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PROFINET

Applying the
Ethernet
Standard to
Industrial
Automation
Peter Thomas
Control Specialists Ltd
in conjunction with
Verwer Training &
Consultancy Ltd
www.controlspecialists.co.uk
www.verwertraining.com
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
2
Objectives
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
• A review of PROFIBUS
• PROFINET the natural evolution of PROFIBUS
• Connecting to existing Fieldbus systems
• Control System Configuration
• Network Monitoring Considerations
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PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard to
Industrial Automation.
Review of PROFIBUS
• PROFIBUS is a multi-drop network where many
devices are connected to one cable.
• Every PROFIBUS device must have a unique address which is
set by the engineer during set up
• Up to 126 PROFIBUS devices can be connected together in a
single network.
• However only 32 devices can be connected on a segment.
• Segments are formed using repeaters, hubs, optical links or
couplers.
• DP devices run on RS485 cabling using shielded
twisted pair cable terminated at the ends to stop
reflections.
• PA devices run on Manchester Bus Powered (MBP)
cable.
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Review of PROFIBUS
• A PROFIBUS network must have a Class-1 master.
The Class-1 master must be configured to
communicate with its allocated slaves.
• Each device has a GSD file which describes its
characteristics, options, diagnostics etc.
• A Class-2 master can optionally be connected to
the network for engineering functions such as
parameter setting, calibration or diagnostics etc.
• DP devices can run at a bit rate from 9.6kbit/s up
to 12Mbit/s (all devices at the same bit rate).
• PA devices always run at 31.25kbit/s.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
Review of PROFIBUS
• The protocol is a simple master slave
communication with token passing between
masters.
• Only one device can talk at a time and communicational is
one way at a time (half duplex).
• Device start up is standardised and checks include:
• ID number, unique identification for each type of device
(check configured ID=device ID)
• IO configuration (check modules present=modules
configured)
• Standardised diagnostics.
• Communication errors and peripheral errors.
• Standardised profiles
• PA devices, drives, encoders, safety etc.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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What is PROFINET?
• PROFINET is an open Industrial Ethernet standard
developed by the PROFIBUS Organisation.
• It is NOT PROFIBUS over Ethernet.
• PROFINET uses completely standard modern Ethernet
(IEEE802.3). However, some features of PROFINET
require additional standards to operate.
• Ethernet is not a multi drop network. Each cable only
connects two devices. Switches are used to branch
from device to device with a maximum cable length
between devices of 100m
• Ethernet uses four core twisted pair screened cable
• Termination (to stop reflections) is provided in every
device and is no longer in the hands of the user.
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PROFINET
• PROFINET is not a master/slave protocol. Full duplex
communication is used which means that devices can read
and write at the same time.
• PROFINET operates at 100Mbit/s or faster.
• PROFINET makes use of Existing IT standards but, unlike
IT systems, is “real-time” and deterministic.
• PROFINET is very well thought out to meet all the
requirements of automation and control systems
incorporating:
• High speed time communication with a range of real-time
performance classes.
• Standardised communication and peripheral diagnostics.
• Profiles for a wide range of applications.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Ethernet
IO-Controller
Configuration
Control/monitoring
Alarms
Diagnosis
Status/Control
Parameters
IO-Device
PROFINET IO devices
PROFINET Supervisor
E.g. PLC running
application program.
E.g. PC or laptop running
engineering tool application.
E.g. Field device with
inputs/outputs
(Compare with PROFIBUS
Class-1 master)
(Compare with PROFIBUS
Class-2 master)
(Compare with PROFIBUS
Slave device)
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PROFIBUS and the OSI model
physical (1)
application (7)
OSI
model
User layer
(3) to (6)
data link (2)
MBP(IEC61158-2)
Not used
MBP interface
Fieldbus Message
Specification (FMS)
FMS profiles DP profiles
DP basic
functions DPV0
DP extensions DPV1, DPV2
Fieldbus Data Link (FDL)
RS485/Fibre optic
FMS
DP PA
PA profiles
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Profiles User layer Profiles
PROFINET and the OSI model
Application Layer (7)
Presentation Layer (6)
Session Layer (5)
Transport Layer (4)
Network Layer (3)
Data Link Layer (2)
Physical layer (1)
IP
PROFINET
Real-time
channel
TCP/UDP
PROFINET Application Layer
Standard fast Ethernet.
Non time critical
communications
Real time
communications
Not used Not used
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PROFINET IO
• Many features that have been developed for PROFIBUS
devices have been directly incorporated into PROFINET:
• Standardised module and channel-related diagnostics,
• Alarm and status information,
• Identification and Maintenance (I&M) functions,
• Time stamping,
• Device description file (GSD) with configuration data for the
device and available modules – PROFINET based on XML
(called GSDML)
• Highly deterministic process cycle timing.
