he had too much to drin+, he became belligerent and tried to pic+ fights with strangers.
(. bemused confused; lost in thought; preoccupied
;ill studied the garbled instructions with a bemused loo+ on her face.
*. benediction blessing
&he appearance of the sun after the many rainy days was li+e a benediction.
,. benefactor gift giver; patron
#crooge later became &iny &im<s benefactor and gave him a benediction.
$.. beneficent +indly; doing good
&he overgenerous philanthropist had to curb his beneficent impulses before he gave away all his money
and left himself with nothing.
$1. beneficiary person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy
6ou may change your beneficiary as often as you wish.
$2. benevolent generous; charitable
1is benevolent nature prevented him from refusing any beggar who accosted him.
$3. benign +indly; favorable; not malignant
&he old man was well li+ed because of his benign attitude toward friend and stranger ali+e.
$. benison blessing
Bet us pray that the benison of peace once more shall prevail among the nations of the world.
$$. bent determined; natural talent or inclination
bent on advancing in the business world, the secretary heroine of Wor+ing /irl had a true bent for high
$'. bequeath leave to someone by means of a will; hand down
)n his will, 9ather be?ueathed his watch to Dhillip; the be?uest meant a great deal to the boy.
$(. berate scold strongly
1e feared she would berate him for his forgetfulness.
$*. bereavement state of being deprived of something valuable or beloved
1is friends gathered to console him upon his sudden bereavement.
$,. bereft deprived of; lac+ing
&he foolish gambler soon found himself bereft of funds.
'.. berserk frenAied
!ngered, he went berser+ and began to wrec+ the room.
'1. beset harass; trouble
:any problems beset the !merican public school system.
'2. besmirch soil, defile
&he scandalous remar+s in the newspaper besmirch the reputations of every member of the society.
'3. bestial beastli+e; brutal; inhuman
&he Red @ross sought to put an end to the bestial treatment of prisoners of war.
'. bestow confer
1e wished to bestow great honors upon the hero.
'$. betroth become engaged to marry
&he announcement that they had become betrothed surprised their friends who had not suspected any
''. bevy large group
&he movie actor was surrounded by a bevy of startlets.
'(. bicameral two%chambered, as a legislative body
&he Cnited #tates @ongress is a bicameral body.
'*. bicker ?uarrel
&he children bic+ered morning, noon, and night, e0asperating their parents.
',. biennial every two years
&he group held biennial meetings instead of annual ones.
(.. bifurcated divided into two branches; for+ed
With a bifurcated branch and a piece of elastic rubber, he made a crude but effective slingshot.
(1. bigotry stubborn intolerance
Brought up in a democratic atmosphere, student was shoc+ed by the bigotry and narrowness e0pressed by
several of his classmates.
(2. bilious suffering from indigestion; irritable
1is bilious temperament was apparent to all who heard him rant about his difficulties.
(3. bilk swindle; cheat
&he con man specialiAed in bil+ing insurance companies.
(. bivouac temporary encampment
While in bivouac, we spent the night in our sleeping bags under the stars.
($. bizarre fantastic; violently contrasting
&he plot of the novel was too biAarre to be believed.
('. blanch bleach; whiten
!lthough age had blanched his hair, he was still vigorous and energetic.
((. bland soothing; mild
#he used a bland ointment for her sunburn.
(*. blandishment flattery
8espite the salesperson<s blandishments, the customer did not buy the outfit.
(,. blase bored with pleasure or dissipation
6our blase attitude gives your students an erroneous impression of the -oys of scholarship.
*.. blasphemous profane; impious
&he people in the room were shoc+ed by his his blasphemous language.
*1. blatant e0tremely obvious; loudly offensive
@aught in a blatant lie, the scoundrel had only one regretF he wished that he had lied more subtly.
*2. bleak cold; cheerless
&he !leutian )slands are blea+ military outposts.
*3. blighted suffering from a disease; destroyed
&he e0tent of the blighted areas could be seen only when viewed from the air.
*. blithe gay; -oyous; careless
#helley called the s+ylar+ a 7blithe spirit7 because of its happy song.
*$. bloated swollen or puffed as with water or air
1er bloated stomach came from drin+ing so much water.
*'. blowhard tal+ative boaster
!fter all #ol<s tal+ about his big show business connections led nowhere, #ally decided he was -ust another
*(. bludgeon club; heavy%headed weapon
1is wal+ing stic+ served him as a bludgeon on many occasions.
**. bluff pretense =of strength>; deception; high cliff
@laire thought Bord Byron<s boast that he would swim the 1ellespont was -ust a bluff, she was astounded
when he dove from the high bluff into the waters below.
*,. blunder error
&he criminal<s fatal blunder led to his capture.
,.. blurt utter impulsively
Before she could stop him, he blurted out the news.
,1. bode foreshadow; portend
&he gloomy s+ies and the sulfurious odors from the mineral springs seemed to bode evil to those who
settled in the area.
,2. bogus counterfeit; not authentic
&he police ?uic+ly found the distributors of the bogus twenty%dollar bills.
,3. boisterous violent; rough; noisy
&he unruly crowd became even more boisterous when he tried to ?uiet them.
,. bolster support; reinforce
&he debaters amassed file bo0es full of evidence to bolster their arguments.
,$. bombast pompous, inflated language
9illed with bombast, the orator<s speech left the audience more impressed with his pomposity than with his
,'. boon blessing; benefit
&he recent rains that filled our empty reservoirs were a boon to the whole community.
,(. boorish rude; insensitive
&hough :r. Dotts constantly interrupted his wife, she ignored his boorish behavior, for she had lost hope of
teaching him courtesy.
,*. bouillon clear beef soup
&he cup of bouillon served by the stewards was welcomed by those who had been chilled by the cold ocean
,,. bountiful generous; showing bounty
#he distributed gifts in a bountiful and gracious manner.
1... bourgeois middle class
&he 9rench Revolution was inspired by the bourgeois, who resented the aristocracy.
1.1. bovine cowli+e; placid and dull
5othing e0cites 2sther; even when she won the state lottery, she still preserved her air of bovine calm.
1.2. bowdlerize e0purgate
!fter the film editors had bowdleriAed the language in the script, the motion picture<s rating was changed
from 7R7 to 7D/.7
1.3. brackish somewhat saline
1e found the only wells in the area were brac+ish; drin+ing the water made him nauseous.
1.. braggadocio boasting
1e was disli+ed because his manner was always full of braggadocio.
1.$. braggart boaster
:odest by nature, she was no braggart, preferring to let her accomplishments spea+ for themselves.
1.'. bravado swagger; assumed air of defiance
&he bravado of the young criminal disappeared when he was confronted by the victims of his brutal attac+.
1.(. brawn muscular strength; sturdiness
)t ta+es brawn to become a champion weight%lifter.
1.*. brazen insolent
1er braAen contempt for authority angered the officials.
1.,. breach brea+ing of contract or duty; fissure; gap
&hey found a breach in the enemy<s fortifications and penetrated their lines.
11.. breadth width; e0tent
We were impressed by the breadth of her +nowledge.
111. brevity conciseness
brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram; you are charged for every word.
112. brindled tawny or grayish with strea+s or spots
1e was disappointed in the litter because the puppies were brindled; he had hoped for animals of uniform
113. bristling rising li+e bristles; showing irritation
&he dog stood there, bristling with anger.
11. brittle easily bro+en; difficult
:y employer<s brittle personality made it difficult for me to get along with her.
11$. broach open up
1e did not even try to broach the sub-ect of poetry.
11'. brocade rich, figured fabric
&he sofa was covered with e0pensive brocade.
11(. brochure pamphlet
&his brochure on farming was issued by the 8epartment of !griculture.
11*. brooch ornamental clasp
#he treasured the brooch because it was an heirloom.
11,. brook tolerate; endure
&he dean would broo+ no interference with his disciplinary actions.
12.. browbeat bully; intimidate
Billy resisted &ed<s attempts to browbeat him into handing over his lunch money.
121. brusque blunt; abrupt
#he was offended by his brus?ue reply.
122. bucolic rustic; pastoral
&he meadow was the scene of bucolic gaiety.
123. buffoonery clowning
;ohn @andy<s buffoonery in Cncle Buc+ was hilarious.
12. bugaboo bugbear; ob-ect of baseless terror
)f we become frightened by such bugaboos, we are no wiser than the birds who fear scarecrows.
12$. bullion gold and silver in the form of bars
:uch bullion is stored in the vaults at 9ort "no0.
12'. bulwark earthwor+ or other strong defense; person who defends
&he navy is our principal bulwar+ against invasion.
12(. bungle spoil by clumsy behavior
) was afraid you would bungle his assignment but ) had no one else to send.
12*. bureaucracy government by bureaus
:any people fear that the constant introduction of federal agencies will create a government by
12,. burgeon grow forth; send out buds
)n the spring, the plants that burgeon are a promise of the beauty that is to come.
13.. burlesque give an imitation that ridicules
)n his caricature, he burles?ued the mannerisms of his adversary.
131. burly hus+y; muscular
&he burly mover lifted the pac+ing crate with ease.
132. burnish ma+e shiny by rubbing; polish
&he maid burnished the brass fi0tures until they reflected the lamplight.
133. buttress support; prop up
;ust as architects buttress the walls of cathedrals with flying buttresses, debates buttress their arguments
with facts.
13. buxom full%bosomed; plump; -olly
1igh fashion models usually are slender rather than bu0om.
1. cabal small group of persons secretly united to promote their own interests
&he cabal was defeated when its scheme was discovered.
2. cache hiding place
&he detectives followed the suspects until he led them to the cache where he had stored his loot.
3. cacophony discord
#ome people seem to en-oy the cacophony of an orchestra that is tuning up.
. cadaver corpse
)n some states, it is illegal to dissect cadavers.
$. cadaverous li+e a corpse; pale
9rom his cadaverous appearance, we could see how the disease had ravaged him.
'. cadence rhythmic rise and fall =of words or sounds>; beat
:arching down the road, the troops sang out, following the cadence set by the sergeant.
(. cajole coa0; wheedle
) will not be ca-oled into granting your wish.
*. calamity disaster; misery
!s news of the calamity spread, offers of relief poured in to the stric+en community.
,. caliber ability; capacity
! man of such caliber should not be assigned such menial tas+s.
1.. calligraphy beautiful writing; e0cellent penmanship
!s we e0amine ancient manuscripts, we became impressed with the calligraphy of the scribes.
11. callous hardened; unfeeling
1e had wor+ed in the hospital for so many years that he was callous to the suffering in the wards.
12. callow youthful; immature
)n that youthful movement, the leaders were only a little less callow than their immature followers.
13. calorific heat%producing
@oal is much more calorific than green wood.
1. calumny malicious misrepresentation
1e could endure his financial failure, but he could not bear the calumny that his foes heaped upon him.
1$. camaraderie good%fellowship
What he loved best about his -ob was the sense of camaraderie he and his co%wor+ers shared.
1'. cameo shell or -ewel carved in relief
&ourists are advised not to purchase cameos from the street peddlers of Rome who sell poor specimens of
the carver<s art.
1(. canard unfounded rumor
)t is almost impossible to protect oneself from such a base canard.
1*. candor fran+ness
&he candor and simplicity of his speech impressed all, it was all clear he held nothing bac+.
1,. canine related to dogs; dogli+e
#ome days the canine population of Ber+eley seems almost to outnumber the human population.
2.. canker any ulcerous sore; any evil
Doverty is a can+er in the body politic; it must be cured.
21. canny shrewd; thrifty
&he canny #cotsman was more than a match for the swindlers.
22. cant pious phraseology; -argon of criminals
!ngry that the president had slashed the education budget, we dismissed his speech on the importance of
education as mere cant.
23. cantankerous ill%humored; irritable
@onstantly complaining about his treatment and refusing to cooperate with the hospital staff, he was a
cantan+erous patient.
2. cantata story set to music, to be sung by a chorus
&he choral society sang the new cantata composed by its leader.
2$. canter slow gallop
Because the racehorse had outdistanced its competition so easily, the reporter wrote that the race was won
in a canter.
2'. canto division of a long poem
8ante<s poetic masterpiece &he 8ivine @omedy is divided into cantos.
2(. canvass determine or see+ opinions, votes, etc.
!fter canvassing the sentiments of his constituents, the congressman was confident that he represented the
ma-ority opinion of his district.
2*. capacious spacious
)n the capacious areas of the railroad terminal, thousands of travelers lingered while waiting for their train.
2,. capillary having a very fine bore
&he changes in surface tension of li?uids in capillary vessels is of special interest to physicists.
3.. capitulate surrender
&he enemy was warned to capitulate or face annihilation.
31. caprice whim
#he was an unpredictable creature, acting on caprice, never ta+ing thought of the conse?uences.
32. capricious fic+le; incalculable
&he storm was capricious and changed course constantly.
33. caption title; chapter heading; te0t under illustration
) find the captions that accompany these cartoons very clever and humorous.
3. captious faultfinding
1is criticisms were always captious and frivolous, never offering constructive suggestions.
3$. carafe glass water bottle
With each dinner, the patron receives a carafe of red or white wine.
3'. carapace shell covering the bac+ =of a turtle, crab, etc>
!t the children<s Aoo, Richard perched on top of the giant turtle<s hard carapace as it slowly made its way
around the enclosure.
3(. carat unit of weight for precious stones; measure of fineness of gold
1e gave her a diamond that weighed three carats and was mounted in an eighteen%carat gold band.
3*. carcinogenic causing cancer
:any supposedly harmless substances have been revealed to be carcinogenic.
3,. cardinal chief
)f you want to increase your word power, the cardinal rule of vocabulary%building is to read.
.. careen lurch; sway from side to side
&he ta0icab careened wildly as it rounded the corner.
1. caricature distortion; burles?ue
&he caricatures he drew always emphasiAed personal wea+nesses of the people he burles?ued.
2. carillon set of bells capable of being played
&he carillon in the bell tower of the @oca%@ola pavilion at the 5ew 6or+ World<s 9air provided musical
entertainment every hour.
3. carnage destruction of life
&he carnage that can be caused by atomic warfare adds to the responsibilities of our statesmen.
. carnal fleshly
&he public was more interested in carnal pleasures than in spiritual matters.
$. carnivorous meat%eating
&he lion is a carnivorous animal.
'. carousal drun+en revel
&he party degenerated into an ugly carousal.
(. carping petty criticism; fault%finding
Welcoming constructive criticism, Be0y appreciated her editor<s comments, finding them free of carping.
*. carrion rotting flesh of a dead body
BuAAards are nature<s scavengers; they eat the carrion left behind by other predators.
,. cartographer map%ma+er
&hough not a professional cartographer, &ol+ien was able to construct a map of the fictional world.
$.. cascade small waterfall
We could not appreciate the beauty of the many cascades as we made detours around each of them to avoid
getting wet.
$1. caste one of the hereditary classes in 1indu society, social stratification; prestige
&he differences created by caste in )ndia must be wiped out if true democracy is to prevail in that country.
$2. castigation punishment; severe criticism
#ensitive even to mild criticism, Woolf could not bear castigation that she found in certain reviews.
$3. casualty serious or fatal accident
&he number of automotive casualties on this holiday wee+end was high.
$. cataclysm deluge; upheaval
! cataclysm such as the 9rench Revolution affects all countries.
$$. catalyst agent that brings about a chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged
:any chemical reactions cannot ta+e place without the presence of a catalyst.
$'. catapult slingshot; hurling machine
!irplanes are sometimes launched from battleships by catapults.
$(. cataract great waterfall; eye abnormality
#he gaAed with awe at the mighty cataract +nown as 5iagara 9alls.
$*. catastrophe calamity
&he ;ohnstown flood was a catastrophe.
$,. catechism boo+ for religious instruction; instruction by ?uestion and answer
1e taught by engaging his pupils in a catechism until they gave him the correct answer.
'.. categorical without e0ceptions; un?ualified; absolute
&hough the captain claimed he was never, never sic+ at sea, he finally ?ualified his categorical denial; he
was hardly ever sic+ at sea.
'1. catharsis purging or cleansing of any passage of the body
!ristotle maintained that tragedy created a catharsis by purging the soul of base concepts.
'2. cathartic purgative
#ome drugs act as la0atives when ta+en in small doses but act as cathartics when ta+en in much larger
'3. catholic universal; wide%ranging liberal
1e was e0tremely catholic in his taste and read everything he could find in the library.
'. caucus private meeting of members of a party to select officers or determine policy
!t the opening of @ongress the members of the 8emocratic Darty held a caucus to elect the ma-ority leader
of the 1ouse and the party whip.
'$. caulk to ma+e watertight =by plugging seams>
When water from the shower lea+ed into the basement, we +new it was time to caul+ the tiles at the edges
of the shower stall.
''. causal implying a cause%and%effect relationship
&he psychologist maintained there was a causal relationship between the nature of one<s early childhood
e0periences and one<s adult personality.
'(. caustic burning; sarcastically biting
&he critic<s caustic remar+s angered the hapless actors who were the sub-ects of his sarcasm.
'*. cauterize burn with hot iron or caustic
)n order to prevent infection, the doctor cauteriAed the wound.
',. cavalcade procession; parade
!s described by @haucer, the cavalcade of @anterbury pilgrims was motley group.
(.. cavalier casual and offhand; arrogant
#ensitive about having her ideas ta+en lightly, :arcia felt insulted by :ar+<s cavalier dismissal of her
(1. cavil ma+e frivolous ob-ections
) respect your sensible criticisms, but ) disli+e the way you cavil about unimportant details.
(2. cede transfer; yield title to
) intend to cede this property to the city.
(3. celerity speed; rapidity
1amlet resented his mother<s celerity in remarrying within a month after his father<s death.
(. celestial heavenly
#he spo+e of the celestial -oys that awaited virtuous souls in the hereafter.
($. celibate abstaining from se0ual intercourse; unmarried
&hough the late 1aveloc+ 2llis wrote e0tensively about se0ual customs and was considered an e0pert in
such matters, recent studies maintain he was celibate throughout his life.
('. censor overseer of morals; person who eliminates inappropriate matter
#oldiers disli+e having their mail read by a censor but understand the need for this precaution.
((. censorious critical
censorious people delight in casting blame.
(*. censure blame; criticiAe
1e was censured for his inappropriate behavior.
(,. centaur mythical figure, half man and half horse
) was particularly impressed by the statue of the centaur in the Roman 1all of the museum.
*.. centigrade denoting a widely used temperature scale =basically same as @elsius>
4n the centigrade thermometer, the freeAing point of water is Aero degrees.
*1. centrifugal radiating; departing from the center
:any automatic drying machines remove e0cess moisture from clothing by centrifugal force.
*2. centrifuge machine that separates substances by whirling them
!t the dairy, we employ a centrifuge to separate cream from mil+.
*3. centripetal tending toward the center
8oes centripetal force or the force of gravity bring orbiting bodies to the earth<s surfaceI
*. centurion Roman army officer
Because he was in command of a company of one hundred soldiers, he was called a centurion.
*$. cerebral pertaining to the brain or intellect
&he content of philosophical wor+s is cerebral in nature and re?uires much thought.
*'. cerebration thought
:athematics problems sometimes re?uire much cerebration.
*(. ceremonious mar+ed by formality
4rdinary dress would be in appropriate at so ceremonious an affair.
**. cessation stopping
&he wor+ers threatened a cessation of all activities if their demands were not met.
*,. cession yielding to another; ceding
&he cession of !las+a to the Cnited #tates is discussed in this chapter.
,.. chafe warm by rubbing
&he collar chafed his nec+.
,1. chaff worthless products of an endeavor
When you separate the wheat from the chaff, be sure you throw out the chaff.
,2. chaffing bantering; -o+ing
#ometimes his flippant and chaffing remar+s annoy us.
,3. chagrin ve0ation; disappointment
1er refusal to go with us filled us with chagrin.
,. chalice goblet; consecrated cup
)n a small room ad-oining the cathedral, many ornately decorated chalices made by the most famous
2uropean goldsmiths were on display.
,$. chameleon liAard that changes color in different situations
Bi+e the chameleon, he assumed the political coloration of every group he met.
,'. champion support militantly
:artin Buther "ing, ;r., won the 5obel Deace DriAe because he championed the oppressed in their struggle
for e?uality.
,(. chaotic in utter disorder
1e tried to bring order into the chaotic state of affairs.
,*. charisma divine gift; great popular charm or appeal
Dolitical commentators have deplored the importance of a candidate<s charisma in these days of television
,,. charlatan ?uac+; pretender to +nowledge
When they realiAed that the WiAard didn<t +now how to get them bac+ to "ansas, 8orothy and her friends
were sure they<d been duped by a charlatan.
1... chary cautious; sparing or restrained about giving
! prudent, thrifty 5ew 2nglander, 8eWitt was as chary of investing money in -un+ bonds as he was chary
of paying people unnecessary compliments.
1.1. chase ornament a metal surface by indenting
With his hammer, he carefully chased an intricate design onto the surface of the chalice.
1.2. chasm abyss
&hey could not see the bottom of the chasm.
1.3. chassis framewor+ and wor+ing parts of an automobile
20amining the car after the accident, the owner discovered that the body had been ruined but that the
chassis was unharmed.
1.. chaste pure
1er chaste and decorous garb was appropriately selected for the solemnity of the occasion.
1.$. chasten discipline; punish in order to correct
Whom /od loves, /od chastens.
1.'. chastise punish
) must chastise you for this offense.
1.(. chauvinist blindly devoted patriot
! chauvinist cannot recogniAe any faults in his country, no matter how flagrant they may be.
1.*. check stop motion; curb or restrain
&hrusting out her arm, /randma chec+ed Bobby<s lunge at his sister. 76oung man,7 she said, 7you<d better
chec+ your temper.7
1.,. checkered mar+ed by changes in fortune
8uring his chec+ered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary boardinghouses.
11.. cherubic angelic; innocent%loo+ing
With her cheerful smile and rosy chee+s, she was a particularly cherubic child.
111. chicanery tric+ery
6our deceitful tactics in this case are indications of chicanery.
112. chide scold
/randma began to chide #teven for his lying.
113. chimerical fantastic; highly imaginative
Doe<s chimerical stories are sometimes too morbid for reading in bed.
11. chivalrous courteous; faithful; brave
chivalrous behavior involves noble words and good deeds.
11$. choleric hot%tempered
1is flushed, angry face indicated a choleric nature.
11'. choreography art of dancing
:artha /raham introduced a form of choreography that seemed aw+ward and alien to those who had been
brought up on classic ballet.
11(. chronic long established, as a disease
&he doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea to traces of formaldehyde gas in
his apartment.
11*. chronicle report; record =in chronological order>
&he gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the socially prominent celebrities.
11,. churlish boorish; rude
8ismayed by his churlish manners at the party, the girls vowed never to invite him again.
12.. ciliated having minute hairs
&he paramecium is a ciliated, one%celled animal.
121. cipher nonentity; worthless person or thing
#he claimed her e0%husband was a total cipher and wondered why she had ever married him.
122. cipher secret code
Bac+ing his code boo+, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher.
123. circlet small ring; band
&his tiny circlet is very costly because it is set with precious stones.
12. circuitous roundabout
Because of the traffic congestion on the main highways, she too+ a circuitous route.
12$. circumlocution indirect or roundabout e0pression
1e was afraid to call spade a spade and resorted to circumlocutions to avoid direct reference to his sub-ect.
12'. circumscribe limit; confine
!lthough ) do not wish to circumscribe your activities, ) must insist that you complete this assignment
before you start anything else.
12(. circumspect prudent; cautious
)nvestigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.
12*. circumvent outwit; baffle
)n order to circumvent the enemy, we will ma+e two preliminary attac+s in other sections before starting
our ma-or campaign.
12,. citadel fortress
&he citadel overloo+ed the city li+e a protecting angel.
13.. cite ?uote; commend
#he could cite passages in the Bible from memory.
131. civil having to do with citiAens or the state; courteous and polite
!lthough internal Revenue #ervice agents are civil servants, they are not always civil to suspected ta0
132. clairvoyant having foresight; fortuneteller
@assandra<s clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the &ro-ans.
133. clamber climb by crawling
#he clambered over the wall.
13. clamor noise
&he clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to ta+e a nap.
13$. clandestine secret
!fter avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.
13'. clangor loud, resounding noise
&he blac+smith was accustomed to the clangor of hammers on steel.
13(. clapper stri+er =tongue> of a bell
Wishing to be undisturbed by the bell, 8ale wound his scarf around the clapper to muffle its stri+ing.
13*. clarion shrill, trumpetli+e sound
We wo+e to the clarion to muffle its stri+ing.
13,. claustrophobia fear of being loc+ed in
1is fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to loc+ him in his room.
1.. clavicle collarbone
2ven though he wore shoulder pads, the football player bro+e his clavicle during a practice scrimmage.
11. cleave split asunder
&he lightening cleaves the tree in two.
12. cleft split
2rosion caused a cleft in the huge boulder.
13. clemency disposition ot be lenient; mildness, as of the weather
&he lawyer was pleased when the case was sent to ;udge #mith<s chambers because #mith was noted for
her clemency toward first offenders.
1. cliche phrase culled in meaning by repetition
1igh school compositions are often marred by such cliches as 7strong as an o0.7
1$. clientele body of customers
&he roc+ club attracted a young, stylish clientele.
1'. climactic relating to the highest point
When he reached the climactic portions of the boo+, he could not stop reading.
1(. clime region; climate
1is doctors advised him to move to a milder clime.
1*. clique small, e0clusive group
#he charged that a cli?ue had assumed control of school affairs.
1,. cloister monastery or convent
&he nuns lived in the cloister.
1$.. clout great influence =especially political or social>
/atsby wondered whether he had enough clout to be admitted to the e0clusive club.
1$1. cloying distasteful =because e0cessive>; e0cessively sweet or sentimental
8isli+ing the cloying sweetness of standard wedding ca+es, ;ody and &om chose a homemade carrot ca+e
for their reception.
1$2. coagulate thic+en; congeal; clot
2ven after you remove the pudding from the burner, it will continue to coagulate as it stands.
1$3. coalesce combine; fuse
&he broo+s coalesce into one large river.
1$. coda concluding section of a musical or literary composition
&he piece concluded with a distinctive coda that stri+ingly brought together various motifs.
1$$. coddle treat gently; pamper
8on<t coddle the children to much; they need a taste of discipline.
1$'. codicil supplement to the body of a will
&his codicil was drawn up five years after the writing of the original will.
1$(. codify arrange =laws, rules> as a code; classify
We need to ta+e the varying rules and regulations of the different health agencies and codify them into a
national health code.
1$*. coercion use of force
&hey forced him to obey, but only by great coercion.
1$,. coeval living at the same time as; contemporary
coeval with the dinosaur, the pterodactyl flourished during the :esoAoic era.
1'.. cog tooth pro-ecting from a wheel
! bicycle chain moves through a series of cogs in order to propel the bi+e.
1'1. cogent convincing
#he presented cogent arguments to the -ury.
1'2. cogitate thin+ over
cogitate on this problem; the solution will come.
1'3. cognate related linguistically; allied by blood; similar or a+in in nature
&he 2nglish word 7mother7 cognate to the Batin word 7mater,7 whose influence is visible in the words
7maternal7 and 7maternity.7
1'. cognitive having to do with +nowing or perceiving related to the mental precesses
&hough ;ac+ was emotionally immature, his cognitive development was admirable; he was very advanced
1'$. cognizance +nowledge
8uring the election campaign, the two candidates were +ept in full cogniAance of the international situation.
1''. cohere stic+ together
#olids have a greater tendency to cohere than li?uids.
1'(. cohesion tendency to +eep together
! firm believer in the ma0im 78ivide and con?uer,7 the emperor, by lies and tric+ery, sought to disrupt the
cohesion ofthe free nations.
1'*. cohorts armed band
@aesar and his Roman cohorts con?uered almost all of the +nown world.
1',. coiffure hairstyle
6ou can ma+e a statement with your choice of coiffureF in the '.<s many !frican%!mericans affirmed their
racial heritage by wearing their hair in !fros.
1(.. coincident occurring at the same time
#ome people find the coincident events in 1ardy<s novels annoyingly improbable.
1(1. colander utensil with perforated bottom used for straining
Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.
1(2. collaborate wor+ together
&wo writers collaborated in preparing this boo+.
1(3. collage wor+ of art put together from fragments
#craps of cloth, paper doilies, and old photographs all went into her collage.
1(. collate e0amine in order to verify authenticity; arrange in order
&hey collated the newly found manuscripts to determine their age.
1($. collateral security given for loan
&he sum you wish to borrow is so large that it must be secured by collateral.
1('. collation a light meal
&ea sandwiches and coo+ies were offered at the collation.
1((. colloquial pertaining to conversational or common speech
6our use of collo?uial e0pressions in a formal essay such as the one you have presented spoils the effect
you hope to achieve.
1(*. colloquy informal discussion
) en-oy our collo?uies but ) sometimes wish that they could be made more formal and more searching.
1(,. collusion conspiring in a fraudulent scheme
&he swindlers were found guilty of collusion.
1*.. colossal huge
Radio @ity :usic 1all has a colossal stage.
1*1. colossus gigantic statue
&he legendary @olossus of Rhodes, bronAe statue of the sun god that dominated the harbor of the /ree+
seaport, was one of the #even Wonders of the World.
1*2. comatose in a coma; e0tremely sleepy
&he long%winded orator soon had his audience in a comatose state.
1*3. combustible easily burned
!fter the recent outbrea+ of fires in private homes, the fire commissioner ordered that all combustible
materials be +ept in safe containers.
1*. comely attractive; agreeable
) would rather have a poor and comely wife than a rich and homely one.
1*$. comestible something fit to be eaten
&he roast tur+ey and other comestibles, the wines, and the e0cellent service made this &han+sgiving dinner
particularly memorable.
1*'. comeuppance rebu+e; deserts
!fter his earlier rudeness, we were delighted to see him get his comeuppance.
1*(. comity courtesy; civility
! spirit of comity should e0ist among nations.
1**. commandeer to draft for military purposes; to ta+e for public use
&he policeman commandeered the first car that approached and ordered the driver to go to the nearest
1*,. commemorative remembering; honoring
&he new commemorative stamp honors the late :artin Buther "ing, ;r.
1,.. commensurate e?ual in e0tent
6our reward will be commensurate with your effort.
1,1. commiserate feel or e0press pity or sympathy for
1er friends commiserated with the widow.
1,2. commodious spacious and comfortable
!fter sleeping in a small roadside cabins, they found their hotel suite commodious.
1,3. communal held in common; of a group of people
When they were divorced, they had trouble dividing their communal property.
1,. compact agreement; contract
&he signers of the :ayflower @ompact were establishing a form of government.
1,$. compact tightly pac+ed; firm; brief
1is short, compact body was better suited to wrestling than to bas+etball.
1,'. compatible harmonious; in harmony with
&hey were compatible neighbors, never ?uarreling over unimportant matters.
1,(. compelling overpowering; irresistible in effect
&he prosecutor presented a well%reasoned case, but the defense attorney<s compelling arguments for
leniency won over the -ury.
1,*. compendium brief, comprehensive summary
&his te0t can serve as a compendium of the tremendous amount of new material being developed in this
1,,. compensatory ma+ing up for; repaying
@an a compensatory education program ma+e up for the inade?uate schooling he received in earlier yearsI
2... compilation listing of statistical information in tabular or boo+ form
&he compilation of available scholarships serves a very valuable purpose.
2.1. complacent self%satisfied
&here was a complacent loo+ on his face as he e0amined his paintings.
2.2. complaisant trying to please; obliging
&he courtier obeyed the +ing<s orders in a complaisant manner.
2.3. complement complete; consummate; ma+e perfect
&he waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese.
2.. compliance conformity in fulfilling re?uirements; readiness to yield
&he design for the new school had to be in compliance with the local building code.
2.$. compliant yielding
1e was compliant and ready to go along with his friends< desires.
2.'. complicity participation; involvement
6ou cannot +eep your complicity in this affair secret very long; you would be wise to admit your
involvement immediately.
2.(. component element; ingredient
) wish all the components of my stereo system were wor+ing at the same time.
2.*. comport bear one<s self; behave
1e comported himself with great dignity.
2.,. composure mental calmness
2ven the latest wor+ crisis failed to sha+e her composure.
21.. compound combine; constitute; pay interest; increase
&he ma+ers of the popular cold remedy compounded a nasal decongestant with an antihistamine.
211. comprehensive thorough; inclusive
&his boo+ provides a comprehensive review of verbal and math s+ills for the #!&.
212. compress close; s?ueeAe; contract
#he compressed the pac+age under her arm.
213. comprise include; consist of
)f the 8istrict of @olumbia were to be granted a statehood, the Cnited #tates of !merica would comprise
fifty%onestates, not -ust fifty.
21. compromise ad-ust; endanger the interests or reputation of
6our presence at the scene of the dispute compromises our claim to neutrality in this matter.
21$. compunction remorse
&he -udge was especially severe in this sentencing because he felt that the criminal had shown no
compunction for his heinous crime.
21'. compute rec+on; calculate
1e failed to compute the interest, so his ban+ balance was not accurate.
21(. concatenate lin+ as in a chain
)t is difficult to understand how these events could concatenate as they did without outside assistance.
21*. concave hollow
&he bac+%pac+ers found partial shelter from the storm by huddling against the concave wall of the cliff.
21,. concede admit; hield
8espite all the evidence :onica had assembled, :ar+ refused to concede that she was right.
22.. conceit whimsical idea; e0travagant metaphor
1e was an entertaining companion, always e0pressing himself in amusing conceits and witty turns of
221. concentric having a common center
&he target was made of concentric circles.
222. conception beginning; forming of a idea
!t the first conception of the wor+, he was consulted.
223. concerted mutually agreed on; done together
&he girl scouts in the troop made a concerted effort to raise funds for their annual outing, and emitted a
concerted sigh when their leader announced that they had reached their goal.
22. concession an act of yielding
Before they could reach an agreement, both sides had to ma+e certain concessions.
22$. conciliatory reconciling; soothing
#he was still angry despite his conciliatory words.
22'. concise brief and compact
When you define a new word, be concise; the shorter the definition, the easier it is to remember.
22(. conclave private meeting
1e was present at all their conclaves as an unofficial observer.
22*. conclusive decisive; ending all debate
When the stolen boo+s turned up in ;ohn<s loc+er, we finally had conclusive evidence of the identity of the
mysterious thief.
22,. concoct prepare by combining; ma+e up in concert
1ow did the inventive chef ever concoct such strange dishI
23.. concomitant that which accompanies
@ulture is not always a concomitant of wealth.
231. concord harmony
Watching &weediedum and &weedledee battle, !lice wondered why the two brothers could not manage to
life in concord.
232. concur agree
8id you concur with the decision of the court or did you find it unfairI
233. concurrent happening at the same time
)n !merica, the colonists were resisting the demands of the mother contry; at the concurrent moment in
9rance, the middle class was sowing the seeds of rebellion.
23. condescend bestow courtesies with a superior air
&he +ing condescended to grant an audience to the friends of the condemned man.
23$. condign ade?uate; deservedly severe
&he public approved the condign punishment for the crime.
23'. condiments seasonings; spices
#panish food is full of condiments.
23(. condole e0press sympathetic sorrow
1is friends gathered to condole with him over his loss.
23*. condone overloo+; forgive; give tacit approval; e0cuse
Cnli+e Widow 8ouglass, who condoned 1uc+<s minor offenses, :iss Watson did nothing but scold.
23,. conducive helpful; contributive
Rest and proper diet are conducive to good health.
2.. conduit a?ueduct; passageway for fluids
Water was brought to the army in the desert by an improvised conduit from the ad-oining mountain.
21. confidant trusted friend
1e had no confidants with whom he could discuss his problems at home.
22. confiscate seiAe; commandeer
&he army confiscated all available supplies of uranium.
23. conflagration great fire
)n the conflagration that followed the 1,.' earth?ua+e, much of #an 9rancisco was destroyed.
2. confluence flowing together; crowd
&hey built the city at the confluence of two rivers.
2$. conformity harmony; agreement
)n conformity with our rules and regulations, ) am calling a meeting of our organiAation.
2'. confound confuse; puAAle
5o mystery could confound #herloc+ 1olmes for long.
2(. congeal freeAe; coagulate
1is blood congealed in his veins as he saw the dread monster rush toward him.
2*. congenial pleasant; friendly
:y father loved to go out for a meal with congenial companions.
2,. congenital e0isting at birth
1is congenital deformity disturbed his parents.
2$.. conglomeration mass of material stic+ing together
)n such a conglomeration of miscellaneous statistics, it was impossible to find a single area of analysis.
2$1. congruence correspondence of parts; harmonious relationship
&he student demonstrated the congruence of the two triangles by using the hypotenuse%arm theorem.
2$2. conifer pine tree; cone%bearing tree
!ccording to geologists, the conifers were the first plants to bear flowers.
2$3. conjecture surmise; guess
) will end all your con-ectures; ) admit ) am guilty as charged.
2$. conjugal pertaining to marriage
&heir dreams of con-ugal bliss were shattered as soon as their temperaments clashed.
2$$. conjure summon a devil; proactive magic; imagine; invent
1e con-ured up an image of a reformed city and had the voters completely under his spell.
2$'. connivance pretense of ignorance of something wrong; assistance; permission to offend
With the connivance of his friends, he plotted to embarrass the teacher.
2$(. connoisseur person competent to act as -udge of art, ect.; a lover of an art
#he had developed into a connoisseur of fine china.
2$*. connotation suggested or implied meaning of an e0pression
9oreigners fre?uently are unaware of the connotations of the words they use.
2$,. connubial pertaining to maffige or the matrimonial state
)n his telegram, he wished the newlyweds a lifetime of connubial bliss.
2'.. consanguinity +inship
&he lawsuit developed into a test of the consanguinity of the claimant to the estate.
2'1. conscientious scrupulous; careful
! conscientious editor chec+ed every definition for its accuracy.
2'2. conscript draftee; person forced into military service
8id Rambo volunteer to fight in 3ietnam, or was he a conscript, drafted against his willI
2'3. consecrate dedicate; sanctify
We shall consecrate our lives to this noble purpose.
2'. consensus general agreement
&he consensus indicates that we are opposed to entering into this pact.
2'$. consequential pompous; self%important
@onvinced of his own importance, the actor strutted about the dressing room with a conse?uential air.
2''. conservatory school of the fine arts =especiallymusic or drama>
! gifted violinist, :arya was selected to study at the conservatory.
2'(. consign deliver officially; entrust; set apart
&he court consigned the child to her paternal grandmother<s care.
2'*. consistency absence of contradictions; dependability; uniformity; degree of thic+ness
1olmes -udged puddings and e0planations on their consistency; he li+ed his puddings without lumps and
his e0planations without improbabilities.
2',. console lessen sadness or disappointment; give comfort
When her father died, :arius did his best to console @osette.
2(.. consonance harmony; agreement
1er agitation seemed out of consonance with her usual calm.
2(1. consort associate with
We fre?uently -udge people by the company with whom they consort.
2(2. consort husband or wife
&he search for a consort for the young Gueen 3ictoria ended happily.
2(3. conspiracy treacherous plot
Brutus and @assius -oined in the conspiracy to +ill ;ulius @aesar.
2(. constituent supporter
&he congressman received hundreds of letters from angry constituents after the 2?ual Rights !mendment
failed to pass.
2($. constraint compulsion; repression of feelings
&here was a feeling of constraint in the room because no one dared to criticiAe the spea+er.
2('. construe e0plain; interpret
)f ) construe your remar+s correctly, you disagree with the theory already advanced.
2((. consummate complete
) have never seem anyone who ma+es as many stupid errors as you do; you must be a consummate idiot.
2(*. contagion infection
9earing contagion, they too+ drastic steps to prevent the spread of the disease.
2(,. contaminate pollute
&he sewage system of the city so contaminated the water that swimming was forbidden.
2*.. contempt scorn; disdain
2ven if you feel superior to others, it is unwise to show your contempt for them.
2*1. contend struggle; compete; assert earnestly
)n Revolt of the Blac+ !thlete, sociologist 1arry 2dwards contends that young blac+ athletes have been
e0ploited by some college recruiters.
2*2. contentious ?uarrelsome
We heard loud and contentious noises in the ne0t room.
2*3. contest dispute
&he defeated candidate attempted to contest the election results.
2*. context writings preceding and following the passage ?uoted
Because these lines are ta+en out of conte0t, they do not convey the message the author intended.
2*$. contiguous ad-acent to; touching upon
&he two countries are contiguous for a few miles; then they are separated by the gulf.
2*'. continence self%restraint; se0ual chastity
#he vowed to lead a life of continence.
2*(. contingent conditional
&he continuation of this contract is contingent on the ?uality of your first output.
2**. contortions twistings; distortions
!s the effects of the opiate wore away, the contortions of the patient became more violent and
demonstrated how much pain she was enduring.
2*,. contraband illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods
&he coast guard tries to prevent contraband in C.#. waters.
2,.. contravene contradict; opposeF infringe on or transgress
:r. Barrett did not e0pect his frail daughter 2liAabeth to contravene his will by eloping with Robert
2,1. contrite penitent
1er contrite tears did not influence the -udge when he imposed sentence.
2,2. contrived forced; artificial; not spontaneous
9eeling ill at ease with his new in%laws; ;ames made a few contrived attempts at conversation and then
retreated into silence.
2,3. controvert oppose with arguments; contradict
&o controvert your theory will re?uire much time but it is essential that we disprove it.
2,. contumacious disobedient; resisting authority
&he contumacious mob shouted defiantly at the police.
2,$. contusion bruise
#he was treated for contusions and abrasions.
2,'. conundrum riddle; difficult problem
8uring the long car ride, she invented conundrums to entertain the children.
2,(. convene assemble
Because much is needed legislation had to be enacted, the governor ordered the legislature to convene in
special session by ;anuary 1$.
2,*. convention social or moral custom; established practice
9lying in the face of convention, /eorge #and =!mandine 8udevant> shoc+ed her contemporaries by ta+ing
lovers and wearing men<s clothes.
2,,. conventional ordinary; typical
1is conventional upbringing left him wholly unprepared for his wife<s eccentric family.
3... converge come together
:archers converged on Washington for the great #ave 4ur @ities%#ave 4ur @hildren :arch.
3.1. conversant familiar with
&he lawyer is conversant with all the evidence.
3.2. converse opposite
&he inevitable converse of peace is not war but annihilation.
3.3. convert one who has adopted a different religion or opinion
4n his trip to ;apan, though the Dresident spo+e at length about the merits of !merican automobiles, he
made few converts to his beliefs.
3.. convex curving outward
1e polished the conve0 lens of his telescope.
3.$. conveyance vehicle; transfer
8uring the transit stri+e, commuters used various +inds of conveyances.
3.'. conviction strongly held belief
5othing could sha+e his conviction that she was innocent.
3.(. convivial festive; gay; characteriAed by -oviality
&he convivial celebrators of the victory sang their college songs.
3.*. convoke call together
@ongress was convo+ed at the outbrea+ of the emergency.
3.,. convoluted coiled around; involved; intricate
1is argument was so convoluted that few of us could follow a it intelligently.
31.. copious plentiful
#he had copious reasons for re-ecting the proposal.
311. coquette flirt
Because she refused to give him an answer to his proposal of marriage, he called her a co?uette.
312. cordial gracious; heartfelt
4ur hosts greeted us at the airport with a cordial welcome and a hearty hug.
313. cordon e0tended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress
&he police cordon was so tight that the criminals could not leave the area.
31. cornice pro-ecting molding on building =usually above columns>
Because the stones forming the cornice had been loosened by the storms, the police closed the building
until repairs could be made.
31$. cornucopia horn overflowing wiht fruit and grain; symbol of abundance
&he encyclopedia salesman claimed the new edition was a veritable cornucopia of information, an
ine0haustible source of +nowledge for the entire family.
31'. corollary conse?uence; accompaniment
Brotherly love is a comple0 emotion, with a sibling rivalry its natural corollary.
31(. corporeal bodily; material
1e was not a churchgoer; he was interested only in corporeal matters.
31*. corpulent very fat
&he corpulent man resolved to reduce.
31,. correlation mutual relationship
1e sought to determine the correlation that e0isted between ability in algebra and ability to interpret
reading e0ercises.
32.. corroborate confirm
Cnless we find a witness to corroborate your evidence, it will not stand up in court.
321. corrosive eating away by chemicals or disease
#tainless steel is able to withstand the effects of corrosive chemicals.
322. corrugated wrin+led; ridged
#he wished she could smooth away the wrin+les from his corrugated brow.
323. cosmic pertaining to the universe; vast
cosmic rays derive their name from the fact that they bombard the earth<s atmosphere from outer space.
32. coterie group that meets socially; select circle
!fter his boo+ had been published, he was invited to -oin the literary coteri that lunched daily at the hotel.
32$. countenance approve; tolerate
1e refused to countenance such rude behavior on their part.
32'. countenance face
Whe ;ose saw his newborn daughter, a proud smile spread across his countenance.
32(. countermand cancel; revo+e
&he general countermand the orders issued in his absence.
32*. counterpart a thing that completes another; things very much ali+e
5ight and day are counterparts.
32,. coup highly successful action or sudden attac+
!s the news of his coup spread throughout Wall #treet, his fellow bro+ers dropped by to congratulate him.
33.. couple -oin; unite
&he 9lying "aramaAovs couple e0pert -uggling and amateur -o+ing in their nightclub act.
331. courier messenger
&he publisher sent a special courier to pic+ up the manuscript.
332. covenant agreement
We must comply with the terms of the covenant.
333. covert secret; hidden; implied
#he could understand the covert threat in the letter.
33. covetous avaricious; eagerly desirous of
&he child was covetous by nature and wanted to ta+e the toys belonging to his classmates.
33$. cow terroriAe; intimidate
&he little boy was so cowed by the hul+ing bully that he gave up his lunch money without a word of
33'. cower shrin+ ?uivering, as from fear
&he frightened child cowered in the corner of the room.
33(. coy shy; modest; co?uettish
#he was coy in her answers to his offer.
33*. cozen cheat; hoodwin+; swindle
1e was the +ind of individual who would coAen his friends in a cheap card game but remain eminently
ethical in all his business dealings.
33,. crabbed sour; peevish
&he children avoided the crabbed old man because he scolded them when they made noise.
3.. crass very unrefined; grossly insensible
&he philosophers deplored the crass commercialism.
31. craven cowardly
When he saw the enemy troops advancing, he had a craven impulse to run for his life.
32. credence belief
8o not place any credence in his promises.
33. credo creed
) believe we may best describe his credo by saying that it appro0imates the /oldren Rule.
3. credulity belief on slight evidence
&he witch doctor too+ advantage of the credulity of the superstitious natives.
3$. creed system of religious or ethical belief
)n any loyal !merican<s creed, love of democracy must be emphasiAed.
3'. crescendo increase in the volume or intensity, as in a musical passage; clima0
&he overture suddenly changed from a ?uiet pastoral theme to a crescendo featuring blaring trumpets and
clashing cymbols.
3(. crestfallen de-ected; dispirited
We were surprised at his reaction to the failure of his pro-ect; instead of being crestfallen, he was busily
engaged in planning new activities.
3*. crevice crac+; fissure
&he mountain climbers found footholds in the tiny crevices in the mountainside.
