Chapt er 1

I nt roduct i on t o c ri t i c al t hi nki ng
UBB 3023
Critical Thinking
Overview
1. What is Thinking?
6. Barriers to
Critical Thinking
2. Types of Thinking
4. Critical Thinking
Standards
5. Benefits of
Critical Thinking
7. Characteristics of
a Critical Thinker
. What is
Critical Thinking?
Introduction
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
"hat is Thinking#
$efinitions

% the action of using one&s !ind to 'roduce
thoughts 2 . o'inion( )udg!ent * +erria! "e,ster online htt':--
www.!erria!.we,ster.co!-dictionar/-thinking

Thinking is a 'ur'oseful( organized cognitive
'rocess that we use to !ake sense of our world.

"h/ it +atters to Think#

0ver/da/ we are ,o!,arded with infor!ation fro!
'eo'le( events and !edia which for!s our set of
,eliefs.

So!e of these infor!ation infor! us and so!e ,lind
us.

The 1ualit/ of our ,eliefs is the funda!ental of
critical thinking.
"here2s Black,err/#
T/'es of Thinking
Creative Thinking vs Critical Thinking
T/'es of Thinking
3ro,le! Solving
$ecision +aking
Critical
Thinking


Analyzing


Evaluatin
g


Reasonin
g
New
Ideas
Creative
Thinking
Right
Left
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
Critical Thinking

"h/ do /ou choose U4567879 to further /our
stud/#

"h/ do /ou choose that 'rogra!-area of stud/ /ou
are taking now#

:ow do /ou see /ourself 3 /ears fro! now#
"hat is Critical Thinking#
;Critical thinking is the intellectuall/ disci'lined
'rocess of activel/ and skillfull/ conce'tualizing(
a''l/ing( anal/zing( s/nthesizing( and-or
evaluating infor!ation gathered fro!( or
generated ,/( o,servation( e<'erience( reflection(
reasoning( or co!!unication( as a guide to ,elief
and action. ;
. +ichael Scriven = 6ichard 3aul
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
"hat is Critical Thinking#
;>a''ro'riate wa/s of handling knowledge and
infor!ation( that is( ?good thinking2 or ?s!art thinking2
as suggested ,/ 3ithers and Soden @2000A( ,eco!e
!ore i!'ortant than !ere ac1uisition of infor!ation.B
@OIDA International Journal Sustainable Development: Tan( 20%2A
"hat is Critical Thinking#
Critical Thinking is the general ter! given to a wide range of
cognitive and intellectual skills needed to:

0ffectivel/ identif/( anal/ze( and evaluate argu!ents.

$iscover and overco!e 'ersonal 're)udices and ,iases.

Cor!ulate and 'resent convincing reasons in su''ort of conclusions.

+ake reasona,le( intelligent decisions a,out what to ,elieve and what
to do.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
"hat is Critical Thinking#
CRITICAL
THINKING
SKILLS
Analyzing
Reasoning
Evaluating
Decision Making Po!le" Solving
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
Critical
Thinking
Standards
Clarit/
3recision
7ccurate
6elevance
$e'th
Breadth
Dogical
Cairness
Critical Thinking Standards

R
e
l
e
v
a
n
c
e

B
r
e
a
d
t
h

F
a
i
r
n
e
s
s
"hat do /ou see first#
Clarit/
"hich state!ent is clearer#
7. E"hat can ,e done a,out the education s/ste! in
+ala/sia#;
B. E"hat can educators do to ensure that students
learn the skills and a,ilities which hel' the!
function successfull/ on the )o, and in their dail/
decision.!aking#E
Fetting Clarification

Could /ou ela,orate further on that 'oint#

Could /ou e<'ress that 'oint in another wa/#

Could /ou give !e an illustration#

Could /ou give !e an e<a!'le#
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
3recision

3recision is i!'ortant is s'ecialized fields such as
!edicine( architecture( engineering( !ilitar/ and
diving

Cut through confusions and certainties
Fetting 3recise

Could /ou give !ore details#

Could /ou ,e !ore s'ecific#
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
7 state!ent can ,e ,oth clear and accurate(
,ut not 'recise
Gao +ing is
T7DDH
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
7ccurac/
Clear ,ut not accurate @false infor!ation-false
assu!'tionsA

E+ost dogs are over 300 'ounds in weight.;

US7 decision on Iietna! "ar was ,ased on failure
of )udg!ents.

;7ll cats are four.legged ani!als( Cido is a four.
legged ani!al( Therefore( Cido is a cat.B
$eter!ining 7ccurac/

5s that reall/ true#

:ow could we check that#

:ow could we find out if that is true#
6elevance

7 state!ent can ,e clear( accurate( and 'recise( ,ut
not relevant to the 1uestion at issue. Cor e<a!'le(
students often think that the a!ount of effort the/
'ut into a course should ,e used in raising their
grade in a course. Often( however( the EeffortE does
not !easure the 1ualit/ of student learningJ and
when this is so( effort is irrelevant to their
a''ro'riate grade.
$eter!ining 6elevance

:ow is that connected to the 1uestion#

:ow does that ,ear on the issue#
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
5 studied hard all
se!ester( therefore 5
should get 7K.
7 state!ent can ,e clear( accurate( and 'recise(
,ut not relevant to the 1uestion at issue.
!o" #"st
"nlearn $hat
yo" ha%e
learned.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
$e'th
7 state!ent can ,e clear( accurate( 'recise( and
relevant( ,ut su'erficial @that is( lack de'thA.
Cor e<a!'le( the state!ent( ELust sa/ 4oHE which is
often used to discourage children and teens fro! using
drugs( is clear( accurate( 'recise( and relevant.
4evertheless( it lacks de'th ,ecause it treats an
e<tre!el/ co!'le< issue( the 'ervasive 'ro,le! of
drug use a!ong /oung 'eo'le( su'erficiall/. 5t fails to
deal with the co!'le<ities of the issue.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
"h/ the anti.s!oking in +ala/sia is a failure#
$eter!ining the $e'th of an 5ssue