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Real-Time Operation
• What does “Real-Time” mean?
• A real-time control system responds in a deterministic
manner within a time which is short compared to the plant
response time.
• i.e. it depends on the application!
• Standard communications (IT)
• requires a response in the order of ~100ms.
• Factory automation
• requires a response time in the order of 1 to 10ms.
• Multi axis motion control
• requires a response time in the order of 0.1 to 1ms with a
jitter of less than 1µs.
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Real-Time Operation
• PROFINET makes use of:
• TCP/IP for standard communications, achieving response
times typically less than 100ms.
• A Real-Time, RT, channel for I/O communications, achieving
cycle times between 1 and 10ms.
• Isochronous Real-Time, IRT, channel for highly deterministic
performance (drives and servos), achieving cycle times down
to 32µs with <1µs jitter.
• RT and IRT communications are totally compatible with
TCP/IP.
• Because they are encapsulated inside a standard Ethernet
frame.
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Real-Time Operation
• PROFINET IRT complies with IEEE 1588 – “Precision clock
synchronization protocol for networked measurement and
control systems”.
• However this not always good enough!
• PROFINET extensions to IEEE 1588 provide better
accuracy with:
• Automatic determination and compensation of the network
transmission time.
• Giving less than 1µs jitter.
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Isochronous Real-Time Operation
IRT
channel
IRT
channel
Non real-time
channel
IRT
channel
Non real-time
channel
Non real-time
channel
Cycle times down to 32µs possible
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
IRT Sync
Open channel
i.e. TCP/IP
RT NRT
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IRT traffic
• IRT traffic uses a reserved time slot at the beginning of
each cycle. This is always delivered on time.
• RT traffic has higher priority than standard TCP/IP
traffic.
• TCP/IP must wait for RT to finish.
Reserved for IRT
IRT
TCP/IP
TCP/IP RT
RT
TCP/IP RT
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
RT
RT
RT
RT
RT
IRT IRT IRT IRT IRT IRT
IRT
Overtaking lane
Normal lane
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IRT performance
• Cycle time 1 ms, IRT phase less than 200µs, leaving ~80 %
for RT and standard communication.
Central control
with motion control and operator panel
Multi-axis drives
Single-axis drives
Open factory
network
Router
E.g. 24 axes with
1000byte I/O
PROFIdrive
profile
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Functional Safety with PROFINET
• PROFINET also offers safety oriented communication
that allows for integrating safety oriented components.
• A second 'safety fieldbus' is not necessary.
• PROFIsafe V2 can be used in functional safety systems
up to EN954 cat 4, PL e or SIL3.
• PROFIsafe is a profile that can be used in PROFIBUS
and PROFINET.
• However, PROFINET has a significant advantage that
safe and standard IO can be mixed in a single device.
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PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
Functional Safety with PROFINET
Standard
PROFINET I/O
protocol
Standard
application
Safety
application
Ethernet
PROFISAFE
layer
Standard
PROFINET I/O
protocol
Standard
application
Safety
application
PROFINET
“Black-
channel”
PROFIsafe
Profile
• PROFIsafe V2 provides functional safety for both
PROFIBUS and PROFINET systems.
• Suitable for use in SIL3 applications.
PROFISAFE
layer
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Other innovations on PROFINET
• Time synchronisation and time stamping.
• The IRT facilities allow accurate time stamping to be
implemented using IRT clock synchronisation.
• Configuration in Run
• The ability to change the configuration of a device without
stopping the control application.
• Standardised, scalable redundancy
• High availability using redundant ring architecture and
standard Media Redundancy Protocol, MRP.
• Standardised energy saving using the PROFIenergy profile.
• Intelligent shutdown and start-up from power save.
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Integration with Fieldbus
• Over 3000 different products are available
on PROFIBUS from over 300 different
manufacturers.
• There are currently far fewer devices
available for PROFINET. So integration of
PROFIBUS and PROFINET is very desirable.
• PROFINET provides a transparent
interface with PROFIBUS via a
standardised gateway or “Proxy”.
• The Proxy is a PROFINET IO device on
one side and a PROFIBUS master on the
other.
• PROFIBUS Configuration is integrated
into the PROFINET configurator and is
downloaded via Ethernet.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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PROFIBUS
PROFINET
Integration with Fieldbus
PROFIBUS DP
PROXY
PROFIBUS PA
INTERBUS-S
PROXY
PROFINET
Other fieldbusses:
AS-i, Modbus, DeviceNet,
and others being developed.