3,. cringe shrin+ bac+, as if in fear
&he dog cringed, e0pecting a blow.
3$.. criteria standards used in -udging
What criteria did you use when you selected this essay as the priAe winnerI
3$1. crone hag
&he toothless crone frightened us when she smiled.
3$2. crotchety eccentric; whimsical
!lthough he was reputed to be a crochety old gentleman, ) found his ideas substantially sound and sensible.
3$3. crux crucial point
&his is the cru0 of the entire problem.
3$. crypt secret recess or vault usually used for burial
Cntil recently only bodies of rulers and leading statesmen were interred in this crypt.
3$$. cryptic mysterious; hidden; secret
1is cryptic remar+s could not be interpreted.
3$'. cubicle small chamberused for sleeping
!fter his many hours of intensive study in the library he retired to his cubicle.
3$(. cuisine style of coo+ing
9rench cuisine is noted for its use of sauces and wines.
3$*. culinary relating to coo+ing
:any chefs attribute their culinary s+ill to the wise use of spices.
3$,. cull pic+ out; re-ect
2very month the farmer culls the nonplaying hens from his floc+ and sells them to the local butcher.
3'.. culmination attainment of highest point
1is inauguration as Dresident of the Cnited #tates mar+ed the culmination of his political career.
3'1. culpable deserving blame
@orrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are e?ually culpable.
3'2. culvert artificial channel for water
)f we build a culvert under the road at this point, we will reduce the possibility of the road at this point, we
will reduce the possibility of the road<s being flooded during the rainy season.
3'3. cumbersome heavy; hard to manage
1e was burdened down with cumbersome parcels.
3'. cumulative growing by addition
3ocabulary building is a cumulative processF as you go through your flash cards, you will add new words
to your vocabulary, one by one.
3'$. cupidity greed
&he defeated people could not satisfy the cupidity of the con?uerors, who demanded e0cessive tribute.
3''. curator superintendent; manager
&he members of the board of trustees of the museum e0pected the new curator to plan events and
e0hibitions that would ma+e the museum more popular.
3'(. curmudgeon churlish, miserly individual
!lthough he was regarded by many as a curmudgeon, a few of us were aware of the many +indnesses and
acts of charity that he secretly performed.
3'*. cursive flowing, running
)n normal writing we run our letters together in cursive form; in printing, we separate the letters.
3',. cursory casual; hastily done
! cursory e0amination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson; a more e0tensive study should be
3(.. curtail shorten; reduce
8uring the coal shortage, we must curtail our use of this vital commodity.
3(1. cynical s+eptical or distrustful of human motives
cynical at all times, he was suspicious of all altruistic actions of others.
3(2. cynosure ob-ect of general attention
!s soon as the movie star entered the room, she became the cynosure of all eyes.
3(3. consternation an0iety, dismay
Bincoln is famous for saying that the consternations during the civil war had left him decrepit.
3(. casual accidental; not regular or permanent; careless; informal
)t can be argued that physical laws can be casual as well as inveterate, since it is based on an induction.
1. dais raised platform for guests of honor
When he approached the dais, he was greeted by cheers from the people who had come to honor him.
2. dally trifle with; procrastinate
Baertes told 4phelia that 1amlet could only dally with her affections.
3. dank damp
&he walls of the dungeon were dan+ and slimy.
. dapper neat and trim
)n 7&he 4dd @ouple,7 &ony Randall played 9eli0 Cnger, an e0cessively dapper soul who could not stand to
have a hair out of place.
$. dappled spotted
&he sunlight filtering though the screens created a dappled effect on the wall.
'. daub smear =as with paint>
9rom the way he daubed his paint on the canvas, ) could tell he +new nothing of oils.
(. daunt intimidate
6our threats cannot daunt me.
*. dauntless bold
8espite the dangerous nature of the underta+ing, the dauntless soldier volunteered for the assignment.
,. dawdle loiter; waste time
)nasmuch as we must meet a deadline, do not dawdle over this wor+.
1.. deadlock standstill; stalemate
&he negotiations had reached a deadloc+.
11. deadpan wooden; impassive
We wanted to see how long he could maintain his deadpan e0pression.
12. dearth scarcity
&he dearth of s+illed labor compelled the employers to open trade schools.
13. debacle brea+ing up; downfall
&his debacle in the government can only result in anarchy.
1. debase reduce to lower state
8o not debase youself by becoming maudlin.
1$. debauch corrupt; ma+e intemperate
! vicious newspaper can debauch public ideals.
1'. debilitate wea+en; enfeeble
4verindulgence debilitates character as well as physical stamina.
1(. debonair friendly; aiming to please
&he debonair youth was li+ed by all who met him, because of his cheerful and obliging manner.
1*. debris rubble
! full year after the earth?ua+e in :e0ico @ity, wor+ers were still carting away the debris.
1,. debunk e0pose as false, e0aggerated, worthless, etc.; ridicule
Dointing out that he conhsistently had voted afainst strenghtening antipollution legislation, reporters
debun+ed the candidate<s claim that he was a fervent environmentalist.
2.. debutante yound woman ma+ing formal entrance into society
!s a debutante, she was often mentioned in the society columns of the newspapers.
21. decadence decay
&he moral decadence of the people was reflected in the lewd literature of the period.
22. decant pour off gently
Be sure to decant this wine before serving it.
23. decapitate behead
&hey did not hang Bady ;ane /rey; they decapitated her.
2. decelerate slow down
#eeing the emergency blin+ers in the road ahead, he decelerated ?uic+ly.
2$. deciduous falling off, as of leaves
&he oa+ is a deciduous tree.
2'. decimate +ill, usually one out of ten
We do more to decimate our population in automobile accidents than we do in war.
2(. decipher decode
) could not decipher the doctor<s handwriting.
2*. declivity downward slope
&he children loved to s+i down the declivity.
2,. decollete having a low%cut nec+line
9ashion decrees that evening gowns be decollete this season; bare shoulders are again the vogue.
3.. decomposition decay
8espite the body<s advanced state of decomposition, the police were able to identify the murdered man.
31. decorum propriety; seemliness
#hoc+ed by the unruly behavior, the teacher criticiAed the class for its lac+ of decorum.
32. decoy lure or bait
&he wild duc+s were not fooled by the decoy.
33. decrepitude state of collagse caused by illness or old age
) was unprepared for the state of decrepitude in which ) had found my old friend; he seemed to have aged
twenty years in si0 months.
3. decry e0press strong disapproval of ; disparage
&he founder of the @hildren<s 8efense 9und, :arian Wright 2delman, strongly decries the lac+ of financial
and moral support for children in !merica today.
3$. deducible derived byreasoning
)f we accept your premise, your conclusions are easily deducible.
3'. deface mar; disfigure
)f you deface a library boo+, you will have to pay a hefty fine.
3(. defamation harming a person<s reputation
#uch defamation of character may result in a slander suit.
3*. default failure to do
!s a result of her husband<s failure to appear in court, she was granted a divorce by default.
3,. defeatist resigned to defeat; accepting defeat as a natural outcome
)f you maintain your defeatist attitude, you will never succeed.
.. defection desertion
&he children, who had made him an idol, were hurt most by his defection from our cause.
1. deference courteous regard for another<s wish
)n deference to his desires, the employers granted him a holiday.
2. defile pollute; profane
&he hoodlums defiled the church with their scurrilous writing.
3. definitive most reliable or complee
@arl #andburg<s !braham Bincoln may be regarded as the definitive wor+ on the life of the /reat
. deflect turn aside
1is life was saved when his cigarette case deflected the bullet.
$. defoliate destroy leaves
)n 3ietnam the army made e0tensive use of chemical agents to defoliate the woodlands.
'. defray provide ofr the payment of
1er employer offered to defray the costs of her postgraduate education.
(. defrock to strip a priest or minister of church authority
We +new the minister had violated church regulations, but we had not realiAed his offense was serious
enough to cause him to be defroc+ed.
*. deft neat; s+illful
&he deft waiter uncor+ed the champagne without spilling a drop.
,. defunct dead; no longer in use or e0istence
&he lawyers sought to e0amine the boo+s of the defunct corporation.
$.. degenerate become worse; deteriorate
!s the fight dragged on, the champion<s style degenerated until he could barely +eep on his feet.
$1. degraded lowered in ran+; debased
&he degraded wretch spo+e only of his past glories and honors.
$2. dehydrate remove water from; dry out
3igorous dancing ?uic+ly dehydrates the body; between dances, be sure to drin+ more water than normal.
$3. deify turn into a god; idoliAe
!dmire the roc+ star all you want; -ust don<t deify him.
$. deign condescend
1e felt that he would debase himself if he deigned to answer his critics.
$$. delete erase; stri+e out
)f you delete this paragraph, the composition will have more appeal.
$'. deleterious harmful
Wor+ers in nuclear research must avoid the deleterious effects of radioactive substances.
$(. deliberate consider; ponder; unhurried
4ffered the new -ob, she as+ed for time to deliberate before she made her decision.
$*. delineate portray
1e is wea+est when he attempts to delineate character.
$,. delirium mental disorder mar+ed by confusion
&he drun+ard in his delirium saw strange animals.
'.. delta flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river
1is dissertation discussed the effect of intermittent flooding on the fertility of the 5ile delta.
'1. delude deceive
8o not delude yourself into believing that he will relent.
'2. deluge flood; rush
When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications.
'3. delusion false belief; hallucination
&his scheme is a snare and a delusion.
'. delusive deceptive; raising vain hopes
8o not raise your hopes on the basis of his delusive promises.
'$. delve dig; investigate
delving into old boo+s and manuscripts is part of a researcher<s -ob.
''. demagogue person who appeals to people<s pre-udice; false leader
1e was accused of being a demogogue because he made promises that aroused futile hopes in his listeners.
'(. demean degrade; humiliate
1e felt that he would demean himself if he replied to the scurrilous letter.
'*. demeanor behavior; bearing
1is sober demeanor ?uieted the noisy revelers.
',. demented insane
#he became increasingly demented and had to be hospitaliAed.
(.. demise death
Cpon the demise of the dictator, a bitter dispute about succession to power developed.
(1. demographic related to population balance
)n conducting a survey, one should ta+e into account demographic trends in the region.
(2. demolition destruction
4ne of the ma-or aims of the air force was the complete demolition of all means of transportation by the
bombing of rail lines and the terminals.
(3. demoniac fiendish
&he #panish )n?uisition devised many demoniac means of torture.
(. demotic pertaining to the people
1e lamented the passing of aristocratic society and maintained that a demotic society would lower the
nation<s standards.
($. demur delay; ob-ect
&o demur at this time will only worsen the already serious situation; now is the time for action.
('. demure grave; serius; coy
#he was demure and reserved.
((. denigrate blac+en
!ll attempts to denigrate the character of our late Dresident have failed; the people still love him and
cherish his memory.
(*. denizen inhabitant of
/hosts are deniAens of the land of the dead who return to earth.
(,. denotation meaning; distinguishing by name
! dictionary will always give us the denotation of a word; fre?uently, it will always give us its connotation.
*.. denouement outcome; final development of the plot of a play or other literary wor+
&he play was childishly written; the denouement was obvious to sophisticated theatergoers as early as the
middle of the first act.
*1. denounce condemn; critciAe
&he reform candidate denounced the corrupt city officers for having betrayed the public<s trust.
*2. depict portray
)n this boo+, the author depicts the slave owners as +ind and benevolent masters.
*3. deplete reduce; e0haust
We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order replacements.
*. deplore regret
!lthough ) deplore the vulgarity of your language, ) defend your right to e0press yourself freely.
*$. deploy move troops so that the battle line is e0tended at the e0pense of depth
&he general ordered the battalion to deploy in order to meet the offensive of the enemy.
*'. depose dethrone; remove form office
&he army attempted to depose the +ing and set up a military government.
*(. deposition testimony under oath
1e made his deposition in the -udge<s chamber.
**. depravity corruption; wic+edness
&he depravity of the tyrant<s behavior shoc+ed us all.
*,. deprecate e0press disapproval of; protest against; belittle
! firm believer in old%fashioned courtesy, :iss Dost deprecated the modern tendency to address new
ac?uaintances by their first names.
,.. depreciate lessen in value
)f you neglect this properly, it will depreciate.
,1. depredation plundering
!fter the depredations of the invaders, the people were penniless.
,2. deranged insane
1e had to be institutionaliAed because he was deranged.
,3. derelict neglectful of duty; abandoned
&he corporal who fell asleep while on watch was thrown into the guardhouse for being derelic in his duty.
,. deride scoff at
&he people derided his grandiose schemes.
,$. derision ridicule
&hey greeted his proposal with derision and refused to consider it seriously.
,'. derivative unoriginal; obtained from another source
!lthough her early poetry was clearly derivative in nature, the critics thought she had promise and
eventually would find her own voice.
,(. dermatologist one who studies the s+in and its diseases
) advise you to consult a dermatologist about your acne.
,*. derogatory e0pressing a low opinion
) resent your derogatory remar+s.
,,. descry catch sight of
)n the distance, we could barely descry the enemy vessels.
1... desecrate profane; violate the sanctity of
&he soldiers desecrated the temple.
1.1. desiccate dry up
! tour of this smo+ehouse will give you an idea of how the pioneers used to desiccate food in order to
preserve it.
1.2. desolate rob of -oy; lay waste to; forsa+e
&he bandits desolated the countryside, burning farms and carrying off the harvest.
1.3. desperado rec+less outlaw
Butch @assidy was a bold desperado with a price on his head.
1.. despicable contemptible
6our despicable remar+s call for no reply.
1.$. despise scorn
) despise your attempts at a reconciliation at this time and refuse to meet you.
1.'. despoil plunder
)f you do not yield, ) am afraid the enemy will despoil the countryside.
1.(. despondent depressed; gloomy
&o the dismay of his parents, he became more and more depondent every day.
1.*. despotism tyranny
&he people rebelled against the despotism of the +ing.
1.,. destitute e0tremely poor
&he costs of the father<s illness left the family destitute.
11.. desultory aimless; haphaAard; digressing at random
)n prison :alcolm J set himself the tas+ of reading straight through the dictionary; to him reading was
purposeful, not desultory.
111. detached emotionally removed; calm and ob-ective; indifferent
! psychoanalyst must maintain a detached point of view and stay uninvolved with her patients< perssonal
112. determinate having a fi0ed order of procedure; invariable
!t the royal wedding, the procession of the nobles followed a determinate order of precedence.
113. deterrent something that discourages; hindrance
8oes the threat of capital punishment serve as a deterrent to potential +illersI
11. detonation e0plosion
&he detonation of the bomb could be heard miles away.
11$. detraction slandering; aspersion
1e is offended by your fre?uent detractions of his ability as a leader.
11'. detrimental harmful; damaging
6our acceptance of her support will ultimately prove detrimental rather than helpful to your cause.
11(. deviate turn away from
8o not deviate from the truth; you must face the facts.
11*. devious going astray; erratic
6our devious behavior in this matter puAAles me since you are usually direct and straightforward.
11,. devoid lac+ing
1e was devoid of any personal desire for gain in his endeavor to secure improvement in the community.
12.. devolve deputiAe; pass to others
)t devolved upon us, the survivors, to arrange peace terms with the enemy.
121. devotee enthusiastic follower
! devotee of the opera, he bought season tic+ets every year.
122. devout pious
&he devout man prayed daily.
123. dexterous s+illful
&he magician was so de0terous that we could not follow his movements as he performed his tric+s.
12. diabolical devilish
&his scheme is so diabolical that ) must re-ect it.
12$. diadem crown
&he +ing<s diadem was on display at the museum.
12'. dialectic art of debate
) am not s+illed in dialectic and therefore, cannot answer your arguments as forcefully as ) wish.
12(. diaphanous sheer; transparent
&hey saw the burglar clearly through the diaphanous curtain.
12*. diatribe bitter scolding; invective
8uring the lengthy diatribe delivered by his opponent he remained calm and self%controlled.
12,. dichotomy branching into two parts
&he dichotomy of our legislative system provides us with many safeguards.
13.. dictum arthoritative and weighty statement
#he repeated the statement as though it were the dictum of the most e0pert wor+er in the group.
131. didactic teaching; instructional; preaching or moraliAing
&he didactic ?ualities of his poetry overshadow its literary ?ualities; the lesson he teaches is more
memorable than the lines.
132. die device for stamping or impressing; mold
)n coining pennies, wor+ers at the old mint s?ueeAed sheets of softened copper between two dies.
133. diffidence shyness
6ou must overcome your diffidence if you intend to become a salesperson.
13. diffusion wordiness; spreading in all directions li+e a gas
6our composition suffers from a diffusion of ideas; try to be more compact.
13$. digression wandering away from the sub-ect
5obody minded when Drofessor Renoir<s lectures wandered away from their offical theme; his digressions
were always more fascinating than the topic of the day.
13'. dilapidated ruined because of neglect
We felt that the dilapidated building needed several coats of paint.
13(. dilate e0pand
)n the dar+, the pupils of your eyes dilate.
13*. dilatory delaying
6our dilatory tactics may compel me to cancel the contract.
13,. dilemma problem; choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives
)n this dilemma, he +new no one to whom he could turn for advice.
1.. dilettante aimless follower of the arts; amateur; dabbler
1e was not serious in his painting; he was rather a dilettante.
11. diligence steadiness of effort; persisten hard wor+
1er employers were greatly impressed by her diligence and offered her a partnership in the firm.
12. dilute ma+e less concentrated; reduce in strength
#he preferred her coffee diluted with mil+.
13. diminution lessening; reduction in siAe
&he bloc+aders hoped to achieve victory as soon as the diminution of the enemy<s supplies became serious.
1. din continued loud noise
&he din of the -ac+hammers outside the classroom window drowned out the lecturer<s voice.
1$. dinghy small boat =often ship<s boat>
)n the film Bifeboat, an ill%assorted group of passengers from a sun+en ocean liner are marooned at sea in a
1'. dingy dull; not fresh; cheerless
Refusing to be depressed by her dingy studio apartment, Bea spent the wee+end polishing the floors and
windows and hanging bright posters on the walls.
1(. dint means; effort
By dint of much hard wor+, the volunteers were able to control the raging forest fire.
1*. diorama li+e%siAe, three%dimensional scene from nature or history
Because they dramatically pose actual stuffed animals against realistic painted landscapes, the dioramas at
the :useum of 5atural 1istory particularly impress high school biology students.
1,. dire disastrous
Deople ignored her dire predictions of an approaching depression.
1$.. dirge lament with music
&he funeral dirge stirred us to tears.
1$1. disabuse correct a false impression; undeceive
) will attempt to diabuse you of your impression of my client<s guilt; ) +now he is innocent.
1$2. disaffected disloyal
4nce the most loyal of /orbachev<s supporters, #hverdnaAe found himself becoming increasingly
1$3. disapprobation disapproval; condemnation
&he conservative father viewed his daughter<s radical boyfriend with disapprobation.
1$. disarray a disorderly or untidy state
!fter the 5ew 6ear<s party, the once orderly house was in total disarray.
1$$. disavowal denial; disclaiming
1is disavowal of his part in the conspiracy was not believed by the -ury.
1$'. disband dissolve; disperse
&he chess club disbanded after its disastrous initial season.
1$(. disburse pay out
When you disburse money on the company<s behalf, be sure to get a receipt.
1$*. discernible distinguishable; perceivable
&he ships in the harbor were not discernible in the fog.
1$,. discerning mentally ?uic+ and observant; having insight
Because he was considered the most discerning member of the firm, he was assigned the most difficult
1'.. disclaim disown; renounce claim to
)f ) grant you this previlege, will you disclaim all other rightsI
1'1. disclose reveal
!lthough competitors offered him bribes, he refused to disclose any information about his company<s
forthcoming product.
1'2. discombobulated confused; discomposed
&he novice s?uare dancer became so discombobulated that he wandered into wrong set.
1'3. discomfit put to rout; defeat; disconcert
&his ruse will discomfit the enemy.
1'. disconcert confuse; upset; embarrass
&he lawyer was disconcerted by the evidence produced by her adversary.
1'$. disconcolate sad
&he death of his wife left him disconsolate.
1''. discordant inharmonious; conflicting
#he tried to unite the discordant factions.
1'(. discount disregard
Be prepared to discount what he has to say about his e0%wife.
1'*. discourse formal disscussion; conversation
&he young Dlato was drawn to the !gora to hear the philosophical discourse of #ocrates and his followers.
1',. discredit defame; destroy confidence in; disbelieve
&he campaign was highly negative in tone; each candidate tried to discredit the other.
1(.. discrepancy lac+ of consistency; difference
&he police noticed some discrepancies in his description of the crime and did not believe him.
1(1. discrete separate; unconnected
&he universe is composed of discrete bodies.
1(2. discretion prudence; ability to ad-ust actions to circumstances
Cse your discretion in this matter and do not discuss it with anyone.
1(3. discrimination ability to see differences; pre-udice
&hey feared he lac+ed sufficient discrimination to -udge comple0 wor+s of modern art.
1(. discursive digressing; rambling
&hey were annoyed and bored by her discursive remar+s.
1($. disdain treat with scorn or contempt
6ou ma+e enemies of all you disdain.
1('. disembark go ashore; unload cargo from a ship
Before the passengers could disembar+, they had to pic+ up their passports from the ship<s purser.
1((. disenfranchise deprive of a civil right
&he imposition if the poll ta0 effectively disenfranchised poor #outhern blac+s, who lost their right to vote.
1(*. disengage uncouple; separate; disconnect
! standard movie routine involves the hero<s desperate attempt to disengage a railroad car from a moving
1(,. disfigure mar the appearance of; spoil
!n ugly frown disfigured his normally pleasant face.
1*.. disgorge surrender something; efect; vomit
Cnwilling to disgorge the cash he had stolen from the pension fund, the embeAAler tried to run away.
1*1. disgruntle ma+e discontented
&he passengers were disgruntled by the numerous delays.
1*2. dishearten discourage
1is failure to pass the bar e0am disheartened him.
1*3. disheveled untidy
6our disheveled appearance will hurt your chances in this interview.
1*. disinclination unwilingness
#ome mornings ) feel a great disinclination to get out of bed.
1*$. disingenuous not naive; sophisticated
!lthough he was young, his remar+s indicated that he was disingenous.
1*'. disinter dig up; unearth
&hey disinterred the body and held an autopsy.
1*(. disinterested unpre-udiced
&he only disinterested person in the room was the -udge.
1**. disjointed disconnected
1is remar+s were so dis-ointed that we could not follow his reasoning.
1*,. dislodge remove =forcible>
&hrusting her fist up under the cho+ing man<s lower ribs, :argaret used the 1eimlich maneuver to dislodge
the food caught in this throat.
1,.. dismantle ta+e apart
When the show closed, they dismantled the scenery before restoring it.
1,1. dismember cut into small parts
When the !ustrian 2mpire was dismembered, several new countries were established.
1,2. dismiss eliminate from consideration; re-ect
Believing in ;ohn<s love for her, she dismissed the notion that he might be unfaithful.
1,3. disparage belittle
8o not disparage anyone<s contribution; these little gifts add up to large sums.
1,. disparate basically different; unrelated
)t is difficult, if not impossible, to organiAe these disparate elements into a coherent whole.
1,$. disparity difference; condition of ine?uality
&he disparity in their ages made no difference at all.
1,'. dispassionate calm; impartial
)n a dispassionate analysis of the problem, he carefully e0amined the causes of the conflict and proceeded
to suggest suitable remedies.
1,(. dispatch speediness; prompt e0ecution; message sent with all due speed
6oung 5apoleon defeated the enemy with all possible dispatch; he then sent a dispatch to head?uarters,
informing his commander of the great victory.
1,*. dispel scatter; drive away; cause to vanish
&he bright sunlight eventually dispelled the morning mist.
1,,. disperse scatter
&he police fired tear gas into crowd to disperse the protesters.
2... dispirited lac+ing in spirit
&he coach used all the tric+s at his command to buoy up the enthusiasm of his team, which ) had become
dispirited at the loss of the star player.
2.1. disport amuse
&he popularity of 9lorida as a winter resort is constantly increasing; each year, thousands more disport
themselves at :iami and Dalm Beach.
2.2. disputatious argumentative; fond of argument
Deople avoided discussing contemporary problems with him because of his disputatious manner.
2.3. disquisition a formal systematic in?uiry; an e0planation of the results of a formal in?uiry
)n his dis?uisition, he outlined the steps he had ta+en in reaching his conclusions.
2.. dissection analysis; cutting apart in order to e0amine
&he dissection of frogs on the laboratory is particularly unpleasant to some students.
2.$. dissemble disguise; pretend
2ven though ;ohn tried to dissemble his motive for ta+ing modern dance, we all +new there not to dance
but to meet girls.
2.'. disseminate scatter =li+e seeds>
&he invention of the radio helped propagandists to disseminate their favorite doctrines very easily.
2.(. dissent disagree
)n a landmar+ #upreme @ourt decision, ;ustice :arshall dissented from the ma-ority opinion.
2.*. dissertation formal essay
)n order to earn a graduate degree from many of our universities, a candidate is fre?uently re?uired to
prepare a dissertation on some scholarly sub-ect.
2.,. dissident dissenting; rebellious
)n the purge that followed the student demonstrations at &ianamen #?uare, the government hunted down
the dissident students and their supporters.
21.. dissimulate pretend; conceal by feigning
#he tried to dissimulate her grief by her e0uberant attitude.
211. dissipate s?uander
&he young man ?uic+ly dissipated his inheritance and was soon bro+e.
212. dissolution disintegration; looseness in morals
&he profligacy and dissolution of life in @aligula<s Rome appall some historians.
213. dissonance discord
#ome contemporary musicians deliberately use dissonance to achieve certain effects.
21. dissuade advise against
1e could not dissuade his friend from -oining the conspirators.
21$. distant reserved or aloof; cold in manner
1is distant greeting made me feel unwelcome from the start.
21'. distend e0pand;swell out
) can tell when he is under stress by the way the veins distend on his forehead.
21(. distill purify; refine; concentrate
! moonshiner distills mash into whis+ey; an epigrammatist distills thoughts into ?uips.
21*. distortion twisting out of shape
)t is difficult to believe the newspaper accounts of this event because of the distortions and e0aggerations of
the reporters.
21,. distrait absentminded
Because of his concentration on the problem, the professor often appeared distrait and unconcerned about
22.. distraught upset; distracted by an0iety
&he distraught parents frantically searched the ravine for their lost child.
221. diurnal daily
! farmer cannot neglect his diurnal tas+s at any time; cows, for e0ample, must be mil+ed regularly.
222. diva operatic singer; prima donna
!lthough world famous as a diva, she did not indulge in fits of temerament.
223. diverge vary; go in different directionsfrom the same point
&he spo+es of the wheel diverge from the hub.
22. divergent differing; deviating
&he two witnesses presented the -ury with remar+ably divergent accounts of the same epipode.
22$. diverse differing in some characteristics; various
&here are diverse ways of approaching this problem.
22'. diversion act of turning aside; pastime
!fter studying for several hours, he needed a diversion from wor+.
22(. diversity variety; dissimilitude
&he diversity of colleges in this country indicates that many levels of ability are being served.
22*. divest strip; deprive
1e was divested of his power to act and could no longer govern.
22,. divine perceive intuitively; foresee the future
5othing infuriated &om more than !unt Dolly<s ability to divine when he was not telling the truth.
23.. divulge reveal
) will not tell you this news because ) am sure you will divulge it prematurely.
231. docile obedient; easily managed
!s docile as he seems today, that old lion was once a ferocious, snarling beast.
232. docket program asfor trial; boo+ where such entries are made
&he case of #mith v. ;ones was entered in the doc+et for ;uly 1$.
233. doctrinaire unable to compromise about points of doctrine; dogmatic; unyielding
Weng had hoped that the student%led democracy movement might bring about change in @hina, but the
repressive response of the doctrinaire hard%liners crushed his dreams of democracy.
23. document provide written evidence
#he +ept all the receipts from her business trip in order to document her e0penses for the firm.
23$. doddering sha+y; infirm from old age
!lthough he is not as yet a doddering and senile old man, his ideas and opinions no longer can merit the
respect we gave them years ago.
23'. doff ta+e off
! gentleman used to doff his hat to a lady.
23(. dogged determined;stubborn
Bes :iserables tells of )nspector ;avert<s long, dogged pursuit of the criminal ;ean 3al-ean.
23*. doggerel poorverse
!lthough we find occasional snatches of genuine poetry in her wor+, most of her writing is mere doggerel.
23,. dogmatic positive; arbitrary
8o not be so dogmatic about that statement; it can be easily refuted.
2.. doldrums blues; listlessness; slac+ period
4nce the e0citement of meeting her deadline was over, she found herself in the doldrums.
21. dolorous sorrowfrl
1e found the dolorous lamentations of the bereaved family emotionally disturbing and he left as ?uic+ly as
he could.
22. dolt stupid person
) thought ) was tal+ing to a mature audience; instead, ) find myself addressing a pac+ of dolts.
23. domicile home
!lthoughhis legal domicile was in 5ew 6or+ @ity, his wor+ +ept him away from his residence for many
2. domineer rule over tyrannically
#tudents prefer teachers who guide, not ones who domineer.
2$. don put on
When @lar+ "ent had to don his #uperman outfit, he changed clothes in a convenient phone booth.
2'. dormant sleeping; lethargic; torpid
#ometimes dormant talents in our friends surprise those of us who never realiAe how gifted our
ac?uaintances really are.
2(. dormer window pro-ecting from roof
)n remodeling the attic into a bedroom, we decided that we needed to put in dormers to provide sufficient
ventilation for the new room.
2*. dorsal relating to the bac+ of an animal
! shar+ may be identified by its dorsal fin, which pro-ects above the surface of the ocean.
2,. dossier file of documents on a sub-ect
4rdered by ;. 2dgar 1oover to investigate the senator, the 9B) compiled a complete dossier.
2$.. dotage senility
)n his dotage, the old man bored us with long tales of events in his childhood.
2$1. dote be e0cessively fond of; show signs of mental decline
5ot only grandmothers bore you with stories about their brilliant grandchildren; grandfathers dote on the
littel rascals, too.
2$2. dour sullen; stubborn
&he man was dour abd taciturn.
2$3. douse plunge into water; drench; e0tinguish
&hey doused each other with hoses and balloons.
2$. dowdy slovenly; untidy
#he tried to change her dowdy image by buying a fashionable new wardrobe.
2$$. downcast disheartened; sad
@heerful and optimistic by nature, Beth was never downcast despite the difficulties she faced.
2$'. drab dull; lac+ing color; cheerless
&he 8utch woman<s drab winter coat contrasted with the distinctive, colorful native costume she wore
beneath it.
2$(. dregs sediment; worthless residue
8avid poured the wine carefully to avoid stirring up the dregs.
2$*. droll ?ueer and amusing
1e was a popular guest because his droll anecdotes were always entertaining.
2$,. drone idle person; male bee
@ontent to let his wife support him, the would%be writer was in reality nothing but a drone.
2'.. drone tal+ dully; buAA or murmur li+e a bee
4n a gorgeous day, who wants to be stuc+ in a classroom listening to the teacher droneI
2'1. dross waste matter; worhtless impurities
:any methods have been devised to separate the valuable metal from the dross.
2'2. drudgery menial wor+
@inderella<s fairy godmother rescued her from a life of drudgery.
2'3. dubious doubtful
1e has the dubious distinction of being the lowest man in his class.
2'. ductility malleability; fle0ibility; ability to be drawn out
@opper wire has many industrial uses because of its e0treme ductility.
2'$. dulcet sweet sounding
&he dulcet sounds of the birds at dawn were soon drowned out by the roar of traffic passing our motel.
2''. dupe someone easily fooled
While the gullible Watson often was made a dupe by unscrupulous parties, #herloc+ 1olmes was far more
difficult to fool.
2'(. deplicity double%dealing; hypocrisy
Deople were shoc+ed and dismayed when they learned of his duplicity in this affair, as he had always
seemed honest and straightforward.
2'*. duress forcible restraint, especially unlawfully
&he hostages were held under duress until the prisoners< demands were met.
2',. dutiful respectful; obedient
&he dutiful child grew up to be a conscientious adult aware of his civic obligations.
2(.. dwindle shrin+; reduce
&hey spent so much money that their funds dwindled to nothing.
2(1. dynamic active; efficient
! dynamic government is necessary to meet the demands of a changing society.
2(2. dyspeptic suffering from indigestion
!ll the tal+ about rich food made him feel dyspeptic.
1. earthy unrefined; coarse
1is earthy remar+s often embarrassed the women in the audience.
2. ebb recede; lessen
1is fortunes began to ebb during the recession.
3. ebullient showing e0citement; overflowing with enthusiasm
1is ebullient nature could not be repressed.
. eccentric odd; whimsical; irregular
&he comet passed close by the earth in its eccentric orbit.
$. eccentricity oddity; idiosyncrasy
#ome of his friends tried to account for his rudeness to strangers as the eccentricity of genius.
'. ecclesiastic pertaining to the church
&he minister donned his ecclesiastic garb and wal+ed to the pulpit.
(. eclectic selective; composed of elements drawn from disparate sources
1is style of interior decoration was eclecticF bits and pieces of furnishings from widely divergent periods,
stri+ingly -u0taposed to create a uni?ue color.
*. eclipse dar+en; e0tinguish; surpass
&he new stoc+ mar+et high eclipsed the previous record set in 1,*$.
,. ecologist person concerned with the interrelationship between living organisms and their environment
&he ecologist was concerned that the new dam would upset the natural balance of the creatures living in
/len @anyon.
1.. economy efficiency or conciseness in using something
Reading the epigrams of Dope, ) admire the economy of his verseF in few words he conveys worlds of
11. ecstasy rapture, -oy; any overpowering emotion
&he announcement that the war had ended brought on an ecstasy that resulted in many uncontrolled
12. eddy swirling current of water, air, etc.
&he water in the tide pool was still, e0cept for an occasional eddy.
13. edify instruct; correct morally
!lthough his purpose was to edify and not to entertain his audience, many of his listeners were amused and
not enlightened.
1. eerie weird
)n that eerie setting, it was easy to believe in ghosts and other supernatural beings.
1$. efface rub out
&he coin had been handled so many times that its data had been effaced.
1'. effectual efficient
)f we are to succeed, we must see+ effectual means of securing our goals.
1(. effeminate having womanly traits
1is voice was high%pitched and effeminate.
1*. effervescence inner e0citement; e0uberance
5othing depressed her for long; her natural effervescence soon reasserted itself.
1,. effete worn out; e0hausted; barren
&he literature of the age reflected the effete condition of the writers; no new ideas were forthcoming.
2.. efficacy power to produce desired effect
&he efficacy of this drug depends on the regularity of the dosage.
21. effigy dummy
&he mob showed its irritation by hanging the -udge in effigy.
22. effluvium no0ious smell
!ir pollution has become a serious problem in our ma-or cities; the effluvium and the poisons in the air are
haAards to life.
23. effrontery shameless boldness
#he had the effrontery to insult the guest.
2. effusion pouring forth
&he critics ob-ected to her literary effusion because it was too flowery.
2$. effusive pouring forth; gushing
1er effusive manner of greeting her friends finally began to irritate them.
2'. egoism e0cessive interest in one<s self; belief that one should be interested in one<s self rather than in
1is egoism prevented him from seeing the needs of his colleagues.
2(. egotism conceit; vanity
#he thought so much of herself that we found her egotism unwarranted and irritating.
2*. egregious notorious; conspicuously bad; shoc+ing
#he was an egregious liar; we all +new better than to believe a word she said.
2,. egress e0it
Barnum<s sign 7&o the 2gress7 fooled many people who thought they were going to see an animal and
instead found themselves in the street.
3.. ejaculation e0clamation
1e could not repress an e-aculation of surprise when he heard the news.
31. elaboration addition of details; intricacy
&ell what happened simply, without any elaboration.
32. elated over-oyed; in high spirits
/rinning from ear to ear, Bonnie Blair was clearly elated by her 4lympic victory.
33. elegy poem or song e0pressing lamentation
4n the death of 2dward "ing, :ilton composed the elegy 7Bycidas.7
3. elicit draw out by discussion
&he detectives tried to elicit where he had hidden his loot.
3$. elixir cure%all; something invigorating
&he news of her chance to go abroad acted on her li+e an eli0ir.
3'. ellipsis omission of words from a te0t
#ometimes an ellipsis can lead to a dangling modifier, as in the sentence 74nce dressed, you should
refrigerate the potato salad.
3(. elliptical oval; ambiguous, either purposely or because +ey words have been left out
!n elliptical billiad ball wobbles because it is not perfectly round; an elliptical remar+ baffles because it is
not perfectly clear.
3*. eloquence e0pressiveness; persuasive speech
&he crowds were stirred by :artin Buther "ing<s elo?uence.
3,. elucidate e0plain; enlighten
1e was called upon to elucidate the disputed points in his article.
.. elusive evasive; baffling; hard to grasp
1is elusive dreams of wealth were costly to those of his friends who supported him financially.
1. elysian relating to paradise; blissful
!n afternoon sail on the bay was for her an elysian -ourney.
2. emaciated thin and wasted
1is long period of starvation had left him emaciated.
3. emanate issue forth
! strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring.
. emancipate set free
!t first, the attempts of the !bolitioninst to emancipate the slaves were unpopular in 5ew 2ngland as well
as in the #outh.
$. embargo ban on commerce or other activity
!s a result of the embargo, trade with colonies was at a standstill.
'. embark commence; go on board a boat; begin a -ourney
)n devoting herself to the study of gorillas, 8ian 9ossey embar+ed on a course of action that was to cost her
her life.
(. embed enclose; place in something
&ales of actual historical figures li+e "ing !lfred have become embedded in legends.
*. embellish adorn
:y mother%in%law<s stories about her -ourney from Russia made us laugh because she embellished the bare
facts of her travels with humourous acecdotes.
,. embezzlement stealing
&he ban+ teller confessed his embeAAlement of the funds.
$.. embroil throw into confusion
1e became embroiled in the heated discussion when he tried to arbitrate the dispute.
$1. embryonic undeveloped; rudimentary
&he evil of class and race hatred must be eliminated while it is still in an embryonic state; otherwise, it may
grow to dangerous proportions.
$2. emend correct, usually a te0t
&he critic emended the boo+ by retranslating several passages.
$3. emendation correction of errors; improvement
Dlease initial all the emendations you have made in this contract.
$. emetic substance causing vomiting
&he use of an emetic li+e mustard is useful in cases of poisoning.
$$. eminent high; lofty
!fter his appointment to this emiment position, he seldom had time for his former friends.
$'. emissary agent; messenger
&he secretary of #tate was sent as the Dresident<s special emissary to the conference on disarmament.
$(. emollient soothing or softening remedy
1e applied an emollient to the inflamed area.
$*. emolument salary; compensation
)n addition to the emolument this position offers, you must consider the social prestige it carries with it.
$,. empathy ability to identify with another<s feelings, ideas, etc
What made !nn such a fine counselor was her empathy, her ability to put herself in her client<s place and
feel his emotions as if they were her own.
'.. empirical based on e0perience
1e distrusted hunches and intuitive flashes; he placed his reliance entirely on empirical data.
'1. emulate rival; imitate
!s long as our political leaders emulate the virtues of the great leaders of this country, we shall flourish.
'2. enamored in love
5arcissus became enamored of his own beauty.
'3. enclave territory enclosed within an alien land
&he 3atican is an independent enclave in )taly.
'. encomiastic praising; eulogistic
#ome critics believe that his encomiastic statements about 5apoleon were inspired by his desire for
material advancement rather than by an honest belief in the 2mperor<s genius.
'$. encomium high praise; eulogy
Cneasy with the encomiums e0pressed by his supporters, &ol+ien felt unworthy of such high praise.
''. encompass surround
!lthough we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we were well stoc+ed and could
withstand a siege until our allies -oined us.
'(. encroachment gradual intrusion
&he encroachment of the factories upon the neighborhood lowered the value of the real estate.
'*. encumber burden
#ome people encumber themselves with too much luggage, when they ta+e short trips.
',. endearment fond word or act
6our gifts and endearments cannot ma+e me forget your earlier insolence.
(.. endemic prevailinig among a specific group of people or in a specific are or country
&his disease is endemic in this part of the world; more than *. percent of the population are at one time or
another affected by it.
(1. endorse approve; support
2veryone waited to see which one of the rival candidates for the city council the mayor would endorse.
(2. endue provide with some ?uality; endow
1e was endued with a lion<s courage.
(3. enduring lasting; surviving
"eats believed in the enduring power of great art, which outlast its creator<s brief lives.
(. energize invigorate; ma+e forceful and active
Rather than e0hausting :aggie, dancing energiAed her.
($. enervate wea+en
#he was slow to recover from her illness; even a short wal+ to the window evervated her.
('. enfranchise admit to the rights of citiAenship =especially the right to vote>
!lthough blac+s were enfranchised shortly after the @ivil War, women did not receive the right to vote
until 1,2..
((. engage attract; hire; pledge oneself; confront
76our case has engaged my interest, my lord,7 said 1olmes, 76ou many engage my services.7
(*. engender cause; produce
&o receive praise for real accomplishments engenders self%confidence in a child.
(,. engross occupy fully
;ohn was so engrossed in his studies that he did not hear his mother call.
*.. enhance advance; improve
6our chances for promotion in this department will be enhanced if you ta+e some more courses in evening
*1. enigma puAAle
8epite all attempts to decipher the code, it remained an enigma.
*2. enigmatic obscure; puAAling
:any have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the :ona Bisa.
*3. enjoin command; order; forbid
&he owners of the company as+ed the court to en-oin the union from pic+eting the plant.
*. enmity ill will; hatred
!t @amp 8avid Dresident @arter labored to bring an end to the enmity that prevented 2gypt and )srael from
living in peace.
*$. ennui boredom
&he monotonous routine of hopital life induced a feeling of ennui which made him moody and irritable.
*'. enormity hugeness =in a bad sense>
1e did not realiAe the enormity of his crime until he saw what suffering he had caused.
*(. enrapture please intensely
&he audience was enraptured by the freshness of the voices and the e0cellent orchestration.
**. ensconce settle comfortably
&he parents thought that their children were ensconced safely in the private school and decided to leave for
*,. ensue follow
&he evils that ensued were the direct result of the miscalculations of the leaders.
,.. enthrall capture; enslave
9rom the moment he saw her picture, he was enthralled by her beauty.
,1. entice lure; attract; tempt
#he always tried to entice her baby brother into mischief.
,2. entity real being
!s soon as the charter was adopted, the Cnited 5ations became an entity and had to be considered as a
factor in world diplomacy.
,3. entomology study of insects
) found entomology the least interesting part of my course in biology; studying insects bored me.
,. entrance put under a spell; carry away with emotion
#hafts of sunlight on a wall could entrance her and leave her spellbound.
,$. entreat plead; as+ earnestly
#he entreated her father to let her stay out till midnight.
,'. entree entrance; a way in
Because of his wealth and social position, he had entree into the most e0clusive circles.
,(. entrepreneur businessperson; contractor
4pponents of our present ta0 program argue that it discourages entrepreneurs from trying new fields of
business activity.
,*. enumerate list; mention one by one
1uc+ hung his head in shame as :iss Watson enumerated his many flaws.
,,. enunciate spea+ distinctly
1ow will people understand you if you do not enunciateI
1... environ enclose; surround
Daris was environed by a wall
1.1. eon long period of time; an age
)t has ta+en eons for our civiliAation to develop.
1.2. epaulet ornament worn on the shoulder =of a uniform, etc.>
&he shoulder loops on #am #pade<s trench coat are the nonmilitary counterparts of the fringed epaulets on
/eorge Washington<s uniform.
1.3. ephemeral short%lived; fleeting
&he mayfly is an ephemeral creature.
1.. epic long heroic poem, novel, or similar wor+ of art
"urosawa<s film #even #amurai is an epic portraying the struggle of seven warriors to destroy a band of
1.$. epicure connoisseur of food and drin+
epicures fre?uent this restaurant because it features e0otic wines and dishes.
1.'. epigram witty thought or saying, usually short
Door Richard<s epigrams made Ben-amin 9ran+lin famous.
1.(. epilogue short speech at conclusion of dramatic wor+
&he audience was so disappointed in the play that many did not remain to hear the epilogue.
1.*. episodic loosely connected
&hough he tried to follow the plot of /ravity<s Rainbow, ;ohn found the novel too episodic.
1.,. epistemologist philosopher who studies the nature of +nowledge
7What is more important, a +nowledge of nature of the nature of +nowledgeI7 the epistemologist as+ed the
11.. epitaph inscription in memory of a dead person
)n his will, he dictated the epitaph he wanted placed on his tombstone.
111. epithet word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or thing
#o many +ings of 9rance were named @harles that modern students need epithets to tell them apartF @harles
the Wise, for e0ample, was someone far different from @harles the 9at.
112. epitome perfect e0ample or embodiment
#inging 7) am the very model of a modern :a-or%/eneral7 in &he Dirates of DenAance, :a-or%/eneral
#tanley proclaimed himself the epitome of an officer and a gentleman.
113. epoch period of time
&he glacial epoch lasted for thousands of years.
11. equable tran?uil; steady; uniform
!fter the hot summers and cold winters of 5ew 2ngland, he found the climate of the West )ndies e?uable
and pleasant.
11$. equanimity calmness of temperament
)n his later years, he could loo+ upon the foolishness of the world with e?uanimity and humor.
11'. equestrian rider on horsebac+
&hese paths in the par+ are reserved for e?uestrians and their steeds.
11(. equilibrium balance
!fter the divorce, he needed some time to regain his e?uilibrium.
11*. equine resembling a horse
1is long, bony face had an e?uine loo+ to it.
11,. equinox period of e?ual days and nights; the beginning of spring and autumn
&he vernal e?uino0 is usually mar+ed by heavy rainstorms.
12.. equipoise balance; balancing force; e?uilibrium
&he high%wire acrobat used his pole as an e?uipose to overcome the swaying caused by the wind.
121. equitable fair; impartial
) am see+ing an e?uitable solution to this dispute, one which will be fair and acceptable to both sides.
122. equity fairness; -ustice
4ur courts guarantee e?uity to all.
123. equivocal doubtful; ambiguous
:acbeth was misled by the e?uivocal statements of the witches.
12. equivocate lie; mislead; attempt to conceal the truth
&he audience saw through his attempts to e?uivocate on the sub-ect under discussion and ridiculed his
12$. erode eat away
&he limestone was eroded by the dripping water
12'. erotic pertaining to passionate love
&he erotic passages in this novel should be removed as they are merely pornographic.
12(. errant wandering
:any a charming tale has been written about the +nights%errant who helped the wea+ and punished the
guilty during the !ge of @hivalry.
12*. erratic odd; unpredictable
)nvestors become an0ious when the stoc+ mar+et appears erratic.
12,. erroneous mista+en; wrong
) thought my answer was correct, but it was erroneous.
13.. erudite learned; scholarly
1is erudite writing was difficult to read because of the many allusions which were unfamiliar to most
131. escapade pran+; flighty conduct
&he headmaster could not regard this latest escapade as a boyish -o+e and e0pelled the young man.
132. eschew avoid
1e tried to eschew all display of temper.
