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**ISSN: 2040-7467
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© Maxwell Sacientific Organization, 2012

Submitted: November 09, 2011 Accepted: November 29, 2011 Published: May 01, 2012

Corresponding Author: Masoud Farhoodnea, Department of Electrical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad

University (SRBIAU), Hesarak, Tehran, I.R. Iran

1110

Power System Voltage Stability and Control- A Review

1

Masoud Farhoodnea,

2

Hadi Zayandehroodi,

1

Mahdiyeh Eslami,

1

Reza Sirjani,

2

Marjan Mohammadjafari and

3

Amirreza Forozia

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad University (SRBIAU), Hesarak, Tehran, I.R. Iran

2

Department of Electrical Engineering, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

3

Department of Economy and management, Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad University (SRBIAU), Hesarak, Tehran, I.R. Iran

Abstract: At the recent years, power system becomes a large complex interconnected network that contains

of hundreds of buses and generating stations. In addition, to provide the required power, new installation of

power generators and transmission lines are required. Due to the environmental and economic constraints of

installation of new generators and increasing demands, transmission line flows has been increased on the

existing transmission lines which may increase the risk of losing voltage stability and blackouts in the system.

This paper presents an overview on definition and principles of voltage stability. Furthermore, common

proposed techniques in the literature to enhance the steady-state voltage stability, such as excitation control and

FACTS devices are also addressed.

Key words: Dynamic stability control, power flow control, power system oscillation, power system stability

INTRODUCTION

Power system stability can be defined as the ability

to recover a counterbalance state after the occurrence of

disturbance in the system (Grigsby, 2007). Stability

analysis of a system can be divided into two classes,

steady-state stability and transient stability. Steady-state

stability, which recently named as dynamic stability, is

only a function of the operating condition, while transient

stability is a function of both the operating condition and

the disturbance (Venikov et al., 1975; Kwatny et al.,

1986). Various types of disturbance such as changing

power demand and short circuits are the main causes of

power system dynamic. These disturbances may cause a

broad range of dynamic changes and the loss of stability

into some parts or the whole of system at a different time

scale (Bose, 2003). Therefore, the dynamic changes and

stability of the system depends strongly on the size of the

disturbances (Agarwal, 1995; Pavella et al., 2000).

Over the past decades, stability issues, especially

voltage instability, were the major challenging topic for

the system planners. The rapid development of

technology in field of power flow controller devices such

as Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Energy

Storage System (ESS), and Distributed Generation (DG)

is gradually reshaping the conventional power systems

(Pal and Chaudhuri, 2005; Du et al., 2009). Most of these

devices are based on power electronics technology, and

operate by controlling the volume of injected active and

reactive powers, or by controlling voltage angle at the

specific buses of the system in order to improve the

quality of the power and stability of the system (Hanzelka

and Milanoviƒ, 2008; Bayod-Rújula, 2009). The Thyristor

Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) or Thyristor Controlled

Series Capacitor (TCSC) devices can also be used to

change the apparent reactance of the line in discrete or

continuous mode (Edris, 1997; Zhang and Ding, 1997).

Furthermore, excitation control is known as an effective

controller to improve dynamic and transient stability in

power systems (Mathur and Varma, 2002).

Voltage stability which is one of the contexts of

power system stability can be defined as the ability of a

power system to preserve steady-state bus voltages,

before and after being subjected to a disturbance (Van

Cutsem, 2000). When the system operates close to critical

conditions, voltage stability analysis is an important and

promising approach to estimate the response of the system

to typical disturbances such as line tripping or step load

increasing (Borghetti et al., 1997; Van Cutsem, 2000;

Zima et al., 2005). Therefore, power system is voltage

stable when voltages at all buses in the system after a

disturbance are close to voltages at normal operating

condition (Kundur et al., 2004). It should be noted that

voltage control and instability are local problems, but it

may have a widespread impact on the system (Van

Cutsem, 2000; Zima et al., 2005).

This study concentrates on an overview of definitions

and research studies related to the context of voltage

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(9): 1110-1116, 2012

1111

Fig. 1: Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram of a transmission system

stability in power systems. The operating issues and the

current methods to enhance stability of the power system

are also discussed.

STEADY STATE VOLTAGE STABILITY

Steady state voltage instability and its occurrence are

considered as a serious problem in a large power system

(Garng and Zhang, 2001). To maintain system voltage at

a stable point has become a major crisis due to the thermal

capability or steady state voltage stability limits (Lof et

al., 1992; Young-Huei et al., 1997). Voltage instability is

known as a continuous voltage collapse, when the

network loadings and the reactive power demand increase

at the specific areas or entire system (Zima, 2002;

Vargon…ík and Kolcun, 2007). One of the most important

factors causing voltage instability is the incapability of the

power system to provide the reactive power in the

presence of reactive loads or high reactive power losses to

keep desired voltages (Ajjarapu and Christy, 1992).

Considering the equivalent circuit of a transmission

system and its phasor diagram, as shown in Fig. 1, the real

and reactive power absorbed by the load, Pn and Qn, can

be expressed as (Machowski et al., 1997):

(1) P Vl V

n

IX

X

EV

X

cos sin

cos

(2) Q VI V

n

IX

X

EV

X

V

X

sin cos

sin

2

where N and * are the phase angle between V and I; and

E and V, respectively.