PROXY
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PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
Hardware Configuration
• Configuring a PROFINET system is very similar to
configuring a PROFIBUS system.
• The configuration is usually done using the programming
tool of the hardware vendor e.g. Siemens Step 7 Rockwell
RS Logix 5000 etc.
• Before you begin make sure that you have the GSDML files
for each device on the network.
• For each device you add, you assign a user-friendly device
name and an IP address.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Siemens – Hardware Configuration
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Network Diagnostics
• The use of PROFINET diagnostic tools and devices will
allow you to monitor the live status of your PROFINET
Network.
• During the design phase, careful consideration has to be
given as to how these tools will connect to the network.
• Connecting a device or tool to the wrong point in the
network can result in misleading, or even missing,
diagnostic information.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Network Monitoring Considerations
• There are three preferred ways of connecting a
diagnostic tool to a PROFINET network:-
• Via a Mirrored Port on a managed switch.
• Using a TAP in series with the with the IO Controller and its IO
devices.
• Using a permanently connected diagnostic device.
• However, very often, the first two of these methods
only allow communications in one direction, i.e. to the
monitoring software.
• This can lead to certain functions of the tool not
working.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
Diagnostic Monitoring using a Managed Switch
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
Let us consider the monitoring all
PROFINET communications between the IO
Controller and the 3 IO Devices by
connecting to the 8-port switch.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Ethernet Switches
• PROFINET networks make extensive
use of switches.
• Simply plugging in a diagnostic tool into
a spare port on the switch will not work
because switches only send messages to
the port to which the intended receiving
device is connected.
• To overcome this we set up one port as
a mirrored port (usually a feature of
managed switches).
• But note, that some mirrored ports are
NOT bi-directional which can prevent
certain diagnostic functions working
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Diagnostic Monitoring using a Managed Switch
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
The solid line connects the
laptop to a mirrored port the
dashed line is a second
connection to a spare port –
this is only required when the
mirrored port is NOT bi-
directional AND the
diagnostic software needs to
transmit data
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Diagnostic Monitoring using a PROFINET Tap
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
Let us consider the monitoring all PROFINET
communications between the IO Controller
and the 3 IO Devices using a TAP.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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PROFINET Tap
• If you do not have a switch that
supports port mirroring, an alternative
is to use a TAP.
• Taps have two RJ45 ports and are
connected in series with the device(s)
that you want to monitor.
• The PC connects to the Tap via a USB
interface.
• By definition, the installing of a tap
requires you to disrupt the network
when installing it.
IN OUT
USB
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Diagnostic Monitoring using a PROFINET Tap
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
USB
Connection to spare
port
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
Permanent Monitoring
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
Let us consider the monitoring all PROFINET
communications between the IO Controller and
the 3 IO Devices using a permanently
connected monitoring device.
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
Connection to web
server
MONITORING
DEVICE
24v Supply
Permanent Monitoring
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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WireShark
• Wireshark® is a network protocol analyser. It
lets you capture and interactively browse the
traffic running on a computer network.
• It is not dedicated to PROFINET and as such
cannot be compared to ProfiTrace.
• It is free to download and available from
www.wireshark.org
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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WireShark
• Wireshark® can be used to capture and
analyse the following PROFINET traffic:-
– Start-Up Checks / IP Assignment etc.
– Data Exchange
– Loss of Module
– Loss of Communications
– Duplicate Device Name
– SNMP / LLDP traffic
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Using a Managed Switch with WireShark
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
Connection to
mirrored port
PROFINET - Applying the Ethernet Standard - V1.0 Apr 2014
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Using a PROFITAP with WireShark
WAGO 750-340
RACK03DEV1
192.168.0.31
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS ET200S
RACK03DEV2
192.168.0.32
00-1B-1B-25-B7-1D
MURR IMPACT20
RACK03DEV3
192.168.0.33
00-0F-9E-08-7F-DE
MOXA ETS-505
5-PORT
SWITCH
00-90-E8-0C-B6-29
SIEMENS
X208 8-PORT
SWITCH
192.168.0.1 (WEB)
00-0E-8C-9B-94-BD
SIEMENS
CP315-2 DPPN CPU
MASTERRACKCPU
192.168.0.2
00-0E-8C-FE-75-E2
USB
Connection to spare
port
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39
Questions?
Peter Thomas
Control Specialists Ltd
peter.thomas@controlspecialists.co.uk
LinkedIN – http://www.linkedin.com/company/2198880
www.con
Tel +44(0)1925 824003
Mob +44(0)7971 405871
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