133. esoteric hard to understand; +nown only to the chosen few
5ew 6or+er short stories often include esoteric allusions to obscure people and eventsF the implication is if
you are in the in%crowd, you<ll get the reference; if you come from @leveland, you won<t.
13. espionage spying
)n order to maintain its power, the government developed a system of espionage that penetrated every
13$. espouse adopt; support
#he was always ready to espouse a worthy cause.
13'. esteem repect; value; -udge
) esteem 2Ara Dound both for his e0citing poetry and for his acute comments on literature.
13(. estranged separated; alienated
&he estranged wife sought a divorce.
13*. ethereal light; heavenly; fine
3isitors were impressed by her ethereal beauty, her delicate charm.
13,. ethnic relating to races
)ntolerance between ethnic groups is deplorable and usually is based on lac+ of information.
1.. ethnology study of man+ind
#ociology is one aspect of the science of ethnology.
11. ethos underlying character of a culture, group, etc.
#eeing how tenderly #paniards treated her small daughter made author Barbara "ingsolver aware of how
greatly children were valued in the #panish ethos.
12. etymology study of word parts
! +nowledge of etymology can help you on many 2nglish tests.
13. eugenic pertaining to the improvement of race
)t is easier to apply eugenic principles to the raising of racehorses or priAe cattle than t the development of
human beings.
1. eulogistic praising
&o everyone<s surprise, the speech was eulogistic rather than critical in tone.
1$. eulogy praise
!ll the eulogies of his friends could not remove the sting of the calumny heaped upon him by his enemies.
1'. euphemism mild e0pression in place of an unpleasant one
&he e0pression 7he passed away7 is a euphemism for 7he died.7
1(. euphony sweet sound
5oted for its euphony even when it is spo+en, the )talian language is particularly pleasing to the ear when
1*. euphoria feeling of e0aggerated =or unfounded> well%being
7;ill<s been on cloud nine ever since ;ac- as+ed her out,7 said Betty, dismissing her friend<s euphoria.
1,. euthanasia mercy +illing
:any people support euthanasia for terminally ill patients who wish to die.
1$.. evanescent fleeting; vanishing
9or a brief moment, the entire s+yline was bathed in an orange%red hue in the evanescent rays of the sunset.
1$1. evasive not fran+; eluding
6our evasive answers convinced the -udge that you were witholding important evidence.
1$2. evince show clearly
When he tried to answer the ?uestions, he evinced his ignorance of the sub-ect matter.
1$3. evenhanded impartial; fair
8o men and women receive evenhanded treatment from their teachers, or, as recent studies suggest, do
teachers pay more attention to male students than to femalesI
1$. evoke call forth
1e evo+ed much criticism by his hostile manner.
1$$. ewe female sheep
&he floc+ of sheep was made up of doAens of ewes, together with only a handful of rams.
1$'. exacerbate worsen; embitter
&his latest arrest will e0acerbate the already e0isting discontent of the people and enrage them.
1$(. exacting e0tremely demanding
&he colonies rebelled against the e0acting financial claims of the mother country.
1$*. exalt raise in ran+ or dignity; praise
&he actor !lec /uinness was e0alted to the ran+ of +nighthood by the Gueen; he now is +nown as #ir !lec
1$,. exasperate ve0
;ohnny often e0asperates his mother with his pran+s.
1'.. excerpt selected passage =written or musical>
&he cinematic e?uivalent of an e0cerpt from a novel is a clip from a film.
1'1. exchequer treasury
1e had been @hancellor of the e0che?uer before his promotion to the office he now holds.
1'2. excise cut away; cut out
When you e0cise the dead and dying limbs of a tree, you not only improve its appearance but also enhance
its chances of bearing fruit.
1'3. excoriate flay; abrade
&hese shoes are so ill%fitting that they will e0coriate the feet and create blisters.
1'. exculpate clear from blame
1e was e0culpated of the crime when the real criminal confessed.
1'$. execrable very bad
&he anecdote was in e0ecrable taste and shoc+ed the audience.
1''. execrate curse; e0press abhorrence for
&he world e0ecrates the memory of 1itler and hopes that genocide will never again be the policy of any
1'(. execute put into effect; carry out
&he choreographer wanted to see how well she could e0ecute a pirouette.
1'*. exegesis e0planation, especially of biblical passages
) can follow your e0egesis of this passage to a limited degree; some of your reasoning eludes me.
1',. exemplary serving as a model; outstanding
1er e0emplary behavior was praised at commencement.
1(.. exemplify show by e0ample; furnish an e0ample
&hree%time winner of the #uper Bowl, ;oe :ontana e0emplifies the ideal ?uarterbac+.
1(1. exertion effort; e0penditure of much physical wor+
&he e0ertion involved in unscrewing the rusty bolt left her e0hausted.
1(2. exhort urge
&he evangelist will e0hort all sinners in his audience to reform.
1(3. exhume dig out of the ground; remove from a grave
Because of the rumor that he had been poisoned, his body was e0humed in order that an autopsy might be
1(. exigency urgent situation
)n this e0igency, we must loo+ for aid from our allies.
1($. exiguous small; minute
/rass grew there, an e0iguous outcropping among the roc+s.
1('. existential pertaining to e0istence; pertaining to the philosophy of e0istentialism
&o the e0istential philosopher, human reason is inade?uate to e0plain an irrational, meaningless universe.
1((. exodus departure
&he e0odus from the hot and stuffy city was particularly noticeable on 9riday evenings.
1(*. exonerate ac?uit; e0culpate
) am sure this letter naming the actual culprit will e0onerate you.
1(,. exorbitant e0cessive
&he people grumbled at his e0orbitant prices but paid them because he had a monopoly.
1*.. exorcise drive our evil spirits
By incantation and prayer, the medicine man sought to e0orcise the evil spirits that had ta+en possession of
the young warrior.
1*1. exotic not native; strange
Because of his e0otic headdress, he was followed in the streets by small children who laughed at his strange
1*2. expatiate tal+ at length
!t this time, please give us a brief resume of your wor+; we shall permit you to e0patiate later.
1*3. expatriate e0ile; someone who has withdrawn from his native land
1enry ;ames was an !merican e0patriate who settled in 2ngland.
1*. expedient suitable; practical; politic
! pragmatic politician, he was guided by what was e0pedient rather than by what was ethical.
1*$. expedite hasten
We hope you will be able to e0pedite delivery because of our tight schedule.
1*'. expertise specialiAed +nowledge; e0pert s+ill
!lthough she was +nowledgeable in a number of fields, she was hired for her particular e0pertise in
computer programming.
1*(. expiate ma+e amends for =a sin>
1e tried to e0piate his crimes by a full confession to the authorities.
1**. expletive inter-ection; profane oath
&he sergeant<s remar+s were filled with e0pletives that offended the new recruits.
1*,. explicate e0plain; interpret; clarify
1arry Bevin e0plicated ;ames ;oyce<s novels with such clarity that even 9innegan<s Wa+e seemed
comprehensible to his students.
1,.. explicit totally clear; definite; outspo+en
8on<t -ust hint around that you<re dissatisfiedF be e0plicit about what<s bugging you.
1,1. exploit deed or action, particularly a brave deed
Raoul Wallenberg was noted for his e0ploits in rescuing ;ews from 1itler<s forces.
1,2. exploit ma+e use of, sometimes un-ustly
@aesar @haveA fought attempts to e0ploit migrant farmwor+ers in @alifornia.
1,3. expository e0planatory; serving to e0plain
&he mannual that came with my 3@R was no masterpiece of e0pository proseF its e0planations were so
garbled that ) couldn<t even figure out how to rewind a tape.
1,. expostulation protest; remonstrance
8espite the teacher<s scoldings and e0postulations, the class remained unruly.
1,$. exposure ris+, particularly of being e0posed to disease or to the elements; unmas+ing; act of laying
something open
20posure to sun and wind had dried out her hair and weathered her face.
1,'. expunge cancel; remove
)f you behave, ) will e0punge this notation from your record.
1,(. expurgate clean; remove offensive parts of a boo+
&he editors felt that certain passages in the boo+ had to be e0purgated before it could be used in the
1,*. extant still in e0istence
!lthough the authorities suppressed the boo+, many copies are e0tant and may be purchased at e0orbitant
1,,. extemporaneous not planned; impromtu
Because his e0temporaneous remar+s were misinterpreted, he decided to write all his speeches in advance.
2... extenuate wea+en; mitigate
)t is easier for us to e0tenuate our own shortcomings than those of others.
2.1. extirpate root up
&he #alem witch trials were a misguided attempt to e0tirpate superstition and heresy.
2.2. extol praise; glorify
&he astronauts were e0tolled as the pioneers of the #pace !ge.
2.3. extort wring from; get money by threats, etc.
&he blac+mailer e0torted money from his victim.
2.. extradition surrender of prisoner by one state to another
&he lawyers opposed the e0tradition of their client on the grounds that for more than five years he had been
a model citiAen.
2.$. extraneous not essential; e0ternal
8o not pad your paper with e0traneous matters; stic+ to essential items only.
2.'. extrapolation pro-ection; con-ecture
Based on their e0trapolation from the results of the primaries on #uper &uesday, the networ+s predicted
that /eorge Bush would be the Republican candidate for the presidency.
2.(. extricate free; disentangle
1e found that he could not e0tricate himself from the trap.
2.*. extrinsic e0ternal; not inherent; foreign
8o not be fooled by e0trinsic causes. We must loo+ for the intrinsic reason.
2.,. extrovert person interested mostly in e0ternal ob-ects and actions
! good salesperson in usually an e0trovert, who li+es to mingle with people.
21.. extrude force or push out
:uch pressure is re?uired to e0trude these plastics.
211. exuberant abundant; effusive; lavish
1is speeches were famous for his e0uberant language and vivid imagery.
212. exude discharge; give forth
&he maple syrup is obtained from the sap that the trees e0ude in early spring.
213. exult re-oice
We e0ulted when our team won the victory.
1. fabricate build; lie
Because of the child<s tendency to fabricate, we had trouble believing her.
2. facade front of the building
&he facade of the church had often been photographed by tourists because it was more interesting than the
3. facet small plane surface =of a gem>; a side
&he stonecutter decided to improve the rough diamond by providing it with several facets.
. facetious humorous; -ocular
6our facetious remar+s are not appropriate at this serious moment.
$. facile easy; e0pert
Because he was a facile spea+er, he never refused a re?uest to address an organiAation.
'. facilitate ma+e less difficult
1e tried to facilitate repayment of the loan by getting a part%time -ob.
(. facsimilie copy
:any museums sell facsimilies of the wor+s of art on display.
*. faction party; cli?ue; dissension
&he ?uarrels and bic+ering of the two small factions within the club disturbed the ma-ority of the members.
,. factious inclined to form factions; causing dissension.
6our statement is factious and will upset the harmony that now e0ists.
1.. factitous artificial; sham
1ollywood actresses often create factitious tears by using glycerine.
11. factotum handyman; person who does all +inds of wor+
!lthough we had hired him as a messenger, we soon began to use him as a general factotum around the
12. faculty mental or bodily powers; teaching staff
!s he grew old, he feared he might lose his faculties and become useless to his employer.
13. fallacious misleading
6our reasoning must be fallacious because it leads to a ridiculous answer.
1. fallible liable to err
) +now ) am fallible, but ) feel confident that ) am right this time.
1$. fallow plowed but sowed; uncultivated
9armers have learned that it is advisable to permit land to le fallow every few years.
1'. falter hesitate
When told to dive off the high board, she did not falter, but proceeded at once.
1(. fanaticism e0cessive Aeal
&he leader of the group was held responsible even though he could not control the fanaticism of his
1*. fancied imagined; unreal
6ou are resenting fancied insults. 5o one has ever said such things about you.
1,. fancier breeder or dealer of animals
&he dog fancier e0hibited her priAe collie at the annual "ennel @lub show.
2.. fanciful whimsical; visionary
&his is a fanciful scheme because it does not consider the facts.
21. fanfare call by bugles or trumpets; showy display
&he e0position was opened with fanfare of trumpets and the firing of cannon.
22. fantastic unreal; grotes?ue; whimsical
6our fears are fantastic because no such animal as you have described e0ists.
23. farce broad comedy; moc+ery
5othing went right; the entire interview degenerated into a farce.
2. fastidious difficult to please; s?ueamish
&he waitresses disli+ed serving him dinner because of his very fastidious taste.
2$. fatalism belief that events are determined by forces beyond one<s control
With fatalism, he accepted the hardships that beset him.
2'. fathom comprehend; investigate
) find his motives impossible to fathom.
2(. fatuous foolish; inane
1e is far too intelligent to utter such fatuous remar+s.
2*. fauna animals of a period or region
&he scientist could visualiAe the fauna of the period by e0amining the s+eletal remains and the fossils.
2,. fawning courting favor by cringing and flattering
#he was constantly surrounded by a group of fawning admirers who had hoped to win some favor.
3.. faze disconcert; dismay
5o crisis could faAe the resourceful hotel manager.
31. feasible practical
&his is an entirely feasible proposal. ) suggest we adopt it.
32. febrile feverish
)n his febrile condition, he was sub-ect to nightmares and hallucinations.
33. fecundity fertility; fruitfulness
&he fecundity of his mind is illustrated by the many vivid images in his poems.
3. feign pretend
Bady :acbeth feigned illness in the courtyard although she was actually healthy.
3$. feint tric+; shift; sham blow
&he bo0er was fooled by his opponent<s feint and dropped his guard.
3'. felicitous apt; suitably e0pressed; well chosen
1e was famous for his felicitous remar+s and was called upon to serve as master%of%ceremonies at many
3(. felicity happines; appropriateness =of a remar+, choice, etc.>
#he wrote a note to the newlyweds wishing them great felicity in their wedded life.
3*. fell cruel; deadly
&he newspapers told of the tragic spread of the fell disease
3,. felon person convicted of a grave crime
! convicted felon loses the right to vote
.. ferment agitation; commotion
With the brea+up of the #oviet Cnion, much of 2astern 2urope was in a state of ferment.
1. ferret drive or hunt out of hiding
#he was ferreted out their secret.
2. fervent ardent; hot
#he felt that the fervent praise was e0cessive and somewhat undeserved.
3. fervid ardent
1er fervid enthusiasm inspired all of us to underta+e the dangerous mission.
. fervor glowing ardor
&heir +iss was full of the fervor of first love.
$. fester generate pus
When her finger began to fester, the doctor lanced it and removed the splinter that had caused the pus to
'. fester ran+le, produce irritation or resentment
;oe<s insult festered in !nne<s mind for days, and made her too angry to spea+ to him.
(. festive -oyous; celebratory
&heir wedding in the par+ was a festive occasion.
*. fete honor at a festival
&he returning hero was feted at a community supper and dance.
,. fetid malodorous
&he neglected wound became fetid.
$.. fetter shac+le
&he prisoner was fettered to the wall.
$1. fiasco total failure
4ur ambitious venture ended in a fiasco and we were forced to flee.
$2. fiat command
) cannot accept government by fiat; ) feel that ) must be consulted.
$3. fickle changeable; faithless
1e discovered his supposedly faithful girlfriend was fic+le
$. fictitious imaginary
!lthough this boo+ purports to be a biography of /eorge Washington, many of the incidents are fictitious.
$$. fidelity loyalty
! dog<s fidelity to its owner is one of the reasons why that animal is a favorite household pet.
$'. figment invention; imaginary thing
&hat incident never too+ place; it is a figment of your imagination.
$(. figurative not literal, but metaphorical; using a figure of speech
7&o lose one<s marbles7 is a figurative e0pression; if you<re told ;ac+ has lost his marbles, no one e0pects
you to rush out to buy him a replacement set.
$*. figurine small ornamental statuette
)n the :altese 9alcon, #am #pade was hired to trace the missing figurine of a blac+ bird.
$,. filch steal
&he boys filched apples from the fruit stand.
'.. filial pertaining to a son or daughter
:any children forget their filial obligations and disregard the wishes of their parents.
'1. filibuster bloc+ legislation by ma+ing long speeches
2ven though we disapproved of #enator 9oghorn<s political goals, we were impressed by his ability to
filibuster endlessly to +eep an issue from coming to a vote.
'2. filigree delicate, laceli+e metalwor+
&he pendant with gold filigree that she wore round her nec+ trembled with each breath she too+.
'3. finale conclusion
)t is not until we reach the finale of this play that we can understand the author<s message.
'. finesse delicate s+ill
&he finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the operating room.
'$. finicky too particular; fussy
&he old lady was finic+y about her food and ate very little.
''. finite limited
)t is difficult for humanity with its finite e0istence to grasp the infinite.
'(. firebrand hothead; troublema+er
&he police triedto +eep trac+ of all the local firebrands when the Dresident came to town.
'*. fissure crevice
&he mountain climbers secured footholds in tiny fissures in the roc+.
',. fitful spasmodic; intermittent
!fter several fitful attempts, he decided to postpone the start of the pro-ect until he felt more energetic.
(.. flaccid flabby
1is sedentary life had left him with flaccid muscles.
(1. flag droop; grow feeble
When the opposing hoc+ey team scored its third goal only minutes into the first period, the home team<s
spirits flagged.
(2. flagrant conspicuously wic+ed
We cannot condone such flagrant violations of the rules.
(3. flail thresh grain by hand; stri+e or slap; toss about
)n medieval times, warriors flailed their foe with a metal ball attached to a handle.
(. flair talent
#he has an uncanny flair for discovering new artists before the public has become aware of their e0istence.
($. flamboyant ornate
:odern architecture has discarded the flamboyant trimming on buildings and emphasiAes simplicity of line.
('. flaunt display ostentatiously
#he is not the one of those actresses who flaunt their physical charms; she can act.
((. flay strip off s+in; plunder
&he criminal was condemned to be flayed alive.
(*. fleck spot
1er chee+s flec+ed with tears, were testimony to the hours of weeping.
(,. fledgling ine0perienced
While it is necessary to provide these fledgling poets with an opportunity to present their wor+, it is not
essential that we admire everything they write.
*.. fleece wool coat of a sheep
&hey shear sheep of their fleece, which they then comb into separate strands of wool.
*1. fleece rob; plunder
&he tric+sters fleeced him of his inheritance.
*2. flick light stro+e as with a whip
&he horse needed no encouragement; only one flic+ of the whip was all the -oc+ey had to apply to get the
animal to run at top speed.
*3. flinch hesitate; shrin+
1e did not flinch in the face of danger but fought bac+ bravely.
*. flippancy trifling gaiety
6our flippancy at this serious moment is offensive.
*$. flit fly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by
Bi+e a bee flitting from flower to flower, Rose flitted from one boyfriend to the ne0t.
*'. floe mass of floating ice
&he ship made slow progress as it battered its way through the ice floes.
*(. flora plants of a region or era
Because she was a botanist, she spent most of her time studying the flora of the desert.
**. florid flowery; ruddy
1is comple0ion was even more florid than usual because of his anger.
*,. flotsam drifting wrec+age
Beachcombers e+e out a living by salvaging the flotsam and -etsam of the sea.
,.. flourish grow well; prosper; ma+e sweeping gestures
&he orange trees flourished in the sun.
,1. flout re-ect; moc+
&he headstrong youth flouted all authority; he refused to be curbed.
,2. fluctuation wavering
:eteorologists watch the fluctuations of the barometer in order to predict the weather.
,3. fluency smoothness of speech
1e spo+e 9rench with fluency and ease.
,. fluke unli+ely occurrence; stro+e of fortune
When 8ouglass defeated &yson for the heavyweight championship, some sportscasters dismissed his
victory as a flu+e.
,$. fluster confuse
&he teacher<s sudden ?uestion flustered him and he stammered his reply.
,'. fluted having vertical parallel grooves =as in a pillar>
!ll that remained of the ancient building were the fluted columns.
,(. flux flowing; series of changes
While conditions are in such a state of flu0, ) do not wish to commit myself too deeply in this affair.
,*. fodder coarse food for cattle, horses etc.
4ne of 5ancy<s chores ar the ranch was to put fresh supplies of fodder in the horses< stalls.
,,. foible wea+ness; slight fault
We can overloo+ the foibles of our friends; no one is perfect.
1... foil contrast
)n 7#tar Wars,7 dar+, evil 8arth 3ader is a perfect foil for fair%haired, naive Bu+e #+ywal+er.
1.1. foil defeat; frustrate
)n the end, #+ywal+er is able to foil 3ader<s diabolical schemes.
1.2. foist insert improperly; palm off
) will not permit you to foist such ridiculous ideas upon the membership of this group.
1.3. foliage masses of leaves
2very autumn before the leaves fell he promised himself he would drive though the 5ew 2ngland to admire
the colorful fall foliage.
1.. foment stir up; instigate
&his report will foment disssension in the club.
1.$. foolhardy rash
8on<t be foolhardy. /et the advice of e0perienced people before underta+ing this venture.
1.'. foppish vain about dress and appearance
1e tried to imitate the foppish manner of the young men of the court.
1.(. foray raid
&he company staged a midnight foray against the enemy outpost.
1.*. forberance patience
We must use forbearance in dealing with him because he is still wea+ from his illness.
1.,. ford place where a river can be crossed on foot
Rather than ris+ using the sha+y rope bridge, 8avid wal+ed a half%mile downstream until he came to the
neartest ford.
11.. forebears ancestors
Reverence for one<s forebears =sometimes referred to as ancestor worship> plays an important part in many
4riental cultures.
111. foreboding premonition of evil
@aeser ridiculed his wife<s foreboding about the )des of :arch.
112. forensic suitable to debate or courts of law
)n her best forensic manner, the lawyer addressed the -ury.
113. foreshadow give an indication beforehand; portend; prefigure
)n retrospect, political analysts realiAed that 6eltsin<s defiance of the attempted coup foreshadowed his
emergence as the dominant figure of the new Russian republic.
11. foresight ability to foresee future happenings; prudence
! wise investor, she had the foresight to buy land -ust before the current real estate boom.
11$. forestall prevent by ta+ing action in advance
By setting up a prenuptial agreement, the prospective bride and groom hoped to forestall any potential
arguments about money in the event of a divorce.
11'. forgo give up; do without
8etermined to lose weight for the summer, )da decided to forgo dessert until she could fit into a siAe eight
11(. formality adherence to established rules or procedures
#igning this petition is a mere formality; it does not obligate you in any way.
11*. formidable menacing; threatening
We must not treat the battle lightly for we are facing a formidable foe.
11,. forsake desert; abandon; renounce
5o one e0pected 9oster to forsa+e his wife and children and run off with another woman.
12.. forswear renounce; abandon
&he captured +night could escape death only if he agreed to forswear @hristianity and embrace )slam as the
one true faith.
121. forte strong point or special talent
) am not eager to play this rather seious role, for my forte is comedy.
122. forthright straightforward; direct; fran+
) prefer ;ill<s forthright approach to ;ac+<s tendency to beat around the bush.
123. fortitude bravery; courage
1e was awarded the medal for his fortitude in the battle.
12. fortuitous accidental; by chance
&here is no connection between these two events; their timing is entirely fortuitous.
12$. foster rear; encourage
!ccording to the legend, Romulus and Remus were fostered by a she%wolf that raised the abandoned
infants as her own.
12'. founder fail completely; sin+
!fter hitting the submerged iceberg, the &itanic started ta+ing in water rapidly and soon foundered.
12(. founder person who establishes =an organiAation, business>
!mong those drowned when the &itanic san+ was the founder of the !braham K #traus chain.
12*. fracas brawl; melee
&he military police stopped the fracas in the bar and arrested the belligerents.
12,. fractious unruly
&he fractious horse unseated its rider.
13.. frailty wea+ness
&he doctor prescribed vitamin and mineral supplements for the sic+ old woman because of her frailty.
131. franchise right granted by authority
&he city issued a franchise to the company to operate surface transit lines on the streets for ninety%nine
132. frantic wild
!t the time of the collision, many people became frantic with fear.
133. fraudulent cheating; deceitful
&he government see+s to prevent fraudulent and misleading advertising.
13. fraught filled
#ince this enterprise is fraught with danger, ) will as+ for volunteers who are willing to assume the ris+s.
13$. fray brawl
&he three mus+eteers were in the thic+ of fray.
13'. frenetic frenAied; frantic
1is frenetic activities convinced us that he had no organiAed plan of operation.
13(. frenzied madly e0cited
!s soon as they smelled smo+e, the frenAied animals milled about in their cages.
13*. fresco painting in plaste =usually fresh>
&he cathedral is visited by many tourists who wish to admire the frescoes by /lotto.
13,. fret to be annonyed or ve0ed
&o fret over your poor grades is foolish; instead, decide to wor+ harder in the future.
1.. friction clash in opinion; rubbing against
!t this time when harmony is essential, we cannot afford to have any friction in our group.
11. frieze ornamental band on a wall
&he frieAe of the church was adorned with sculpture.
12. frigid intensely cold
!las+a is in the frigid Aone.
13. fritter waste
1e could not apply himself to any tas+ and frittered away his time in idle conversation.
1. frivolous lac+ing in seriousness; self%indulgently carefree; relatively unimportant
&hough 5ancy en-oyed Bill<s frivolous, lighthearted companionship, she sometimes wondered whether he
could ever be serious.
1$. frolicsome pran+ish; gay
&he frolicsome puppy tried to lic+ the face of its master.
1'. frond fern leaf; palm or banana leaf
!fter the storm the beach was littered with the fronds of palm trees.
1(. fructify bear fruit
&his peach tree should fructify in three years.
1*. frugality thrift; economy
)n these economically difficult days businesses must practice frugality or ris+ ban+ruptcy.
1,. fruition bearing of fruit; fulfillment; realiAation
&his building mar+s the fruition of all our aspirations and years of hard wor+.
1$.. fugitive fleeting or transitory; roving
&he film brought a few fugitive images to her mind, but on the whole it made no lasting impression upon
1$1. fulcrum support on which a lever rests
)f we use this stone as a fulcrum and the crowbar as a lever, we may be able to move this boulder.
1$2. fulminate thunder; e0plode
&he people against whom she fulminated were innocent of any wrongdoing.
1$3. fulsome disgustingly e0cessive
1is fulsome praise of the dictator annoyed his listeners.
1$. functionary official
!s his case was transferred from one functionary to another, he began to despair of ever reaching a
1$$. fundamental basic; primary; essential
&he committee discussed all sorts of side issues without ever getting down to addressing the fundamental
1$'. funereal sad; solemn
) fail to understand why there is such a funereal atmosphere; we have lost a battle, not a war.
1$(. furor frenAy; great e0citement
&he story of her embeAAlement of the funds created a furor on the stoc+ e0change.
1$*. furtive stealthy; snea+y
&he boy gave a furtive loo+ at his classmate<s test paper.
1$,. fusilade simultaneous firing or outburs =of missiles, ?uestions, etc.>
&chai+ovs+y<s 1*12 4verture concludes with a thunderous fusilade of cannon fire.
1'.. fusion union; coalition
&he opponents of the political party in power organiAed a fusion of disgruntled groups and became an
important element in the election.
1'1. futile ineffective; fruitless
Why waste your time on futile pursuitsI
1'2. feckless feeble, ineffective; unthin+ing, irresponsible
2instein was noted for his e0traordinary inspirations; on the other hand, he was noted for being fec+less in
his daily chores.
1. gadfly animal%biting fly; an irritating person
Bi+e a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours, everyone regarded him as an
annoying busybody.
2. gaffe social blunder
!ccording to :iss :anners, to call your husband by your lover<s name is worse than a mere gaffe; it is a
tactical mista+e.
3. gainsay deny
#he was too honest to gainsay the truth of the report.
. gait manner of wal+ing or running; speed
&he lame man wal+ed with an uneven gait.
$. galaxy the :il+y Way; any collection of brilliant personalities
&he deaths of such famous actors as @lar+ /able, /ary @ooper, #pencer &racy, and :arlene 8ietrich
demonstrate that the gala0y of 1ollywood superstars is rapidly disppearing.
'. gall bitterness; nerve
&he +nowledge of his failure filled him with gall.
(. gall annoy; chafe
&heir taunts galled him.
*. galleon large sailing ship
&he #paniards pinned their hopes on the galleon, the large warship; the British, on the smaller and faster
,. galvanize stimulate by shoc+; stir up
&he entire nation was galvaniAed into strong military activity by the news of the attac+ on Dearl 1arbor.
1.. gambit opening in chess in which a piece is sacrificed
&he player was afraid to accept his opponent<s gambit because he feared a trap which as yet he could not
11. gambol s+ip; leap playfully
Watching children gamboling in the par+ is a pleasant e0perience
12. gamely in a spirited manner; with courage
Because he had fought gamely against a much superior bo0er, the crowd gave him a standing ovation when
he left the arena.
13. gamut entire range
)n this performance, the leading lady was able to demonstrate the complete gamut of her acting ability.
1. gape open widely
&he huge pit gaped before him; if he stumbled, he would fall in.
1$. garbled mi0ed up; -umbled; distorted
! favorite party game involves passing a whispered message from one person to another; by the time it
reaches the last player, the message has become totally garbled.
1'. gargantuan huge; enormous
&he gargantuan wrestler was terrified of mice.
1(. gargolye waterspout carved in grote?ue figures on a building
&he gargoyles adorning the @athedral of 5otre 8ame in Daris are amusing in their grotes?ueness.
1*. garish gaudy
#he wore a garish rhinestone nec+lace.
1,. garner gather; store up
#he hoped to garner the world<s literature in one library.
2.. garnish decorate
Darsley was used to garnish the boiled potato.
21. garrulity tal+ativeness
&he man who married a dumb wife as+ed the doctor to ma+e him deaf because of his wife<s garrulity after
her cure.
22. garrulous e0cessively tal+ative, especially about unimportant sub-ects; lo?uacious; wordy
:any club members avoided the company of the garrulous -unior e0ecutive because his contant chatter
bored them to tears.
23. gastronomy science of preparing and serving good food
4ne of the by%products of his trip to 2urope was his interest in gastronomy; he en-oyed preparing and
serving foreign dishes to his friends.
2. gauche clumsy; boorish
#uch remar+s are gauche and out of place; you should apologiAe for ma+ing them.
2$. gaudy flashy; showy
1er gaudy taste in clothes apalled us.
2'. gaunt lean and angular; barren
1is once%round face loo+ed surprisingly gaunt after he had lost weight.
2(. gawk stare foolishly; loo+ in open%mouthed awe
&he country boy gaw+ed at the s+yscrapers and neon lights of the big city.
2*. gazette official publication
1e read the gaAettes regularly for announcement of his promotion.
2,. genealogy record of descent; lineage
1e was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of his ancestors.
3.. generality vague statement
&his report is filled with generalities; you must be more specific in you statements.
31. generic characteristic of an entire class or species
#ue +new so many computer programmers who spent their spare time playing fantasy games that she began
to thin+ that playing 8ungeon K 8ragons was a generic trait.
32. genesis beginning; origin
&racing the genesis of a family is the theme of 7Roots.7
33. geniality cheerfulness; +indliness; sympathy
&his restaurant is famous and popular because of the geniality of the proprietor, who tries to ma+e everyone
3. genre particular variety of art or literature
Both a short story writer and a poet, Bangston 1ughes proved himself e?ually s+illed in either genre.
3$. genteel well%bred; elegant
We are loo+ing for a man with a genteel apperance who can inspire confidence by his cultivated manner.
3'. gentility those of gentle birth; refinement
1er family was proud of its gentility and elegance.
3(. gentry people of standing; class of people -ust below nobility
&he local gentry did not welcome the visits of the summer tourists and tried to ignore their presence in the
3*. genuflect bend the +nee as in worship
! proud denocrat, he refused to genuflect to any man.
3,. germane pertinent; bearing upon the case at hand
&he lawyer ob-ected that the testimony being offered was not germane to the case at hand.
.. germinal pertaining to a germ; creative
#uch an idea is germinal; ) am certain that it will influence thin+ers and philosophers for many generations.
1. germinate cause to sprout; sprout
!fter the seeds germinate and develop their permanent leaves, the plants may be removed from the cold
frames and transplanted to the garden.
2. gerontocracy government ruled by old people
/ulliver visited a gerontocracy in which the young people acted as servants to their elders, all the while
dreaming of the day they would be old enough to have servants of their own.
3. gerrymander change in voting district lines in order to favor a political party
&he illogical pattern of the map of this congressional district is proof that the state legislature
gerrymandered this area in order to favor the ma-ority party.
. gestate evolve, as in prenatal growth
While this scheme was being gestated by the conspirators, they maintained complete silence about their
$. gesticulation motion; gesture
4peratic performers are trained to ma+e e0aggerated gesticulations because of the large auditoriums in
whic they appear.
'. ghastly horrible
&he murdered man was a ghastly sight.
(. gibberish nonsense; babbling
8id you hear that foolish boy spouting gibberish about monsters from outer spaceI
*. gibe moc+
!s you gibe at their superstitious beliefs, do you realiAe that you, too, are guilty of similarly foolish
,. giddy light%hearted; diAAy
1e felt his giddy youth was past.
$.. gingerly very carefully
&o separate egg whites, first crac+ the egg gingerly.
$1. girth distance around something; circunference
)t too+ an e0tra%large cummerbund to fit around !ndrew @arnegie<s considerable girth.
$2. gist essence
she was as+ed to give the gist of the essay in two sentence.
$3. glacial li+e a glacier; e0tremely cold
5ever a warm person, when offended hugo could seem positively glacial.
$. glaring highly conspicuous; harshly bright
glaring spelling or grammatical errors in your resume will unfavorably impress potential employers.
$$. glaze cover with a thin and shiny surface
&he freeAing rain glaAed the streets and made driving haAardous.
$'. glean gather leavings
!fter the crops had been harvested by the machines, the peasants were permitted to glean the wheat left in
the fields.
$(. glib fluent
1e is a glib and articulate spea+er.
$*. glimmer shine erratically; twin+le
)n the dar+ness of the cavern, the glowworms hanging from the cavern roof glimmered li+e distant stars.
$,. gloat e0press evil satisfaction; view malevolently
!s you gloat over your ill%gotten wealth, do you thin+ of the many victims you have defraudedI
'.. gloss over e0plain away
5o matter how hard he tried to tal+ around the issue, Dresident Bush could not gloss over the fact that he
had raised the ta0es after all.
'1. glossary brief e0planation of words used in the te0t
) have found the glossary in this boo+ very useful; it has eliminated many trips to the dictionary.
'2. glossy smooth and shining
) want this photograph printed on glossy paper, not matte.
'3. glower scowl
&he angry boy glowered at his father.
'. glut overstoc+; fill to e0cess
&he many manufacturers glutted the mar+et and could not find purchasers for the many articles they had
'$. glutinous stic+y; viscous
:olasses is a glutinous substance.
''. glutton someone who eats too much
When :other saw that Bobby had eaten all the coo+ies, she called him a little glutton.
'(. gnarled twisted
&he gnarled oa+ tree had been a landmar+ for years and was mentioned in several deeds.
'*. gnome dwarf; underground spirit
)n medieval mythology, gnomes were the special guardians and inhabitants of subterranean mines.
',. goad urge on
1e was goaded by his friends until he yielded to their wishes.
(.. gorge narrow canyon; steep, roc+y cleft
&errified of heights, /eorge could not bring himself to peer down into the gorge to see the rapids below.
(1. gorge stuff oneself
&he gluttonous guest gorged himself with food as though he had not eaten for days.
(2. gory bloody
&he audience shuddered as they listened to the details of the gory massacre.
(3. gossamer sheer; li+e cobwebs
5ylon can be woven into gossaner or thic+ fabrics.
(. gouge tear out
)n that fight, all the rules were forgotten; the adversaries bit, +ic+ed, and tried to gouge each other<s eyes
($. gourmand epicure; person who ta+es e0cessive pleasure in food and drin+
goumands lac+ self%restraint; if they en-oy a particular cuisine, they eat far too much of it.
('. gourmet connoisseur of food and drin+
&he gourmet stated that this was the best onion soup she had ever tasted.
((. graduated arraged by degree =of height, difficulty, etc.>
:argaret loved her graduated set of Russian hollow wooden dolls; she spent hours happily putting the
smaller dolls into their larger counterparts.
(*. granary storehouse for grain
We have reason to be than+ful, for our crops were good and our granaries are full.
(,. grandeur impressiveness; stateliness; ma-esty
5o matter how often he hi+ed through the mountains, 8avid never failed to be struc+ by the grandeur of the
#ierra 5evada range.
*.. grandiloquent pompous; bombastic; using high%sounding language
&he politician could bever spea+ simply; she was always grandilo?uent.
*1. grandiose imposing; impressive
1is grandiose manner impressed those who met him for the first time.
*2. granulate form into grains
#ugar that has been granulated dissolves more readily than lump sugar.
*3. graphic pertaining to the art of delineating; vividly described
) was particularly impressed by the graphic presentation of the storm.
*. grapple wrestle; come to grips with
1e grappled with the burglar and overpowered him.
*$. grate ma+e a harsh noise; have an unpleasant effect; shred
&he screams of the ?uarreling children grated on her nerves.
*'. gratify please
1er parents were gratified by her success.
*(. gratis free
&he company offered to give one pac+age gratis to every purchaser of one of their products.
**. gratuitous given freely; unwarranted; uncalled for
Guit ma+ing gratuitous comments about my driving; no one as+ed you for your opinion.
*,. gratuity tip
:any service employees rely more on gratuities than on salaries for their livelihood.
,.. gravity seriousness
We could tell we were in serious trouble from the gravity of her e0pression.
,1. gregarious sociable
&ypically, party%throwers are gregarious; hermits are not.
,2. grievance cause of complaint
When her supervisor ignored her complaint, she too+ her grievance to the union.
,3. grill ?uestion severely
)n violation of the :iranda law, the police grilled the suspect for several hours before reading him his
,. grimace a facial distortion to show feeling such as pain, disgust, etc.
2ven though he remained silent, his grimace indicated his displeasure.
,$. grisly ghastly
#he shuddered at the grisly sight.
,'. grotesque fantastic; comically hideous
4n 1alloween people en-oy wearing grote?ue costumes.
,(. grotto small cavern
&he Blue /rotto in @apri can be entered only by small boats rowed by natives through a natural opening in
the roc+s.
,*. grouse complain; fuss
#tudents traditionally grouse about the abysmal ?uality of 7mystery meat7 and similar dornitory food.
,,. grovel crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate
2ven though we have been defeated, we do not have to grovel before our con?uerors.
1... grudging unwilling; reluctant; stingy
We received only grudging support from the mayor despite his earlier promises of aid.
1.1. gruel thin, li?uid porridge
4ur daily allotment of gruel made the meal not only monotonous but also unpalatable.
1.2. grueling e0hausting
&he marathon is a grueling race.
1.3. gruesome grisly
Deople screamed when her gruesome appearance was flashed on the screen.
1.. gruff rough%mannered
!lthough he was blunt and gruff with most people, he was always gentle with children.
1.$. guffaw boisterous laughter
&he loud guffaws that came from the closed room indicated that the members of the committe had not yet
settled down to a serious business.
1.'. guile deceit; duplicity
#he achieved her high position by guile and treachery.
1.(. guileless without deceit
1e is naive, simple, and guileless; he cannot be guilty of fraud.
1.*. guise appearance; costume
)n the guise of a plumber, the detective investigated the murder case.
1.,. gullible easily deceived
1e preyed upon gullible people, who believed his stories of easy wealth.
11.. gustatory affecting the sense of taste
&he &hai restaurant offered an unusual gustatory e0perience for those used in a bland cuisine.
111. gusto en-oyment; enthusiasm
1e accepted the assignment with such gusto that ) feel he would have been satisfied with a smaller salary.
112. gusty windy
&he gusty weather made sailing precarious.
113. gyroscope apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc.
By using a rotating gyroscope, they were able to stabiliAe the vessel, counteracting the rolling movements
of the sea.
11. - apparatus used to maintain balance, ascertain direction, etc.
1. hackles hairs on bac+ and nec+, especially of a dog
&he dog<s hac+les rose and he began to growl as the sound of footsteps grew louder.
2. hackneyed commonplace; trite
&he 2nglish teacher criticiAed her story because of its hac+neyed and unoriginal plot.
3. haggard wasted away; gaunt
!fter his long illness, he was pale and haggard.
. haggle argue about prices
) prefer to shop in a store that has a one%price policy because, whenever ) haggle with a shop+eeper, ) am
never certain that ) paid a fair price for the articles ) purchased.
$. halcyon calm; peaceful
)n those halcyon days, people were not worried about snea+ attac+s and bombings.
'. hale healthy
!fter a brief illness, he was soon hale.
(. hallowed blessed; consecrated
#he was laid to rest in hallowed ground.
*. hallucination delusion
) thin+ you were frightened by a hallucination that you created in you own mind.
,. halting hesitant; faltering
5ovice e0temporaneous spea+ers often tal+ in a halting fashion as they grope for the right words.
1.. hamper obstruct
&he minority party agreed not to hamper the efforts of the leaders to secure a lasting peace.
11. hap chance; luc+
)n his poem hap, &homas 1ardy ob-ects to the part chance plays in our lives.
12. haphazard random; by chance
1is haphaAard reading left him una?uainted with the authors of the boo+s.
13. hapless unfortunate
&his hapless creature had never +nown a moment<s pleasure.
1. harangue long, passionate, and vehement speech
)n her lengthy harangue, the principal berated the offenders.
1$. harass annoy by repeated attac+s
When he could not pay his bills as ?uic+ly as he had promised, he was harrassed by his creditors.
1'. harbinger forerunner
&he crocus is an early harbinger of spring.
1(. harbor provide a refuge for; hide
&he church harbored illegal aliens who were political refugees.
1*. hardy sturdy; robust; able to stand inclement weather
We as+ed the gardening e0pert to recommend particularly hardy plants that could withstand our harsh 5ew
2ngland winters.
1,. harping tiresome dwelling on a sub-ect
!fter he had reminded me several times about what he had done for me ) told him to stop his harping on
my indebtedness to him.
2.. harrow brea+ up ground after plowing; torture
) don<t want to harrow you at this time by as+ing you to recall the details of your unpleasant e0perience.
21. harry harass, annoy, torment; raid
&he guerrilla band harried the enemy nightly.
22. hatch dec+ opening; lid covering a dec+ opening
&he latch on the hatch failed to catch, so the hatch remained unlatched.
23. haughtiness pride; arrogance
) resent his haughtiness because he is no better than we are.
2. hazardous dangerous
6our occupation is too haAardous for insurance companies to consider your application.
2$. hazy slightly obscure
)n haAy weather, you cannot see the top of this mountain.
2'. headlong hasty; rash
&he slave seiAed the une0pected chance to ma+e a headlong dash across the border to freedom.
2(. headstrong stubborn; willful; unyielding
Because she refused to marry the man her parents had chosen for her, everyone scolded :inna and called
her a foolish, headstrong girl.
2*. heckler person who verbally harasses others
&he hec+ler +ept interrupting the spea+er with rude remar+s.
2,. hedonism belief that pleasure is the sole aim in life
hedonism and asceticism are opposing philosophies of human behavior.
3.. heedless not noticing; disregarding
1e drove on, heedless of the warnings that the road was dangerous.
31. hegemony dominance, especially of one nation over others
!s one 2astern 2uropean nation after another declared its independence, commentators marveled at the
sudden brea+down of the once monolithic #oviet hegemony.
32. heinous atrocious; hatefully bad
1itler<s heinous crimes will never be forgotten.
33. herbivorous grain%eating
#ome herbivorous animals have two stomachs for digesting their food.
3. heresy opinion contrary to popular belief or to accepted religion
1e was threatened with e0communication because his remar+s were considered to be pure heresy.
3$. heretic person who maintains opinions contrary to the doctrines of the church
#he was punished by the #panish )n?uisition because she was a heretic.
3'. hermetic sealed by fusion so as to be airtight
!fter these bandages are steriliAed, they are placed in hermetic containers.
3(. hermetic obscure and mysterious; occult
)t is strange to consider that modern chemistry originated in the hermetic teachings of the ancient
3*. hermitage home of a hermit
2ven in his remote hermitage he could not escape completely from the world.
3,. herpetologist one who studies reptiles
!s a boy, )ndiana ;ones had a traumatic e0perience involving sna+es; sensibly enough, he studies to be
archaeologist, not a herpetologist.
.. heterodox unorthodo0; unconventional
&o those who upheld the belief that the earth did not move, /alileo<s theory that the earth circled the sun
was disturbingly heterodo0.
1. heterogeneous dissimilar
)n a heterogeneous group, we have an unassorted assemblage, while in a homogeneous group we have
people or things that have common traits.
2. hew cut to pieces with a0 or sword
&he cavalry rushed into melee and hewed the enemy with their swords.
3. heyday time of greatest success; prime
)n their heyday, the #an 9rancisco 9orty%5iners won the #uper Bowl two years running.
. hiatus gap; pause
20cept for a brief two%year hiatus, during which she enrolled in the Deace @orps, :s. @lements has devoted
herself to her medical career.
$. hibernal wintry
Bears prepare for their long hibernal sleep by overeating.
'. hibernate sleep throughout the winter
Bears are one of the many species of animals that hibernate.
(. hierarchy body divided into ran+s
)t was difficult to step out of one<s place in this hierarchy.
*. hieroglyphic picture writing
&he discovery of the Rosetta #tone enabled scholars to read the ancient 2gyptian hieroglyphics.
,. hilarity boisterous mirth
&he hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning.
$.. hindmost furthest behind
&he coward could always be found in the hindmost lines whenever a battle was being waged.
$1. hindrance bloc+; obstacle
#talled cars along the highway are a hindrance to traffic that tow truc+s should remove without delay.
$2. hinterlands bac+ country
&hey seldom had visitors, living as they did way out in the hinderlands.
$3. hireling one who serves for hire =usually used contemptuously>
)n a matter of such importance, ) do not wish to deal with hirelings; ) must meet with the chief.
$. hirsute hairy
1e was a hitsute individual with a heavy blac+ beard.
$$. histrionic theatrical
1e was proud of his histrionic ability and wanted to paly the role of 1amlet.
$'. hoard stoc+pile; accumulate for future use
Whenever there are rumors of a food shortage, people are tempted to hoard food.
$(. hoary white with age
&he man was hoary and wrin+led when he was (..
$*. hoax tric+; practical -o+e
2mbarrassed by the hoa0, he reddened and left the room.
$,. holocaust destruction by fire
@itiAens of #an 9rancisco remember that the destruction of the city was caused not by the earth?ua+e but
by the holocaust that followed.
'.. holster pistol case
2ven when he was not in uniform, he carried a holster and pistol under his arm.
'1. homage honor; tribute
)n her speech she tried to pay homage to a great man.
'2. homeostasis tendency of a system to maintain relative stability
! brea+down of the body<s immune system severely undermines the body<s ability to maintain homeostasis.
'3. homespun domestic; made at home
homespun wit, li+e homespun cloth, was often coarse and plain.
'. homily sermon; serious warning
1is speeches were always homilies, advising his listeners to repent and reform.
'$. homogeneous of the same +ind
:any educators try to put pupils of similar abilities in the same class because they believe that his
homogeneous grouping is advisable.
''. hone sharpen
&o ma+e shaving easier, he honed his raAor with great care.
'(. hoodwink deceive; delude
1aving been hoodwin+ed once by the fast%tal+ing salesman, he was e0tremely cautious when he went to
purchase a used car.