:ow does /our answer address the co!'le<ities in
the 1uestion#

:ow are /ou taking into account the 'ro,le!s in
the 1uestion#

5s that dealing with the !ost significant factors#
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
&ra%e danger
yo" are in.
'#patient
yo" are.
7 state!ent can ,e clear( accurate(
'recise( and relevant( ,ut su'erficial.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
Breadth

7 line of reasoning !a/ ,e clear( accurate( 'recise(
relevant( and dee'( ,ut lack ,readth @as in an
argu!ent fro! either the US7 or +usli! stand'oint
which gets dee'l/ into an issue( ,ut onl/ recognizes
the insights of one side of the 1uestion.A
$eter!ining the Breadth of an 5ssue

$o we need to consider another 'oint of view#

5s there another wa/ to look at this 1uestion#

"hat would this look like fro! a conservative
stand'oint#

"hat would this look like fro! the 'oint of view of...#
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
That is
$hy yo"
fail.
7 line of reasoning !a/ ,e clear( accurate(
'recise( relevant( and dee'( ,ut lack ,readth.
:eadacheH
HH
Gou got 0 !arks for
;3artici'ationB( ,ecause
/ou didn2t 'artici'ate in the
class discussion at all.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
5t&s ,een %% /ears since al.Maeda&s "orld Trade Centre attacks. See the !ost
haunting i!ages of that fateful da/.
See the !ost haunting i!ages of 5ra1 and 7fghanistan wars. 7re their lives and
,lood chea'er than those in US N-%%#
Dogical

"hen we think( we ,ring a variet/ of thoughts
together into so!e order. "hen the co!,ination of
thoughts are !utuall/ su''orting and !ake sense in
co!,ination( the thinking is Elogical.E "hen the
co!,ination is not !utuall/ su''orting( is
contradictor/ in so!e sense or does not E!ake
sense(E the co!,ination is not logical.
$eter!ining Dogic

$oes this reall/ !ake sense#

$oes that follow fro! what /ou said#

:ow does that follow#

But ,efore /ou i!'lied this and now /ou are sa/ing
thatJ how can ,oth ,e true#
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
Su'er!an sees through an/thing.
Su'er!an sees through walls.
Su'er!an sees through Gou.
"hen the co!,ination of thoughts are
!utuall/ su''orting and !ake sense in co!,ination(
the thinking is Elogical.;
(ay the
force )e
$ith yo".
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
Cairness

:u!an think is often ,iased in the direction of the
thinker . in what are the 'erceived interests of the
thinker. :u!ans do not naturall/ consider the rights
and needs of others on the sa!e 'lane with their own
rights and needs. "e therefore !ust activel/ work to
!ake sure we are a''l/ing the intellectual standard
of fairness to our thinking. Since we naturall/ see
ourselves as fair even when we are unfair( this can ,e
ver/ difficult. 7 co!!it!ent to fair!indedness is a
starting 'lace.
$eter!ining Cairness
Critical thinking demands that our thinking be fair.

O'en.!inded

5!'artial

Cree of distorting ,iases and 'reconce'tions
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
*iffic"lt to
achie%e+ )"t
yo" #"st try,
Cair.!indedness is an essential
attri,ute of a Critical Thinker.
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!
$o /ou agree#
;Fraduates e!erging fro! the +ala/sian education
s/ste! fail to !eet the e<'ectations of 'ros'ective
e!'lo/ers due to a lack of critical thinking skills and
'oor co!!unication.B
.The Star( Sunda/ +arch O( 20%2
htt':--thestar.co!.!/-news-stor/.as'#
fileP-20%2-3-O-nation-20%2030O%23QO2=secPnation
7ctivit/ %: Frou' $iscussion @%R !inutesA
Check the links and co!'are the following articles on une!'lo/!ent a!ong graduates.
5dentif/ the reasons for graduates ,eing une!'lo/ed and decide which of the writers co!'l/ to the critical thinking standards in 'resenting their views#

htt':--www.the,orneo'ost.co!-20%2-0R-%O-QS200.graduates.still.une!'lo/ed.social.activist
-

htt':--
www.nst.co!.!/-o'inion-letters.to.the.editor-une!'lo/!ent.don.t.,la!e.graduates.alone.%.ORQRO

htt':--
dria)200N.,logs'ot.co!-20%%-0R-une!'lo/ed.or.une!'lo/a,le.!ala/sian.ht!l

htt':--thestar.co!.!/-news-stor/.as'#fileP-
20%2-S-%S-sarawak-%%ON%%0S=secPsarawak

htt':--,iz.thestar.co!.!/-news-stor/.as'#
fileP-20%2-%-O-,usiness-%0%NQQST=secP,usiness
Conclusion . Food Thinking is>
CLEAR>>>.....rather than........U4CD076
ACCURATE>....rather than>>.547CCU67T0
PRECISE>>....rather than>>.I7FU0
RELEVANT>>.rather than>>.560D0I74T
CONSISTENT>.rather than>>54CO4S5ST04T
LOGICAL>>>.rather than>>5DDOF5C7D
COMPLETE>>rather than>>54CO+3D0T0
FAIR>>>>>.rather than>....B57S0$
Source: htt':--www.fctl.ucf.edu-tresources-content-6uland.CriticalThinkingStandards.'df
Source: zaid.alsagoffg!ail.co!