'*. horde crowd
;ust before @hristmas the stores are filled with hordes of shoppers.
',. hortatory encouraging; e0hortive
&he crowd listened to his hortatory statements with ever%growing e0citement; finally they rushed from the
hall to carry to his suggestions.
(.. horticultural pertaining to cultivation of gardens
When he bought his house, he beganto loo+ for flowers and decorative shrubs, and began to read boo+s
dealing with horticultural matters.
(1. hovel shac+; small, wretched house
1e wondered how poor people could stand living in such a hovel.
(2. hover hang about; wait nearby
&he police helicopter hovered above the accident.
(3. hubbub confused uproar
&he mar+etplace was a scene of hubbub and e0citement.
(. hubris arrogance; e0cessive self%conceit
9illed with hubris, Bear refused to heed his friends< warnings.
($. hue color; aspect
&he aviary contained birds of every possible hue.
('. hue outcry
When her purse was snatched, she raised such a hue and cry that the thief was captured.
((. humane +ind
1is humane and considerate treatment of the unfortunate endeared him to all.
(*. humdrum dull; monotonous
!fter years of adventure, he could not settle down to a humdrum e0istence.
(,. humid damp
#he could not stand the humid climate and moved to a drier area.
*.. humility humbleness of spirit
1e spo+e with a humility and lac+ of pride that impressed his listeners.
*1. hummock small hill
&he ascent of the hummoc+ is not difficult and the view from the hilltop is ample reward tor the effort.
*2. humus substance formed by decaying vegetable matter
)n order to improve his garden, he spread humus over his lawn and flower beds.
*3. hurtle crash; rush
&he runaway train hurtled toward disaster.
*. husbandry frugality; thrift; agriculture
1e accumulated his small fortune by diligence and husbandry.
*$. hybrid mongrel; mi0ed breed
:endel<s formula e0plains the appearance of hybrids and pure species in breeding.
*'. hydrophobia fear of water; rabies
! dog that bites a human being must be observed for symptoms of hydrophobia.
*(. hyperbole e0aggeration; overstatement
&his salesman is guilty of hyperbole in describing his product; it is wise to discount his claims.
**. hypercritical e0cessively e0acting
6ou are hypercritical in your demands for perfection; we all ma+e mista+es.
*,. hypochondriac person unduly worried about his health; worrier without cause about illness
&he doctor prescribed chocolate pills for his patient who was a hypocondriac.
,.. hypocritical pretending to be virtuous; deceiving
) resent his hypocritical posing as a friend for ) +now he is interested only in his own advancement.
,1. hypothetical based on assumptions or hypotheses
Why do we have to consider hypothetical cases when we have actual case histories that we may e0amineI
1. ichthyology study of fish
;ac?ues @ousteau<s rpograms about sea life have advanced the cause of ichthyology.
2. icon religious image; idol
&he icons on the walls of the church were painted in the 13th century.
3. iconoclastic attac+ing cherished traditions
/eorge Bernard #haw<s iconoclastic plays often startled more conventional people.
. ideology ideas of a group of people
&hat ideology is dangerous to this country because it embraces undemocratic philosophies.
$. idiom spcial usage in language
) could not understand their idioms because literal translation made no sense.
'. idiosyncrasy peculiarity; eccentricity
4ne of his personal idiosyncrasies was his habit of rinsing all cutlery given him in a restaurant.
(. idiosyncratic private; peculiar to an individual
#uch behavior is idiosyncratic, it is as easily identifiable as a signature.
*. idolatry worship of idols; e0cessive admiration
#uch idolatry of singers of country music is typical of the e0cessive enthusiasm of youth.
,. idyllic charmingly carefree; simple
9ar from the city, she led an idyllic e0istence in her rural retreat.
1.. igneous produced by fire; volcanic
Bava, pumice, and other igneous roc+s are found in great abundance around :ount 3esuvius near 5aples.
11. ignite +indle; light
When 8esi crooned, 7Baby, light my fire,7 literal%minded Bucy loo+ed around for some paper to ignite.
12. ignoble of lowly origin; unworthy
&his plan is inspired by ignoble motives and ) must, therefore, oppose it.
13. ignominious disgraceful
&he country smarted under the ignominious defeat and dreamed of the day when it would be victorious.
1. illicit illegal
&he defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client; that is, they had elicited the illicit
action of which they now accuse of him.
1$. illimitable infinite
1uman beings, having e0plored the far corners of the earth, are now reaching out into illimitable space.
1'. illuminate brighten; clear up or ma+e understandable; enlighten
;ust as a lamp can illuminate a dar+ room, a perceptive comment can illuminate a +notty problem.
1(. illusion misleading vision
)t is easy to create an optical illusion in which lines of e?ual length appear different.
1*. illusive deceiving
&his is only a mirage; let us not be fooled by its illusive effect.
1,. illusory deceptive; not real
Cnfortunately, the costs of running the lemonade stand were so high that &om<s profits proved illusory.
2.. imbalance lac+ of balance or symmetry; disproportion
Because of the great imbalance between the number of men and women invited, the dance was
21. imbecility wea+ness of mind
) am amaAed at the imbecility of the readers of these trashy magaAines.
22. imbibe drin+ in
&he dry soil imbibed the rain ?uic+ly.
23. imbroglio complicated situation; perple0ity; entanglement
1e was called in to settle the imbroglio but failed to bring harmony into the situation.
2. imbue saturate, fill
1is visits to the famous /othic cathedrals imbued him with feelings of awe and reverence.
2$. immaculate pure; spotless
&he West Doint cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection.
2'. imminent near at hand; impending
Rosa was such a last%minute wor+er that she could never start writing a paper till the deadline was
2(. immobility state of being immovable
:odern armies cannot afford the lu0ury of immobility, as they are vulnerable to attac+ while standing still.
2*. immolate offer as a sacrifice
&he tribal +ind offered to immolate his daughter to ?uiet the angry gods.
2,. immure imprison; shut up in confinement
9or the two wee+s before the e0amination, the student immureed himself in his room and concentrated
upon his studies.
3.. immutable unchangeable
#cientists are constantly see+ing to discover the immutable laws of nature.
31. impair worsen; diminish in value
&his arrest will impair her reputation in the community.
32. impale pierce
1e was impaled by the spear hurled by his adversary.
33. impalpable imperceptible; intangible
&he ash is so fine that it is impalpable to the touch but it can be seen as a fine layer covering the window
3. impasse predicament from which there is no escape
)n this impasse, all turned to prayer as their last hope.
3$. impassive without feeling; not affected by pain
&he 5ative !merican has been incorrectly depicted as an impassive individual, undemonstrative and
3'. impeach charge with crime in office; indict
&he angry congressman wanted to impeach the Dresident for his misdeeds.
3(. impeccable faultless
1e was proud of his impeccable manners.
3*. impecunious without money
5ow that he was wealthy, he gladly contributed to funds to assist impecunious and disbled persons.
3,. impede hinder; bloc+
&he special prosecutor determined that the !ttorney /eneral, though inept, had not intentionally set out to
impede the progress of the investigation.
.. impediment hindrance; stumbling%bloc+
#he had a speech impediment that prevented her from spea+ing clearly.
1. impending nearing; approaching
&he entire country was saddened by the news of his impending death.
2. impenetrable not able to be pierced or entered
1ow could the murderer have gotten into the loc+ed roomI &o Watson, the mystery, li+e the room, was
3. impenitent not repentant
We could see by his braAen attitude that he was impenitent.
. imperial li+e an emperor; related to an empire
When hotel owner Beona 1elmsley appeared in ads as Gueen Beona standing guard over the Dalace 1otel,
her critics moc+ed her imperial fancies.
$. imperiousness lordliness; domineering manner; arrogance
1is imperiousness indicated that he had long been accustomed to assuming command.
'. impermeable impervious; not permitting passage through its substance
&his new material is impermeable to li?uids.
(. impertinent insolent
) regard your remar+s as impertinent and ) resent them.
*. imperturbable calm; placid
Wellington remained imperturbable and in full command of the situation in spite of the hyteria and panic
all around him.
,. impervious not penetrable; not permitting passage through
6ou cannot change their habits for their minds are impervious to reasoning.
$.. impetuous violent; hasty; rash
We tried to curb his impetuous behavior because we felt that in his haste he might offend some people.
$1. impetus moving force; incentive; stimulus
! new federal highway program would create -obs and five added impetus to our economic recovery.
$2. impiety irreverence; wic+edness
We must regard your blasphemy as an act of impiety.
$3. impinge infringe; touch; collide with
1ow could they be married without impinging on one another<s freedomI
$. impious irreverent
&he congregation was offended by her impious remar+s.
$$. implacable incapable of being pacified
:adame 8efarge was the implacable enemy of the 2vremonde family.
$'. implausible unli+ely; unbelievable
&hough her alibi seened implausible, it in fact turned out to be true.
$(. implement put into effect; supply with tools
&he mayor was unwilling to implement the plan until she was sure it had the governor<s bac+ing.
$*. implication that which is hinted at or suggested
)f ) understand the implications of your remar+, you do not trust our captain.
$,. implicit understood but not stated
;ac+ never told ;ill he adored her; he believed his love was implicit in his deeds.
'.. implore beg
1e implored her to give him a second chance.
'1. imply suggest a meaning not e0pressed
2ven though your statement does not declare that you are at war with that country, your actions imply that
that is the actual situation.
'2. impolitic not wise
) thin+ it is impolitic to raise this issue at the present time because the public is too angry.
'3. imponderable weightless
) can evaluate the data gathered in this study; the imponderable items are not so easily analyAed.
'. import significance
) feel that you have not grasped the full import of the message sent tous by the enemy.
'$. importunate urging; demanding
1e tried to hide from his importunate creditors until his allowance arrived.
''. importune beg persistently
8emocratic and Republican phone solicitors importuned her for contributions so fre?uently that she
decided to give nothing to either party.
'(. imposture assuming a false identity; mas?uerade
#he was imprisoned for her imposture of a doctor.
'*. impotent wea+; ineffective
!lthough he wished to brea+ the nicotine habit, he found himself impotent in resisisting the craving for a
',. imprecation curse
Roused from the bed at what he considered an ungodly hour, Roy muttered imprecations under his breath.
(.. impregnable invulnerable
Cntil the development of the airplane as a military weapon, the fort was considered impregnable.
(1. impromptu without previous preparation
1er listeners were amaAed that such a thorough presentation could be made in an impromptu speech.
(2. impropriety state of being inappropriate
Because of the impropriety of his costume, he was denied entrance into the dining room.
(3. improvident thriftless
1e was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to 7save for a rainy day.7
(. improvise compose on the spur of the moment
#he would sit at the piano and improvise for hours on themes from Bach and 1andel.
($. imprudent lac+ing caution; in-udicious
)t is imprudent to e0ercise vigorously and become overheated when you are unwell.
('. impugn doubt; challenge; gainsay
) cannot impugn your honesty without evidence.
((. impuissance powerlessness; feebleness
&he lame duc+ Dresident was frustrated by his shift from enormous power to relative impuissance.
(*. impunity freedom from punishment
&he bully mistreated everyone in the class with impunity for he felt that no one would dare retaliate.
(,. impute attribute; ascribe
)f ) wished to impute blame to the officers in charge of this program, ) would state my feelings definitely
and immediately.
*.. inadvertently carelessly; unintentionally; by oversight
#he inadvertently omitted two ?uestions on the e0amination and mismar+ed her answer sheet.
*1. inalienable not to be ta+en away; nontransferable
&he 8eclaration of )ndependence mentions the inalienable rights that all of us possess.
*2. inane silly; senseless
#uch comments are inane because they do not help us solve our program.
*3. inanimate lifeless
she was as+ed to identify the still and inanimate body.
*. inarticulate speechless; producing indistinct speech
1e became inarticulate with rage and uttered sounds without meaning.
*$. inaugurate begin formally; install in office
&he candidate promised that he would inaugurate a new nationwide health care plan as soon as he was
inaugurated as president.
*'. incandescent sti+ingly bright; shining with intense heat
)f you leave on an incandescent light bulb, it ?uic+ly grows too hot to touch.
*(. incantation singing or chanting of magical formula
Cttering incantations to ma+e the brew more potent, the witch doctor stirred the li?uid in the caldron.
**. incapacitate disable
8uring the winter, many people were incapacitated by respiratory ailments.
*,. incarcerate imprison
&he warden will incarcerate the felon after conviction.
,.. incarnate endowed with flesh; personified
6our attitude is so fiendish that you must be a devil incarnate.
,1. incarnation act of assuming a human body and human nature
&he incarnation of ;esus @hrist is a basic tenet of @hristian theology.
,2. incendiary arsonist
&he fire spread in such an unusual manner that the fire department chiefs were certain that it had been set
by an incendiary.
,3. incense enrage; infuriate
Cn+indness to children incensed her.
,. incentive spur; motive
#tudents who disli+e school must be given an incentive to learn.
,$. inception start; beginning
#he was involved with the pro-ect from its inception.
,'. incessant uninterrupted
&he cric+ets +ept up an incessant chirping that disturbed our attempts to fall asleep.
,(. inchoate recently begun; rudimentary; elementary
Before the @reation, the world was an inchoate mass.
,*. incidence rate of occurrence; particular occurrence
1ealth professionals e0pressed great concern over the high incidence of infant mortality in ma-or urban
,,. incidental not essential; minor
&he scholarship covered his ma-or e0penses at college and some of his incidental e0penses as well.
1... incipient beginning; in an early stage
) will go to sleep early for ) want to brea+ an incipient cold.
1.1. incisive cutting; sharp
1is incisive remar+s made us see the fallacy in our plans.
1.2. incite arouse to action
&he demogogue incited the mob to ta+e action into its own hands.
1.3. inclement stormy; un+ind
) li+e to read a good boo+ in inclement weather.
1.. incline slope; slant
&he architect recommended that the nursing home<s ramp be rebuilt because its incline was too steep for
1.$. inclined tending or leaning toward; bent
&hough ) am inclined to be s+eptical, the witness<s manner inclines me to believe his story.
1.'. inclusive tending to include all
&he comedian turned down the invitation to -oin the Dlayer<s @lub, saying any club that would let him in
was too inclusive for him.
1.(. incognito with identity concealed; using an assumed name
&he monarch en-oyed traveling throughthe town incognito and mingling with the populace.
1.*. incoherent unintelligible; muddled; illogical
&he bereaved father sobbed and stammered, his words becoming almost incoherent in his grief.
1.,. incommodious not spacious; inconvenient
)n their incommodious ?uarters, they had to improvise for closet space.
11.. incompatible inharmonious
&he married couple argued incessantly and finally decided to separate because they were incompatible.
111. incongruity lac+ of harmony; absurdity
&he incongruity of his wearing snea+ers with formal attire amused the observers.
112. inconsequential insignificant; unimportant
Brushing off !li<s apologies for having bro+en the wine glass, &amara said, 78on<t worry about it; it<s
113. inconsistency state of being self%contradictory; lac+ of uniformity or steadiness
1ow are lawyers different from agricultural inspectorsI Where lawyers chec+ inconsistencies in witnesses<
statements, agricultural inspectors chec+ inconsistencies in /rade ! eggs.
11. incontinent lac+ing self%restraint
1is incontinent behavior off stage shoc+ed many people and they refused to attend the plays and movies in
which he appeared.
11$. incontrovertible indisputable
We must yield to the incontrovertible evidence that you have presented and free your client.
11'. incorporate introduce something into a larger whole; combine; unite
Brea+ing with precedent, Dresident &ruman ordered the military to incorporate blac+s into every branch of
the armed services.
11(. incorporeal immaterial; without a material body
We must devote time to the needs of our incorporeal mind as well as our corporeal body.
11*. incorrigible uncorrectable
&hough Widow 8ouglass hoped to reform 1uc+, :iss Watson pronounced him incorrigible and said he
would come to no good end.
11,. incredulity a tendency to disbelief
6our incredulity in the face of all the evidence is hard to understand.
12.. incredulous withholding belief; s+eptical
When ;ac+ claimed he hadn<t eaten the -elly doughnut, ;ill too+ an incredulous loo+ at his smeared face and
121. increment increase
&he new contract calls for a 1. percent increment in salary for each employee for the ne0t two years.
122. incriminate accuse; serve as evidence against
&he witness<s testimony against the rac+eteers incriminates some high public officials as well.
123. incubate hatch; scheme
)nasmuch as our supply of electricity is cut off, we shall have to rely on the hens to incubate these eggs.
12. incubus burden; mental care; nightmare
&he incubus of financial worry helped bring on her nervous brea+down.
12$. incumbent officeholder
&he newly elected public official received valuable advice from the present incumbent.
12'. incur bring upon oneself
1is parents refused to pay any future debts he might incur.
12(. incursion temporary invasion
&he nightly incursions and hit%and%run raids of our neighbors across the border tried the patience of the
country to the point where we decided to retaliate in force.
12*. indefatigable tireless
1e was indefatigable in his constant efforts to raise funds for the Red @ross.
12,. indemnify ma+e secure against loss; compensate for loss
&he city will indemnify all home owners whose property is spoiled by this pro-ect.
13.. indenture bind as servant or apprentice to master
:any immigrants could come to !merica only after they had indentured themselves for several years.
131. indeterminate uncertain; not clearly fi0ed; indefinite
&hat interest rates shall rise appears certain; when they will do so, however, remains indeterminate.
132. indicative suggestive; implying
! lac+ of appetite may be indicative of a ma-or mental or physical disorder.
133. indict charge
)f the grand -ury indicts the suspect, he will go to trial.
13. indifferent unmoved; lac+ing concern
Because she felt no desire to marry, she was indifferent to his constant proposals.
13$. indigence poverty
5either the economists nor the political scientists have found a way to wipe out the ine?uities of wealth and
eliminate indigence from our society.
13'. indigenous native
&obacco is one of the indigenous plants that the early e0plorers found in this country.
13(. indignation anger ar an in-ustice
1e felt indignation at the ill%treatment of the helpless animals.
13*. indignity offensive or insulting treatment
!lthough he seemed to accept cheerfully the indignities heaped upon him, he was inwardly very angry.
13,. indiscriminate choosing at random; confused
#he disapproved of her son<s indiscriminate television viewing and decided to restrict him to educational
1.. indisputable too certain to be disputed
)n the face of these indisputable statements, ) withdraw my complaint.
11. indissoluble permanent
&he indissoluble bonds of marriage are all too often being dissolved.
12. indite write; compose
@yrano indited many letters for @hristian.
13. indolence laAiness
1e outgrew his youthful indolence to become a model of industry and alertness on the -ob.
1. indomitable uncon?uerable
&he founders of our country had indomitable willpower.
1$. indubitably beyond a doubt
Because her argument was indubitably valid, the -udge accepted it.
1'. induce persuade; bring about
!fter the ?uarrel, &ina said nothing could induce her to tal+ to &ony again.
1(. inductive pertaining to induction or preceeding from the specific to the general
&he discovery of the planet Dluto is an e0cellent e0ample of the results that can be obtained from inductive
1*. indulgent humoring; yielding; lenient
indulgent parents spoil their children by giving in to their every whim.
1,. inebriety habitual into0ication
Because of his inebriety, he was discharged from his position as family chauffeur.
1$.. ineffable unutterable; cannot be e0pressed in speech
#uch ineffable -oy must be e0perienced; it cannot be described.
1$1. ineffectual not effective; wea+
Because the candidate failed to get across his message to the public, his campaign was ineffectual.
1$2. ineluctable irresistable; not to be escaped
1e felt that his fate was ineluctible and refused to ma+e any attempt to improve his lot.
1$3. inept lac+ing s+ill; inade?uate; inappropriate
inept as a carpenter, )ra was all thumbs.
1$. inequity unfairness
)n demanding e?ual pay for e?ual wor+, women protest the basic ine?uity of a system that allots greater
financial rewards to men.
1$$. inerrancy infallibility
;ane refused to believe in the pope<s inerrancy, reasoningF 7!ll human beings are capable of error. &he pope
is a human being. &herefore, he pope is capable of error.
1$'. inertia state of being inert or indisposed to move
4ur inertia in this matter may prove disastrous; we must move to aid our allies immediately.
1$(. inevitable unavoidable
8eath and ta0es are both inevitable.
1$*. inexorable relentless; unyielding; implacable
!fter listening to the pleas for clemency, the -udge was ine0orable and gave the convicted man the
ma0imum punishment allowed by law.
1$,. infallible unerring
We must remember that none of us is infallible; we all ma+e mista+es.
1'.. infamous notoriously bad
;esse ;ames was an infamous outlaw.
1'1. infantile childish; infantli+e
When will he outgrow such infantile behaviorI
1'2. infer deduce; conclude
We must be particularly cautious when we infer that a person is guilty on the basis of circumstantial
1'3. infernal pertaining to hell; devilish
&hey could thin+ of no way to hinder his infernal scheme.
1'. infidel unbeliever
&he #aracens made war against tne infidels.
1'$. infiltrate pass into or through; penetrate =an organiAation> snea+ily
)n order to infiltrate enemy lines at night without being seen, the scouts dar+ened their faces and wore blac+
1''. infinitesimal very small
)n the twentieth century, physicists have made their greatest discoveries about the characteristics of
infinitesimal ob-ects li+e the atom and its parts.
1'(. infirmity wea+ness
1er greatest infirmity was lac+ of willpower.
1'*. inflated e0aggerated; pompous; enlarged =with air or gas>
1is claims about the new product were inflated; it did not wor+ as well as he had promised.
1',. influx flowing into
&he influ0 of refugees into the country has ta0ed the relief agencies severely.
1(.. infraction violation
Because of his many infractions of school regulations, he was suspended by the dean.
1(1. infringe violate; encroach
) thin+ your machine infringes on my patent and intend to sue.
1(2. ingenious clever
1e came up with a use for #tyrofoam pac+ing balls that was so ingenious that his business school
professors declared it was mar+etable.
1(3. ingenuous naive; young and unsophisticated
!lthough she was over forty, the movie star still insisted that she be cast as an ingenuous sweet young
1(. ingrained deeply established; firmly rooted
&ry as they would, the missionaries were unable to uproot the ingrained superstitions of the natives.
1($. ingrate ungrateful person
&hat ingrate Bob sneered at the tie ) gave him.
1('. ingratiate become popular with
1e tried to ingratiate himself into her parents< good graces.
1((. inherent firmly established by nature or habit
1is inherent love of -ustice compelled him to come to their aid.
1(*. inhibit prohibit; restrain
&he child was not inhibited in her responses.
1(,. inimical unfriendly; hostile
#he felt that they were inimical and were hoping for her downfall.
1*.. inimitable matchless; not able to be imitated
We admire !uden for his inimitable use of language; he is one of a +ind.
1*1. iniquitous un-ust; wic+ed
) cannot approve of the ini?uitous methods you used to gain your present position.
1*2. initiate begin; originate; receive into a group
&he college is about to initiate a program for reducing math an0iety among students.
1*3. injurious harmful
#mo+ing cigarettes can be in-urious to your health.
1*. inkling hint
&his came as a complete surprise to me as ) did not have the slightest in+ling of your plans.
1*$. innate inborn
1is innate talent for music was soon recogniAed by his parents.
1*'. innocuous harmless
Bet him drin+ it; it is innocuous and will have no ill effect.
1*(. innovation change; introduction of something new
#he loved innovatins -ust because they were new.
1**. innuendo hint; insinuation
) can defend myself against direct accusations; innuendos and obli?ue attac+s on my character are what
trouble me.
1*,. inopportune untimely; poorly chosen
! roc+ concert is an inopportune setting for a ?uiet conversation.
1,.. inordinate unrestrained; e0cessive
#he had an inordinate fondness for candy.
1,1. inquisitor ?uestioner =specially harsh>; investigator
9earing being grilled ruthlessly by the secret police, :arsha faced her in?uisitors with trepidation.
1,2. insalubrious unwholesome; not healthful
&he mos?uito%ridden swamp was an insalubrious place, a breeding ground for malarial contagion.
1,3. insatiable not easily satisfied; greedy
Welty<s thirst for +nowledge was insatiable; she was in the library day and night.
1,. inscrutable impenetrable; not readily understood; mysterious
20perienced po+er players try to +eep their e0pressions inscrutable, hiding their reactions to the cards
behind a so%called po+er face.
1,$. insensate without feeling
#he lay there as insensate as a log.
1,'. insensible unconscious; unresponsive
#herry and ) are very different; at times when ) would be covered with embarrassment, she seems
insensible to shame.
1,(. insidious treacherous; stealthy; sly
&he fifth column is insidious because it wor+s secretly within our territory for our defeat.
1,*. insinuate hint; imply
What are you trying to insinuate by that remar+I
1,,. insipid lac+ing in flavor; dull
9lat prose and flat ginger ale are e?ually insipidF both lac+ spar+le.
2... insolence imprudent disrespect; haughtiness
1ow dare you treat me so rudelyH &he manager will hear of you insolence.
2.1. insolvent ban+rupt; lac+ing money to pay
When rumors that he was insolvent reached his creditors, they began to press him for payment of the
money due them.
2.2. insomnia wa+efulness; inability to sleep
1e refused to -oin us in a midnight cup of coffee because he claimed it gave him insomnia.
2.3. insouciant indifferent; without concern or care
6our insouciant attitude at such a critical moment indicates that you do not understand the gravity of the
2.. instigate urge; start; provo+e
) am afraid that this statement will instigate a revolt.
2.$. insubordinate disobedient
&he insubordinate private was confined to the barrac+s.
2.'. insubstantial lac+ing substance; insignificant; frail
1is hopes for a career in acting proved insubstantial; no one would cast him, even in an insubstantial role.
2.(. insularity narrow%mindedness; isolation
&he insularity of the islanders manifested itself in their suspicion of anyuthing foreign.
2.*. insuperable insurmountable; invincible
)n the face of insuperable difficulties they maintained their courage and will to resist.
2.,. insurgent rebellious
We will not discuss reforms until the insurgent troops have returned to their homes.
21.. insurrection rebellion; uprising
/iven the current state of affairs in #outh !frica, an insurrection seems unavoidable.
211. intangible not able to be perceived by touch; vague
&hough the financial benefits of his 40ford post were meager, Bewis was drawn to it by its intangible
rewardsF prestige, intellectual freedom, the fellowship of his peers.
212. integral complete; necessary for completeness
Dhysical education is an integral part of our curriculum; a sound mind and a sound body are
213. integrate ma+e whole; combine; ma+e into one unit
#he tried to integrate all their activities into one program.
21. integrity uprightness; wholeness
Bincoln, whose personal integrity has inspired millions, fought a civil war to maintain the integrity of the
republic, that these Cnited #tates might remain undivided for all time.
21$. intellect higher mental powers
1e thought college would develop his intellect.
21'. intelligentsia intellectuals; members of the educated elite
#he preferred discussions about sports and politics to the literary conversations of the intelligentsia.
21(. inter bury
&hey are going to inter the body tomorrow ar Broadlawn @emetry.
21*. interdict prohibit; forbid
@iviliAed nations must interdict the use of nuclear weapons if we e0pect out society to live.
21,. interim meantime
&he company will not consider our proposal until ne0t wee+; in the interim, let us proceed as we have in
the past.
22.. interloper intruder
&he merchant thought of his competitors as interlopers who were stealing away his trade.
221. interminable endless
!lthough his speech lasted for only twenty minutes, it seemed interminable to his bored audience.
222. intermittent periodic; on and off
4ur picnic was marred by intermittent rains.
223. internecine mutually destructive
&he rising death toll on both sides indicates the internecine natire of his conflict.
22. interpolate insert between
#he tal+ed so much that ) could not interpolate a single remar+.
22$. interregnum period between two reigns
1enry 3))) desperately sought a male heir because he feared the civil strife that might occur if any
prolonged interregum succeeded his death.
22'. interrogate ?uestion closely; cross%e0amine
"nowing that the 5aAis would interrogate him about his bac+ground, the secret agent invented a cover
story that would help him meet their ?uesions.
22(. intervene come between
#he intervened in the argument between her two sons.
22*. intimate hint
#he intimated rather than stated her preferences.
22,. intimidation fear
! ruler who maintains his power by intimidation is bound to develop clandestine resistance.
23.. intractable unruly; refractory
&he horse was intractable and refused to enter the starting gate.
231. intransigence state of stubborn unwillingness to compromise
&he intransigence of both parties in the dispute ma+es an early settlement almost impossible to obtain.
232. intrepid fearless
9or his intrepid conduct in battle, he was promoted.
233. intrinsically essentially; inherently; naturally
!lthough my grandmother<s china has intrinsically little value, ) shall always cherish it for the memories it
23. introspective loo+ing within oneself
We all have our introspective moments during which we e0amine our souls.
23$. introvert one who is introspective; inclined to thin+ more about oneself
)n his poetry, he reveals that he is an introvert by his intense interest in his own problems.
23'. intrude trespass; enter as an uninvited person
#he hesitated to intrude on their conversation.
23(. intuition power of +nowing without reasoning
#he claimed to +now the truth by intuition.
23*. inundate overflow; flood
&he tremendous waves inundated the town.
23,. inured accustomed; hardened
#he became inured to the !las+an cold.
2.. invalidate wea+en; destroy
&he relatives who received little or nothing sought to invalidate the will by claiming that the deceased had
not been in his right mind when he signed the document.
21. invective abuse
1e had e0pected criticism but not the invective that greeted his proposal.
22. inveigh denounce; utter censure or invective
1e inveighed against the demagoguery of the previous spea+er and urged that the audience re-ect his
philosophy as dangerous.
23. inveigle lead astray; wheedle
#he was inveigled into -oining the club after an initial reluctance.
2. inverse opposite
&here is an inverse ratio between the strength of light and its distance.
2$. invert turn upside down or inside out
When he inverted his body in a hand stand, he felt the blood rush to his head.
2'. inveterate deep%rooted; habitual
#he is an inveterate smo+er and cannot brea+ the habit.
2(. invidious designed to create ill will or envy
We disregarded her invidious remar+s because we realiAed how -ealous she was.
2*. invincible uncon?uerable
#uperman is invincible.
2,. inviolability security from being destroyed, corrupted or profaned
&hey respected the inviolability of her faith and did not try to change her manner of living.
2$.. invoke call upon; as+ for
#he invo+ed her advisor<s aid in filling out her financial aid forms.
2$1. invulnerable incapable of in-ury
!chilles was invulnerable e0cept in his heel.
2$2. iota very small ?uantity
#he hadn<t an iota of common sense.
2$3. irascible irritable; easily angered
1er irascible temper frightened me.
2$. irate angry
When ;ohn<s mother found out that he had overthrown his chec+ing account for the third month in a row,
she was so irate that she could scarcely spea+ to him.
2$$. iridescent e0hibiting rainbowli+e colors
#he admired the iridescent hues of the oil that floated on the surface of the water.
2$'. irksome annoying; tedious
1e found wor+ing on the assembly line ir+some because of the monotony of the operation he had to
2$(. ironic occurring in an une0pected and contrary manner
)t is ironic that his success came when he least wanted it.
2$*. irony hidden sarcasm or satire; use of words that convey a meaning opposite to the literal meaning
/radually his listeners began to realiAe that the e0cessive praise he was lavishing was merely irony; he was
actually denouncing his opponent.
2$,. irreconsilable incompatible; not able to be resolved
Because the separated couple were irreconcilable, the marriage counselor recommended a divorce.
2'.. irrelevant not applicable; unrelated
&his statement is irrelevant and should be disregarded by the -ury.
2'1. irremediable incurable; uncorrectable
&he error she made was irremediable; she could see no way to repair it.
2'2. irreparable not able to be corrected or repaired
6our apology cannot atone for the irreparable damage you have done to her reputation.
2'3. irrepressible unable to be restrained or held bac+
1er high spirits were irrepressible.
2'. irresolute uncertain how to act; wea+
#he had no respect for him because he seemed wea+%willed and irresolute.
2'$. irreverent lac+ing proper respect
&he worshippers resented her irreverent remar+s about their faith.
2''. irrevocable unalterable
Bet us not brood over past mista+es since they are irrevocable.
2'(. isotope varying form of an element
&he study of the isotopes of uranium led to the development of the nuclear bomb.
2'*. isthmus narrow nec+ of land connecting two larger bodies of land
)n a magnificent feat of engineering, /oethals and his men cut through the isthmus of Danama in
constructing the Danama @anal.
2',. itinerant wandering; traveling
1e was an itinerant peddler and traveled through Dennsylvania and 3irginia selling his wares.
2(.. itinerary plan of a trip
Before leaving for his first visit to 9rance and 2ngland, he discussed his itinerary with people who had been
there and with his travel agent.
2(1. intersperse scatter
&he molecules will intersperse throughout the space according to the second law of thermodynamics.
2(2. inquisitive unduly curious; prying; see+ing +nowledge
We need more in?uisitive students in this school; lectures are dull.
1. jaded fatigued; surfeited
1e loo+ed for e0otic foods to stimulate his -aded appetite.
2. jargon language used by special group; gibberish
We tried to understand the -argon of the peddlers in the mar+et place but could not find any basis for
3. jaundiced yellowed; pre-udiced; envious
#he gaAed at the painting with -aundiced eyes; she +new it was better than hers.
. jaunt trip; short -ourney
1e too+ a ?uic+ -aunt to !tlantic @ity.
$. jaunty lighthearted; animated; easy and carefree
)n #inging in the Rain, /ene "elly sang and danced his way throughtthe lighthearted title number in a
properly -aunty style.
'. jeopardy e0posure to death or danger
Begally, one cannot be placed in double -eopardy.
(. jettison throw overboard
)n order to enable the ship to ride safely through the storm, the captain had to -ettison much of his cargo.
*. jingoism e0tremely aggressive and militant patriotism
We must be careful to prevent a spirit of -ingoism from spreading at this time.
,. jocose given to -o+ing
&he salesman was so -ocose that many of his customers suggested that he become a stand%up comic.
1.. jocular said or done in -est
8o not ta+e my -ocular remar+s seriously.
11. jocund merry
#anta @laus is always vivacious and -ocund.
12. jollity gaiety; cheerfulness
&he festive @hristmas dinner was a merry one, and old and young ali+e -oined in the general -ollity.
13. jostle shove; bump
)n the subway he was -ostled by the crowds.
1. jovial good natured; merry
! frown seemed out of place on his invariably -ovial face.
1$. jubilation re-oicing
&here was great -ubilitation when the armistice was announced.
1'. judicious sound in -udgment; wise
!t a +ey moment in his life, he made a -udicious investment that was the foundation of his later wealth.
1(. juggernaut irresistible crushin force
5othing could survive in the path of the -uggernaut.
1*. juncture crisis;-oining point
!t this critical -uncture, let us thin+ carefully before determining the course we shall follow.
1,. junket trip, especially one ta+en for pleasure by an official at public e0pense
&hough she maintained she had gone abroad to collect firsthand data on the @ommon :ar+et, the
opposition claimed that her trip was merely a political -un+et.
2.. junta group of persons -oined in political intrigue; cabal
!s soon as he learned of its e0istence, the dictator ordered the e0ecution of all of the members of the -unta.
21. jurisprudence science of law
1e was more a student of -urisprudence than a practitioner of the law.
22. juxtapose place side by side
@omparison will be easier if you -u0tapose the two ob-ects.
1. kaleidoscope tube in which patterns made by the reflection in mirrors of colored pieces of glass, etc.,
produce interesting symmetrical effects
Deople found a new source of entertainment while peering through the +aleidoscope; they found the ever%
changing patterns fascinating.
2. ken range of +nowledge
) cannot answer your ?uestion since this matter is beyond my +en.
3. killjoy grouch; spoilsport
!t brea+fast we had all been en-oying our bacon and eggs until that +ill-oy ;ohn started tal+ing about how
bad animal fats and cholesterol were for our health.
. kindle start a fire; inspire
1er teacher<s praise +indled a spar+ a hope inside her.
$. kindred related; similar in nature or character
&om #awyer and 1uc+ 9inn were two +indred spirits.
'. kinetic producing motion
8esigners of the electric automobile find that their greatest obstacle lies in the development of light and
efficient storage batteries, the source of the +inetic energy needed to propel the vehicle.
(. kismet fate
+ismet is the !rabic word for 7fate.7
*. kleptomaniac person who has a compulsive desire to steal
&hey discovered that the wealthy customer was a +leptomaniac when they caught her stealing some cheap
,. knavery rascality
We cannot condone such +navery in public officials.
1.. knead mi0; wor+ dough
1er hands grew strong from +neading bread.
11. knell tolling of a bell, especially to indicate a funeral, disaster, etc.; sound of the funeral bell
7&he curfew tolls the +nell of parting day.7
12. knit contract into wrin+les
Whenever 8avid worries, his brow +nits in a frown.
13. knoll little, round hill
Robert Bouis #tevenson<s grave is on a +noll in #amoa; to reach the grave site, you must climb uphill and
wal+ a short distance along a mar+ed path.
1. knotty intricate; difficult; tangled
What to Watson had been a +notty problem to #herloc+ 1olmes was simplicity itself.
1$. kudos honor; glory; praise
&he singer complacently received +udos on his performance from his entourage.
&a+e &est
1. labile li+ely to change; unstable
Because the hormonal changes they undergo affect their spirits, adolescents may become emotionally labile
and e0perience sudden shifts of mood.
2. laborious demanding much wor+ or care; tedious
)n putting together his dictionary of the 2nglish language, 8octor ;ohnson undertoo+ a laborious tas+.
3. labyrinth maAe
&om and Bec+y were lost in the labyrinth of secret caves.
. lacerate mangle; tear
1er body was lacerated in the automobile crash.
$. lachrymose producing tears
1is voice has a lachrymose ?uality that is more appropriate at a funeral than a class reunion.
'. lackadaisical affectedly languid
1e was lac+adaisical and indifferent about his part in the affair.
(. lackluster dull
We were disappointed by the lac+luster performance.
*. laconic brief and to the point
:any of the characters portrayed by @lint 2astwood are laconic typesF strong men of few words.
,. laggard slow; sluggish
&he sailor had been taught not to be laggard in carrying out orders.
1.. lagoon shallow body of water near a sea; la+e
&hey en-oyed their swim in the calm lagoon.
11. laity laypersons; persons not connected with the clergy
&he laity does not always understand the clergy<s problems.
12. lambaste beat; thrash verbally or physically
)t was painful to watch the champion lambaste his opponent, tearing into him mercilessly.
13. lament grieve; e0press sorrow
2ven advocates of the war lamented the loss of so many lives in combat.
1. lampoon ridicule
&his article lampoons the pretensions of some movie moguls.
1$. languid weary; sluggish; listless
1er siege of illness left her languid and pallid.
1'. languish lose animation; lose strength
)n stories, lovelorn damsels used to languish and pine away.
1(. languor lassitude; depression
1is friends tried to overcome the languor into which he had fallen by ta+ing him to parties and to the
1*. lank long and thin
lan+, gaunt, !braham Bincoln was a stri+ing figure.
1,. larceny theft
Because of the prisoner<s record, the district attorney refused to reduce the charge from grand larceny to
petit larceny.
2.. larder pantry; place where food is +ept
&he first thing Bill did on returning home from school was to chec+ what snac+s his mother had in the
21. largess generous gift
Bady Bountiful distributed largess to the poor.
22. lascivious lustful
Because they might arouse lascivious impulses in their readers, the lewd boo+s were banned by the clergy.
23. lassitude languor; weariness
&he hot, tropical weather created a feeling of lassitude and encouraged drowsiness.
2. latent dormant; hidden
1er latent talent was discovered by accident.
2$. lateral coming from the side
)n order to get good plant growth, the gardener must pinch off all lateral shoots.
2'. latitude freedom from narrow limitations
) thin+ you have permitted your son too much latitude in this matter.
2(. laudable praiseworthy; commendable
1is laudable deeds will be remar+ed by all whom he aided.
2*. laudatory e0pressing praise
&he critics< laudatory comments helped to ma+e her a star.
2,. lavish liberal; wasteful
&he actor<s lavish gifts pleased her.
3.. lax careless
We disli+e restaurants where the service is la0 and inattentive.
31. leaven cause to rise or grow lighter; enliven
!s bread dough is leavened, it puffs up, e0panding in volume.
32. lechery gross lewdness; lustfulness
)n his youth he led a life of lechery and debauchery; he did not mend his ways until middle age.
33. lectern reading des+
&he chaplain delivered his sermon from a hastily improvised lectern.
3. leery suspicious; cautious
8on<t eat sushi at this restaurant; )<m a bit leery about how fresh it is.
3$. leeway room to move; margin
When you set a deadline, allow a little leeway.
3'. legacy a gift made by a will
Dart of my legacy from my parents is an album of family photographs.
3(. legend e0planatory list of symbols on a map
&he legend at the bottom of the map made it clear which symbols stood for rest areas along the highway
and which stood for public camp sites.
3*. legerdemain sleight of hand
&he magician demonstrated his renowned legerdemain.
3,. leniency mildness; permissiveness
@onsidering the gravity of the offense, we were surprised by the leniency of the sentence.
.. leonine li+e a lion
1e was leonine in his rage.
1. lethal deadly
)t is unwise to leave lethal weapons where children may find them.
2. lethargic drowsy; dull
&he stuffy room made her lethargic; she felt as if she was about to nod off.
3. levee earthen or stone emban+ment to prevent flooding
!s the river rose and threatened to overflow the levee, emergency wor+ers rushed to reinforce the walls
with sandbags.
. levitate float in the air =especially by magical means>
!s the magician passed his hands over the recumbent body of his assistant, she appeared to rise and levitate
about three feet above the table.
$. levity lac+ of seriousness or steadiness; frivolity
#top giggling abd wriggling around in the pew; such levity is improper in church.
'. levy impose =a fine>; collect =a payment>
@rying 75o ta0ation withouth representation,7 the colonists demonstrated against 2ngland<s power to levy
(. lewd lustful
&hey found his lewd stories ob-ectionable.
*. lexicographer compiler of a dictionary
&he new dictionary is the wor+ of many le0icographers who spent years compiling and editing the wor+.
,. lexicon dictionary
) cannot find this word in any le0icon in the library.
$.. liability drawbac+; debts
1er lac+ of an e0tensive vocabulary was a liability that she was able to overcome.
$1. liaison officer who acts as go%between for two armies; intermediary
!s the liason, he had to avoid offending the leaders of the two armies.
$2. libelous defamatory; in-urious to the good name of a person
1e sued the newspaper because of its libelous story.
$3. libertine debauched person, roue
!lthough she was aware of his reputation as a libertine, she felt she could reform him and help him brea+
his dissolute way of life.
$. libidinous lustful
&hey ob-ected to his libidinous behavior.
$$. libido emotional urges behind human activity
&he psychiatrist maintained that suppression of the libido often resulted in malad-ustment and neuroses.
$'. libretto te0t of an opera
&he composer of an opera<s music is remembered more fre?uently than the author of its libretto.
$(. licentious wanton; lewd; dissolute
&he licentious monarch helped bring about his country<s downfall.
$*. lien legal claim on a property
&here was a delay before Ralph could ta+e possession of his late uncle<s home; apparently, another
claimant had a lien upon the estate.
$,. ligneous li+e wood
Detrified wood may be ligneous in appearance, but it is stoneli+e in composition.
'.. lilliputian e0tremely small
&iny and delicate, the model was built on a lilliputian scale.
'1. limber fle0ible
1ours of ballet classes +ept him limber.
'2. limbo region near heaven or hell where certain souls are +ept
!mong the divisions of 1ell are Durgatory and limbo.
'3. limn draw; outline; describe
Darodo0ically, the more realistic the details this artist chooses, the better able to limn her fantastic, other%
worldly landscapes.
'. limpid clear
! limpid stream ran through his property.
'$. lineage descent; ancestry
1e traced his lineage bac+ to :ayflower days.
''. lineaments features, especially of the face
#he ?uic+ly s+etched the lineaments of his face.
'(. linguistic pertaining to language
&he modern tourist will encounter very little linguistic difficulty as 2nglish has become an almost universal
'*. lionize treat as a celebrity
#he en-oyed being lioniAed and adored by the public.
',. liquidate settle accounts; clear up
1e was able to li?uidate all his debts in short period of time.
(.. list tilt; lean over
&hat flagpole should be absolutely vertical; instead, it lists to one side.
(1. listless lac+ing in spirit or energy
We had e0pected him to be full of enthusiasm and were surprised by his listless attitude.
(2. litany supplicatory prayer
4n this solemn day, the congregation responded to the prayers of the priest during the litany with fervor
and intensity.
(3. lithe fle0ible; supple
1er figure was lithe and willowy.
(. litigation lawsuit
&ry to settle this amicably; ) do not want to start litigation.
($. litotes understatement for emphasis
&o say, 71e little realiAes,7 when we mean that he does not realiAe at all, is an e0ample of the +ind of
understatement we call litotes.
('. livid lead%coloredl; blac+ and blue; ashen; enraged
1is face was so livid with rage that we were afraid that he might have an attac+ of apople0y.
((. loath averse; reluctant
&hey were both loath for him to go.
(*. loathe detest
We loathed the wic+ed villain.
(,. lode metal%bearing vein
)f this lode that we have discovered e0tends for any distance, we have found a fortune.
*.. lofty very high
&hey used to tease him about his lofty ambitions.
*1. loiter hang around; linger
&he policeman told him not to loiter in the alley.
*2. loll lounge about
&hey lolled around in their chairs watching television.
*3. longevity long life
When he reached ninety, the old man was proud of his longevity.
*. lope gallop slowly
!s the horses loped along, we had an opportunity to admire the ever%changing scenery.
*$. loquacious tal+ative
#he is very lo?uacious and can spea+ on the telephone for hours.
*'. lout clumsy person
&he delivery boy is an aw+ward lout.
*(. low moo
9rom the hilltop, they could see the herd li+e ants in the distance; they could barely hear the cattle low.
**. lucid easily understood; clear; intelligible
1er e0planation was lucid enought for a child to grasp.
*,. lucrative profitable
1e turned his hobby into a lucrative profession.
,.. lucre money
Dreferring lucre to undying fame, he wrote stories of popular appeal.
,1. ludicrous laughable; trifling
Bet us be serious; this is not a ludicrous issue.
,2. lugubrious mournful
&he lugabrious howling of the dogs added to our sadness.
,3. lull moment of calm
5ot wanting to get wet, they waited under the awning for a lull in the rain.
,. lumber move heavily of clumsily
#till somewhat torpid after its long hibernation, the bear lumbered through the woods.
,$. lumen unit of light energy =one candle<s worth>
)n buying light bulbs, she chec+ed not only their power, as measured in watts, but their brightness, as
measured in lumens.
,'. luminary celebrity; dignitary
! leading light of the !merican stage, 2thel Barrymore was a theatrical luminary whose name lives on.
,(. luminous shining; issuing light
&he sun is a luminous body.
,*. lunar pertaining to the moon
lunar craters can be plainly seen with the aid of a small telescope.
,,. lurid wild; sensational
&he lurid stories he told shoc+ed his listeners.
1... lurk stealthily lie in waiting; slin+; e0ist unperceived
7Who +nows what evils lur+ in the hearts of menI &he shadow +nows.7
1.1. luscious pleasing to taste or smell
&he ripe peach was luscious.
1.2. luster shine; gloss
&he soft luster of the sil+ in the dim light was pleasing.
1.3. lustrous shining
1er large and lustrous eyes gave a touch of beauty to an otherwise drab face.
1.. luxuriant fertile; abundant; ornate
9arming was easy in this lu0uriant soil.
1.$. laxative facilitating evacuation of the bowels
&he effect of the constipation medicine is la0ative; it empties the bowels.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. macabre gruesome; grisly
&he city morgue is a macabre spot for the uninitiated.
2. mace ceremonial staff; clubli+e medieval weapon
&he /rand :arshal of the parade raised his mace to signal that it was time for the procession to begin.
3. macerate soften by soa+ing in li?uid; waste away
&he strawberries had been soa+ing in the champagn for so long that they had begun to macerateF they
literally fell apart at the touch of a spoon.
. machiavellian crafty; double%dealing
) do not thin+ he will be a good embassador because he is not accustomed to the machiavellian
maneuverings of foreign diplomats.
$. machinations schemes
) can see through your wily machinations.
'. maculated spotted; stained
)nstead of writing that /orbachev had a birthmar+ on his forehead, the pompous young poet sang of the
former premier<s maculated brow.
(. madrigal pastoral song
1is program of fol+ songs included several madrigals which he sang to the accompaniment of a lute.
*. maelstrom whirlpool
&he canoe was tossed about in the maelstrom.
,. magisterial authoritative; imperious
&he learned doctor laid down the law to his patient in a magisterial tone of voice.
1.. magnanimity generosity
5oted for his magnanimity, philanthropist 2ugene Bang donated millions to charity.
11. magnate person of prominence or influence
&he steel magnate decided to devote more time to city politics.
12. magniloquent boastful, pompous
)n their stories of the trial, the reporters ridiculed the magnilo?uent speeches of the defense attorney.
13. magnitude greatness; e0tent
)t is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of his crime.
1. maim mutilate; in-ure
&he hospital could not ta+e care of all who had been mangled or maimed in the railroad accident.
1$. maladroit clumsy; bungling
)n his usual maladroit way, he managed to upset the cart and spill the food.
1'. malaise uneasiness; distress
#he felt a sudden vague malaise when she heard sounds at the door.
1(. malapropism comic misuse of a word
When :rs. :alaprop criticiAes Bydia for being 7as headstrong as an allegory on the ban+s of the 5ile,7 she
confuses 7allegory7 and 7allegator7 in a typical malapropism.
1*. malcontent person dissatisfied with e0isting state of affairs
1e was one of the few malcontents in the @ongress; he constantly voiced his ob-ections to the Dresidential
1,. malediction curse
&he witch uttered maledictions against her captors.
2.. malefactor criminal
We must try to bring these malefactors to -ustice.
21. malevolent wishing evil
We must thwart his malevolent schemes.
22. malfeasance wrongdoing
&he authorities did not discover the campaign manager<s malfeasance until after he had spent most of the
money he had embeAAled.
23. malicious dictated by hatred or spite
&he malicious neighbor spread the gossip.
2. malign spea+ evil of; defame
Because of her hatred of the family, she maligns all who are friendly to them.
2$. malignant having an evil influence; virulent
&his is a malignant disease; we must have to use drastic measures to stop its spread.
2'. malingerer one who feigns illness to escape duty
&he captain ordered the sergeant to punish all malingerers and force them to wor+.
2(. malleable capable of being shaped by pounding
/old is a malleable metal.
2*. malodorous foul%smelling
&he component heap was most malodorous in summer.
2,. mammal vertebrate animal whose female suc+les its young
:any people regard the whale as a fish and do not realiAe that it is a mammal.
3.. mammoth gigantic
&he mammoth corporations of the twentieth century are a mi0ed blessing
31. manacle restrain; handcuff
&he police immediately manacled the prisoner so he could not escape.
32. mandate order; charge
)n his inaugural address, the Dresident stated that he had a mandate from the people to see+ an end to social
evils such as poverty and poor housing.
33. mandatory obligatory
&hese instructions are mandatory; any violation will be severely punished.
3. mangy shabby; wretched
We finally thew out the mangy rug that the dog had destroyed.
3$. maniacal raving mad
1is maniacal laughter frightened us.
3'. manifest understandable; clear
1is evil intentions were manifest and yet we could not stop him.
3(. manifestation outward demonstration; indication
:oAart<s early attraction to the harsichord was the first manifestation of his pronounced musical bent.
3*. manifesto declaration; statement of policy
&he @ommunist :anifesto by :ar0 and 2ngels proclaimed the principles of modern communism.
3,. manifold numerous; varied
) cannot begin to tell you how much ) appreciate your manifold +indnesses.
.. manipulate operate with the hands; control or change by artful means
1ow do you manipulate these puppetsI
1. mannered affected; not natural
!ttempting to copy the style of his wealthy neighbors, /atsby adopted a mannered, artificial way of
2. manumit emancipate; free from bondage
2nlightened slave owners were willing to manumit their slaves and thus put an end to the evil slavery in the
3. marital pertaining to marriage
!fter the publication of his boo+ on marital affairs, he was often consulted by married people on the verge
of divorce.
. maritime bordering on the sea; nautical
&he maritime Drovinces depend on the sea for their wealth.
$. marked noticeable; targeted for vengeance
1e wal+ed with a mar+ed limp, a souvenir of an old )R! attac+. !s British ambassador, he +new he was a
mar+ed man.
'. marred damaged; disfigured
#he had to refinish the marred surface of the table.
(. marshal put in order
!t a debate tournament, e0temporaneous spea+ers have only a minute or two to marshal their thoughts
before addressing their audience.
*. marsupial one of a family of mammals that nurse their offspring in a pouch
&he most common marsupial in 5orth !merica is the opposum.
,. martial warli+e
&he sound of marital music was always inspiring to the young poet.
$.. martinet strict disciplinarian
&he commanding officer was a martinet who observed each regulation to the ltter.
$1. masochist person who en-oys his own pain
&he masochist begs, 71it me.7 &he sadist smiles and says, 7) won<t.7
$2. masticate chew
We must masticate our food carefully and slowly in order to avoid digestive disorders.
$3. materialism preoccupation with physical comforts and things
By its nature, materialism is opposed to idealism, for where the materialist emphasiAes the needs of the
body, the idealist emphasiAes the needs of the soul.
$. maternal motherly
:any animals display maternal instincts only while their offspring are young and helpless.
$$. matriarch woman who rules a family or larger social group
&he matriarch ruled her gypsy tribe with a firm hand.
$'. martrix point of origin; array of numbers or algebraic symbols; mold or die
#ome historians claim the 5ile 3alley was the matri0 of the Western civiliAation.
$(. maudlin effusively sentimental
) do not li+e such maudlin pictures. ) call them tear-er+ers.
$*. maul handle roughly
&he roc+ star was mauled by his overe0cited fans.
$,. mausoleum monumental tomb
1is body was placed in the family mausolem.
'.. mauve pale purple
&he mauve tint in the lilac bush was another indication that spring had finally arrived.
'1. maverick rebel; nonconformist
&o the masculine literary establishment, /eorge #and with her insistence on wearing trousers and smo+ing
cigars was clearly a maveric+ who fought her proper womanly role.
'2. mawkish sic+ening; insipid
6our maw+ish sighs fill me with disgust.
'3. maxim proverb; a truth pithily stated
!esop<s fables illustrate moral ma0ims.
'. mayhem in-ury to the body
&he riot was mar+ed not only by mayhem, with its attendant loss of life and limb, but also by arson and
'$. meager scanty; inade?uate
1is salary was far too meager for him to afford to buy a new car.
''. mealymouthed indirect speech; hypocritical; evasive
Rather than tell ;ill directly what he disli+ed, ;ac+ made a few mealymouthed comments and tried to
change the sub-ect.
'(. meander to wind or turn in its course
)t is difficult to sail up this stream because of the way it meanders through the countryside.
'*. meddlesome interfering
1e felt his marriage was suffering because of his meddlesome mother%in%law.
',. mediate settle a dispute through the services of an outsider
Bet us mediate out differences rather than engage in a costly stri+e.
(.. mediocre ordinary; commonplace
We were disappointed because he gave a rather mediocre performance in this role.
(1. meditation reflection; thought
#he reached her decision only after much meditation.
(2. medley mi0ture
&he band played a medley of /ershwin tunes.
(3. meek submissive; patient and long%suffering
:r. Barrett never e0pected his mee+ daughter would dare to defy him by eloping with her suitor.
(. megalomania mania for doing grandiose things
8evelopers who spend millions trying to build the world<s tallest s+yscraper suffer from megalomania.
($. melee fight
&he captain tried to ascertain the cause of the melee that had bro+en out among the crew members.
('. mellifluous flowing smoothly; smooth
)talian is a mellifluous language.
((. memento to+en; reminder
&a+e this boo+ as a memento of your visit.
(*. memorialize commemorate
Bet us memorialiAe his great contribution by dedicating this library in his honor.
(,. mendacious lying; false
1e was pathological liar, and his friends learned to discount his mendacious stories.
*.. mendicant beggar
9rom the moment we left the ship, we were surrounded by mendicants and peddlers.
*1. menial suitable for sevants; low
) cannot understand why a person of your ability and talent should engage in such menial activities.
*2. mentor counselor; teacher
8uring this very trying period, she could not have had a better mentor, for the teacher was sympathetic and
*3. mercantile concerning trade
) am more interested in the opportunites available in the mercantile field than ) am in those in the legal
*. mercenary motivated solely by money or gain
7)<m not in this war because ) get my +ic+s waving flags,7 said the mercenary soldier. 7)<m in it for the
*$. mercurial fic+le; changing
1e was of a mercurial temperament and therefore unpredictable.
*'. meretricious flashy; tawdry; falsely attractive
1er -ewels were ine0pensive but not meretricious.
*(. merger combination =of two business corporations>
When the firm<s president married the director of financial planning, the office -o+e was that it wasn<t a
marriage, it was a merger.
**. mesmerize hypnotiAe
&he incessant drone seemed to mesmeriAe him and place him in a trance.
*,. metallurgical pertaining to the art of removing metals from ores
8uring the course of his metallurgical research, the scientist developed a steel alloy of tremendous strength.
,.. metamorphosis change of form
&he metamorphosis of caterpillar to butterfly is typical of many such changes in animal life.
,1. metaphor implied comparison
71e soared li+e an eagle7 is an e0ample of a simile; 71e is an eagle in flight,7 is a metaphor.
,2. metaphysical pertaining to speculative philosophy
&he modern poets have gone bac+ to the fanciful poems of the metaphysical poets of the seventeenth
century for many of their images.
,3. mete measure; distribute
1e tried to be impartial in his efforts to mete out -ustice.
,. meteoric swift; momentarily brilliant
We all wondered at his meteoric rise to fame.
,$. methodical systematic
!n accountant must be methodical and maintain order among his financial records.
,'. meticulous e0cessively careful
1e was meticulous in chec+ing his accounts and never made mista+es.
,(. metropolis large city
2very evening this terminal is filled with the thousands of commuters who are going from this metropolis
to their homes in the suburbs.
,*. mettle courage; spirit
When challenged by the other horses in the race, the thoroughbred proved its mettle by its determination to
hold the lead.
,,. miasma swamp gas; heavy, vaporous atmosphere, often emanating from decaying matter; pervasive
corrupting influence
&he smog hung over 3ictorian Bondon li+e a dar+ cloud; noisome, ree+ing of decay, it was a visible
1... microcosm small world
)n the microcosm of our rural village, we find illustrations of all the evils that beset the universe.
1.1. migrant changing its habitat; wandering
&hese migrant birds return every spring.
1.2. migratory wandering
&he return of the migratory birds to the northern sections of this country is a harbinger of spring.
1.3. milieu environment; means of e0pression
1is milieu is watercolors, although he has produced e0cellent oil paintings and lithographs.
1.. militant combative; bellicose
!lthoughat this time he was advocating a policy of neutrality, one could usually find him adopting a more
militant attitude.
1.$. militate wor+ against
6our record of lateness and absence will militate against your chances of promotion.
1.'. millenium thousand%year period; period of happiness and prosperity
) do not e0pect the milennium to come during my lifetime.
1.(. mimicry imitation
1er gift for mimicry was so great that her friends said that she should be in the theater.
1.*. minatory menacing; threatening
;abbing a minatory forefinger at 8orothy, the Wic+ed Witch cried, 7)<ll get you, and your little dog, tooH7
1.,. mincing affectedly dainty
6um%6um wal+ed across the stage with mincing steps.
11.. minion a servile dependent
1e was always accompanied by several of his minions because he en-oyed their subservience and flattery.
111. minuscule e0tremely small
Why should ) involve myself with a pro-ect with so minuscule a chance for successI
112. minute e0tremely small
&he twins resembled one another closely; only minute differences set them apart.
113. minutiae petty details
#he would have li+ed to ignore the minutiae of daily living.
11. mirage unreal reflection; optical illusion
&he lost prospector was fooled by a mirage in the desert.
11$. mire entangle; stic+ in swampy ground
&heir rear wheels became mired in mud.
11'. mirth merriment; laughter
#ober :alvolio found #ir &oby<s mirth improper.
11(. misadventure mischance; ill luc+
&he young e0plorer met death by misadventure.
11*. misanthrope one who hates man+ind
We thought the hermit was a miantrope because he shunned our society.
11,. misapprehension error; misunderstanding
&o avoid msapprehension, ) am going to as+ all of you to repeat the instructions ) have given.
12.. miscellany mi0ture of writings on various sub-ects
&his is an interesting miscellany of nineteenth%century prose and poetry.
121. mischance ill luc+
By mischance, he lost his wee+<s salary.
122. misconstrue interpret incorrectly; mis-udge
#he too+ the passage seriously rather than humourously because she misconstrued the author<s ironic tone.
123. miscreant wretch; villain
1is +indness to the miscreant amaAed all of us who had e0pected to hear severe punishment pronounced.
12. misdemeanor minor crime
&he culprit pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor rather than face trial for a felony.
12$. miserly stingy; mean
&he miserly old man hoarded his coins not out of prudence but out of greed.
12'. misgivings doubts
1amlet described his misgivings to 1oratio but decided to fence with Baertes despite his foreboding of evil.
12(. mishap accident
With a little care you could have avoided this mishap.
12*. misnomer wrong name; incorrect designation
1is tyrannical conduct proved to all that his nic+name, "ing 2ric the ;ust, was a misnomer.
12,. misogamy hatred of marriage
1e remained a bachelor not because of misogamy but because of ill fateF his fiancee died before the
13.. misogynist hater of women
#he accused him of being a misogynist because he had been a bachelor all his life.
131. missile ob-ect to be thrown or pro-ected
#cientists are e0perimenting with guided missiles.
132. missive letter
&he ambassador received a missive from the #ecretary of #tate.
133. mite very small ob-ect or creature; small coin
/nats are annoying mites that sing.
13. mitigate appease
5othing he did could mitigate her wrath; she was unforgiving.
13$. mnemonic pertaining to memory
1e used mnemonic tric+s to master new words.
13'. mobile movable; not fi0ed
&he mobile blood ban+ operated by the Red @ross visited our neighborhood today.
13(. mode prevailing style
#he was not used to their lavish mode of living.
13*. modicum limited ?uantity
!lthough his story is based on a modicum of truth, most of the events he describes are fictitious.
13,. modish fashionable
#he always discarded all garments that were no longer modish.
1.. modulation toning down; changing from one +ey to another
When we she spo+e, it was with ?uiet modulation of voice.
11. mogul powerful person
&he oil moguls made great profits when the price of gasoline rose.
12. molecule the smallest particle =one or more atoms> of a substance that has all the properties of that
)n chemistry, we study how atoms and molcules react to form new substances.
13. mollify soothe
We tried to mollify the hysterical child by promising her many gifts.
1. mollycoddle pamper; indulge e0cessively
8on<t mollycoddle the boy, :audH 6ou<ll spoil him.
1$. molt shed or cast off hair or feathers
&he male robin molted in the spring.
1'. molten melted
&he city of Dompeii was destroyed by volcanic ash rather than by molten lava flowing from :ount
1(. momentous very important
4n this momentous occasion, we must be very solemn.
1*. momentum ?uantity of motion of a moving body; impetus
&he car lost momentum as it tried to ascend the steep hill.
1,. monarchy government under a single hereditary ruler with varying degrees of power
2ngland today remains a monarchy.
1$.. monastic related to mon+s
Wanting to live a religious life, he too+ his monastic vows.
1$1. monetary pertaining to money
;ane held the family purse stringsF she made all monetary decisions affecting the household.
1$2. monochromatic having only one color
:ost people who are color blind actually can distinguish several colors; some, however, have a truly
monochromatic view of a world all in shades of gray.
1$3. monolithic solidly uniform; unyielding
"nowing the importance of appearing resolute, the patriots sought to present a monolithic front.
1$. monotheism belief in one /od
!braham was the first to proclaim his belief in monotheism.
1$$. monotony sameness leading to boredom
1e too+ a clerical -ob, but soon grew to hate the monotony of his daily routine.
1$'. monumental massive
Writing a dictionary is a monumental tas+.
1$(. moodiness fits of depression or gloom
We could not discover the cause of her recurrent moodiness.
1$*. moratorium legal delay of payment
)f we declare a moratorium and delay collection of debts for si0 months, ) am sure the farmers will be able
to meet their bills.
1$,. morbid given to unwholesome thought; gloomy
&hese morbid speculations are dangerous; we must lighten our spirits by emphasiAing more pleasant
1'.. mordant biting; sarcastic; stinging
!ctors feared the critic<s mordant pen.
1'1. mores customs
&he mores of :e0ico are those of #pain with some modifications.
1'2. moribund at the point of death
&he doctors called the family to the bedside of the moribund patient.
1'3. morose ill%humored; sullen
When we first meet 1amlet, we find him morose and depressed.
1'. mortician underta+er
&he mortician prepared the corpse for burial.
1'$. mortify humiliate; punish the flesh
#he was so mortified by her blunder that she ran to her room in tears.
1''. mosaic picture made of smell, colorful inlaid tiles
&he mayor compared the ciry to a beautiful mosaic made up of people of every race and religion on earth.
1'(. mote small spec+
&he tiniest mote in the eye is very painful.
1'*. motif theme
&his simple motif runs throughout the score.
1',. motility ability to move spontaneously
@ertain organisms e0hibit remar+able motility; motile spores, for e0ample, may travel for miles before
coming to rest.
1(.. motley parti%colored; mi0ed
&he captain had gathered a motley crew to sail the vessel.
1(1. mottled spotted
When he blushed, his face too+ on a mottled hue.
1(2. mountebank charlatan; boastful pretender
&he patent medicine man was a mounteban+.
1(3. muddle confuse; mi0 up
1is thoughts were muddled and chaotic.
1(. muggy warm and damp
!ugust in 5ew 6or+ @ity is often muggy.
1($. mulct defraud a person of something
&he lawyer was accused of trying to mulct the boy of his legacy.
1('. multifarious varied; greatly diversified
! career woman and mother, she was constantly busy with the multifarious activities of her daily life.
1((. multiform having many forms
#nowfla+es are multiform but always he0agonal.
1(*. multilingual having many languages
Because they are bordered by so many countries, the #wiss people are multilingual.
1(,. multiplicity state of being numerous
1e was appalled by the multuplicity of details he had to complete before setting out on his mission.
1*.. mundane worldly as opposed to spiritual
1e was concerned only with mundane matters, especially the daily stoc+ mar+et ?uotations.
1*1. munificent very generous
&he munificent gift was presented to the bride by her rich uncle.
1*2. murkiness dar+ness; gloom
&he mur+iness and fog of the waterfront that evening depressed me.
1*3. muse ponder
9or a moment he mused about the beauty of the scene, but his thought soon changed as he recalled his own
personal problems.
1*. musky having the odor of mus+
#he left a trace of mus+y perfume behind her.
1*$. muster gather; assemble
Washington mustered his forces at &renton.
1*'. musty stale; spoiled by age
&he attic was dar+ and musty.
1*(. mutable changing in form; fic+le
1is opinion were mutable and easily influenced by anyone who had any powers of persuasion.
1**. muted silent; muffled; toned down
)n the funeral parlor, the mourners< voices had a muted ?uality.
1*,. mutilate maim
&he torturer threatened to mutilate his victim.
1,.. mutinous unruly; rebellious
&he captain had to use force to ?uiet his mutinous crew.
1,1. myopic nearsighted
)n thin+ing only of your present needs and ignoring the future, you are being rather myopic.
1,2. myriad very large number
myriads of mos?uitoes from the swamps invaded our village every twilight.
1,3. mutter murmur or grumble
&he child muttered at the doll.
1,. millinery person who ma+es or sells women<s hats
&he millinery displayed fashionable hats in the street where many women passed by.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. nadir lowest point
!lthough few people realiAed it, the 8ow%;ones averages had reached their nadir and would soon begin an
upward surge.
2. naivete ?uality of being unsophisticated
) cannot believe that such naivete is unassumed in a person of her age and e0perience.
3. narcissist conceited person
! narcissist is his own best friend.
. narrative related to telling a story
! born teller of tales, 4lsen used her impressive narrative s+ills to advantage in her story 7) #tand 1ere
$. nascent incipient; coming into being
)f we could identify these revolutionary movements in their nascent state, we would be able to eliminate
serious trouble in later years.
'. natation swimming
&he Red @ross emphasiAes the need for courses in natation.
(. natty neatly or smartly dresssed
Driding himself on being a natty dresser, the gangster Bugsy #iegel collected a wardrobe of imported suits
and ties.
*. nauseate cause to become sic+; fill with disgust
&he foul smells began to nauseate him.
,. nautical pertaining to ships or navigation
&he :aritime :useum contains many models of clipper ships, logboo+s, anchors and many other items of
a nautical nature.
1.. nebulous vague; haAy; cloudy
#he had only a nebulous memory of her grandmother<s face.
11. necromancy blac+ magic; dealings with the dead
Because he was able to perform feats of necromancy, the natives thought he was in league with the devil.
12. nefarious very wic+ed
1e was universally feared because of his many nefarious deeds.
13. negation denial
) must accept his argument since you have been unable to present any negation of his evidence.
1. negligence carelessness
negligence can prove costly near complicated machinery.
1$. negligible so small, trifling, or unimportant as to be easily disregarded
Because the damage to his car had been negligible, :ichael decided he wouldn<t bother to report the matter
to his insurance company.
1'. nemesis revenging agent
@aptain Bligh vowed to be @hristian<s nemesis.
1(. neologism new or newly coined word or phrase
!s we invent new techni?ues and professions, we must also invent neologisms such as 7microcomputer7
and 7astronaut7 to describe them.
1*. neophyte recent convert; beginner
&his monuntain slope contains slides that will challenge esperts as well as neophytes.
1,. nepotism favoritism =to a relative>
;ohn left his position with the company because he felt that advancement was based on nepotism rather
than ability.
2.. nether lower
&radition locates hell in the nether regions.
21. nettle annoy; ve0
8o not let him nettle you with his sarcastic remar+s.
22. nexus connection
) fail to see the ne0us that binds these two widely separated events.
23. nib bea+; pen point
&he nibs of fountain pens often become clotted and corroded.
2. nicety precision; minute distinction
) cannot distinguish between such niceties of reasoning.
2$. niggardly meanly stingy; parsimonious
&he niggardly pittance the widow receives from the government cannot +eep her from poverty.
2'. niggle spend too much time on minor points; carp
Bet<s not niggle over details.
2(. nihilism denial of traditional values; total s+epticism
nihilism holds that e0istence has no meaning.
2*. nirvana Buddihist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of
an impersonal beatitude
8espite his desire to achieve nirvana, the young Buddhist found that even the buAAing of a fly could distract
him from his meditation.
2,. nocturnal done at night
:r. ;ones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chic+en coops.
3.. noisome foul smelling; unwholesome
) never could stand the noisome atmosphere surrounding the slaughter houses.
31. nomadic wandering
#everal nomadic tribes of )ndians would hunt in this area each year.
32. nomenclature terminology; system of names
#he struggled to master scientific nomenclature.
33. nominal in name only; trifling
1e offered to drive her to the airport for only a nominal fee.
3. nonchalance indifference; lac+ of interest
9ew people could understand how he could listen to the news of the tragedy with such nonchalance; the
mahority regarded him as callous and unsympathetic.
3$. noncommittal neutral; unpledged; undecided
We were annoyed by his noncommittal reply for we had been led to e0pect definite assurances of his
3'. nondescript undistinctive; ordinary
&he private detective was a short, nondescript fellow with no ourstanding features, the sort of person one
would never notice in a crowd.
3(. nonentity person of no importance; none0istence
8on<t dismiss ;ohn as a nonentity; in his ?uiet way, he<s very important to the firm.
3*. nonplus bring to a halt by confusion; perple0
;ac+<s uncharacteristic rudeness nonplussed ;ill, leaving her uncertain how to react.
3,. nostalgia homesic+ness; longing for the past
&he first settlers found so much wor+ to do that they had little time for nostalgia.
.. nostrum ?uestionable medicine
5o ?uac+ selling nostrums is going to cheat me.
1. notoriety disrepute; ill fame
&o the starlet, any publicity was good publicityF if she couldn<t have a good reputation, she<d settle for
2. novelty something new; newness
&he computer is no longer a novelty around the office.
3. novice beginner
2ven a novice can do good wor+ if he follows these simple directions.
. noxious harmful
We must trace the source of these no0ious gases before they asphy0iate us.
$. nuance shade of difference in meaning or color
&he uns+illed eye of the layperson has difficulty in dicerning the nuances of color in the paintings.
'. nubile marrigeable
:rs. Bennet, in Dride and Dre-udice by ;ane !usten, was worried about finding suitable husbands for her
five nubile daughters.
(. nugatory futile; worthless
&his agreement is nugatory for no court will enforce it.
*. nullify to ma+e invalid
4nce the contract was nullified, it no longer had any legal force.
,. numismatist person who collects coins
&he numismatist had a splendid collection of anti?ue coins.
$.. nuptial related to marriage
&heir nuptial ceremony was performed in /olden /ate Dar+.
$1. nurture nourish; educate; foster
&he head #tart program attempts to nurture pre+indergarten children so that they will do well when they
enter public school.
$2. nutrient nourishing substance
!s a budding nutritionist, "im has learned to design diets that contain foods rich in important basic
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. oaf stupid, aw+ward person
1e called the unfortunate waiter a clumsy oaf.
2. obdurate stubborn
1e was obdurate in his refusal to listen to our complaints.
3. obeisance bow
#he made an obeisance as the +ing and ?ueen entered the room.
. obelisk tall column tapering and ending in a pyramid
@leopatra<s 5eedle is an obelis+ in 5ew 6or+ @ity<s @entral Dar+.
$. obese e0cessively fat
)t is advisable that obese people try to lose weight.
'. obfuscate confuse; muddle
8o not obfuscate the issues by dragging in irrelevant arguments.
(. obituary dealth notice
) first learned of her death when ) read the obituary in the newspaper.
*. objective not influenced by emotions; fair
2ven though he was her son, she tried to be ob-ective about his behavior.
,. objective goal; aim
! degree in medicine was her ultimate ob-ective.
1.. obligatory binding; re?uired
)t is obligatory that boo+s borrowed from the library be returned within two wee+s.
11. oblique slanting; deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight line
&he sergeant ordered the men to march 7obli?ue right.7
12. obliterate destroy completely
&he tidal wave obliterated several island villages.
13. oblivion forgetfulness
1er wor+ had fallen into a state of oblivion; no one bothered to read them.
1. obloquy slander; disgrace; infamy
) resent the oblo?uy that you are casting upon my reputation.
1$. obnoxious offensive
) find your behavior obno0ious; please mend your ways.
1'. obscure dar+; vague; unclear
2ven after ) read the poem a fourth time, its meaning was still obscure.
1(. obscure dar+en; ma+e unclear
!t times he seemed purposely to obscure his meaning, preferring mystery to clarity.
1*. obsequious slavishly attentive; servile; sycophantic
1elen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves; nothing irritated her more than an
e0cessively obse?uious waiter or a fawning salescler+.
1,. obsequy funeral ceremony
1undreads paid their last respects at his obse?uies.
2.. obsession fi0ed idea; continued brooding
&his obsession with the supernatural has made him unpopular with his neighbors.
21. obsidian cla+ volcanic roc+
&he deposits of obsidian on the mountain slopes were an indiacation that volcano had erupted in ancient
22. obsolete outmoded
71ip7 is an obsolete e0pression; it went out with love beads and tie%dye shirts.
23. obstetrician physician specialiAing in delivery of babies
Cnli+e midwives, who care for women giving birth at home, obstetricians generally wor+ in a hospital
2. obstinate stubborn
We tried to persuade him to give up smo+ing, but he was obstinate and refused to change.
2$. obstreperous boisterous; noisy
&he crowd became obstreperous and shouted their disapproval of the proposals made by the spea+er.
2'. obtrusive pushing forward
) found her a very obstrusive person, constantly see+ing the center of the stage.
2(. obtuse blunt; stupid
Because he was so obtuse, he could not follow the teacher<s reasoning and as+ed foolish ?uestions.
2*. obviate ma+e unnecessary; get rid of
) hope this contribution will obviate any need for further collections of funds.
2,. occident the West
)t will ta+e occident to understand the ways and customs of the orient.
3.. occlude shut; close
! blood clot occluded an artery to the heart.
31. occult mysterious; secret; supernatural
&he occult rites of the organiAation were revealed only to members.
32. oculist physician who specialiAed in treatment of the eyes
)n many states, an oculist is the only one who may apply medicinal drops to the eyes for the purpose of
e0amining them.
33. odious hateful
) find the tas+ of punishing you most odious.
3. odium repugnance; disli+e
) cannot e0press the odium ) feel at your heinous actions.
3$. odoriferous giving off an odor
&he odoriferous spices stimulated her -aded appetite.
3'. odorous having an odor
&his variety of hybrid tea rose is more odorous than the one you have in your garden.
3(. odyssey long, evenful -ourney
&he refugee<s -ourney from @ambodia was a terrifying odyssey.
3*. offensive attac+ing; insulting; distasteful
/etting into street brawls is no minor offense for professional bo0ers, who are re?uired by law to restrict
their offensive impulses to the ring.
3,. offhand casual; done without prior thought
20pecting to be treated with due propriety by her costs, /reat%!unt :aud was offended by their offhand
.. officious meddlesome; e0cessively pushy in offering one<s services
!fter her long flight, ;ill -ust wanted to nap, but the officious bellboy was intent on showing her all the
special features of the delu0e suite.
1. ogle glance co?uettishly at; ma+e eyes at
#itting for hours at the sidewal+ cafe, the old gentleman would oggle the young girls and recall his youthful
2. olfactory concerning the sense of smell
&he olfactory organ is the nose.
3. oligarchy government by a few
&he feudal oligarchy was supplanted by an autocracy.
. ominous threatening
&hose clouds are ominous; they suggest that a severe storm is on the way.
$. omnipotent all%powerful
&he monarch regarded himself as omnipotent and responsible to no one for his acts.
'. omnipresent universally present; ubi?uitous
4n @hristmas 2ve, #anta @laus is omnipotent.
(. omniscient all%+nowing
) do not pretend to be omniscient, but ) am positive about this fact.
*. omnivorous eating both plant and animal food; devouring everything
#ome animals, including humans, are omnivorous and eat both meat and vegetables; others are either
carnivorous or herbivorous.
,. onerous burdensome
1e as+ed for an assistant because his wor+ load was too onerous.
$.. onomatopoeia words formed in imitation of natural sounds
Words li+e 7rustle7 and 7gargle7 are illustrations of onomatopoeia.
$1. onslaught vicious assault
We suffered many casualties during une0pected onslaght of the enemy troops.
$2. onus burden; responsibility
&he emperor was spared the onus of signing the surrender papers; instead, he relegated the assignment to
his generals.
$3. opalescent iridescent
&he !ncient :ariner admired the opalescent sheen on the water.
$. opaque dar+; not transparent
&he opa?ue window +ept the sunlight out of the room.
$$. opiate sleep producer; deadener of pain
By such opiates, she made the people forget their difficulties and accept their unpleasant circumstances.
$'. opportune timely; well chosen
6ou have come at an opportune moment for ) need a new secretary.
$(. opportunist individual who sacrifices principles for e0pediency by ta+ing advantage of circumstances
9orget about ethicsH 1e<s such an opportunist that he<ll vote in favor of any deal that will give him a brea+.
$*. opprobrium infamy; vilification
1e refused to defend himself against the slander and opprobrium hurled against him by the newspapers; he
preferred to rely on his record.
$,. optician ma+er and seller of eyeglasses
&he patient too+ the prescription given him by his oculist to the optician.
'.. optimist person who loo+s on the bright side
&he pessimist says the glass is half%empty; the optimist says it is half%full.
'1. optimum most favorable
)f you wait for the optimum moment to act, you may never begin your pro-ect .
'2. optional not compulsory; left to one<s choice
) was impressed by the range of optional accessories for my microcomputer that were available.
'3. optometrist one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects
!lthough an optometrist is ?ualified to treat many eye disorders, she may not use medicinesor surgery in
her e0aminations.
'. opulence e0treme wealth; lu0uriousness; abundance
&he glitter and opulence of the ballroom too+ @inderella<s breath away.
'$. opus wor+
!lthough many critics hailed his 9ifth #ymphony, he did not regard it as his ma-or opus.
''. oracular foretelling; mysterious
4edipus could not understand the oracular warning he received.
'(. oratorio dramatic poem set to music
&he /lee @lub decided to present an oratorio during their recital.
'*. ordain command; arrange; consecrate
&he +ing ordained that no foreigner should be allowed to enter the city.
',. ordeal severe trial or affliction
&erry !nderson spo+e movingly of his long ordeal as a hostage in Bebanon.
(.. ordinance decree
Dassing a red light is a violation of a city ordinance.
(1. ordination ceremony conferring holy orders
&he candidate for ordination had to meet with the bishop and the diocean officers before being -udged
ready to be ordained a deacon.
(2. orient get one<s bearings; ad-ust
Dhilip spent his first day in 8enver orienting himself to the city.
(3. orientation act of finding oneself in society
9reshman orientation provides the incoming students with an opportunity to learn about their new
environment and their place in it.
(. orifice mouthli+e opening; small opening
&he 1owe @averns were discovered when someone observed that a cold wind was issuing from an orifice
in the hillside.
($. ornate e0cessively or elaborately decorated
9urniture of the Baro?ue period can be recogniAed by its ornate carvings.
('. ornithologist scientific student of birds
!uduborn<s drawings of !merican bird life have been of interest not only to the ornithologists but also to
the general public.
((. orthodox traditional; conservative in belief
9aced with a problem, he preferred to ta+e an orthodo0 approach rather than shoc+ anyone.
(*. orthography correct spelling
:any of us find 2nglish orthography difficult to master because so many of our words are written
(,. oscillate vibrate pendulumli+e; waver
)t is interesting to note how public opinion oscillates between the e0tremes of optimism and pessimism.
*.. osseus made of bone; bony
&he hollow 7soft spot7 found at the top of the infant<s s+ull gradually closes as new osseus tissue fills in the
*1. ossify change or harden into bone
When he called his opponent a 7bonehead,7 he implied that his adversary<s brain had ossified and that he
was not capable of clear thin+ing.
*2. ostensible apparent; professed; pretended
!lthough the ostensible purpose of this e0pedition is to discover new lands, we are really interested in
finding new mar+ets for our products.
*3. ostentatious showy; pretentious; trying to attract attention
&rump<s latest casino in !tlantic @ity is the most ostentatious gambling place in the 2astF it easily
outglitters its competitors.
*. ostracize e0clude from public favor; ban
!s soon as the newspapers carried the story of his connection with the criminals, his friends began to
ostraciAe him.
*$. oust e0pel; drive out
&he world wondered if !?uino would be able to oust :arcos from office.
*'. outlandish biAAare; peculiar; unconventional
&he eccentric professor who engages in mar+edly outlandish behavior is a stoc+ figure in novels with an
academic setting.
*(. outmoded no longer stylish; old%fahioned
Cnconcerned about +eeping in style, Benore was perfectly happy to wear outmoded clothes as long as they
were clean and unfrayed.
**. outskirts fringes; outer borders
Biving outs+irts of Boston, #arah sometimes felt as if she were cut off from the cultural heart of the city.
*,. outspoken candid; blunt
&he candidate was too outspo+en to be a successful politician; he had not yet learned to weigh his words
,.. outrtip surpass; outdo
;esse 4wens easily outstripped his competitors to win the gold metal at the 4lympic /ames.
,1. outwit outsmart; tric+
By disguising himself as an old woman, 1olmes was able to outwit his pursuers and escape capture.
,2. ovation enthusiastic applause
When Dlacido 8omingo came on stage in the first act of Ba Boheme, he was greeted by a tremendous
,3. overbearing bossy; arrogant; decisively important
@ertain of her own importance and of the unimportance of everyone else, Bady Brac+nell was intolerably
overbearing in manner. 7)n choosing a husband,7 she said, 7good birth is of overbearing importance;
compared to that, neither wealth nor talent signifie
,. overt open to view
!ccording to the Cnited #tates @onstitution, a person must commit an overt act before he may be tried for
,$. overweening presumptuous; arrogant
1is overweening pride in his accomplishments was not -ustified.
,'. overwrought e0tremely agitated; hysterical
When "ate heard the news of the sudden tragedy, she became too overwrought to wor+ and had to leave
the office early.
,(. ovoid egg%shaped
!t 2aster she had to cut out hundreds of brightly colored ovoid shapes.
,*. overhaul thoroughly e0amine the condition of and repair if necessary
)t is necessary for the engineers of 5!#! to overhaul the roc+et everyday; otherwise, an incident similar to
that of @hallenger accident might happen.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. pachyderm thic+%s+inned animal
&he elephant is probably the best%+nown pachyderm.
2. pacifist one opposed to force; antimilitarist
&he pacifists urged that we reduce our military budget and recall our troops stationed overseas.
3. pacify soothe; ma+e calm or ?uiet; subdue
8entists criticiAe the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them.
. paean song of praise or -oy
paeans celebrating the victory filled the air.
$. painstaking showing hard wor+; ta+ing great care
&he new high%fre?uency word list is the result of painsta+ing efforts on the part of our research staff.
'. palatable agreeable; pleasing to the taste
5either ;ac+<s underba+ed opinions nor his overcoo+ed casseroles were palatable to me.
(. palatial magnificent
1e proudly showed us through his palatial home.
*. paleontology study of prehistoric life
&he professor of paleontology had a superb collection of fossils.
,. palette board on which a painter mi0es pigments
!t the present time, art supply stores are selling a paper palette that may be discarded after use.
1.. palimpsest parchment used for second time after original writing has been erased
Csing chemical reagents, scientists have been able to restore the original writings on many palimpsests.
11. pall grow tiresome
&he study of word lists can eventually pall and put one to sleep.
12. pallet small, poor bed
&he weary traveler went to sleep on his straw pallet.
13. palliate ease pain; ma+e less severe or offensive
)f we cannot cure this disease at present, we can, at least try to palliate the symptoms.
1. pallid pale; wan
Because his occupation re?uired that he wor+ at night and sleep during the day, he had an e0ceptionally
pallid comple0ion.
1$. palpable tangible; easily perceptible
) cannot understand how you could overloo+ such a palpable blunder.
1'. palpitate throb; flutter
!s he became e0cited, his heart began to palpitate more and more erratically.
1(. paltry insignificant; petty
&his is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece.
1*. pan criticiAe harshly
1oping for a rave review of his new show, the playwright was miserable when the critics panned it
1,. panacea cure%all; remedy for all diseases
&here is no easy panacea that will solve our complicated international situation.
2.. panache flair; flamboyance
:any performers imitate 5oel @oward, but few have his panache and sense of style.
21. pandemic widespread; affecting the ma-ority of people
&hey feared the !)8# epidemic would soon reach pandemic proportions.
22. pandemonium wild tumult
When the ships collided in the harbor, pandemonium bro+e out among the passengers.
23. pander cater to the low desires of others
&he reviewer accused the ma+ers of Bethal Weapon of pandering to the masses< taste of violence.
2. panegyric formal praise
&he modest hero blushed to hear the spea+ers delivering panegyrics about his valorous act.
2$. panoramic denoting an unobstructed and comprehensive view
4n a clear day, from the top of the World &rade @enter you can get a panoramic view of 5ew 6or+ @ity
and neighboring stretches of 5ew ;ersey and Bong )sland.
2'. pantomime acting without dialogue
Because he wor+ed in pantomime, the clown could be understood wherever he appeared.
2(. papyrus ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant
&he ancient 2gyptians were among the first to write on papyrus.
2*. parable short, simple story teaching a moral
Bet us apply to our own conduct the lesson that this parable teaches.
2,. paradigm model; e0ample; pattern
Davlov<s e0periment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned%
response e0periment in behavioal psychology.
3.. paradox statement that loo+s false but is actually correct; a contradictory statement
Wordworth<s 7&he child is father to the man7 is an e0ample of parado0.
31. paragon model of perfection
&he class disli+ed him because the teacher was always pointing him out as a paragon of virtue.
32. parallelism state of being parallel; similarity
&here is a stri+ing parallelism between the twins.
33. parameter limit; independent variable
We need to define the parameters of the problem.
3. paramount foremost in importance; supreme
Droper nutrition and hygiene are of paramount importance in adolescent development and growth.
3$. paramour illicit lover
#he sought a divorce on the grounds that her husband had a paramour in another town.
3'. paranoia psychosis mar+ed by delusions of grandeur or persecution
#uffering from paranois, he claimed everyone was out to get him; ironically, his claim was accurate; even
paranoids have enemies.
3(. paraphernalia e?uipment; odds and ends
1is des+ was cluttered with paper, pen, in+, dictionary and other paraphernalia of the writing craft.
3*. paraphrase restate a passage in one<s own words while retaining thought of author
)n 2$. words or less, paraphrase this article.
3,. parasite animal or plant living on another; toady; sycophant
&he tapeworm is an e0ample of the +ind of parasite that may infest the human body.
.. parched e0tremely dry; very thirsty
&he parched desert landscape seemed hostile to life.
1. pariah social outcast
) am not a pariah to be shunned and ostraciAed.
2. parity e?uality; close resemblance
) find your analogy inaccurate because ) do not see the parity between the two illustrations.
3. parlance language; idiom
!ll this legal parlance confuses me; ) need an interpreter.
. parley conference
&he peace parley has not produced the anticipated truce.
$. parochial narrow in outloo+; provincial; related to parishes
!lthough ;ane !usten writes novels set in small rural communities, her concerns are universal, not
'. parody humorous imitation; travesty
We en-oyed the clever parodies of popular songs that the chorus sang.
(. paroxysm fit or attac+ of pain, laughter, rage
When he heared of his son<s misdeeds, he was seiAed by a paro0ysm of rage.
*. parquet floor made of wood strips inlaid in a mosic%li+e pattern.
)n laying the floor, the carpenters combined redwood and oa+ in an elegant par?uet.
,. parry ward off a blow
1e was content to wage a defensive battle and tried to parry his opponent<s thrusts.
$.. parsimonious stingy; e0cessively frugal
1is parsimonious nature did not permit him to en-oy any lu0uries.
$1. partial incomplete
)n this issue we have published only a partial list of contributors because we lac+ space to ac+nowledge
$2. partial biased; having a li+ing for something
) am e0tremely partial to chocolate eclairs.
$3. partiality inclination; bias
!s a -udge, not only must ) be unbiased, but ) must also avoid any evidence of partiality when ) award the
$. partisan one%sided; pre-udiced; committed to a party
4n certain issues of conscience, she refused to ta+e a partisan stand.
$$. passe old%fashioned; past the prime
1er style is passe and reminiscent of the 3ictorian era.
$'. passive not active; acted upon
:ahatma /andhi urged his followers to pursue a program of passive resistance as he felt that it was more
effective than violence and acts of terrorism.
$(. pastiche imitation of another<s style in musical composition or in writing
We cannot even say that her music is a pastiche of this or that composer; it is rather, reminiscent of many
$*. pastoral rural
)n these stories of pastoral life, we find an understanding of the daily tas+s of country fol+.
$,. patent open for the public to read; obvious
)t was patent to everyone that the witness spo+e the truth.
'.. pathetic causing sadness, compassion, pity; touching
2veryone in the auditorium was weeping by the time he finished his pathetic tale about the orphaned boy.
'1. pathological pertaining to disease
!s we study the pathological aspects of this disease, we must not overloo+ the psychological elements.
'2. pathos tender to sorrow; pity; ?uality in art or literature that produces these feelings.
&he ?uiet tone of pathos that ran through the novel never degenerated into the maudlin or the overly
'3. patina green crust on old bronAe wor+s; tone slowly ta+en by varnished painting
;udging by the patina on this bronAe statue, we can conclude that this is the wor+ of a medieval artist.
'. patois local or provincial dialect
1is years of study of the language at the university did not enable him to understand the patois of the
'$. patriarch father and ruler of a family or tribe
)n many primitive tribes, the leader and lawma+er was the patriarch.
''. patrician noble; aristocratic
We greatly admired her well%bred, patrician elegance
'(. patronize support; act superior toward
20perts in a field sometimes appear to patroniAe people who are less +nowledgeable of the sub-ect.
'*. paucity scarcity
&hey closed the restaurant because the paucity of customers made it uneconomical to operate.
',. pauper very poor person
&hough Widow Brown was living on a reduced income, she was by no means a pauper.
(.. peccadillo slight offense
)f we e0amine these escapades carefully, we will realiAe that they are mere peccadilloes rather than ma-or
(1. pecuniary pertaining to money
) never e0pected a pecuniary reward for my wor+ in this activity.
(2. pedagogue teacher
1e could never be a stuffy pedagogue; his classes were always lively and filled with humor.
(3. pedagogy teaching; art of education
&hough :aria :ontessori gained fame for her innovations in pedagogy, it too+ years before her teaching
techni?ues became common practice in !merican schools.
(. pedant scholar who overemphasiAes boo+ learning or technicalities
1er insistence that the boo+ be memoriAed mar+ed the teacher as a pedant rather than a scholar.
($. pedantic showing off learning; boo+ish
Beaving his decisions with humorous, down%to%earth anecdotes, ;udge Wal+er was not at all pedantic legal
('. pedestrian ordinary; unimaginative
Cnintentionally boring, he wrote page after page of pedestrian prose.
((. pediatrician physician specialiAing in children<s diseases.
&he family doctor advised the parents to consult a pediatrician about their child<s ailment.
(*. pejorative negative in connotation; having a belittling effect.
)nstead of criticiAing @linton<s policies, the Republicans made pe-orative remar+s about his character.
(,. pellmell in confusion; disorderly
&he e0cited students dashed pellmell into the stadium to celebrate the victory.
*.. pellucid transparent; limpid; easy to understand
!fter reading these stodgy philosophers, ) find his pellucid style very en-oyable.
*1. penance self%imposed punishment for sin
&he !ncient :ariner said, 7) have penance done and penance more will do,7 to atone for the sin of +illing
the albatross.
*2. penchant strong inclination; li+ing
1e had a strong penchant for sculpture and owned many statues.
*3. pendant hanging down from something
1er pendant earrings glistened in the light.
*. pendant ornament =hanging from a nec+lace, etc.>
&he grateful team presented the coach with a silver chain and pendant engraved with the school<s motto.
*$. pendulous hanging; suspended
&he pendulous chandeliers swayed in the breeAe as if they were about to fall from the ceiling.
*'. penitent repentant
When he realiAed the enormity of his crime, he became remorseful and penitent.
*(. pensive dreamily thoughtful; thoughtful with a hint of sadness
&he pensive youth gaAed at the painting for a long time and then sighed.
**. penumbra partial shadow =in an eclipse>
8uring an eclipse, we can see an area of total dar+ness and a lighter area, which is the penumbra.
*,. penurious stingy; parsimonious
1e was a penurious man, averse to spending money even for the necessities of life.
,.. penury e0treme poverty
When his pension fund failed, /eorge feared he would end his days in penury.
,1. peon landless agricultural wor+er; bond servant
&he land reformers sought to liberate the peons and establish them as independent farmers.
,2. perceptive insightful; aware; wise
!lthough :aud was a generally perceptive critic, she had her blind sportsF she could never see flaws in the
wor+ of her friends.
,3. percussion stri+ing one ob-ect against another sharply
&he drum is a percussion instrument.
,. perdition damnation; complete ruin
Draying for salvation, young 8aedalus feared he was damned to eternal perdition.
,$. peregrination -ourney
!untie :ame was a world traveler whose peregrinations too+ her from &ia-uana to &imbuctoo.
,'. peremptory demanding and leaving no choice
9rom ;ac+<s peremptory +noc+ on the door, ;ill could tell he would not give up until she let him in.
,(. perennial something long%lasting
&ese plants are hardy perennials and will bloom for many years.
,*. perifidious treacherous; disloyal
When @aesar realiAed that Brutus had betrayed him, he reproached his perfidious friend.
,,. perforate pierce; put a hole through
Before you can open the aspirin bottle, you must first perforate the plastic safety seal that covers the cap.
1... perfunctory superficial; not thorough; lac+ing interest, care, or enthusiasm
&he auditor<s perfunctory inspection of the boo+s overloo+ed many errors.
1.1. perigee point of moon<s orbit when it is nearest the earth
&he roc+et which was designed to ta+e photographs of the moon was launched as the moon approached its
1.2. perimeter outer boundary
&o find the perimeter of any ?uadrilateral, we add the lengths of the four sides.
1.3. peripatetic wal+ing about; moving
&he peripatetic school of philosophy derives its name from the fact that !ristotle wal+ed with his pupils
while discussing philosophy with them.
1.. peripheral marginal; outer
We lived, not in central Bondon, but in one of those peripheral suburbs that spring up on the outs+irts of the
great city.
1.$. periphery edge, especially of a round surface
1e sensed that there was something -ust beyond the periphery of his vision.
1.'. perjury false testimony while under oath
When several witnesses appeared to challenge his story, he was indicted for per-ury.
1.(. permeable porous; allowing passage through
/lass is permeable to light.
1.*. pernicious very destructive, harmful
1e argued that these boo+s had a pernicious effect on young and susceptible minds.
1.,. peroration conclusion of an oration
&he peroration was largely hortatory and brought the audience to its feet clamoring for action at its close.
11.. perpetrate commit an offense
4nly an insane person could perpetrate such a horrible crime.
111. perpetual everlasting
Donce de Beon hoped to find perpetual youth.
112. perquisite any gain above stipulated salary
&he per?uisites attached to this -ob ma+e it even more attractive than the salary indicates.
113. personable attractive
&he man ) am see+ing to fill this position must be personable since he will be representing us before the
11. perspicacious having insight; penetrating; astute
&he brillant lawyer was +nown for his perspicacious deductions.
11$. perspicuity clearness of e0pression; freedom from ambiguity
4ne of the outstanding features of this boo+ is the perspicuity of its author; her meaning is always clear.
11'. perspicuous plainly e0pressed
1er perspicuous comments eliminated all posibility of misinterpretation.
11(. pert impertinent; forward
) thin+ your pert and impudent remar+s call for an apology.
11*. pertinacious stubborn; persistent
1e is bound to succeed because his pertinacious nature will not permit him to ?uit.
11,. pertinent suitable; to the point
&he lawyer wanted to +now all the pertinent details.
12.. perturb disturb greatly
) am afraid this news will perturb him and cause him grief.
121. perusal reading
) am certain that you have missed important details in your rapid perusal of this document.
122. pervasive spread throughout
8espite airing them for several hours, she could not rid her clothes of the pervasive odor of mothbals that
clung to them.
123. perverse stubbornly wrongheaded; wic+ed and unacceptable
When 1annibal Becter was in a perverse mood, he ate the flesh of his victims.
12. perversion corruption; turning from right to wrong
)nasmuch as he had no motive for his crimes, we could not understand his perversion.
12$. pessimism belief that life is basically bad or evil; gloominess
&he good news we have been receiving lately indicates that there is little reason for your pessimism.
12'. pestilential causing plague; baneful
Deople were afraid to e0plore the pestilential swap.
12(. pestle tool for mashing or grinding substances in a hard bowl
9rom the way in which the elderly pharmacist pounded the drug with his pestle, young /eorge could tell
that his employer was agitated about something.
12*. petrify turn to stone
1is sudden and une0pected appearance seemed to petrify her.
12,. petty trivial; unimportant; very small
#he had no ma-or complaints to ma+e about his wor+, only a few petty ?uibbles that were almost too minor
to state.
13.. petulant touchy; peevish
&he feverish patient was petulant and restless.
131. pharisaical pertaining to Dharisees, who paid scrupulous attention to tradition; self%righteous;
Walter Bippmann has pointed out that moralists who do not attempt to e0plain the moral code they
advocate are often regarded as pharisaical and ignored.
132. phenomena observable facts; sub-ects of scientific investigation
We +ept careful records of the phenomena we noted in the course of these e0periments.
133. philanderer faithless lover; flirt
#wearing he had never so much as loo+ed at another woman, ;ac+ assured ;ill he was no philanderer.
13. philanthropist lover of man+ind; doer of good
!s he grew older, he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the needy.
13$. philatelist stamp%collector
When she heard the value of the Denny Blac+ stamp, Dhyllis was inspired to become a philatelist.
13'. philistine narrow%minded person, uncultured and e0culsively interested in material gain
We need more men of culture and enlightenment; we have too many philistines among us.
13(. philology study of language
&he professor of philology advocated the use of 2speranto as an international language.
13*. phlegmatic calm; not easily disturbed
&he nurse was a cheerful but phlegmatic person, une0cited in the face of sudden emergencies.
13,. phobia morbid fear
1er fear of flying was more than mere nervousness; it was a real phobia.
1.. physiognomy face
1e prided himself on his ability to analyAe a person<s character by studying his physiognomy.
11. physiological pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms
&o understand this disease fully, we must e0amine not only its physiological aspects but also its
psychological elements.
12. piebald of different colors; motled; spotted
6ou should be able to identify Dol+a 8ot in this race; he is the only piebald horse running.
13. pied variegated; multicolored
&he pied piper of 1amelin got his name from the multicolored clothing he wore.
1. piety devoutness; reverence for /od
Biving her life in prayer and good wor+s, :other &eresa e0emplifies the true sprit of piety.
1$. pigment coloring matter
3an /ogh mi0ed various pigments with linseed oil to create his paints.
1'. pillage plunder
&he enemy pillaged the ?uiet village and left it in ruins.
1(. pillory punish by placing in a wooden frame; sub-ect to criticism and ridicule
2ven though he was moc+ed and pilloried, he maintained that he was correct in his beliefs.
1*. pine languish, decline; long for, yearn
&hough she tried to be happy living with @lara in the city, 1eidi pined for the mountains and for her gruff
but loving grandfather.
1,. pinion restrain
&hey pinioned his arms against his body but left his legs free so that he could move about.
1$.. pinnacle pea+
We could see the morning sunlight illuminate the pinnacle while the rest of the mountain lay in shadow.
1$1. pious devout
&he pious parents gave their children a religious upbringing.
1$2. piquant pleasantly tart%tasting; stimulating
&he pi?uant sauce added to our en-oyment of the meal.
1$3. pique irritation; resentment
#he showed her pi?ue by her refusal to appear with the other contestants at the end of the contest.
1$. piscatorial pertaining to fishing
1e spent many happy hours at the la+e in his piscatorial activities.
1$$. pithy concise; meaty
) en-oy reading his essays because they are always compact and pithy.
1$'. pittance a small allowance or wage
1e could not live on the pittance he received as a pension and had to loo+ for an additional source of
1$(. pivotal central; critical
8e "ler+<s decision to set 5elson :andela free was pivotal; without :andela<s release, there was no
possibility that the !frican 5ational @ogress would entertain tal+s with the #outh !frican government.
1$*. placate pacify; conciliate
&he teacher tried to placate the angry mother.
1$,. placebo harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill
)n a controlled e0periment, fifty volunteers were given erythromycin tablets; the control group received
only placebos.
1'.. placid peaceful; calm
!fter his vacation in this placid section, he felt soothed and rested.
1'1. plagiarize steal another<s ideas and pass them off as one<s own
&he editor could tell that the writer had plagiariAed parts of the article; he could recogniAe whole
paragraphs from the original source.
1'2. plaintive mournful
&he dove has a plaintive and melancholy call
1'3. plasticity ability to be molded
When clay dries out, it loses its plasticity and becomes less malleable.
1'. platitude trite remar+; commonplace statement
&he platitudes in his speech were applauded by the vast ma-ority in his audience; only a few people
perceived how trite his remar+s were.
1'$. platonic purely spiritual; theoretical; without sensual desire
!ccused of impropriety in his dealings with female students, the professor maintained he had only a
platonic interest in the women involved.
1''. plauditory approving; applauding
&he theatrical company reprinted the plauditory comments of the critics in its advertisement.
1'(. plausible having a show of truth but open to doubt; specious
2ven though your argument is plausible, ) still would li+e to have more proof.
1'*. plebeian common; pertaining to the common people
1is speeches were aimed at the plebeian minds and emotions; they disgusted the more refined.
1',. plenary complete; full
&he union leader was given plenary power to negotiate a new contract with the employers.
1(.. plenitude abundance; completeness
Boo+ing in the pantry, we admired the plenitude of fruits and pic+les we had preserved during the summer.
1(1. plethora e0cess; overabundance
#he offered a plethora of e0cuses for her shortcomings.
1(2. pliable fle0ible; yielding; adaptable
)n remodeling the bathroom, we replaced all the old, rigid lead pipes with new, pliable copper tubing.
1(3. pliant fle0ible; easily influenced
@atherine<s disposition was pliant; she was li+e putty in her suitor<s hands.
1(. pluck courage
2ven the adversaries of young )ndiana ;ones were impressed by the boy<s pluc+ in trying to rescue the
archeological treasure they had stolen.
1($. plumb vertical
Before hanging wallpaper it is advisable to drop a plumb line from the ceiling as a guide.
1('. plummet fall sharply
#toc+ prices plummeted as Wall #treet reacted to the rise in interest rates.
1((. plutocracy society ruled by the wealthy
9rom the way the government caters to the rich, you might thin+ our society is a plutocracy rather than a
1(*. podiatrist doctor who treats ailments of the feet
1e consulted a podiatrist about his fallen arches.
1(,. podium pedestal; raised platform
&he audience applauded as the conductor made his way to the podium.
1*.. poignancy ?uality of being deeply moving; +eenness of emotion
Watching the tearful reunion of the long%separated mother and child, the social wor+er was touched by the
poignancy of the scene.
1*1. polarize split into opposite e0tremes or camps
&he abortion issue has polariAed the country into pro%choice and anti%abortion camps.
1*2. polemic controversy; argument in support of point of view
1er essays were, for the main part, polemics for the party<s policy.
1*3. politic e0pedient; prudent; well devised
2ven though he was disappointed, he did not thin+ it politic to refuse the offer.
1*. polity form of government of nation or state
4ur polity should be devoted to the concept that the government should strive for the good of all citiAens.
1*$. polygamist one who has more than one spouse at a time
1e was arrested as a polygamist when his two wives filed complaints about him.
1*'. polyglot spea+ing several languages
5ew 6or+ @ity is a polyglot community because of the thousands of immigrants who settle there.
1*(. pomposity self%important behavior; acting li+e a stuffed shirt
!lthough the commencement spea+er had some good things to say, we had to laugh at his pomposity and
general air of parading his own dignity.
1**. ponderous weighty; unwieldy
1is humor lac+ed the light touch; his -o+es were always ponderous.
1*,. pontifical pertaining to a bishop or pope; pompous or pretentious
9rom the very beginning of his ministry it was clear from his pontifical pronouncements that ;ohn was
destined for a high pontifical office.
1,.. pore study industriously; ponder; scrutiniAe
8etermined to become a physician, Beth spends hours poring over her anatomy te0t.
1,1. porous full of pores; li+e a sieve
8ancers li+e to wear porous clothing because it allows the ready passage of water and air.
1,2. portend foretell; presage
&he +ing did not +now what these omens might portend and as+ed his soothsayers to interpret them.
1,3. portent sign; omen; forewarning
1e regarded the blac+ cloud as a portent of evil.
1,. portly stout; corpulent
&he salescler+ tactfully referred to the overweight customer as portly rather than fat.
1,$. poseur person who pretends to be sophisticated, elegant, etc., to impress others
#ome thought 8ali was a brillant painter; others dismissed him as a poseur.
1,'. posterity descendants; future generations
We hope to leave a better world to posterity.
1,(. posthumous after death =as of child born after father<s death or boo+ published after author<s death>
&he critics ignored his wor+s during his lifetime; it was only after the posthumous publication of his last
novel that they recogniAed his great talent.
1,*. postulate self%evident truth
We must accept these statements as postulates before pursuing our discussions any further.
1,,. posture assume an affected pose; act artificially
5o matter how much !rnold boasted or postured, ) could not believe he was as important as he pretended
to be.
2... potable suitable for drin+ing
&he recent drought in the :iddle !tlantic #tates has emphasiAed the need for e0tensive research in ways of
ma+ing sea water potable.
2.1. potent powerful; persuasive; greatly influential
&he -ury was swayed by the highly potent testimony of the crime<s sole eyewitness.
2.2. potentate monarch; sovereign
&he potentate spent more time at :onte @arlo than he did at home on his throne.
2.3. potential e0pressing possibility; latent
&he -uvenile delin?uent is a potential murderer.
2.. potion dose =of li?uid>
&ristan and Bsolde drin+ a love potion in the first act of the opera.
2.$. potpourri heterogeneous mi0ture; medley
1e offered a potpourri of fol+ songs from many lands.
2.'. poultice soothing application applied to sore and inflamed portions of the body
1e was advised to apply a fla0seed poultice to the inflammation.
2.(. practicable feasible
&he board of directors decided that the plan was practicable and agreed to underta+e the pro-ect.
2.*. practical based on e0perience; useful
1e was a practical man, opposed to theory
2.,. pragmatic practical =as opposed to idealistic>; concerned with the practical worth or impact of
&his coming trip to 9rance should provide me with a pragmatic test of the value of my conversational
9rench class.
21.. pragmatist practical person
5o pragmatist en-oys becoming involved in a game that he can never win
211. prate spea+ foolishly; boast idly
Bet us not prate about our ?ualities; rather, let our virtues spea+ for themselves.
212. prattle babble
&he children prattle endlessly about their new toys.
213. preamble introductory statement
)n the preamble to the @onstitution, the purpose of the document is set forth.
21. precarious uncertain; ris+y
) thin+ this stoc+ is a precarious investment and advise against its purchase.
21$. precedent something preceding in time that may be used as an authority or guide for future action
&his decision sets a precedent for future cases of a similar nature.
21'. precedent preceding in time, ran+, etc.
4ur discussions, precedent to this event, certainly did not give you any reason to believe that we would
adopt your proposal.
21(. precept practical rule guiding conduct
7Bove thy neighbor as thyself7 is a worthwhile precept.
21*. precipice cliff; dangerous position
#uddenly )ndiana ;ones found himself dangling from the edge of a precipice.
21,. precipitate headlong; rash
8o not be precipitate in this matter; investigate further.
22.. precipitate throw headlong; hasten
&he removal of !merican political support appeared to have precipitated the downfall of the :arcos
221. precipitous steep; overhasty
&his hill is difficult to climb because it is so precipitous; one slip, and our descent will be precipitous as
222. precise e0act
)f you don<t give me precise directions and a map, )<ll never find your place.
223. preclude ma+e impossible; eliminate
&his contract does not preclude my being employed by others at the same time that ) am wor+ing for you.
22. precocious advanced in development
By her rather adult manner of discussing serious topics, the child demonstrated that she was precocious.
22$. precursor forerunner
&hough /ray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who followed them, most critics
consider them precursors of the Romantic :ovement, not true Romantics.
22'. predatory plundering
&he haw+ is a predatory bird.
22(. predecessor former occupant of a post
) hope ) can live up to the fine e0ample set by my late predecessor in this office.
22*. predilection partiality; preference
!lthough the artist used various media from time to time, she had a predilection for watercolors.
22,. preeminent outstanding; superior
&he +ing traveled to Boston because he wanted the preeminent surgeon in the field to perform the
23.. preempt head off; forestall by acting first; appropriate for oneself; supplant
1oping to preempt any attempts by the opposition to ma+e educational reform a hot political issue, the
candidate set out her own plan to revitaliAe the public schools.
231. preen ma+e oneself tidy in appearance; feel self%satisfaction
!s "itty preened before the mirror, carefully smoothing her shining hair, she couldn<t help preening herself
on her good loo+s.
232. prefactory introductory
&he chairman made a few prefactory remar+s before he called on the first spea+er.
233. prehensile capable of grasping or holding
:on+eys use not only their arms and legs but also their prehensile tails in traveling through the trees.
23. prelate church dignitary
&he archbishop of :oscow and other high%ran+ing prelates visited the Russian 4rthodo0 seminary.
23$. prelude introduction; forerunner
) am afraid that this border raid is the prelude to more serious attac+s.
23'. premeditate plan in advance
#he had premeditated the murder for months, reading about common poisons and buying weed +iller that
contained arsenic.
23(. premise assumption; postulate
Because ;ac+ had based his argument upon a faulty premise, his opponent cheerfully pointed out the holes
in his logic.
23*. premonition forewarning
We ignored these premonitions of disaster because they appeared to be based on childish fears.
23,. premonitory serving to warn
6ou should have visited a doctor as soon as you felt these premonitory chest pains.
2.. preponderance superiority of power, ?uantity, etc.
&he rebels sought to overcome the preponderance of strength of the government forces by engaging in
guerrilla tactics.
21. preposterous absurd; ridiculous
When the candidate tried to downplay his youthful e0periments with mari-uana by saying he hadn<t inhaled,
we all thought, 7What a preposterous e0cuseH7
22. prerogative privilege; un?uestionable right
&he Dresident cannot levy ta0es; that is the prerogative of the legislative branch of government.
23. presage foretell
&he vultures flying overhead presaged the discovery of the corpse in the desert.
2. prescience ability to foretell the future
/iven the current wave of ;apan%bashing, it does not ta+e prescience for me to foresee problems in our
future trade relations with ;apan.
2$. presentiment premonition; foreboding
1amlet felt a presentiment about his meeting with Baertes.
2'. prestige impression produced by achievements or reputation
&he wealthy man sought to obtain social prestige by contributing to popular charities.
2(. presumptous arrogant; ta+ing liberties
)t seems presumptous for one so relatively new to the field to challenge the conclusions of its leading
2*. pretentious ostentatious; ambitious
) do not feel that your limited resources will permit you to carry out such a pretentious program.
2,. preternatural beyond that which is normal in nature
;ohn<s mother<s total ability to tell when he was lying struc+ him as almost preternatural.
2$.. pretext e0cuse
1e loo+ed for a good prete0t to get out of paying a visit to his aunt.
2$1. prevail induce; triumph over
1e tried to prevail on her to type his essays for him.
2$2. prevalent widespread; generally accepted
! radical committed to social change, Reed had no patience with the conservative views prevalent in the
!merica of his day.
2$3. prevaricate lie
#ome people believe that to prevaricate in a good cause is -ustifiable and regard the statement as a 7white
2$. prey target of a hunt; victim
)n #tal+ing the Wild !sparagus, 2uell /ibbons has as his prey not wild beasts but wild plants.
2$$. prim very precise and formal; e0ceedingly proper
:any people commented on the contrast between the prim attire of the young lady and the inappropriate
clothing worn by her escort.
2$'. primogeniture seniority by birth
By virtue of primogeniture, in some cultures the first%born child has many privileges denied his brothers
and sisters.
2$(. primordial e0isting at the beginning =of time>; rudimentary
&he 5eanderthal :an is one of our primordial ancestors.
2$*. primp dress or groom oneself with care
#he primps for hours before a dance.
2$,. pristine characteristic of earlier times; primitive, unspoiled
&his area has been preserved in all its pristine wildness.
2'.. privation hardship; want
)n his youth, he +new hunger and privation.
2'1. privy secret; hidden; not public
We do not care for privy chamber of government.
2'2. probe e0plore with tools
&he surgeon probed the wound for foreign matter before suturing it.
2'3. probity uprightness; incorruptibility
2veryone too+ his probity for granted; his defalcations, therefore, shoc+ed us all.
2'. problematic perple0ing; unsettledF ?uestionable
/iven the many areas of conflict still awaiting resolution, the outcome of the peace tal+s remains
2'$. proclivity inclination; natural tendency
&he cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble.
2''. procrastinate postpone; delay
)t is wise not to procrastinate; otherwise, we find ourselves bogged down in a mass of wor+ that should
have been finished long ago.
2'(. procurement obtaining
&he personnel department handles the procurement of new employees.
2'*. prod po+e; stir up; urge
)f you prod him hard enough, he<ll eventually clean his room.
2',. prodigal wasteful; rec+less with money
&he prodigal son s?uandered his inheritance.
2(.. prodigious enormous; marvelous
1e marveled at her prodigious appetite when he saw all the food she ate.
2(1. prodigy highly gifted child; marvel
:enuhin was a prodigy, performing wonders on his violin when he was barely eight years old.
2(2. profane violate; desecrate
&ourists are urged not to profane the sanctity of holy places by wearing improper garb.
2(3. profilgate dissipated; wasteful; licentious
)n this profilgate company, she lost all sense of decency.
2(. profound deep; not superficial; complete
9reud<s remar+able insights into human behavior caused his fellow scientists to honor him as a profound
2($. profusion lavish e0penditure; overabundant condition
#eldom have ) seen food and drin+ served in such profusion as at the wedding feast.
2('. progenitor ancestor
&he Roth family, whose progenitors emigrated from /ermany early in the nineteenth century, settled in
Deru, )llinois.
2((. progeny children; offspring
1e was proud of his progeny but regarded /eorge as the most promising of all his children.
2(*. prognosis forecasted course of a disease; prediction
)f the doctor<s prognosis is correct, the patient will be in a coma for at least twenty%four hours.
2(,. prognosticate predict
) prognosticate disaster unless we change our wasteful ways.
2*.. projectile missile
:an has always hurled pro-ectiles at his enemy whether in the form of stones or of highly e0plosive shells.
2*1. proletarian member of the wor+ing class
&he aristocrats feared mob rule and gave the right to vote only to the wealthy, thus depending the
proletarians of a voice in government.
2*2. proliferate grow rapidly; spread; multiply
&imes of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get%rich%?uic+ schemes to proliferate
2*3. prolific abundantly fruitful
#he was a prolific writer who produced as many as three boo+s a year.
2*. prolix verbose; drawn out
1er proli0 arguments irritated and bored the -ury.
2*$. prolong e0tend; draw out; lengthen
)n their determination to discover ways to prolong human life, doctors fail to ta+e into account that longer
lives are not always happier ones.
2*'. prominent conspicuous; notable; protruding
1ave you ever noticed that Drince @harles<s prominent ears ma+e him resemble the big%eared character in
:ad comicsI
2*(. promiscuous mi0ed indiscriminately; haphaAard; irregular, particularly se0ually
)n the opera Ba Boheme, we get a picture of the promiscuous life led by the young artists of Daris.
2**. promontory headland
&hey erected a lighthouse on the promontory to warn approaching ships of their nearness to the shore.
2*,. prompt cause; provo+e; provide a cue for an actor
Whatever prompted you to as+ for such a big piece of ca+e when you<re on a dietI
2,.. promulgate ma+e +nown by official proclamation or publication
!s soon as the @ivil #ervice @ommission promulgates the names of the successful candidates, we shall
begin to hire members of our staff.
2,1. prone inclined to; prostrate
#he was prone to sudden fits of anger.
2,2. propagate multiply; spread
#ince bacteria propagate more ?uic+ly in unsanitary environments, it is important to +eep hospital rooms
2,3. propellant substance that propels or drives forward
&he development of our missile program has forced our scientists to see+ more powerful propellants.
2,. propensity natural inclination
@onvinced of his own talent, #ol has an unfortunate propensity to belittle the talents of others.
2,$. prophetic having to do with predicting the future
)n interpreting Dharaoh<s prophetic dream, ;oseph said that the seven fat cows eaten by the seven lean cows
represented seven years of plenty followed by seven years of famine.
2,'. prophylactic used to prevent disease
8espite all prophylactic measures introduced by the authorities, the epidemic raged until cool weather set
2,(. propinquity nearness; +inship
&heir relationship could not be e0plained as being based on mere propin?uityF they were more than
relatives; they were true friends.
2,*. propitiate appease
&he natives offered sacrifices to propitiate the gods.
2,,. propitious favorable; +indly
) thin+ it is advisable that we wait for a more propitious occasion to announce our plans; this is not a good
3... proponent person who supports or proposes =an idea>
!fter the bill had been amended and re%amended in committee, even its original proponents didn<t want to
vote in its favor.
3.1. propound put forth for analysis
)n you discussion, you have propounded several ?uestions; let us consider each one separately.
3.2. propriety fitness; correct conduct
) want you to behave at this dinner with propriety; don<t embarass me.
3.3. propulsive driving forward
&he -et plane has a greater propulsive power than the engine%driven plane.
3.. prosaic dull and unimaginative; matter%of%fact; factual
&hough the ad writers had come up with a highly creative campaign to publiciAe the company<s newest
product, the head office re-ected it for a more prosaic, down%to%earth approach.
3.$. proscenium part of stage in front of curtain
)n the theater%in%the%round there can be no proscenium or proscenium arch.
3.'. proscribe ostraciAe; banish; outlaw
!ntony, 4ctavius and Bepidus proscribed all those who had conspired against ;ulius @aesar.
3.(. proselytize induce someone to convert to religion or belief
)n these interfaith meetings, there must be no attempt to proselytiAe; we must respect all points of view.
3.*. prosody the art of versification
&his boo+ on prosody contains a rhyming dictionary as well as samples of the various verse forms.
3.,. prosperity good fortune; financial success; physical well%being
Dromising to stay together 7for richer, for poorer,7 the newlyweds vowed to be true to one another in
prosperity and hardship ali+e.
31.. prostrate stretch out full on ground
1e prostrated himself before the idol.
311. protean versatile; able to ta+e on many forms
! remar+ably protean actor, !lec /uinness could ta+e on any role.
312. protocol diplomatic eti?uette
We must run this state dinner according to protocol if we are to avoid offending any of our guests.
313. prototype original wor+ used as a model by others
&he crude typewriter on display in this museum is the prototype of the elaborate machines in use today.
31. protract prolong
#ee+ing to delay the union members< vote, the management team tried to protract the negotiations
endlessly, but the union representatives saw through their strategy.
31$. protrude stic+ out
1is fingers protruded from the holes in his gloves.
31'. protuberance protrusion; bulge
! ganglionic cyst is a fluid%filled tumor =generally benign> that develops near a -oint membrane or tendon
sheath, and that bulges beneath the s+in, forming a protuberance.
31(. provenance origin or source of something
) am not interested in its provenance; ) am more concerned with its usefulness than with its source.
31*. provender dry food; fodder
) am afraid of a severe winter because ) have stored a large ?uantity of provender for the cattle.
31,. provident displaying foresight; thrifty; preparing for emergencies
)n his usual provident manner, he had insured himself against this type of loss.
32.. provincial pertaining to a province; limited in outloo+; unsophisticated
!s provincial governor, #ir 1enry administered the Gueen<s law in his remote corner of @anada.
321. provisional tentative
&he appointment is provisional; only on the approval of the board of directors will it be made permanent.
322. proviso stipulation
) am ready to accept your proposal with the two proviso that you meet your obligations within the ne0t two
323. provoke stir up anger; cause retaliation
)n order to prevent a sudden outbrea+ of hostilities, we must not provo+e our foe.
32. proximity nearness
&he deer sensed the hunter<s pro0imity and bounded away.
32$. proxy authoriAed agent
Dlease act as my pro0y and vote for this slate of candidates in my absence.
32'. prude e0cessively modest or proper person
&he J%rated film was definitely not for prudes.
32(. prudent cautious; careful
! miser hoards money not because he is prudent but because he is greedy.
32*. prune cut away; trim
With the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into publishable form.
32,. pseudonym pen name
#amuel @lemens< pseudonym was :ar+ &wain.
33.. psychiatrist a doctor who treats mental diseases
! psychiatrist often needs long conferences with his patient before a diagnosis can be made.
331. psychopathic pertaining to mental derangement
&he psychopathic patient suffers more fre?uently from a disorder of the nervous system than from a
diseased brain.
332. psychosis mental disorder
We must endeavor to find an outlet for the patient<s repressed desires if we hope to combat this psychosis.
333. pterodactyl e0tinct flying reptile
&he remains of pterodactyls indicate that these flying reptiles had a wingspan of as much as twenty feet.
33. puerile childish
1is puerile pran+s sometimes offended his more mature friends.
33$. pugilist bo0er
&he famous pugilist @assius @lay changed his name to :uhammed !li.
33'. pugnacious combative; disposed to fight
!s a child he was pugnacious and fought with everyone.
33(. puissant powerful; strong; potent
We must +eep his friendship for he will ma+e a puissant ally.
33*. pulchritude beauty; comeliness
) do not envy the -udges who have to select this year<s :iss !merica from this collection of female
33,. pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
)n his researches on pulmonary diseases, he discovered many facts about the lungs of animals and human
3.. pulsate throb
We could see the blood vessels in his temple pulsate as he became more angry.
31. pulverize crush or grind into very small particles
Before sprin+ling the dried herbs into the stew, :ichael first pulveriAed them into a fine powder.
32. pummel beat
&he severity with which he was pummeled was indicated by the bruises he displayed on his head and face.
33. punctilious laying stress on niceties of conduct or form; precise
We must be punctilious in our planning of this affair, for any error may be regarded as a personal affront.
3. pundit learned 1indu; any learned person; authority on a sub-ect
2ven though he discourses on the matter li+e a pundit, he is actually rather ignorant about this topic.
3$. pungency sharpness; stinging ?uality
&he pungency of the cigarette smo+e made me cough.
3'. punitive punishing
1e as+ed for punitive measures against the offender.
3(. puny insignificant; tiny; wea+
4ur puny efforts to stop the flood were futile.
3*. purchase firm grasp or footing
&he mountaineer struggled to get a proper purchase on the slippery roc+.
3,. purgatory place of spiritual e0piation
)n this purgatory, he could e0pect no help from his comrades.
3$.. purge clean by removing impurities; clear of changes
)f you are to be purged of the charge of contempt of @ongress, you must be willing to answer the ?uestions
previously as+ed.
3$1. purport intention; meaning
)f the purport of your speech was to arouse the rabble, you succeeded admirably.
3$2. purveyor furnisher of foodstuffs; caterer
!s purveyor of rare wines and viands, he traveled through 9rance and )taly every year in search of new
products to sell.
3$3. pusillanimous cowardly; fainthearted
6ou should be ashamed of your pusillanimous conduct during this dispute.
3$. putative supposed; reputed
!lthough there are some doubts, the putative author of this wor+ is :assinger.
3$$. putrid foul; rotten; decayed
&he gangrenous condition of the wound was indicated by the putrid smell when the bandages were
3$'. pyromaniac person with an insane desire to set things on fire
&he detectives searched the area for the pyromaniac who had set these costly fires.
3$(. pyre heap of combustible material, esp. for burning a corpse.
&he mortician put pyre on the corpse before burning a corpse.
3$*. pest troublesome or annoying person
1e was a pest; always bothering people.
3$,. prohibitive e0tremely high =of prices etc.>
&he super computer<s price was prohibitive.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. quack charlatan; impostor
8o not be misled by the e0orbitant claims of this ?uac+; he cannot cure you.
2. quadruped four%footed animal
:ost mammals are ?uadrupeds.
3. quaff drin+ with relish
!s we ?uaffed our ale, we listened to the gay songs of the students in the tavern.
. quagmire soft, wet, boggy land; comple0 or dangerous situation from which it is difficult to free oneself
Cp to her +nees in mud, :yra wondered how on earth she was going to e0tricate herself from this
$. quail cower; lose heart
1e was afraid that he would ?uail in the face of danger.
'. quaint odd; old%fashioned; pictures?ue
1er ?uaint clothes and old%fashioned language mar+ed her as an eccentric.
(. qualified limited; restricted
Cnable to give the candidate full support, the mayor gave him only a ?ualified endorsement.
*. qualms misgivings
1is ?ualms of conscience had become so great that he decided to abandon his plans.
,. quandary dilemma
When the two colleges to which he had applied accepted him, he was in a ?uandary as to which one he
should attend.
1.. quarantine isolation of a person, place, or ship to prevent spread of infection
We will have to place this house under ?uarantine until we determine the nature of the disease.
11. quarry victim; ob-ect of a hunt
&he police closed in on their ?uarry.
12. quarry dig into
&hey ?uarried bloc+s of marble out of the hillside.
13. quash subdue; crush; s?uash
&he authorities acted ?uic+ly to ?uash the student rebellion, sending in tan+s to cow the demonstrators.
1. quay doc+; landing place
Because of the captain<s carelessness, the ship crashed into the ?uay.
1$. queasy easily nauseated; s?ueamish
!s the ship left the harbor, he became ?ueasy and thought that he was going to suffer from seasic+ness.
1'. quell put down; ?uiet
&he police used fire hoses and teat gas to ?uell the rioters.
1(. querulous fretful; whining
1is classmates were repelled by his ?uerulous and complaining statements.
1*. queue line
&hey stood patiently in the ?ueue outside the movie theatre.
1,. quibble e?uivocate; play on words
8o not ?uibble; ) want a straightforward and definite answer.
2.. quiescent at rest; dormant
!fter this geyser erupts, it will remain ?uiescent for twenty%four hours.
21. quietude tran?uillity
1e was impressed by the air of ?uietude and peace that pervaded the valley.
22. quintessence purest and highest embodiment
5oel @oward displayed the ?uintessence of wit.
23. quip taunt
6ou are unpopular because you are too free with your ?uips and sarcastic comments.
2. quirk startling twise; caprice
By a ?uir+ of fate, he found himself wor+ing for the man whom he had discharged years before.
2$. quisling traitor who aids invaders
)n his con?uest of 2urope, 1itler was aided by the ?uislings who betrayed their own people and served in
the puppet governments established by the 5aAis.
2'. quiver case for arrows
Robin 1ood reached bac+ and pluc+ed one last arrow from his ?uiver.
2(. quixotic idealistic but impractical
1is head is in the clouds; he is constantly presenting these ?ui0otic schemes.
2*. quizzical bantering; comical; humorously serious
Will Rogers< ?uiAAical remar+s endeared him to his audiences.
2,. quorum number of members necessary to conduct a meeting
&he senator as+ed for a roll call to determine whether a ?uorum was present.
3.. quotidian daily; commonplace; customary
&o Dhilip, each new day of his internship was filled with e0citement; he could not dismiss his rounds as
merely ?uotidian routine.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. rabid li+e a fanatic; furious
1e was a rabid follower of the 8odgers and watched them play whenever he could go to the ball par+.
2. raconteur story%teller
:y father was a gifted raconteur with an unlimited supply of anecdotes.
3. ragamuffin person wearing tattered clothes
1e felt sorry for the ragamuffin who was begging for food and gave him money to buy a meal.
. rail scold; rant
6ou may rail at him all you want; you will never change him.
$. raiment clothing
71ow can ) go to the ballI7 as+ed @inderella. 7) have no raiment fit to wear.7
'. rakish stylish; sporty
1e wore his hat at a ra+ish and -aunty angle.
(. ramble wander aimlessly =physically or mentally>
Bistening to the teacher ramble, ;udy wondered whether he<d ever get to his point.
*. ramification branching out; subdivision
We must e0amine all the ramifications of this problem.
,. ramify divide into branches or subdivisions
When the plant begins to ramify, it is advisable to nip off most of the new branches.
1.. ramp slope; inclined plane
&he house was built with ramps instead of stairs in order to enable the man in the wheelchair to move
easily from room to room and floor to floor.
11. rampant rearing up on hind legs; unrestrained
&he rampant weeds in the garden +illed all the flowers that had been planted in the spring.
12. rampart defensive mound on earth
79rom the ramparts we watched7 as the fighting continued.
13. ramshackle ric+ety; falling apart
&he boys propped up the ramshac+le clubhouse with a couple of boards.
1. rancid having the odor of stale fat
! rancid odor filled the ship<s galley and nauseated the crew.
1$. rancor bitterness; hatred
Bet us forget out rancor and cooperate in this new endeavor.
1'. random without definite purpose, plan, or aim; haphaAard
!lthough the sponsor of the raffle claimed all winners were chosen at random, people had their suspicions
when the grand priAe went to the sponsor<s brother%in%law.
1(. rankle irritate; fester
&he memory of having been -ilted ran+led him for years.
1*. rant rave; spea+ bombastically
!s we heard him rant on the platform, we could not understand his strange popularity with many people.
1,. rapacious e0cessively grasping; plundering
1aw+s and other rapacious birds prey on variety of small animals.
2.. rapport emotional closeness; harmony
)n team teaching, it is important that all teachers in the group have good rapport with one another.
21. rarefied made less dense Lof a gasM
&he mountain climbers had difficulty breathing in the rarefied atmosphere.
22. raspy grating; harsh
&he sergeant<s raspy voice grated on the recruits< ears.
23. ratify approve formally; verify
Before the treaty could go into effect, it had to be ratified by the president.
2. ratiocination reasoning; act of drawing conclusions from premises
While Watson was a man of average intelligence, 1olmes was a genius, whose gift for ratiocination made
him a superb detective.
2$. rationalization bringing into conformity with reason
!ll attempts at rationaliAation at this time are doomed to failure; tempers and emotions run too high for
intelligent thought to prevail.
2'. rationalize reason; -ustify an improper act
8o not try to rationaliAe your behavior by blaming your companions.
2(. raucous harsh and shrill
1is raucous laughter irritated me and grated on my ears.
2*. ravage plunder; despoil
&he marauding army ravaged the countryside.
2,. rave overwhelmingly favorable review
&hough critic ;ohn #imon seldom has a good word to say about contemporary plays, his review of !ll in
the &iming was a total rave.
3.. ravel fall apart into tangles; unravel or untwist; entangle
! sigle thread pulled loose, and the entire scarf started to ravel.
31. ravenous e0tremely hungry
&he revenous dog upset several garbage pails in its search for food.
32. ravine narrow valley with steep sides
#teeper than a gully, less precipitous than a canyon, a ravine is, li+e them, the product of years of erosion.
33. raze destroy completely
&he owners intend to raAe the hotel and erect an office building on the site.
3. reactionary recoiling from progress; retrograde
1is program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social reforms instituted by the previous
3$. realm +ingdom; sphere
&he realm of possibilities for the new invention was endless.
3'. reaper one who harvests grain
8eath, the /rim Reaper, cuts down men and women, -ust as a farmer cuts down the ripened grain.
3(. rebate discount
We offer a rebate of ten percent to those who pay cash.
3*. rebuff snub; beat bac+
#he rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realiAe he had been snubbed.
3,. rebus puAAle in which pictures stand for words
! coven of witches beside a tree is a possible rebus for the town @oventry.
.. rebuttal refutation; response with contrary evidence
&he defense lawyer confidently listened to the prosecutor sum up his case, sure that she could answer his
arguments in her rebuttal.
1. recalcitrant obstinately stubborn
8on+eys are reputed to be the most recalcitrant of animals.
2. recant repudiate; withdraw previous statement
Cnless you recant your confession, you will be punished severely.
3. recapitulate summariAe
Bet us recapitulate what has been said thus far before going ahead.
. receptive ?uic+ or willing to receive ideas, suggestions, etc.
!dventure%loving 1uc+ 9inn proved a receptive audience for &om<s tales of buried treasure and piracy.
$. recession withdrawal; retreat; time of low economic activity
&he slow recession of the flood waters created problems for the crews wor+ing to restore power to the area.
'. recidivism habitual return to crime
Drison reformers in the Cnited #tates are disturbed by the high rate of recidivism; the number of persons
serving second and third terms indicates the failure of the prisons to rehabilitate the inmates.
(. recipient receiver
!lthough he had been the recipient of many favors, he was not grateful to his benefactor.
*. reciprocal mutual; e0changeable; interacting
&he two nations signed a reciprocal trade agreement.
,. reciprocate repay in +ind
)f they attac+ us, we shall be compelled to reciprocate and bomb their territory.
$.. recluse hermit
&he recluse lived in a hut in the forest.
$1. reconcile correct inconsistencies; become friendly after a ?uarrel
2very time we try to reconcile our chec+boo+ with the ban+ statement, we ?uarrel. 1owever, despite these
monthly lovers< ?uarrels, we always manage to reconcile.
$2. recondite abstruse; profound; secret
1e read many recondite boo+s in order to obtain the material for the scholarly thesis.
$3. reconnaissance survey of enemy by soldiers; reconnoitering
)f you encounter any enemy soldiers during your reconnaissance, capture them for ?uestioning.
$. recount narrate or tell; count over again
!bout to recount the latest adventure of #herloc+ 1olmes, Watson lost trac+ of e0actly how many cases
1olmes had solved and refused to begin his tale until he<d recounted them one by one.
$$. recourse resorting to help when in trouble
&he boy<s only recourse was to appeal to his father for aid.
$'. recrimination countercharges
Boud and angry recriminations were her answer to his accusations.
$(. rectify correct
) want to rectify my error before it is too late.
$*. rectitude uprightness
1e was renowned for his rectitude and integrity.
$,. recumbent reclining; lying down completely or in part
&he command 7!& 2!#27 does not permit you to ta+e a recumbent position.
'.. recuperate recover
&he doctors were worried because the patient did not recuperate as rapidly as they had e0pected.
'1. recurrent occurring again and again
&hese recurrent attac+s disturbed us and we consulted a physician.
'2. redolent fragrant; odorous; suggestive of an odor
2ven though it is 9ebruary, the air is redolent of spring.
'3. redoubtable formidable; causing fear
8uring the @old War period, neighboring countries tried not to offend the Russians because they could be
redoubtable foes.
'. redress remedy; compensation
8o you mean to tell me that ) can get no redress for my in-uriesI
'$. redundant superfluous; e0cessively wordy; repetitious
6our composition is redundant; you can easily reduce its length.
''. reek emit =odor>
&he room ree+ed with stale tobacco smo+e.
'(. refectory dining hall
)n this huge refectory, we can feed the entire student body at one sitting.
'*. refraction bending of a ray of light
When you loo+ at a stic+ inserted in water, it loo+s bent because of the refraction of the light by the water.
',. refractory stubborn; unmanageable
&he refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the -oc+ey.
(.. refrain v. abstain from; resist n. chorus
Whenever he heard a song with a lively chorus, #ol could never refrain from -oining in on the refrain.
(1. refurbish renovate; ma+e bright by polishing
&he flood left a deposit of mud on everything; it was necessary to refurbish our belongings.
(2. refute disprove
&he defense called several respectable witnesses who were able to refute the false testimony of the
prosecution<s only witness.
(3. regal royal
Drince !lbert had a regal manner.
(. regale entertain
;ohn regaled us with tales of his adventures in !frica.
($. regatta boat or yacht race
:any boating enthusiasts followed the regatta in their own yachts.
('. regeneration spiritual rebirth
:odern penologists strive for the regeneration of the prisoners.
((. regicide murder of a +ing or ?ueen
&he beheading of :ary Gueen of #cots was an act of regicide.
(*. regime method or system of government
When a 9renchman mentions the 4ld Regime, he refers to the government e0isting before the revolution.
(,. regimen prescribed diet and habits
) doubt whether the results warrant our living under such a strict regimen.
*.. rehabilitate restore to proper condition
We must rehabilitate those whom we send to prison.
*1. reimburse repay
Bet me +now what you have spent and ) will reimburse you.
*2. reiterate repeat
1e reiterated the warning to ma+e sure everyone understood it.
*3. rejoinder retort; comebac+; reply
When someone has been rude to me, ) find it particularly satisfying to come up with a ?uic+ re-oinder.
*. rejuvenate ma+e young again
&he charlatan claimed that his eli0ir would re-uvenate the aged and weary.
*$. relegate banish; consign to inferior position
)f we relegate these e0perts to minor posts because of their political persuasions, we shall lose their
valuable services.
*'. relent give in
When her stern father would not relent and allow her to marry Robert Browning, 2liAabeth Barrett eloped
with her suitor.
*(. relevant pertinent; referring to the case in hand
&eri was impressed by how relevant 3irginia Woolf<s remar+s were to her as a woman writer; it was as if
Woolf had been writing with &eri<s situation in mind.
**. relic surviving remnant; memento
2gypt<s 8epartment of !nti?uities prohibits tourists from ta+ing mummies and other ancient relics out of
the country.
*,. relinquish abandon
) will relin?uish my claims to this property if you promise to retain my employees.
,.. relish savor; en-oy
) relish a good -o+e as much as anyone else.
,1. remediable reparable
Bet us be grateful that the damage is remediable.
,2. reminiscence recollection
1er reminiscences of her e0periences are so fascinating that she ought to write a boo+.
,3. remiss negligent
1e was accused of being remiss in his duty when the prisoner escaped.
,. remission temporary moderation of disease symptoms; cancellation of a debt; forgiveness or pardon
&hough #enator &songas had been treated for cancer, his symptoms were in remission, and he was
considered fit to handle the strains of a Dresidential race.
,$. remnant remainder
) suggest that you wait until the store places the remnants of these goods on sale.
,'. remonstrance protest; ob-ection
&he authorities were deaf to the pastor<s remonstrances about the lac+ of police protection in the area.
,(. remorse guilt; self%reproach
&he murderer felt no remorse for his crime.
,*. remunerative compensating; rewarding
) find my new wor+ so renumerative that ) may not return to my previous employment.
,,. rend split; tear apart
)n his grief, he tried to rend his garments.
1... render deliver; provide; represent
1e rendered aid to the needy and indigent.
1.1. rendezvous meeting place
&he two fleets met at the rendeAvous at the appointed time.
1.2. rendition translation; artistic interpretation of a song, etc.
&he audience cheered enthusiastically as she completed her rendition of the aria.
1.3. renegade deserter; traitor
Because he had abandoned his post and -oined forces with the )ndians, his fellow officers considered the
hero of 8ances with Wolves a renegade.
1.. renege deny; go bac+ on
1e reneged on paying off his debt.
1.$. renounce abandon; disown; repudiate
2ven though she +new she would be burned at the sta+e as a witch, ;oan of !rc refused to renounce her
belief that her voices came from /od.
1.'. renovate restore to good condition; renew
&hey claim that they can renovate worn shoes so that they loo+ li+e new ones.
1.(. renown fame
9or many years an unheralded researcher, Barbara :c@lintoc+ gained international renown when she won
the 5obel DriAe in Dhysiology and :edicine.
1.*. rent tear or rip; split
&he conflict over abortion threatens to split our nation, creating a rent in the social fabric that will be
difficult to mend.
1.,. reparable capable of being repaired
9ortunately, the damages we suffered in the accident were reparable and our car loo+s brand new.
11.. reparation amends; compensation
!t the peace conference, the defeated country promised to pay reparations to the victors.
111. repartee clever reply
1e was famous for his witty repartee and his sarcasm.
112. repeal revo+e; annul
What would the effect on our society be if we decriminaliAed drug use by repealing the laws against the
possession and sale of narcoticsI
113. repellent driving away; unattractive
:os?uitoes find the odor so repellent that they leave any spot where this li?uid has been sprayed.
11. repercussion rebound; reverberation; reaction
) am afraid that this event will have serious repercussions.
11$. repertoire list of wor+s of music, drama, etc., a performer is prepared to present
&he opera company decided to include :adame Butterfly in its repertoire for the following season.
11'. repine fret; complain
&here is no sense repining over the wor+ you have left undone.
11(. replenish fill up again
Before she could ta+e another bac+pac+ing trip, @arla had to replenish her stoc+ of freeAe%dried foods.
11*. replete filled to capacity; abundantly supplied
&he boo+ is replete with humorous situations.
11,. replica copy
!re you going to hang this replica of the 8eclaration of )ndependence in the classroom or in the
12.. replicate reproduce; duplicate
&o the chagrin of the scientists, they were unable to replicate the results of their controversial e0periment.
121. repository storehouse
Bibraries are repositories of the world<s best thoughts.
122. reprehensible deserving blame
6our vicious conduct in this situation is reprehensible.
123. repress restrain; crush; oppress
!nne<s parents tried to curb her impetuosity without repressing her boundless high spirits.
12. reprieve temporary stay
8uring the twenty%four%hour reprieve, the lawyers sought to ma+e the stay of e0ecution permanent.
12$. reprimand reprove severely
) am afraid that my parents will reprimand me when ) show them my report card.
12'. reprisal retaliation
) am confident that we are ready for any reprisals the enemy may underta+e.
12(. reprise recurrent action; musical repetition; repeat performance
!t Waterloo, it was not the effect of any one s+irmish that e0hausted @olonel !udly; rather it was the
cumulative effect of the constant reprises that left him spent.
12*. reproach blame; censure
) want my wor+ to be above reproach and without error
12,. reprobate person hardened in sin, devoid of a sense of decency
) cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you say he is.
13.. reprobation severe disapproval
&he students showed their reprobation of his act by refusing to tal+ with him.
131. reprove censure; rebu+e
&he principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the auditorium.
132. repudiate disown; disavow
1e announced that he would repudiate all debts incurred by his wife.
133. repugnance loathing
#he loo+ed at the sna+e with repugnance.
13. repulsion act of driving bac+; distaste
&he repulsion of the enemy forces was not accomplished bloodlessly; many of the defenders were wounded
in driving the enemy bac+.
13$. reputable respectable
)f you want to buy anti?ues, loo+ for a reputable dealer; far too many dealers today pass off fa+es as
genuine anti?ues.
13'. reputed supposed
1e is the reputed father of the child.
13(. requiem mass for the dead; dirge
&hey played :oAart<s Re?uiem at the funeral.
13*. requisite necessary re?uirement
:any colleges state that a student must offer three years of a language as a re?uisite for admission.
13,. requite repay; revenge
&he wretch re?uited his benefactors by betraying them.
1.. rescind cancel
Because of public resentment, the +ing had to rescind his order.
11. reserve self%control; formal but distant manner
!lthough some girls were attracted by :ar+<s reserve, ;udy was put off by it, for she felt his aloofness
indicated a lac+ of openness.
12. residue remainder; balance
)n his will, he re?uested that after payment of debts, ta0es, and funeral e0penses, the residue be given to his
13. resignation patient submissiveness; statement that one is ?uitting a -ob
)f Bob @ratchit had not accepted #crooge<s bullying with timid resignation, he might have gotten up the
nerve to hand in his resignation.
1. resilient elastic; having the power of springing bac+
1ighly resilient, steel ma+es e0cellent bedsprings.
1$. resolution determination
5othing could sha+e his resolution to succeed despite all difficulties.
1'. resolve determination
5othing could sha+e his resolve that his children would get the best education that money could buy.
1(. resolve decide; settle; solve
1omes resolved to travel to Bohemia to resolve the dispute between )rene !dler and the "ing.
1*. resonant echoing; resounding; deep and full in sound
&he deep, resonant voice of the actor ;ames 2arl ;ones ma+es him particulary effective when he appears on
1,. respiration breathing; e0halation
&he doctor found that the patient<s years of smo+ing had adversely affected both his lung capacity and his
rate of respiration.
1$.. respite delay in punishment; interval of relief; rest
&he -udge granted the condemned man a respite to enable his attorneys to file an appeal.
1$1. resplendent brilliant; lustrous
&he toreador wore a resplendent costume called a suit of lights.
1$2. responsiveness state of reacting readily to appeals, order, etc.
&he audience cheered and applauded, delighting the performers by its responsiveness.
1$3. restitution reparation; indemnification
1e offered to ma+e restitution for the window bro+en by his son.
1$. restive restlessly impatient; obstinately resisting control
Waiting impatiently in the line to see #anta @laus, even the best%behaved children grow restive and start to
1$$. restraint controlling force
#he dreamt of living an independent life, free of all restraints.
1$'. resumption ta+ing up again; recommencement
8uring the summer brea+, 8on had not realiAed how much he missed university lifeF at the resumption of
classes, however, he felt mar+ed e0citement and pleasure.
1$(. resurgent rising again after defeat, etc.
&he resurgent nation surprised everyone by its ?uic+ recovery after total defeat.
1$*. resuscitate revive
&he lifeguard tried to resuscitate the drowned child by applying artificial respiration.
1$,. retain +eep; employ
9ighting to retain his seat in @ongress, #enator 9oghorn retained a new manager to head his reelection
1'.. retaliate repay in +ind =usually for bad treatment>
9ear that we will retaliate immediately deters our foe from attac+ing us.
1'1. retentive holding; having a good memory
&he pupil did not need to spend much time in study as he had a retentive mind.
1'2. reticent reserved; uncommunicative; inclined to silence
1ughes preferred reticent employees to lo?uacious ones, noting that the formers< disli+e of idle chatter
might ensure their discretion about his affairs.
1'3. retinue following; attendants
&he ?ueen<s retinue followed her down the aisle.
1'. retiring modest; shy
/iven #usan<t retiring personality, no one e0pected her to ta+e up public spea+ing; surprisingly enough, she
became a star of the school debate team.
1'$. retort ?uic+, sharp reply
2ven when it was advisable for her to +eep her mouth shut, she was always ready with a retort.
1''. retraction withdrawal
1e dropped his libel suit after the newspaper published a retraction of its statement.
1'(. retrench cut down; economiAe
)f they were to be able to send their children to college, they would have to retrench.
1'*. retribution vengeance; compensation; punishment for offenses
&he evangelist maintained that an angry deity would e0act retribution from the sinners.
1',. retrieve recover; find and bring in
&he dog was intelligent and ?uic+ly learned to retrieve the game +illed by the hunter.
1(.. retroactive ta+ing effect before its enactment =as a law> or imposition =as a ta0>
Because the new pension law was retroactive to the first of the year, even though :artha had retired in
9ebruary she was eligible for the pension.
1(1. retrograde go bac+wards; degenerate
)nstead of advancing, our civiliAation seems to have retrograded in ethics and culture.
1(2. retrospective loo+ing bac+ on the past
)t is only when we become retrospective that we can appreciate the tremendous advances made during this
1(3. revelry boisterous merryma+ing
5ew 6ear<s 2ve is a night of revelry.
1(. reverberate echo; resound
&he entire valley reverberated with the sound of the church bells.
1($. reverent respectful
1is reverent attitude was appropriate in a house of worship.
1('. reverie daydream; musing
1e was awa+ened from his reverie by the teacher<s ?uestion.
1((. revile slander; vilify
1e was avoided by all who feared that he would revile and abuse them if they displeased him.
1(*. revoke cancel; retract
Repeat offenders who continue to drive under the influence of alcohol face having their driver<s licenses
permanently revo+ed.
1(,. revulsion sudden violent change of feeling; negative reaction
:any people in this country who admired dictatorships underwent a revulsion when they realiAed what
1itler and :ussolini were trying to do.
1*.. rhapsodize to spea+ or write in an e0aggeratedly enthusiastic manner
#he greatly en-oyed her 1awaiian vacation and rhapsodiAed about it for wee+s.
1*1. rhetoric art of effective communication; insincere or grandilo?uent language
!ll writers, by necessity, must be s+illed in rhetoric.
1*2. ribald wanton; profane
1e sang a ribald song that offended many of the more prudish listeners.
1*3. rider amendment or clause added to a legislative bill
#enator 9oghorn said he would support #enator 9ilibuster<s ta0 reform bill only if 9ilibuster agreed to add
an antipollution rider to the bill.
1*. rife abundant; current
)n the face of the many rumors of scandal, which are rife at the moment, it is best to remain silent.
1*$. rift opening; brea+
&he plane was lost in the stormy s+y until the pilot saw the city through a rift in the clouds.
1*'. rig fi0 or manipulate
&he ward boss was able to rig the election by bribing people to stuff the ballot bo0es with ballots mar+ed in
his candidate<s favor.
1*(. rigid stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending
By living with a man to whom she was not married, /eorge 2liot bro+e 3ictorian society<s most rigid rule
of respectable behavior.
1**. rigor severity
:any settlers could not stand the rigors of the 5ew 2ngland winters.
1*,. rile ve0; irritate; muddy
Red had a hair%trigger temperF he was an easy man to rile.
1,.. riveting absorbing; engrossing
&he reviewer described Byatt<s novel Dossession as a riveting taleF absorbed in the story, he had finished it
in a single evening.
1,1. rivulet small stream
!s the rains continued, the tric+le of water running down the hillside grew into a rivulet that threatened to
wash away a portion of the slope.
1,2. robust vigorous; strong
&he candidate for the football team had a robust physi?ue.
1,3. rococo ornate; highly decorated
&he rococo style in furniture and architecture, mar+ed by scrollwor+ and e0cessive decoration, flourished
during the middle of the eighteenth century.
1,. roil to ma+e li?uids mur+y by stirring up sediment; to disturb
Be careful when you pour not to roil the wine; if you stir up the sediment you<ll destroy the flavor.
1,$. roseate rosy; optimistic
) am afraid you will have to alter your roseate views in the light of the distressing news that has -ust
1,'. roster list
&hey print the roster of players in the season<s program.
1,(. rostrum platform for speech%ma+ing; pulpit
&he crowd murmured angrily and indicated that they did not care to listen to the spea+er who was
approaching the rostrum.
1,*. rote repetition
1e recited the passage by rote and gave no indication he understood what he was saying.
1,,. rotunda circular building or hall covered with a dome
1is body lay in state in the rotunda of the @apitol.
2... rotundity roundness; sonorousness of speech
Washington )rving emphasiAed the rotundity of the governor by describing his height and circumference.
2.1. rousing lively; stirring
7!nd now, let<s have a rousing welcome for &3<s own Roseanne !rnold, who<ll lead us in a rousing
rendition of <&he #tar%#pangled Banner.<7
2.2. rout stampede; drive out
&he reinforcements were able to rout the enemy
2.3. rubble fragments
&en years after World War )), some of the rubble left by enemy bombings could still be seen.
2.. rubric title or heading =in red print>; directions for religious ceremony; protocol
)n ordaining the new priests, the bishop carefully observed all the rubrics for the ordination service.
2.$. ruddy reddish; healthy%loo+ing
1is ruddy features indicated that he had spent much time in the open.
2.'. rudimentary not developed; elementary
1is dancing was limited to a few rudimentary steps.
2.(. rueful regretful; sorrowful; de-ected
&he artist has captured the sadness of childhood in his portrait of the boy with the rueful countenance.
2.*. ruffian bully; scoundrel
&he ruffians threw stones at the police.
2.,. ruminate chew the cud; ponder
We cannot afford to wait while you ruminate upon these plans.
21.. rummage ransac+; thoroughly search
When we rummaged through the trun+s in the attic, we found many souvenirs of our childhood days.
211. runic mysterious; set down in an ancient alphabet
&ol+ien<s use of 4ld 2nglish words and inscriptions in the runic alphabet give &he Bord of the Rings its
atmosphere of anti?uity.
212. ruse tric+; stratagem
6ou will not be able to fool your friends with such an obvious ruse.
213. rustic pertaining to country people; uncouth
&he bac+woodsman loo+ed out place in his rustic attire.
21. rusticate banish to the country; dwell in the country
) li+e city life so much that ) can never understand how people can rusticate in the suburbs.
21$. ruthless pitiless
&he escaped convict was a dangerous and ruthless murderer.
21'. relapse fall bac+ or sin+ again
&he economy relapsed into a depression from the pea+.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. saboteur one who commits sabotage; destroyer of property
:embers of the Resistance acted as saboteurs, blowing up train lines to prevent supplies from reaching the
5aAi army.
2. saccharine cloyingly sweet
#he tried to ingratiate herself, spea+ing sweetly and smiling a saccharine smile.
3. sacrilegious desecrating; profane
1is stealing of the altar cloth was a very sacrilegious act.
. sacrosanct most sacred; inviolable
&he brash insurance salesman invaded the sacrosanct privacy of the office of the president of the company.
$. sadistic inclined to cruelty
)f we are to improve conditions in this prison, we must first get rid of the sadistic warden.
'. saga #candinavian myth; any legend
&his is a saga of the sea and the men who ris+ their lives on it.
(. sagacious +een; shrewd; having insight
1e is much too sagacious to be fooled by a tric+ li+e that.
*. sage person celebrated for wisdom
1earing tales of a mysterious :aster of !ll "nowledge who lived in the hills of &ibet, #andy was
possessed with a burning desire to consult the legendary sage.
,. salacious lascivious; lustful
@haucer<s mon+ is not pious but salacious, a teller of lewd tales and ribald -ests.
1.. salient prominent
4ne of the salient features of that newspaper is its e0cellent editorial page.
11. saline salty
&he slightly saline taste of this mineral water is pleasant.
12. sallow yellowish; sic+ly in color
We were disturbed by his sallow comple0ion, which was due to -aundice.
13. salubrious healthful
:any people with hay fever move to more salubrious sections of the country during the months of !ugust
and #eptember.
1. salutary tending to improve; beneficial; wholesome
&he punishment had a salutary effect on the boy, as he became a model student.
1$. salvage rescue from loss
!ll attempts to salvage the wrec+ed ship failed.
1'. sanctimonious displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness
6ou do not have to be so sanctimonious to prove that you are devout.
1(. sanction approve; ratify
5othing will convince me to sanction the engagement of my daughter to such a worthless young man.
1*. sanguinary bloody
&he battle of lwo ;ina was une0pectedly sanguinary with many casualties.
1,. sanguine cheerful; hopeful
Bet us not be too sanguine about the outcome; something could go wrong.
2.. sap diminish; undermine
&he element +ryptonite had an unhealthy effect on #upermanF it sapped his strength.
21. sarcasm scornful remar+s, stinging rebu+e
1is feelings were hurt by the sarcasm of his supposed friends.
22. sardonic disdainful; sarcastic; cynical
&he sardonic humor of nightclub comedians who satiriAe or ridicule patrons in the audience stri+es some
people as amusing and others as rude.
23. sartorial pertaining to tailors
1e was as famous for the sartorial splendor of his attire as he was for his acting.
2. sate satisfy to the full; cloy
)ts hunger sated, the lion doAed.
2$. satellite small body revolving around a larger one
8uring the first few years of the #pace !ge, hundreds of satellites were launched by Russia and the Cnited
2'. satiate surfeit; satisfy fully
&he guests, having eaten until they were satiated, now listened inattentively to the spea+ers.
2(. satire form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attac+ vice and folly
/ulliver<s &ravels, which is regarded by many as a tale for children, is actually a bitter satire attac+ing
human folly.
2*. satirical moc+ing
&he humor of cartoonists /ary &rudeau often is satirical; though the comments of the 8oonesbury
characters, &rudeau ridicules political corruption and folly.
2,. saturate soa+
&heir clothes were saturated by the rain.
3.. saturnine gloomy
8o not be misled by his saturnine countenance; he is not as gloomy as he loo+s.
31. satyr half%human, half%bestial being in the court of 8ionysus, portrayed as wanton and cunning
1e was li+e a satyr in his lustful conduct.
32. saunter stroll slowly
!s we sauntered through the par+, we stopped fre?uently to admire the spring flowers.
33. savant scholar
4ur faculty includes many worldfamous savants.
3. savor en-oy; have a distinctive flavor, smell, or ?uality
Relishing his triumph, @ostner especially savored the chagrin of the critics who had predicted his failure.
3$. savory tasty; pleasing, attractive, or agreeable
;ulia @hild<s recipes enable amateur chefs to create savory delicacies for their guests.
3'. scabbard case for a sword blade; sheath
&he drill master told the recruit to wipe the blood from his sword before slipping it bac+ into the scabbard.
3(. scad a great ?uantity
Refusing 8ave<s offer to lend him a shirt, Dhil replied, 75o, than+sF )<ve got scads of clothes.7
3*. scaffold temporary platform for wor+ers; bracing framewor+; platform for e0ecution
Before painting the house, the wor+ers put up a scaffold to allow them to wor+ on the second story.
3,. scale climb up; ascend
&o locate a boo+ on the top shelf of the stac+s, Bee had to scale an e0ceptionally ric+ety ladder.
.. scanty meager; insufficient
&hin+ing his helping of food was scanty, 4liver &wist as+ed for more.
1. scapegoat someone who bears the blame for others
!fter the @hallenger disaster, 5!#! searched for scapegoats on whom they could cast the blame.
2. scavenge hunt through discarded materials for usable items; search, especially for food
)f you need car parts that the dealers no longer stoc+, try scavenging for odd bits and pieces at the auto
wrec+ers< yards.
3. scenario plot outline; screenplay; opera libretto
#caramouche startled the other actors in the commedia troupe when he suddenly departed from their
customary scenario and began to improvise.
. schematic relating to an outline or diagram; using a system of symbols
)n wor+ing out the solution to an analytical logic ?uestion, you may find it helpful to construct a simple
schematic diagram illustrating the relationships between the items of information given in the ?uestion.
$. schism division; split
Bet us not widen the schism by further bic+ering.
'. scintilla shred; least bit
6ou have not produced a scintilla of evidence to support your argument.
(. scintillate spar+le; flash
) en-oy her dinner parties because the food is e0cellent and the conversation scintillates.
*. scoff moc+; ridicule
1e scoffed at dentists until he had his first toothache.
,. scotch stamp out; thwart; hinder
1eather tried to scotch the rumor that she had stolen her best friend<s fiance.
$.. scourge lash; whip; severe punishment
&hey feared the plague and regarded it as a deadly scourge.
$1. scruple fret about; hesitate, for ethical reasons
9earing that her husband had become involved in an affair, she did not scruple to read his diary.
$2. scrupulous conscientious; e0tremely thorough
) can recommend him for a position of responsibility for ) have found him a very scrupulous young man.
$3. scrutinize e0amine closely and critically
#earching for flaws, the sergeant scrutiniAed every detail of the private<s uniform.
$. scuffle struggle confusedly; move off in a confused hurry.
&he twins briefly scuffled, wrestling to see which of them would get the toy. When their big brother yelled,
7Bet go of my /ameboyH7 they scuffled off down the hall.
$$. scurrilous obscene; indecent
6our scurrilous remar+s are especially offensive because they are untrue.
$'. scurry move bris+ly
&he White Rabbit had to scurry to get to his appointment on time.
$(. scurvy despicable; contemptible
Deter Dan sneered at @aptain 1oo+ and his scurvy crew.
$*. scuttle sin+
&he sailors decided to scuttle their vessel rather than surrender it to the enemy.
$,. seamy sordid; unwholesome
)n the /odfather, :ichael @orleone is unwilling to e0pose his wife and children to the seamy side of his
life as the son of a :afia don.
'.. sear char or burn; brand
!ccidentally brushing against the hot grill, she seared her hand badly.
'1. seasoned e0perienced
&hough pleased with her new batch of roo+ies, the bas+etball coach wished she had a few more seasoned
players on the team.
'2. secession withdrawal
&he secession of the #outhern states provided Bincoln with his first ma-or problem after his inauguration.
'3. seclusion isolation; solitude
4ne moment she loved crowds; the ne0t, she sought seclusion.
'. secrete hide away or cache; produce and release a substance into an organism.
&he pac+ rat secretes odds and ends in its nest; the pancreas secretes insulin in the islets of Bangerhans.
'$. sectarian narrow%minded; limited in scope
!s university chaplain, she sought to address universal religious issues and not limit herself to mere
sectarian concerns.
''. secular worldly; not pertaining to church matters; temporal
&he church leaders decided not interfere in secular matters.
'(. sedate composed; grave
&he parents were worried because they felt their son was too ?uiet and sedate.
'*. sedentary re?uiring sitting
Because he had a sedentary occupation, he decided to visit a gymnasium wee+ly.
',. sedition resistance to authority; insubordination
1is words, though not treasonous in themselves, were calculated to arouse thoughts of sedition.
(.. sedulous diligent
&he young woman was so sedulous that she received a commendation for her hard wor+.
(1. seedy run%down; decrepit; disreputable
) would rather stay in dormitory lodgings in a decent youth hostel than have a room of my own in a seedy
downtown hotel.
(2. seemly proper; appropriate
Bady Brac+nell did not thin+ it was seemly for 2rnest to lac+ a proper family; no baby abandoned on a
doorstep could grow up to marry her daughter.
(3. seep ooAe; tric+le
8uring the rainstorm, water seeped through the crac+ in the basement wall and damaged the floor boards.
(. seethe be disturbed; boil
&he nation was seething with discontent as the nobleman continued their arrogant ways.
($. seine net for catching fish
When the shad run during the spring, you may see fishermen with seines along the ban+s of our coastal
('. seismic pertaining to earth?ua+es
&he Richter scale is a measurement of seismic disturbances.
((. semblance outward appearance; guise
!lthough this boo+ has a semblance of wisdom and scholarship, a careful e0amination will reveal many
errors and omissions.
(*. seminal germinal; influencing future developments; related to seed or semen
!lthough 9reud has generally been regarded as a seminal thin+er who shaped the course of psychology, his
psychoanalytic methods have come under attac+ recently.
(,. seminary school for training future ministers; secondary school, especially for young women
#ure of his priestly vocation, &errence planned to pursue his theological training at the local Roman
@atholic seminary.
*.. senility old age; feeble mindedness of old age
:ost of the decisions are being made by the -unior members of the company because of the senility of the
*1. sensual devoted to the pleasures of the senses; carnal; voluptous
) cannot understand what caused him to drop his sensual way of life and become so ascetic.
*2. sensuous pertaining to the physical senses; operating through the senses
1e was stimulated by the sights, sounds and smells about him; he was en-oying his sensuous e0perience.
*3. sententious terse; concise; aphoristic
!fter reading so many redundant speeches, ) find his sententious style particulary pleasing.
*. sentinel sentry; loo+out
&hough camped in enemy territory, Bledsoe ignored the elementary precaution of posting sentinels around
the encampment.
*$. septic putrid; producing putrefaction
&he hospital was in such a filthy state that we were afraid that many of the patients would suffer from
septic poisoning.
*'. sepulcher tomb
!nnabel Bee was buried in a sepulcher by the sea.
*(. sequester retire from public life; segregate; seclude
!lthough he had hoped for a long time to se?uester himself in a small community, he never was able to
drop his busy round of activities in the city.
**. sere parched; dry
!fter the unseasonably dry winter the Ber+eley hills loo+ed dusty and sere.
*,. serendipity gift for finding valuable or desirable things by accident; accidental good fortune or luc+
:any scientific discoveries are a matter of serendipityF 5ewton was not sitting there thin+ing about gravity
when the apple dropped on his head.
,.. serenity calmness; placidity
&he serenity of the sleepy town was shattered by a tremendous e0plosion.
,1. serpentine winding; twisting
&he car swerved at every curve in the serpentine road.
,2. serrated having a sawtoothed edge
&he beech tree is one of many plants that have serrated leaves.
,3. servile slavish; cringing
@onstantly fawning on his employer, humble Criah 1eap was a servile creature.
,. servitude slavery; compulsory labor
Born a slave, 8ouglass resented his wife of servitude and plotted to escape to the 5orth.
,$. severance division; partition; separation
&he severance of church and state is a basic principle of our government.
,'. severity harshness; plainness
&he newspapers disapproved of the severity of the sentence.
,(. sextant navigation tool used to determine a ship<s latitude and longitude
/iven a clear night, with the aid of his se0tant and compass, he could +eep the ship safely on course.
,*. shackle chain; fetter
&he criminal<s an+les were shac+led to prevent his escape.
,,. sham pretend
1e shammed sic+ness to get out of going to school.
1... shambles slaughterhouse; scene of carnage
By the time the police arrived, the room was a shambles.
1.1. shard fragment, generally of pottery
&he archaeologist assigned several students the tas+ of reassembling earthenware vessels from the shards
he had brought bac+ from the e0pedition.
1.2. sheaf bundle of stal+s of grain; any bundle of things tied together
&he lawyer pic+ed up a sheaf of papers as he rose to ?uestion the witness.
1.3. sheathe place into a case
!s soon as he recogniAed the approaching men, he sheathed his dagger and hailed them as friends.
1.. sherbet flavored dessert ice
) prefer raspberry sherbet to ice cream since it is less fattening.
1.$. shimmer glimmer intermittently
&he moonlight shimmered on the water as the moon bro+e through the clouds for a moment.
1.'. shirk avoid =responsibility, wor+, etc.>; malinger
Brian has a strong sense of duty; he would never shir+ any responsibility.
1.(. shoddy sham; not genuine; inferior
6ou will never get the public to buy such shoddy material.
1.*. shrew scolding woman
5o one wanted to marry #ha+espeare<s "ate because she was a shrew.
1.,. shrewd clever; astute
! shrewd investor, he too+ clever advantage of the fluctuations of the stoc+ mar+et.
11.. shun +eep away from
@herishing his solitude, the recluse shunned the company of other human beings.
111. shunt turn aside; divert; sidetrac+
)f the switchman failed to shunt the #ilver #trea+ onto a side trac+, the train would plow right into Cnion
112. shyster lawyer using ?uestionable methods.
4n B.!. Baw, respectable attorney Brac+man was horrified to learn that his newly discovered half brother
was a cheap shyster.
113. sibling brother or sister
We may not en-oy being siblings, but we cannot forget that we still belong to the same family.
11. sibylline prophetic; oracular
Cntil their destruction by fire in *3 B.@., the sibylline boo+s were often consulted by the Romans.
11$. sidereal relating to the stars
!lthough hampered by optical and mechanical flaws, the orbiting 1ubble space telescope has relayed
e0traordinary images of distant sidereal bodies.
11'. silt sediment deposited by running water
&he harbor channel must be dredged annually to remove the silt.
11(. simian mon+eyli+e
Bemurs are nocturnal mammals and have many simian characteristics, although they are less intelligent
than mon+eys.
11*. simile comparison of one thing with another, using the word li+e or as
7:y love is li+e a red, red rose7 is a simile.
11,. simper smir+; smile affectedly
@omplimented on her appearance, #tella self%consciously simpered.
12.. simplistic oversimplified
&hough ;ac+<s solution dealt ade?uately with one aspect of the problem, it was simplistic in failing to
consider various complicating factors that might arise.
121. simulate feign
1e simulated insanity in order to avoid punishment for his crime.
122. sinecure well%paid position with little responsibility
:y -ob is no sinecure; ) wor+ long hours and have much responsibility.
123. sinewy tough; strong and firm
&he stea+ was too sinewy to chew
12. singular uni?ue; e0traordinary; odd
&hough the young man tried to understand 9ather William<s singular behavior, he still found it odd that the
old man incessantly stood on his head.
12$. sinister evil
We must defeat the sinister forces that see+ our downfall.
12'. sinuous winding; bending in and out; not morally honest
&he sna+e moved in a sinuous manner.
12(. skeptic doubter; person who suspends -udgment until he has e0amined the evidence supporting a point
of view.
)n this matter, ) am a s+eptic; ) want proof.
12*. skiff small, light sailboat or rowboat
&om dreamed of owning an ocean%going yacht but had to settle for a s+iff he could sail in the bay.
12,. skimp provide scantily; live very economically
&hey were forced to s+imp on necessities in order to ma+e their limited supplies last the winter.
13.. skinflint miser
&he old s+inflint refused to give her a raise.
131. skirmish minor fight
@uster<s troops e0pected they might run into a s+irmish or two on maneuvers; they did not e0pect to face a
ma-or battle.
132. skittish lively; fris+y
#he is as s+ittish as a +itten playing with a piece of string.
133. skulduggery dishonest behavior
&he investigation into municipal corruption turned up new instances of s+ulduggery daily.
13. skulk move furtively and secretly
1e s+ul+ed through the less fashionable sections of the city in order to avoid meeting any of his former
13$. slacken slow up; loosen
!s they passed the finish line, the runners slac+ened their pace.
13'. slag residue from smelting metal; dross; waste matter
&he blast furnace had a special opening at the bottom to allow the wor+ers to remove the worthless slag.
13(. slake ?uench; sate
When we reached the oasis, we were able to sla+e our thirst.
13*. slander defamation; utterance of false and malicious statements
Cnless you can prove your allegations, your remar+s constitute slander.
13,. slapdash haphaAard; careless; sloppy
9rom the number of typos and misspellings )<ve found on it, it<s clear that :ario proofread the report in a
remar+ably slapdash fashion.
1.. sleazy flimsy; unsubstantial
&his is a sleaAy fabric; it will not wear well.
11. sleeper something originally of little value or importance that in time becomes very valuable
Cnnoticed by the critics at its publication, the eventual DulitAer DriAe winner was a classic sleeper.
12. sleight de0terity
&he magician amaAed the audience with his sleight of hand.
13. slight insult to one<s dignity; snub
1ypersensitive and ready to ta+e offense at any discourtesy, Bertha was always on the loo+out for real or
imaginary slights.
1. slither slip or slide
8uring the recent ice storm, many people slithered down this hill as they wal+ed to the station.
1$. sloth laAiness
#uch sloth in a young person is deplorable; go to wor+H
1'. sloth slow%moving tree%dwelling mammal
5ote how well the somewhat greenish coat of the sloth enables it to blend in with its arboreal surroundings.
1(. slough cast off
2ach spring, the sna+e sloughs off its s+in.
1*. slovenly untidy; slipshod
#uch slovenly wor+ habits will never produce good products.
1,. sluggard laAy person
76ou are a sluggard, a drone, a parasite,7 the angry father shouted at his laAy son.
1$.. sluggish slow; laAy; lethargic
!fter two nights without sleep, she felt sluggish and incapable of e0ertion.
1$1. sluice artificial channel for directing or controlling the flow of water
)n times of drought, this sluice enables farmers to obtain water for irrigation.
1$2. slur insult to one<s character or reputation; slander
Dolls revealed that the front%runner<s standing had been damaged by the slurs and innuendoes circulated by
his opponent<s staff.
1$3. smattering slight +nowledge
) don<t +now whether it is better to be ignorant of a sub-ect or to have a mere smattering of information
about it.
1$. smirk conceited smile
Wipe that smir+ off your faceH
1$$. smolder burn without flame; be liable to brea+ out at any moment
&he rags smoldered for hours before they burst into flame.
1$'. snicker half%stifled laugh
&he boy could not suppress a snic+er when the teacher sat on the tac+.
1$(. snivel run at the nose; snuffle; whine
8on<t you come sniveling to me complaining about your big brother.
1$*. sobriety moderation =especially regarding indulgence in alcohol>; seriousness
5either drun+ards nor comics are noted for sobriety.
1$,. sodden soa+ed; dull, as if from drin+
1e set his sodden overcoat near the radiator to dry.
1'.. sojourn temporary stay
!fter his so-ourn in 9lorida, he began to long for the colder climate of his native 5ew 2ngland home.
1'1. solace comfort in trouble
) hope you will find solace in the thought that all of us share your loss.
1'2. solder repair or ma+e whole by using a metal alloy
&he plumber fi0ed the lea+ in the pipes by soldering a couple of -oints from which water had been ooAing.
1'3. solecism construction that is flagrantly incorrect grammatically
) must give this paper a failing mar+ because it contains many solecisms.
1'. solemnity seriousness; gravity
&he minister was concerned that nothing should disturb the solemnity of the marriage service.
1'$. solicit re?uest earnestly; see+
"nowing she needed to have a solid ma-ority for the budget to pass, the mayor telephoned all the members
of the city council to solicit their votes.
1''. solicitous worried, concerned
&he employer was very solicitous about the health of her employees as replacements were difficult to get.
1'(. soliloquy tal+ing to oneself
&he solilo?uy is a device used by the dramatist to reveal a character<s innermost thoughts and emotions.
1'*. solstice point at which the sun is farthest from the e?uator
&he winter solstice usually occurs on 8ecember 21.
1',. solvent able to pay all debts
By dint of very frugal living, he was finally able to become solvent and avoid ban+ruptcy proceedings.
1(.. somatic pertaining to the body; physical
Why do you ignore the spiritual aspects and emphasiAe only the corporeal and the somatic onesI
1(1. somber gloomy; depressing
9rom the doctor<s grim e0pression, ) could tell he had somber news.
1(2. somnambulist sleepwal+er
&he most famous somnambulist in literature is Bady :acbeth; her monologue in the sleepwal+ing scene is
one of the highlights of #ha+espeare<s play.
1(3. somnolent half asleep
&he heavy meal and the overheated room made us all somnolent and indifferent to the spea+er.
1(. sonorous resonant
1is sonorous voice resounded through the hall.
1($. sophist teacher of philosophy; ?uibbler; employer of fallacious reasoning
6ou are using all the devices of a sophist in trying to prove your case; your argument is specious.
1('. sophistication artificiality; unnaturalness; act of employing sophistry in reasoning
#ophistication is an ac?uired characteristic, found more fre?uently among city dwellers than among
residents of rural areas.
1((. sophistry seemingly plausible but fallacious reasoning
)nstead of advancing valid arguments, he tried to overwhelm his audience with a flood of sophistries.
1(*. sophomoric immature; shallow
6our sophomoric remar+s are a sign of your youth and indicate that you have not given much thought to
the problem.
1(,. soporific sleep producing
) do not need a sedative when ) listen to one of his soporific speeches.
1*.. sordid filthy; base; vile
&he social wor+er was angered by the sordid housing provided for the homeless.
1*1. spangle small metallic piece sewn to clothing for ornamentation
&he thousands of spangles on her dress spar+led in the glare of the stage lights.
1*2. spartan lac+ing lu0ury and comfort; sternly disciplined
Boo+ing over the bare, unheated room with its hard cot, he wondered what he was doing in such spartan
?uarters. 4nly his spartan sense of duty +ept him at his post.
1*3. spasmodic fitful; periodic
&he spasmodic coughing in the auditorium annoyed the performers.
1*. spat s?uabble; minor dispute
What had started out as a mere spat escalated into a full%blown argument.
1*$. spate sudden flood
) am worried about the possibility of a spate if the rains do not diminish soon.
1*'. spatial relating to space
)t is difficult to visualiAe the spatial e0tent of our universe.
1*(. spatula broad%bladed instrument used for spreading or mi0ing
&he manufacturers of this frying pan recommended the use of a rubber spatula to avoid scratching the
specially treated surface.
1**. spawn lay eggs
9ish ladders had to be built in the dams to assist the salmon returning to spawn in their native streams.
1*,. specious seemingly reasonable but incorrect
Bet us not be misled by such specious arguments.
1,.. spectral ghostly
We were frightened by the spectral glow that filled the room.
1,1. spectrum colored band produced when a beam of light passes through a prism
&he visible portion of the spectrum includes red at one end and violet at the other.
1,2. spendthrift someone who wastes money
2asy access to credit encourages people to turn into spendthrifts who shop till they drop.
1,3. sphinx-like enigmatic; mysterious
&he :ona Bisa<s sphin0%li+e e0pression has puAAled art lovers for centuries.
1,. splice fasten together; unite
Before you splice two strips of tape together, be sure to line them up evenly.
1,$. spontaneity impulsiveness; absence of premeditation
What ) li+ed best about 8ale<s parties was their spontaneityF a couple of friends would drop by, someone
would pull out a fiddle or guitar, and before you +new it the party would be in full swing.
1,'. spoonerism accidental transposition of sounds in sucessive words
When the radio announcer introduced the Dresident as 1oobert 1erver, he was guilty of spoonerism.
1,(. sporadic occurring irregularly
!lthough there are still sporadic outbursts of shooting in the streets, the rebellion is essentially over.
1,*. sportive playful
#uch a sportive attitude is surprising in a person as serious as you usually are.
1,,. spruce neat and trim
2very button buttoned, tie firmly in place, young !le0 "eaton loo+ed spruce and tidy for his -ob interview
at the ban+.
2... spry vigorously active; nimble
#he was eighty years old, yet still spry and alert.
2.1. spurious false; counterfeit; forged; illogical
&he hero of ;onathan /ash<s mystery novels is an anti?ue dealer who gives the reader advice on how to tell
spurious anti?ues from the real things.
2.2. spurn re-ect; scorn
&he heroine spurned the villain<s advances.
2.3. squabble minor ?uarrel; bic+ering
@hildren invariably get involved in petty s?uabbles; wise parents +now when to interfere and when to let
the children wor+ things out on their own.
2.. squalid dirty; neglected; poor
)t is easy to see how crime can breed in such a s?ualid neighborhood.
2.$. squander waste
&he prodigal son s?uandered the family estate.
2.'. squat stoc+y; short and thic+
&ol+ien<s hobbits are somewhat s?uat, sturdy little creatures, fond of good ale, good music, and good food.
2.(. staccato played in an abrupt manner; mar+ed by abrupt, sharp sound
1is staccato speech reminded one of the sound of a machine gun.
2.*. stagnant motionless; stale; dull
&he stagnant water was a breeding ground for disease
2.,. staid sober; sedate
1er conduct during the funeral ceremony was staid and solemn.
21.. stalemate deadloc+
5egotiations between the union and the employers have reached a stalemate; neither side is willing to
budge from previously stated positions.
211. stalwart strong, brawny; steadfast
1is consistent support of the party has proved that he is a stalwart and loyal member.
212. stamina strength; staying power
) doubt that she has the stamina to run the full distance of the marathon race.
213. stanch chec+ flow of blood
)t is imperative that we stanch the gushing wound before we attend to the other in-uries.
21. stanza division of a poem
8o you +now the last stanAa of 7&he #tar%#pangled Banner7I
21$. static unchanging; lac+ing development
5othing had changed at home; things were static there
21'. statute law
We have many statutes in our law boo+s which should be repealed.
21(. statutory created by statute or legislative action
&he -udicial courts review and try statutory crimes.
21*. steadfast loyal; unswerving
Denelope was steadfast in her affections, faithfully waiting for Clysses to return from his wanderings.
21,. stealth slyness; snea+iness; secretiveness
9earing detection by the sentries on duty, the scout inched his way toward the enemy camp with great
22.. steep soa+; saturate
Be sure to steep the fabric in the dye bath for the full time prescribed.
221. stellar pertaining to the stars
1e was the stellar attraction of the entire performance.
222. stem chec+ the flow
&he paramedic used a tourni?uet to stem the bleeding from the slashed artery.
223. stemfrom arise from
:ilton<s problems in school stemmed from his poor study habits.
22. stentorian e0tremely loud
&he town crier had stentorian voice.
22$. streotyped oversimplified; lac+ing individuality; seen as a type
:y chief ob-ection to the boo+ is that the characters are stereotyped; they come across as ethnic caricatures,
not as real people with individual ?uir+s, fears, and dreams.
22'. stickler perfectionist; person who insists things be e0actly right
&he )nternal Revenue #ervice agent was a stic+ler for accuracy; no appro0imations or rough estimates
would satisfy him.
22(. stifle suppress; e0tinguish; inhibit
1alfway through the boring lecture, Baura gave up trying to stifle her yawns.
22*. stigma to+en of disgrace; brand
) do not attach any stigma to the fact that you were accused of this crime; the fact that you were ac?uitted
clears you completely.
22,. stilted bombastic; stiffly pompous
1is stilted rhetoric did not impress the college audience; they were immune to bombastic utterances.
23.. stint be thrifty; set limits
7#pare no e0pense,7 the bride<s father said, refusing to stint on the wedding arrangements.
231. stint supply; allotted amount; assigned portion of wor+
1e performed his daily stint cheerfully and willingly.
232. stipend pay for services
&here is a nominal stipend for this position.
233. stipple paint or draw with dots
#eurat carefully stippled dabs of pure color on the canvas, -u0taposing dots of blue and yellow that the
viewer<s eye would interpret as green.
23. stipulate ma+e e0press conditions, specify
Before agreeing to reduce !merican military forces in 2urope, the president stipulated that 5!&4 teams be
allowed to inspect #oviet bases.
23$. stodgy stuffy; boringly conservative
9or a young person, Winston seems remar+ably stodgyF you<d e0pect someone of his age to have a little
more life.
23'. stoic person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain
&he doctor called her patient a stoic because he had borne the pain of the e0amination without whimpering.
23(. stoke stir up a fire; feed plentifully
!s a #cout, :arisa learned how to light a fire, how to sto+e it if it started to die down, and how to
e0tinguish it completely.
23*. stolidity dullness; impassivenss
&he earth?ua+e shattered his usual stolidity; trembling, he crouched on the no longer stable ground.
23,. stratified divided into classes; arranged into strata
!s the economic gap between the rich and the poor increased, Roman society grew increasingly stratified.
2.. stratum layer of earth<s surface; layer of society
Cnless we alleviate conditions in the lowest stratum of our society, we may e0pect grumbling and revolt.
21. strew spread randomly; sprin+le; scatter
Dreceding the bride to the altar, the flower girl will strew rose petals along the aisle.
22. striated mar+ed with parallel bands; grooved
&he glacier left many striated roc+s.
23. stricture critical comments; severe and adverse criticism
1is strictures on the author<s style are pre-udiced and unwarranted.
2. strident loud and harsh
#he scolded him in a strident voice
2$. stringent binding; rigid
) thin+ these regulations are too stringent.
2'. strut pompous wal+
1is strut as he marched about the parade ground revealed him for what he wasF a pompous buffoon.
2(. strut supporting bar
&he engineer calculated that the strut supporting the rafter needed to be reinforced.
2*. studied unspontaneous; deliberate; thoughtful
/iven ;ill<s previous slights, ;ac+ felt that the omission of his name from the guest list was a studied insult.
2,. stultify cause to appear or become stupid or inconsistent; frustrate or hinder
1is long hours in the blac+ing factory left young 8ic+ens numb and incurious, as if the menial labor had
stultified his mind.
2$.. stupefy ma+e numb; stun; amaAe
8isapproving of drugs in general, Baura refused to ta+e sleeping pills or any other medicine that might
stupefy her.
2$1. stupor state of apathy; daAe; lac+ of awareness
)n his stupor, the addict was unaware of the events ta+ing place around him.
2$2. stymie present an obstacle; stump
&he detective was stymied by the contradictory evidence in the robbery investigation.
2$3. suavity urbanity; polish
1e is particulary good in roles that re?uire suavity and sophistication.
2$. subaltern subordinate
&he captain treated his subalterns as though they were children rather than commissioned officers.
2$$. subjective occurring or ta+ing place within the mind; unreal
6our analysis is highly sub-ective; you have permitted your emotions and your opinions to color your
2$'. subjugate con?uer; bring under control
)t is not our aim to sub-ugate our foe; we are interested only in establishing peaceful relations.
2$(. sublimate refine; purify
We must strive to sublimate these desires and emotions into worthwhile activities.
2$*. sublime e0alted; noble; uplifting
:other &eresa has been honored for her sublime deeds.
2$,. subliminal below the threshold
We may not be aware of the subliminal influences that affect our thin+ing.
2'.. submissive yielding; timid
@rushed by his authoritarian father, Will had no defiance left in him; he was totally submissive in the face
of authority.
2'1. suborn persuade to act unlawfully =especially to commit per-ury>
)n the /odfather, the mobsters used bribery and threats to suborn the witnesses against 8on :ichael
2'2. subpoena writ summoning a witness to appear
&he prosecutor<s office was ready to serve a subpoena on the reluctant witness.
2'3. subsequent following; later
)n subse?uent lessons, we shall ta+e up more difficult problems.
2'. subservient behaving li+e a slave; servile; obse?uious
1e was proud and dignified; he refused to be subservient to anyone.
2'$. subside settle down; descend; grow ?uiet
&he doctor assured us that the fever would eventually subside.
2''. subsidiary subordinate; secondary
&his information may be used as subsidiary evidence but is not sufficient by itself to prove your argument.
2'(. subsidy direct financial aid by government, etc.
Without this subsidy, !merican ship operators would not be able to compete in world mar+ets.
2'*. subsistence e0istence; means of support; livelihood
)n those days of inflated prices, my salary provided mere subsistence.
2',. substantiate verify; support
) intend to substantiate my statement by producing witnesses.
2(.. substantive essential; pertaining to the substance
!lthough the delegates were aware of the importance of the problem, they could not agree on the
substantive issues.
2(1. subsume include; encompass
8oes the general theory of relativity contradict 5ewtonian physics, or is 5ewton<s law of gravity subsumed
into 2instein<s larger schemeI
2(2. subterfuge pretense; evasion
!s soon as we realiAed that you had won our support by a subterfuge we withdrew our endorsement of your
2(3. subtlety nicety; cunning; guile; delicacy
&he subtlety of his remar+s was unnoticed by most of his audience.
2(. subversive tending to overthrow; destructive
!t first glance, the notion that #tyrofoam cups may actually be more ecologically sound than paper cups
stri+es most environmentalists as subversive.
2($. succinct brief; terse; compact
1is remar+s are always succinct and pointed.
2('. succor aid; assistance; relief
We shall be ever grateful for the succor our country gave us when we were in need.
2((. succulent -uicy; full of richness
&o some people, 9lorida citrus fruits are more succulent than those from @alifornia.
2(*. succumb yield; give in; die
) succumb to temptation whenever it comes my way.
2(,. suffragist advocate of voting rights =for women>
)n recognition of her efforts to win the vote for women, @ongress authoriAed coining a silver dollar
honoring the suffragist #usan B. !nthony.
2*.. suffuse spread over
! blush suffused her chee+s when we teased her about her love affair.
2*1. sully tarnish; soil
1e felt that it was beneath his dignity to sully his hands in such menial labor.
2*2. sultry sweltering
1e could not ad-ust himself to the sultry climate of the tropics.
2*3. summation act of finding the total, summary
)n his summation, the lawyer emphasiAed the testimony given by the two witnesses.
2*. sumptuous lavish; rich
) cannot recall when ) have had such a sumptuous &han+sgiving feast.
2*$. sunder separate; part
5orthern and southern )reland are politically and religiously sundered.
2*'. sundry various; several
:y suspicions were aroused when ) read sundry items in the newspapers about your behavior.
2*(. superannuated retired or dis?ualified because of age
&he superannuated man was indignant because he felt that he could still perform a good day<s wor+.
2**. supercilious contemptuous; haughty
) prefer ;ill<s modesty to ;ac+<s supercilious and arrogant attitude.
2*,. supererogatory superfluous; more than needed or demanded
We have more than enough witnesses to corroborate your statement; to present any more would be
2,.. superficial trivial; shallow
#ince your report gave only a superficial analysis of the problem, ) cannot give you more than a passing
2,1. superfluous e0cessive; overabundant, unnecessary
Dlease try not to include so many superfluous details in your report; -ust give me the bare facts.
2,2. superimpose place over something else
6our attempt to superimpose another agency in this field will merely increase the bureaucratic nature of
our government.
2,3. supernumerary person or thing in e0cess of what is necessary; e0tra
1is first appearance on the stage was as a supernumerary in a #ha+espearean tragedy.
2,. supersede cause to be set aside; replace
&his regulation will supersede all previous rules.
2,$. supine lying on bac+
&he defeated pugilist lay supine on the canvas.
2,'. supplant replace; usurp
@oraAon !?uino supplanted 9erdinand :arcos as president of the Dhilippines.
2,(. supple fle0ible; pliant
&he angler found a supple limb and used it as a fishing rod.
2,*. suppliant entreating; beseeching
1e could not resist the dog<s suppliant whimpering, and he gave it some food.
2,,. supplicate petition humbly; pray to grant a favor
We supplicate 6our :a-esty to grant him amnesty.
3... supposition hypothesis; surmise
) based my decision to confide in him on the supposition that he would be discreet.
3.1. supposititious assumed; counterfeit; hypothetical
) find no similarity between your supposititious illustration and the problem we are facing.
3.2. surfeit satiate; stuff; indulge to e0cess in anything
2very &han+sgiving we are surfeited with an overabundance of holiday treats.
3.3. surly rude; cross
Because of his surly attitude, many people avoided his company.
3.. surmise guess
) surmise that he will be late for this meeting.
3.$. surmount overcome
1e had to surmount many obstacles in order to succeed.
3.'. surpass e0ceed
1er #!& scores surpassed out e0pectations.
3.(. surreptitious secret
5ews of their surreptitious meeting gradually lea+ed out.
3.*. surrogate substitute
9or a fatherless child, a male teacher may become a father surrogate.
3.,. surveillance watching; guarding
&he 9B) +ept the house under constant surveillance in the hope of capturing all the criminals at one time.
31.. susceptible impressionable; easily influenced; having little resistance, as to a disease
1e was a very susceptible young man, and so his parents worried that he might fall into bad company.
311. sustain e0perience; support; nourish
1e sustained such a severe in-ury that the doctors feared he would be unable to wor+ to sustain his growing
312. sustenance means of support, food, nourishment
)n the tropics, the natives find sustenance easy to obtain because of all the fruit trees.
313. suture stitches sewn to hold the cut edges of a wound or incision; material used in sewing
We will remove the sutures as soon as the wound heals.
31. swarthy dar+; dus+y
8espite the stereotype, not all )talians are swarthy; many are fair and blond.
31$. swathe wrap around; bandage
When ) visited him in the hospital, ) found him swathed in bandages.
31'. swelter be oppressed by heat
) am going to buy an air conditioning unit for my apartment as ) do not intend to swelter through another
hot and humid summer.
31(. swerve deviate; turn aside sharply
&he car swerved wildly as the driver struggled to regain control of the wheel.
31*. swill drin+ greedily
#inging, 76o, ho, ho, and a bottle of rum,7 Bong ;ohn #ilver and his fellow pirates swilled their grog.
31,. swindler cheat
#he was gullible and trusting, an easy victim for the first swindler who came along.
32.. sybarite lover of lu0ury
Rich people are not always sybarites; some of them have little taste for a life of lu0ury.
321. sycophant servile flatterer
&he +ing en-oyed the servile compliments and attentions of the sycophants in his retinue.
322. syllogism logical formula consisting of a ma-or premise, a minor premise and a conclusion; deceptive
or specious argument
&here must be a fallacy in this syllogism; ) cannot accept its conclusion.
323. sylvan pertaining to the woods; rustic
1is paintings of nymphs in sylvan bac+grounds were criticiAed as oversentimental.
32. symbiosis interdependent relationship =between groups, species>, often mutually beneficial
Both the crocodile bird and the crocodile derive benefit from their symbiosis; pec+ing away at food
particles embedded in the crocodile<s teeth, the bird derives nourishment; the crocodile, meanwhile, derives
proper dental hygiene.
32$. symmetry arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained; congruity
&he addition of a second tower will give this edifice the symmetry that it now lac+s.
32'. synchronous similary timed; simultaneous with
We have many e0amples of scientists in different parts of the world who have made synchronous
32(. synoptic providing a general overview; summary
&he professor turned to the latest issue of 8issertation !bstracts for a synoptic account of what was new in
the field.
32*. synthesis combining parts into a whole
5ow that we have succeeded in isolating this drug, our ne0t problem is to plan its synthesis in the
32,. synthetic artificial; resulting from synthesis
8uring the twentieth century, many synthetic products have replaced the natural products.
33.. sedative calming drug or influence
)t is dangerous to drive after ta+ing the sedative; it brings drowsiness.
331. stygian literary dar+
&he stygian room reminded him of an empty space.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. tacit understood; not put into words
We have a tacit agreement based on only a handsha+e.
2. taciturn habitually silent; tal+ing a little
5ew 2nglanders are reputedly taciturn people.
3. tactile pertaining to the organs or sense of touch
1is callused hands had lost their tactile sensitivity.
. tainted contaminated; corrupt
1ealth authorities are always trying to prevent the sale and use of tainted food.
$. talisman charm
#he wore the talisman to ward off evil.
'. talon claw of bird
&he falconer wore a leather gauntlet to avoid being clawed by the haw+<s talons.
(. tangential peripheral; only slightly connected; digressing
8espite @lar+<s attempts to distract her with tangential remar+s, Bois +ept on coming bac+ to her main
?uestionF why couldn<t he come out to dinner with #uperman and herI
*. tangible able to be touched; real; palpable
!lthough &om did not own a house, he had several tangible assets%%a car, a television, a D@%%that he could
sell if he needed cash.
,. tanner person who turns animal hides into leather
Csing a solution of tanbar+, the tanner treated the cowhide, transforming it into supple leather.
1.. tantalize tease; torture with disappointment
&om loved to tantaliAe his younger brother with candy; he +new the boy was forbidden to have it.
11. tantamount e?ual
6our ignoring their pathetic condition is tantamount to the murder.
12. tantrum fit of petulance; caprice
&he child learned that he could have almost anything if he went into tantrums.
13. taper candle
1e lit the taper on the windowsill.
1. tarantula venomous spider
We need an antito0in to counteract the bite of the tarantula.
1$. tarry delay; dawdle
We can<t tarry if we want to get to the airport on time.
1'. taut tight; ready
&he captain maintained that he ran a taut ship.
1(. tautological needlessly repetitious
)n the sentence 7)t was visible to the eye,7 the phrase 7to the eye7 is tautological.
1*. tawdry cheap and gaudy
1e won a few tawdry trin+ets in @oney )sland.
1,. taxonomist specialist in classifying =animals, etc.>
8ental patterns often enable the ta0onomist to distinguish members of one rodent species from those of
2.. tedium boredom; weariness
We hope this radio will help overcome the tedium of your stay in the hospital.
21. temerity boldness; rashness
8o you have the temerity to argue with meI
22. temper moderate; tone down or restrain; toughen =steel>
5ot even her supervisor<s grumpiness could temper 5ancy<s enthusiasm for her new -ob.
23. temperament characteristic frame of mind; disposition; emotional e0cess
!lthough the twins loo+ ali+e, they differ mar+edly in temperamentF &od is calm, but Rod is e0citable.
2. temperate restrained; self%controlled
5oted for his temperate appetite, he seldom gained weight.
2$. tempo speed of music
) find the conductor<s tempo too slow for such a brilliant piece of music.
2'. temporal not lasting forever; limited by time; secular
!t one time in our history, temporal rulers assumed that they had been given their thrones by divine right.
2(. temporize avoid committing oneself; gain time
) cannot permit you to temporiAe any longer; ) must have a definite answer today.
2*. tenacious holding fast
) had to struggle to brea+ his tenacious hold on my arm.
2,. tenacity firmness; persistency; adhesiveness
)t is e0tremely difficult to overcome the tenacity of a habit such as smo+ing.
3.. tendentious having an aim; biased; designed to further a cause
&he editorials in this periodical are tendentious rather than truth%see+ing.
31. tender offer; e0tend
!lthough no formal changes had been made against him, in the wa+e of the recent scandal the mayor felt
he should tender his resignation.
32. tenet doctrine; dogma
&he agnostic did not accept the tenets of their faith.
33. tensile capable of being stretched
:ountain climbers must +now the tensile strength of their ropes.
3. tentative provisional; e0perimental
6our tentative plans sound plausible; let me +now when the final details are wor+ed out.
3$. tenuous thin; rare; slim
&he allegiance of our allies is held by rather tenuous ties; let us hope they will remain loyal.
3'. tenure holding of an office; time during which such an office is held
1e was permanent tenure in this position and cannot be fired.
3(. tepid lu+ewarm
8uring the summer, ) li+e to ta+e a tepid bath, not a hot one.
3*. terminate to bring to an end
When his contract was terminated une0pectedly, he desperately needed a new -ob.
3,. terminology terms used in a science or art
&he special terminology developed by some authorities in the field has done more to confuse laypersons
than to enlighten them.
.. terminus last stop of railroad
!fter we reached the railroad terminus, we continued our -ourney into the wilderness on saddle horses.
1. terrestrial on or relating to the earth
We have been able to e0plore the terrestrial regions much more thoroughly than the a?uatic or celestial
2. terse concise; abrupt; pithy
) admire his terse style of writing; he comes directly to the point.
3. tertiary third
1e is so thorough that he analyAes tertiary causes where other writers are content with primary and
secondary reasons.
. tesselated inlaid; mosaic
) recall seeing a table with a tesselated top of bits of stone and glass in a very interesting pattern.
$. testator ma+er of a will
&he attorney called in his secretary and his partner to witness the signature of the testator.
'. testy irritable; short%tempered
:y advice is to avoid discussing this problem with him today as he is rather testy and may shout at you.
(. tether tie with a rope
Before we went to sleep, we tethered the horses to prevent their wandering off during the night.
*. thematic relating to a unifying motif or idea
&hose who thin+ of :oby 8ic+ as a simple adventure story about whaling miss is underlying thematic
,. theocracy government of a community by religious leaders
#ome Dilgrims favored the establishment of a theocracy in 5ew 2ngland.
$.. theoretical not practical or applied; hypothetical
Bob was better at applied engineering and computer programming than he was at theoretical physics and
math. While ) can still thin+ of some theoretical ob-ections to your plan, you<ve convinced me of its basic
$1. therapeutic curative
5ow better +nown for its racetrac+, #aratoga #prings first gained attention for the therapeutic ?ualities of
its famous 7healing waters.7
$2. thermal pertaining to heat
&he natives discovered that the host springs gave e0cellent thermal baths and began to develop their
community as a health resort.
$3. thespian pertaining to drama
1er success in the school play convinced her she was destined for a thespian career.
$. thrall slave; bondage
&he captured soldier was held in thrall by the con?uering army.
$$. thrifty careful about money; economical
! thrifty shopper compares prices before ma+ing ma-or purchases.
$'. thrive prosper; flourish
8espite the impact of recession on the restaurant trade, Dhilip<s cafe thrived.
$(. throes violent anguish
&he throes of despair can be as devastating as the spasms accompanying physical pain.
$*. throng crowd
&hrongs of shoppers -ammed the aisles.
$,. throttle strangle
&he criminal tried to throttle the old man with his bare hands.
'.. thwart baffle; frustrate
1e felt that everyone was trying to thwart his plans and prevent his success.
'1. tightwad e0cessively frugal person; miser
;ill called ;ac+ a tightwad because he never pic+ed up the chec+.
'2. tilter handle used to move the boat<s rudder =to steer>
9earing the wind might shift suddenly and capsiAe the s+iff, &om +ept one hand on the tilter at all times.
'3. timbre ?uality of a musical tone produced by a musical instrument
We identify the instrument producing a musical sound by its timbre.
'. timidity lac+ of self%confidence or courage
)f you are to succeed as a salesperson, you must first lose your timidity and fear of failure.
'$. timorous fearful; demonstrating fear
1is timorous manner betrayed the fear he felt at the moment.
''. tipple drin+ =alcoholic beverages> fre?uently
1e found that his most en-oyable evenings occurred when he tippled with his friends at the local pub.
'(. tirade e0tended scolding; denunciation
Bong before he had finished his tirade, we were sufficiently aware of the seriousness of our misconduct.
'*. titanic gigantic
titanic waves beat aginst the shore during the hurricane.
',. tithe ta0 of one%tenth
Because he was an agnostic, he refused to pay his tithes to the clergy.
(.. titillate tic+le
) am here not to titillate my audience but to enlighten it.
(1. title right or claim to possession; mar+ of ran+; name =of a boo+, film, etc.>
&hough the penniless 8u+e of Ragwort no longer held title to the family estate, he still retained his title as
head of one of 2ngland<s oldest families.
(2. titter nervous laugh
1er aunt<s constant titter nearly drove her mad.
(3. titular having the title of an office without the obligations
!lthough he was the titular head of the company, the real decisions were made by his general manager.
(. toady servile flatterer; yes man
5ever tell the boss anything he doesn<t wish to hearF he doesn<t want an independent adviser, he -ust wants a
($. toga Roman outer robe
:arc !ntony pointed to the slashes in @aesar<s toga.
('. tome large volume
1e spent much time in the libraries poring over ancient tomes.
((. tonsure shaving of the head, especially by person entering religious orders
1is tonsure, even more than his monastic garb, indicated that he was a member of the religious order.
(*. topography physical features of a region
Before the generals gave the order to attac+, they ordered a complete study of the topography of the region.
(,. torpor lethargy; sluggishness; dormancy
5othing seemed to arouse him from his torpor; he had wholly surrendered himself to lethargy.
*.. torque twisting force; force producing rotation
With her wrench she applied sufficient tor?ue to the nut the loosen it.
*1. torrent rushing stream; flood
8ay after day of heavy rain saturated the hillside until the water ran downhill in torrents.
*2. torso trun+ of statue with head and limbs missing; human trun+
&his torso, found in the ruins of Dompeii, is now on e0hibition in the museum in 5aples.
*3. tortuous winding; full of curves
Because this road is so tortuous, it is unwise to go faster than twenty miles an hour on it.
*. touchstone stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys; criterion
What touchstone can be used to measure the character of a personI
*$. touchy sensitive; irascible
8o not discuss this phase of the problem as he is very touchy about it.
*'. tout publiciAe; praise e0cessively
) lost confidence in my bro+er after he touted some -un+ bonds that turned out to be a bad investment.
*(. toxic poisonous
We must see+ an antidote for whatever to0ic substance he has eaten.
**. tract pamphlet; a region of indefinite siAe
&he "ing granted William Denn a tract of land in the 5ew World.
*,. tractable docile
6ou will find the children in this school very tractable and willing to learn.
,.. traduce e0pose to slander
1is opponents tried to traduce the candidate<s reputation by spreading rumors about his past.
,1. trajectory path ta+en by a pro-ectile
&he police tried to locate the spot from which the assassin had fired the fatal shot by tracing the tra-ectory
of the bullet.
,2. tranquillity calmness; peace
!fter the commotion and e0citement of the city, ) appreciate the tran?uillity of these fields and forests.
,3. transcend e0ceed; surpass
&his accomplishment transcends all our previous efforts.
,. transcribe copy
When you transcribe your notes, please send a copy to :r.#mith and +eep the original for our files.
,$. transgression violation of a law; sin
9orgive us our transgressions; we +now not what we do.
,'. transient momentary; temporary; staying for a short time
Be0y<s -oy at finding the perfect @hristmas gift for Dhil was transient; she still had to find presents for the
cousins and Cncle Bob. Bocated near the airport, this hotel caters to the largely transient trade.
,(. transition going from one state of action to another
8uring the period of transition from oil heat to gas heat, the furnace will have to be shut off.
,*. transitoriness impermanence
@onscious that all things pass, the psalmist relates the transitoriness of happiness and fame.
,,. translucent partly transparent
We could not recogniAe the people in the ne0t room because of the translucent curtains that separated us.
1... transmute change; convert to something different
1e was unable to transmute his dreams into actualities.
1.1. transparent permitting to light to pass through freely; easily detected
6our scheme is so transparent that it will fool no one.
1.2. transpire be revealed; happen
When !usten writes the sentence 7)t had -ust transpired that he had left gaming debts behind him,7 her
meaning is not that the debts had -ust been incurred, but the the shoc+ing news had -ust lea+ed out.
1.3. transport strong emotion
:argo was a creature of e0tremes, at one moment in transports of -oy over a vivid sunset, at another
moment in transports of grief over a dying bird.
1.. trappings outward decorations; ornaments
1e loved the trappings of successF the limousines, the stoc+ options, the company -et.
1.$. traumatic pertaining to an in-ury caused by violence
)n his nightmares, he +ept on recalling the traumatic e0perience of being wounded in battle.
1.'. travail painful labor
1ow long do you thin+ a man can endure such travail and degradation without rebellingI
1.(. traverse go through or across
When you traverse this field, be careful of the bull.
1.*. travesty comical parody; treatment aimed at ma+ing something appear ridiculous
&he ridiculous decision the -ury has arrived at is a travesty of -ustice.
1.,. treatise article treating a sub-ect systematically and thoroughly
1e is preparing a treatise on the 2liAabethan playwrights for his graduate degree.
11.. trek travel; -ourney
&he tribe made their tre+ further north that summer in search of game.
111. tremor trembling; slight ?uiver
#he had a nervous tremor in her right hand.
112. tremulous trembling; wavering
#he was tremulous more from e0citement than from fear.
113. trenchant cutting; +een
) am afraid of his trenchant wit for it is so often sarcastic.
11. trepidation fear; trembling agitation
We must face the enemy without trepidation if we are to win this battle.
11$. tribulation distress; suffering
!fter all the trials and tribulations we have gone through, we need this rest.
11'. tribunal court of -ustice
&he decision of the tribunal was final and the prisoner was sentenced to death.
11(. tribute ta0 levied by a ruler; mar+ of respect
&he colonists refused to pay tribute to a foreign despot.
11*. trident three%pronged spear
5eptune is usually depicted as rising from the sea, carrying his trident on his shoulder.
11,. trigger set off
;ohn is touchy today; say one word wrong and you<ll trigger an e0plosion.
12.. trilogy group of three wor+s
Romain Rolland<s novel ;ean @hristophe was first published as a trilogy.
121. trinket +nic++nac+; bauble
Whenever she traveled abroad, 2thel would pic+ up costume -ewelry and other trin+ets as souvenirs.
122. trite hac+neyed; commonplace
&hr trite and predictable situations in many television programs alienate many viewers.
123. trivia trifles; unimportant matters
&oo many magaAines ignore newsworthy sub-ects and feature trivia.
12. troth pledge of good faith especially in betrothal
1e gave her his troth and vowed to cherish her always.
12$. trough container for feeding farm animals; lowest point =of a wave, business cycle, etc.>
&he hungry pigs struggled to get at the fresh swill in the trough. &he surfer rode her board, coasting along
in the trough between two waves.
12'. truculence agressiveness; ferocity
&ynan<s reviews were noted for their caustic attac+s and general tone of truculence.
12(. truism self%evident truth
:any a truism is well e0pressed in a proverb.
12*. truncate cut the top off
&he top of the cone that has been truncated in a plane parallel to its base is a circle.
12,. tryst meeting
&he lovers +ept their tryst even though they realiAed their danger.
13.. tumid swollen; pompous; bombastic
) especially disli+e his tumid style; ) prefer writing which is less swollen and bombastic.
131. tumult commotion; riot; noise
#he could not ma+e herself heard over the tumult of the mob.
132. tundra rolling, treeless plain in #iberia and arctic 5orth !merica
8espite the cold, many geologists are trying to discover valuable mineral deposits in the tundra.
133. turbid muddy; having the sediment disturbed
&he water was turbid after the children had waded through it.
13. turbulence state of violent agitation
We were frightened by the turbulence of the ocean during the storm.
13$. tureen deep dish for serving soup
&he waiters brought the soup to the tables in silver tureens.
13'. turgid swollen; distended
&he turgid river threatened to overflow the levees and flood the contryside.
13(. turmoil confusion; strife
@onscious he had sinned, he was in a state of spiritual turmoil.
13*. turncoat traitor
&he British considered Benedict !rnold a loyalist; the !mericans considered him a turncoat.
13,. turpitude depravity
! visitor may be denied admittance to this country if she has been guilty of moral turpitude.
1.. tutelage guardianship; training
Cnder the tutelage of such masters of the instrument, she made rapid progress as a virtuoso.
11. tutelary protective; pertaining to a guardianship
) am acting in my tutelary capacity when ) refuse to grant you permission to leave the campus.
12. tycoon wealthy leader
;ohn 8. Roc+efeller was a prominent tycoon.
13. tyranny oppression; cruel government
9rederic+ 8ouglass fought against the tyranny of slavery throughout his entire life.
1. tyro beginner; novice
9or a mere tyro, you have produced some marvelous results.
1$. timid easily frightened; apprehensive
1e was timid and cowardish; always bac+ing up at daunting situations.
1'. tonic invigorating medicine
&he tonic water invigorated her, contrary to the enervating effect of the alcohol.
1(. toil wor+ laboriously; ma+e slow painful progress
6ou must toil through 3$.. words list in order to achieve a high score on /R2.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. ubiquitous being everywhere; omnipresent
&hat @hristmas 7&he Bittle 8rummer Boy7 seemed ubi?uitousF ;ustin heard the tune everywhere he went.
2. ulterior situated beyond; unstated and often ?uestionable
6ou must have an ulterior motive for your behavior, since there is no obvious reason for it.
3. ultimate final; not susceptible to further analysis
#cientists are searching for the ultimate truths.
. ultimatum last demand; warning
#ince they have ignored our ultimatum, our only recourse is to declare war.
$. umbrage resentment; anger; sense of in-ury or insult
#he too+ umbrage at his remar+s and stormed away in a huff.
'. unanimity complete agreement
We were surprised by the unanimity with which our proposals were accepted by the different groups.
(. unassuaged unsatisfied; not soothed
1er anger is unassuaged by your apology.
*. unassuming modest
1e is so unassuming that some people fail to realiAe how great a man he really is.
,. unbridled violent
#he had a sudden fit of unbridled rage.
1.. uncanny strange; mysterious
6ou have the uncanny +nac+ of reading my innermost thoughts.
11. unconscionable unscrupulous; e0cessive
#he found the load shar+<s demands unconscionable and impossible to meet.
12. uncouth outlandish; clumsy; boorish
:ost biographers portray Bincoln as an uncouth and ungainly young man.
13. unction the act of anointing with oil
&he anointing with oil of a person near death is called e0treme unction.
1. unctous oily; bland; insincerely suave
Criah 1eep disguised his nefarious actions by unctuous protestations of his 7<umility.7
1$. undermine wea+en; sap
&he recent corruption scandals have undermined many people<s faith in the city government.
1'. underscore emphasiAe
!dressing the -ogging class, "im underscored the importance to runners of good nutrition.
1(. undulate move with a waveli+e motion
&he flag undulated in the breeAe.
1*. unearth dig up
When they unearthed the city, the archeologists found many relics of an ancient civiliAation.
1,. unearthly not earthly; weird
&here is an unearthly atmosphere in her wor+ that amaAes the casual observer.
2.. unequivocal plain; obvious
:y answer to your proposal is an une?uivocal and absolute 75o.7
21. unerringly infallibly
:y teacher unerringly pounced on the one typographical error in my essay.
22. unfaltering steadfast
#he approached the guillotine with unfaltering steps.
23. unfeigned genuine; real
#he turned so pale that ) am sure her surprise was unfeigned.
2. unfettered liberated; freed from chains
@hained to the wall for months on end, the hostage despaired that he would ever be unfettered.
2$. unfledged immature
)t is hard for an unfledged writer to find a sympathetic publisher.
2'. unfrock to strip a priest or minister of church authority
&o disbar a lawyer, to unfroc+ a priest, to suspend a doctor<s license to practice%%these are e0treme steps
that the authorities should ta+e only after careful consideration.
2(. ungainly aw+ward
1e is an ungainly young man; he trips over everything.
2*. unguent ointment
!pply this unguent to the sore muscles before retiring.
2,. uniformity sameness; consistency; monotony
!fter a while, the uniformity of &3 situation comedies becomes boring.
3.. unilateral one%sided
&his legislation is unilateral since it binds only one party in the controversy.
31. unimpeachable blameless and e0emplary
1er conduct in office was unimpeachable and her record is spotless.
32. uninhibited unrepressed
&he congregation was shoc+ed by her uninhibited laughter during the sermon.
33. unintimidating unfrightening
&hough Dhil had e0pected to feel overawed when he met ;oe :ontana, he found the e0perience
unintimidating and rela0ing.
3. unique without an e?ual; single in +ind
6ou have the uni?ue distinction of being the first student whom ) have had to fail in this course.
3$. unison unity of pitch; complete accord
&he choir sang in unison.
3'. universal characteriAing or affecting all; present everywhere
!t first, no one shared @hristopher<s opinions; his theory that the world was round was met with universal
3(. unkempt disheveled; with uncared%for appearance
&he beggar was dirty and un+empt.
3*. unobtrusive inconspicuous; not blatant
&he secret service agents in charge of protecting the Dresident tried to be as unobtrusive as possible.
3,. unprecedented novel; unparalleled
:argaret :itchell<s boo+ /one with the Wind was an unprecedented success.
.. unprepossessing unattractive
8uring adolescence many attractive young people somehow ac?uire the false notion that their appearance
is unprepossessing.
1. unravel disentangle; solve
With e?ual ease :iss :arple unraveled tangled balls of yarn and baffling murder mysteries.
2. unrequited not reciprocated
#uffering the pangs of unre?uited love, 4livia rebu+es @esario for his hard%heartedness.
3. unruly disobedient; lawless
&he only way to curb this unruly mob is to use tear gas.
. unsavory distasteful; morally offensive
Deople with unsavory reputations should not be allowed to wor+ with young children.
$. unscathed unharmed
&hey prayed he would come bac+ from the war unscathed.
'. unseemly unbecoming; indecent
6our levity is unseemly at this time of mourning.
(. unsightly ugly
!lthough ;ames was an e0perienced emergency room nurse, he occasionally became ?ueasy when faced
with a particularly unsightly in-ury.
*. unsullied untarnished
) am happy that my reputation is unsullied.
,. untenable unsupportable
) find your theory untenable and must re-ect it.
$.. untoward unfortunate; annoying
Cntoward circumstances prevent me from being with you on this festive occasion.
$1. unwarranted un-ustified; groundless; undeserved
We could not understand :artin<s unwarranted rudeness to his mother<s guests.
$2. unwieldy aw+ward; cumbersome; unmanageable
&he large carton was so unwieldy that the movers had trouble getting it up the stairs.
$3. unwitting unintentional; not +nowing
#he was the unwitting tool of the swindlers
$. unwonted unaccustomed
1e hesitated to assume the unwonted role of master of ceremonies at the dinner.
$$. upbraid scold; reproach
) must upbraid him for his unruly behavior.
$'. uproarious mar+ed by commotion; e0tremely funny; very noisy
&he uproarious comedy hit 1ome !lone featured :acaulay @ul+in, whose mugging and comic antics
provo+ed gales of uproarious laughter from audiences coast to coast.
$(. upshot outcome
&he upshot of the rematch was that the former champion proved that he still possessed all the s+ills of his
$*. urbane suave; refined; elegant
&he courtier was urbane and sophisticated
$,. urchin mischievous child =usually a boy>
/et outH &his store is no place for grubby urchinsH
'.. ursine bearli+e; pertaining to a bear
Because of its ursine appearance, the great panda has been identified with the bears; actually, it is closely
related to the raccoon.
'1. usurp seiAe power; supplant
&he revolution ended when the victorious rebel leader usurped the throne.
'2. usury lending money at illegal rates of interest
&he loan shar+ was found guilty of usury.
'3. utopia imaginary land with perfect social and political system
#hangri%la was the name of ;ames 1ilton<s &ibetan utopia.
'. uxorious e0cessively devoted to one<s wife
1is friends laughed at him because he was so u0orious and submissive to his wife<s desires.
'$. undergird strengthen the base of
Whereas relativity theory undermined the 5ewtonian mechanics, cosmology was undergirded by it.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. vacillate waver; fluctuate
Cncertain which suitor she ought to marry, the princess vacillated, saying now one, now the other.
2. vacuous empty; lac+ing in ideas; stupid
&he candidate<s vacuous remar+s annoyed the audience, who had hoped to hear more than empty platitudes
3. vagabond wanderer; tramp
)n summer, college students wander the roads of 2urope li+e carefree vagabonds.
. vagary caprice; whim
#he followed every vagary of fashion.
$. vagrant stray; random
1e tried to study, but could not collect his vagrant thoughts.
'. vagrant homeless wanderer
Because he was a stranger in town with no visible means of support, :artin feared he would be -ailed as a
(. vainglorious boastful; e0cessively conceited
#he was a vainglorious and arrogant individual.
*. valedictory pertaining to farewell
) found the valedictory address too long; leave%ta+ing should be brief.
,. valid logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable
6ou<re going to have to come up with a better argument if you want to convince me that your reasoning is
1.. validate confirm; ratify
) will not publish my findings until ) validate my results.
11. valor bravery
1e received the :edal of 1onor for his valor in battle.
12. vampire ghostly being that suc+s the blood of the living
@hildren were afraid to go to sleep at night because of the many legends of vampires.
13. vanguard forerunners; advance forces
We are the vanguard of a tremendous army that is following us.
1. vantage position giving an advantage
&hey fired upon the enemy from behind trees, walls and any other point of vantage they could find.
1$. vapid insipid; inane
#he delivered an uninspired and vapid address.
1'. variegated many%colored
Without her glasses, /retchen saw the fields of tulips as a variegated blur.
1(. vassal in feudalism, one who held land of a superior lord
&he lord demanded that his vassals contribute more to his military campaign.
1*. vaunted boasted; bragged; highly publiciAed
&his much vaunted pro-ect proved a disappointment when it collapsed.
1,. veer change in direction
!fter what seemed an eternity, the wind veered to the east and the storm abated.
2.. vegetate live in a monotonous way
) do not understand how you can vegetate in this ?uiet village after the adventurous life you have led.
21. vehement impetuous; with mar+ed vigor
1e spo+e with vehement elo?uence in defense of his client.
22. velocity speed
&he train went by at considerable velocity.
23. venal capable of being bribed
&he venal policeman accepted the bribe offered him by the speeding motorist whom he had stopped.
2. vendetta blood feud
&he rival mobs engaged in a bitter vendetta.
2$. vendor seller
&he fruit vendor sold her wares from a stall on the sidewal+.
2'. veneer thin layer; cover
@asual ac?uaintances were deceived by his veneer of sophistication and failed to recogniAe his fundamental
2(. venerable deserving high respect
We do not mean to be disrespectful when we refuse to follow the advice of our venerable leader.
2*. venerate revere
)n @hina, the people venerate their ancestors.
2,. venial forgivable; trivial
We may regard a hugry man<s stealing as a venial crime.
3.. venison the meat of a deer
&he hunters dined on venison.
31. vent small opening; outlet
&he wine did not flow because the air vent in the barrel was clogged.
32. vent e0press; utter
1e vented his wrath on his class.
33. ventral abdominal
We shall now e0amine the ventral plates of this serpent, not the dorsal side.
3. ventriloquist someone who can ma+e his or her voice seem to come from another person or thing
&his ventrilo?uist does an act in which she has a conversation with a wooden dummy.
3$. venturesome bold
! group of venturesome women were the first to scale :t.!nnapurna.
3'. venue location
&he attorney as+ed for a change of venue; he thought his client would do better if the trial were held in a
less conservative county.
3(. veracious truthful
) can recommend him for this position because ) have always found him veracious and reliable.
3*. veracity truthfulness
&rying to prove 1ill a liar, #enator #pector repeatedly ?uestioned her veracity.
3,. verbalize put into words
) +now you don<t li+e to tal+ about these things, but please try to verbaliAe your feelings.
.. verbatim word for word
1e repeated the message verbatim.
1. verbiage pompous array of words
!fter we had waded through all the verbiage, we discovered that the writer had said very little.
2. verbose wordy
&his article is too verbose; we must edit it.
3. verdant green; lush in vegetation
:onet<s paintings of the verdant meadows were symphonies in green.
. verdigris green coating on copper which has been e0posed to the weather
8espite all attempts to protect the statue from the elements, it became coated with verdigris.
$. verge border; edge
:adame @urie +new she was on the verge of discovering the secrets of radioactive elements.
'. verisimilitude appearance of truth; li+elihood
@ritics praised her for the verisimilitude of her performance as Bady :acbeth. #he was completely
(. verity truth; reality
&he four verities were revealed to Buddha during his long meditation.
*. vernacular living language; natural style
@ut out those old%fashioned 7thee<s7 and 7thou<s7 and write in the vernacular.
,. vernal pertaining to spring
We may e0pect vernal showers all during the month of !pril.
$.. versatile having many talents; capable of wor+ing in many fields
1e was a versatile athlete; at college he had earned varsity letters in baseball, football, and trac+.
$1. vertex summit
Bet us drop a perpendicular line from the verte0 of the triangle to the base.
$2. vertigo diAAiness
We test potential plane pilots for susceptibility to spells of vertigo.
$3. verve enthusiasm; liveliness
#he approached her studies with such verve that it was impossible for her to do poorly.
$. vestige trace; remains
We discovered vestiges of early )ndian life in the cave.
$$. vex annoy; distress
Dlease try not to ve0 your mother; she is doing the best she can.
$'. viable capable of maintaining life; practicable; wor+able
&he infant, though prematurely born, is viable and has a good chance to survive.
$(. viand food
&here was a variety of viands at the feast.
$*. vicarious acting as a substitute; done by a deputy
:any people get a vicarious thrill at the movies by imagining they are the characters on the screen.
$,. vicissitude change of fortune
1umbled by life<s vicissitudes, the last emperor of @hina wor+ed as a lowly gardener in the palace over
which he had once ruled.
'.. victuals food
) am very happy to be able to provide you with these victuals; ) +now you are hungry.
'1. vie contend; compete
Doliticians vie with one another, competing for donations and votes.
'2. vigilance watchfulness
2ternal vigilance is the price of liberty.
'3. vigor active strength
!lthough he was over seventy years old, ;ac+ had the vigor of a man in his prime.
'. vignette picture; short literary s+etch
&he 5ew 6or+er published her latest vignette.
'$. vilify slander
#he is a liar and is always trying to vilify my reputation.
''. vindicate clear of charges
) hope to vindicate my client and return him to society as a free man.
'(. vindictive revengeful
#he was very vindictive and never forgave an in-ury.
'*. vintner winema+er; seller of wine
&he poet wondered what the vintners could buy that would be half as precious as the wine they sold.
',. viper poisonous sna+e
&he habitat of the horned viper, a particularly venomous sna+e, is in sandy regions li+e the #ahara or the
#inai peninsula.
(.. virile manly
) do not accept the premise that a man is virile only when he is belligerent.
(1. virtual in essence; for practical purposes
#he is a virtual financial wiAard when it comes to money matters.
(2. virtue goodness; moral e0cellence; good ?uality
! virtue carried to e0tremes can turn into something resembling vice; humility, for e0ample, can
degenerate into servility and spinelessness.
(3. virtuoso highly s+illed artist
&he child prodigy 6ehudi :enuhin grew into a virtuoso whose virtuosity on the violin thrilled millions.
(. virulent e0tremely poisonous
&he virus is highly virulent and has made many of us ill for days.
($. virus disease communicator
&he doctors are loo+ing for a specific medicine to control this virus.
('. visage face; appearance
&he stern visage of the -udge indicated that she had decided to impose a severe penalty.
((. visceral felt in one<s inner organs
#he disli+ed the visceral sensations she had whenever she rode the roller coaster.
(*. viscid adhesive; gluey
&he trun+ of the maple tree was viscid with sap.
(,. viscous stic+y, gluey
:elted tar is a viscous substance.
*.. vise tool for holding wor+ in place
Before filling its edges, the +eysmith too+ the blan+ +ey and fi0ed it firmly between the -aws of a vise.
*1. visionary produced by imagination; fanciful; mystical
#he was given to visionary schemes that never materialiAed.
*2. vital vibrant and lively; critical; living, breathing
&he vital, highly energetic first aid instructor stressed that it was vital in e0amining accident victims to note
their vital signs.
*3. vitiate spoil the effect of; ma+e inoperative
9raud will vitiate the contract.
*. vitreous pertaining to or resembling glass
!lthough this plastic has many vitreous ?ualties such as transparency, it is unbrea+able.
*$. vitriolic corrosive; sarcastic
#uch vitriolic criticism is uncalled for.
*'. vituperative abusive; scolding
1e became more vituperative as he realiAed that we were not going to grant him his wish.
*(. vivacious lively or animated; sprightly
#he had always been vivacious and spar+ling.
**. vivisection act of dissecting living animals
&he #ociety for the Drevention of @ruelty to !nimals opposed vivisection and deplored the practice of
using animals in scientific e0periments.
*,. vixen female fo0; ill%tempered woman
!ware that she was right once again, he lost his temper and called her a shrew and a vi0en.
,.. vociferous clamorous; noisy
&he crowd grew vociferous in its anger and threatened to ta+e the law into its own hands.
,1. vogue popular fashion
;eans became the vogue on many college campuses.
,2. volatile changeable; e0plosive; evaporating rapidly
&he political climate today is e0tremely volatileF no one can predict what the electorate will do ne0t.
,3. volition act of ma+ing a conscious choice
#he selected this dress of her own volition.
,. voluble fluent; glib
#he was a voluble spea+er, always ready to tal+.
,$. voluminous bul+y; large
8espite her family burdens, she +ept up a voluminous correspondence with her friends.
,'. voluptuous gratifying the senses
&he nobility during the Renaissance led voluptuous lives.
,(. voracious ravenous
&he wolf is a voracious animal, its hunger never satisfied.
,*. vortex whirlwind; whirlpool; center of turbulence; predicament into which one is ine0orably plunged
#uc+ed into the vorte0 of the tornado, 8orothy and &oto were carried from "ansas to 4A.
,,. vouchsafe grant condescendingly; guarantee
) can safely vouchsafe you fair return on your investment.
1... voyeur Deeping
;ill called ;ac+ a voyeur when she caught him aiming his binoculars at a bedroom window of the house
ne0t door.
1.1. vulnerable susceptible to wounds
!chilles was vulnerable only in his heel.
1.2. vulpine li+e a fo0; crafty
#he disli+ed his sly ways, but granted him a certain vulpine intelligence.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. waffle spea+ e?uivocally about an issue
When as+ed directly about the governor<s involvement in the savings and loan scandal, the press secretary
waffled, tal+ing all around the issue.
2. waft moved gently by wind or waves
8aydreaming, he gaAed at the leaves that wafted past his window.
3. waggish mischievous; humorous; tric+y
1e was a pran+ster who, unfortunately, often overloo+ed the damage he could cause with his waggish
. waif homeless child or animal
!lthough he already had eight cats, he could not resist adopting yet another feline waif.
$. waive give up temporarily; yield
) will waive my rights in this matter in order to e0pedite our reaching a proper decision.
'. wallow roll in; indulge in; become helpless
&he hippopotamus loves to wallow in the mud.
(. wan having a pale or sic+ly color; pallid
#uc+ling as+ed, 7Why so pale and wan, fond loverI7
*. wane grow gradually smaller
9rom now until 8ecember 21, the winter solstice, the hours of daylight will wane.
,. wangle wiggle out; fa+e
#he tried to wangle an invitation to the party.
1.. wanton unrestrained; willfully malicious; unchaste
Dointing to the stac+ of bills, #heldon criticiAed #arah for her wanton e0penditures. )n response, #ara
accused #heldon of ma+ing an unfounded, wanton attac+.
11. warble sing; babble
2very morning the birds warbled outside her window.
12. warrant -ustify; authoriAe
Before the -udge issues the in-unction, you must convince her this action is warranted.
13. warranty guarantee; assurance by seller
&he purchaser of this automobile is protected by the manufacturer<s warranty that he will replace any
defective part for five years or $.,... miles.
1. warren tunnels in which rabbits live; crowded conditions in which people live
&he tenement was a veritable warren, pac+ed with people too poor to live elsewhere.
1$. wary very cautious
&he spies grew wary as they approached the sentry.
1'. wastrel profligate
1e was denounced as a wastrel who had dissipated his inheritance.
1(. wax increase; grow
With proper handling, his fortunes wa0ed and he became rich.
1*. waylay ambush; lie in wait
&hey agreed to waylay their victim as he passed through the dar+ alley going home.
1,. wean accustom a baby not to nurse; give up a cherished activity
1e decided he would wean himself away from eating -un+ food and stic+ to fruits and vegetables.
2.. weather endure the effects of weather or other forces
1e weathered the changes in his personal life with difficulty, as he had no one in whom to confide.
21. welt mar+ from beating or whipping
&he evidence of child abuse was very clear; ;ennifer<s small body was covered with welts and bruises.
22. welter turmoil; bewildering -umble
&he e0isting welter of overlapping federal and state proclaims cries out for immediate reform.
23. welter wallow
!t the height of the battle, the casualties were so numerous that the victims weltered in their blood while
waiting for medical attention.
2. wheedle ca-ole; coa0; deceive by flattery
#he +nows she can wheedle almost anything she wants from her father.
2$. whelp young wolf, dog, tiger, etc.
&his collie whelp won<t do for breeding, but he<d ma+e a fine pet.
2'. whet sharpen; stimulate
&he odors from the +itchen are whetting my appetite; ) will be ravenous by the time the meal is served.
2(. whiff puff or gust =of air, scent, etc.>; hint
&he slightest whiff of 4ld #pice cologne brought memories of /eorge to her mind.
2*. whimsical capricious; fanciful
1e dismissed his generous gift to his college as a sentimental fancy, an old man<s whimsical gesture.
2,. whinny neigh li+e a horse
When he laughed through his nose, it sounded as if he whinnied.
3.. whit smallest spec+
&here is not a whit of intelligence or understanding in your observations.
31. whittle pare; cut off bits
!s a present for !unt Dolly, &om whittled some clothespins out of a chun+ of wood.
32. whorl ring of leaves around stem; ring
)dentification by fingerprints is based on the difference in shape and number of whorls on the fingers.
33. willful intentional; headstrong
8onald had planned to +ill his wife for months; clearly, her death was a case of deliberate, willful murder,
not a crime of passion committed by a hasty, willful youth unable to foresee the conse?uences of his deeds.
3. wily cunning; artful
#he is as wily as a fo0 in avoiding trouble.
3$. wince shrin+ bac+; flinch
&he screech of the chal+ on the blac+board made her wince.
3'. windfall fallen fruit; une0pected luc+y event
&his huge ta0 refund is ?uite a windfall.
3(. winnow sift; separate good parts from bad
&his test will winnow out the students who study from those who don<t bother.
3*. winsome agreeable; gracious; engaging
By her winsome manner, she made herself li+ed by everyone who met her.
3,. wispy thin; slight; barely discernible
Worried about preserving his few wispy tufts of hair, Walter carefully massaged his scalp and applied hair
restorer every night.
.. wistful vaguely longing; sadly pensive
With a last wistful glance at the happy couples dancing in the hall, #ue headed bac+ to her room to study
for her e0am.
1. withdrawn introverted; remote
Rebuffed by his colleagues, the initially outgoing young researcher became increasingly withdrawn.
2. wither shrivel; decay
@ut flowers are beautiful for a day, but all too soon they wither.
3. witless foolish; idiotic
#uch witless and fatuous statements will create the impression that you are an ignorant individual.
. witticism witty saying; facetious remar+
What you regard as witticisms are often offensive to sensitive people.
$. wizardry sorcery; magic
:erlin amaAed the +nights with his wiAardry.
'. wizened withered; shriveled
&he wiAened old man in the home for the aged was still active and energetic.
(. wont custom; habitual procedure
!s was his wont, he -ogged two miles every morning before going to wor+.
*. worldly engrossed in matters of this earth; not spiritual
6ou must leave your worldly goods behind you when you go to meet your :a+er.
,. wrangle ?uarrel; obtain through arguing; herd cattle
&hey wrangled over their inheritance.
$.. wrath anger; fury
#he turned to him, full of wrath, and said, 7What ma+es you thin+ )<ll accept lower pay for this -ob than you
$1. wreak inflict
) am afraid he will wrea+ his vengeance on the innocent as well as the guilty.
$2. wrench pull; strain; twist
#he wrenched free of her attac+er and landed a powerful +ic+ to his +neecap.
$3. wrest pull away; ta+e by violence
With only ten seconds left to play, our team wrested victory from their grasp.
$. writ written command issued by a court
&he hero of Beonard<s novel is a process server who invents unorthodo0 ways of serving writs on reluctant
$$. writhe s?uirm, twist
1e was writhing in pain, desperate for the drug his body re?uired.
$'. wry twisted; with a humorous twist
We en-oy 8orothy Dar+er<s verse for its wry wit.
&a+e &est
&a+e &est
1. xenophobia fear or hatred of foreigners
When the refugee arrived in !merica, he was unprepared for the 0enophobia he found there.
2. yen longing; urge
#he had a yen to get away and live on her own for a while.
3. yeoman man owing small estate; middle%class farmer
)t was not the aristocrat but the yeoman who determined the nation<s policies.
. yield amount produced; crop; income on investment
!n e0perienced farmer can estimate the annual yield of his acres with surprising accuracy.
$. yield give in; surrender
&he wounded +night refused to yield to his foe.
'. yoke -oin together, unite
) don<t wish to be yo+ed to him in marriage, as if we were cattle pulling a plow.
(. yokel country bump+in
!t school, his classmates regarded him as a yo+el and laughed at his rustic mannerisms.
*. yore time past
1e dreamed of the elegant homes of yore, but gave no thought to their inelegant plumbing.
,. zany craAy; comic
) can watch the :ar0 brothers< Aany antics for hours.
1.. zeal eager enthusiasm
Wang<s Aeal was contagious; soon all his fellow students were busily ma+ing posters, inspired by his ardent
enthusiasm for the cause.
11. zealot fanatic; person who shows e0cessive Aeal
)t is good to have a few Aealots in our group for their enthusiasm is contagious.
12. zenith point directly overhead in the s+y; summit
When the sun was at its Aenith, the glare was not as strong as at sunrise and sunset.
13. zephyr gentle breeAe; west wind
When these Aephyrs blow, it is good to be in an open boat under a full sail.
&a+e &est