Equation (1) and (2) can be simplified and written as:

(3)

P X

E

V

E

V

E

V

E

n

2

2

2

2

1

sin cos cos

cos

Figure 2 shows the graphical illustration of Eq. (3) in

terms of the P-V curve or Nose curve with respect to N as

Fig. 2: A group of P-V curves with different phase angle

a parameter. From the Figure, it is clear that the voltage

decreases at a lagging power factor as the real load

increases, and the voltage initially increases and decreases

(Wijekoon et al., 2003). through a low lagging power

factor. Equation (3) and Fig. 2 show the effect of power

demand on voltage stability which should be strongly

considered in stability analysis

EXCITATION CONTROL IN GENERATORS

The main factors in long term voltage stability are the

field current and frequency control at generators

(Johansson, 1998). The frequency regulation problems

have forced engineers to develop the turbine speed

governors and excitation controllers to rapid control of

frequency and voltage output of the synchronous

generators within the specified limits in case of changes

in real and reactive power

demands (Patel et al., 2004). So as to carry out excitation

control to enhance stability control, rapid and accurate

measurement of various types of prime data, such as the

real power, system frequency, and rotational speed is

necessary. The major task of the excitation system is to

control and adjust the field current, which can regulate the

terminal voltage of the synchronous machine (Bevrani,

2009). Due to the high time constant of field circuit,

exciter should have a high ceiling voltage which enables

the exciter to operate transiently with the voltage levels up

to 3 to 4 times of the normal level (Stewart, 1947). In

addition, because of the high reliability required, the rate

of change of voltage should be as fast as possible and

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(9): 1110-1116, 2012

1112

Fig. 3: structure diagram of a sample fuzzy-PID controller

each generating unit should be supplied by its individual

exciter (Bayne et al., 1975; Kirby and Hirst, 1997).

Generally, there are three types of excitation systems

including dc excitation systems, ac excitation Systems,

and static excitation systems(Friedman and Corporation,

2002).

The Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller

is one of the most common controllers with simple

structure and strong adaptability for excitation control

(Kiam Heong et al., 2005; Tan et al., 2007). Recent

studies on PID parameters tuning led to develop efficient

complex control techniques based on artificial neural

networks and genetic algorithms (Berenji, 1992; Jahedi

and Ardehali, 2011). Other studies have combined the

intelligent algorithm with the fuzzy PID control to

improve the PID controller by presenting PSO searching

method. To enhance the local optimization problem of the

PSO algorithm, the rebound strategy to optimize the

boundary restricts of PSO has been used, which can

achieve the rapid and steady control of the excitation of

the synchronous generator (Junfeng et al., 2006; Pan

et al., 2011). Figure 3 shows the structure diagram of a

sample fuzzy-PID controller (Hui et al., 2009). In Fig. 3,

first the fuzzy-PID controller formulates fuzzy

computation based on the terminal voltage error e(t) and

error variation rate e

c

(t) , then logical reasoning and

judgment is created according to the fuzzy rules. Finally,

by combing with the initial values of the parameters, the

output values u(t) of the PID controller can be generated.

Fuzzy neural networks controller based methods are

also wildly proposed in the previous studies. In these

methods, the artificial neural networks have been used to

build a network holding fuzzy information and study the

rules of convention fuzzy controller. Also, the fuzzy

relational matrix, which is the core of fuzzy reasoning,

has been replaced the trained neural networks. Then the

controller that is based on the fuzzy neural networks can

make control response quickly when the controlled object

has the difference between the actual output value and the

given input value (Lin and Lee, 1991; Godjevac, 1995;

Ching-Hung and Ching-Cheng, 2000). Figure 4 shows the

block diagram of a fuzzy neural networks controller (Wei

et al., 2009).

FACTS AND MODERN STABILITY CONTROL

Reactive power compensation is often known as an

effective method to improve voltage stability of power

systems. Due to the effective role of the power system

components and controller, it is important to determine

voltage stability in case of occurrence of disturbance and

static/dynamic voltage instability, which is a difficult task

in complex power system. Hence, how to achieve a

simple, suitable and realistic principle for static voltage

stability is still an important task in field of voltage

stability problems. The rapid improvement and utilization

of FACTS in the power transmission system has led to

many applications to improve static/dynamic voltage and

angle stability of the system. Due to the effects of reactive

power on voltage reduction and voltage instability, the

FACTS devices can be effectively used for decreasing the

effects of reactive load and increasing the reactive power.

It should be noted that the injection of reactive power

have to be local and adequate (Zhang and Ding, 1997).

The FACTS devices, including Static Synchronous

Compensator (STATCOM), Static Var Compensators

(SVC), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC),

and Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), have

their own characteristic and limitations (Gyugyi et al.,

1997; Sode-Yome et al., 2005). Therefore, they may the

issue under consideration and the time frame involved.

represent by different mathematical models depending on

Generally, the FACTS devices can be divided into three

categories including series connected, shunt connected

and combination of series and shunt connected

controllers. In theory, the series controllers are used to

inject voltage in series with the line to alleviate line

overloads and increase transfer capability, where the

shunt controllers are able to inject current in parallel with

the line at the point of connection to compensate voltages

by injecting reactive power at the low voltage buses. Also,

the combined controllers such as Unified Power Flow

Controller (UPFC) are used to inject current into the

system with the shunt part and voltage in series with the

series part of the controllers to control both the active and

reactive power flow (Song et al., 2004).

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(9): 1110-1116, 2012

1113

Fig. 4: The structure of Fuzzy neural networks controller

Fig. 5: Equivalent circuit of SVC

Fig. 6: Basic structure of STATCOM

The main difficulty in FACTS installation is to

determine the possible locations of each FACTS device.

Due to this problem, several methods have been proposed

based on the sensitivity analysis on series controllers,

such as TCSC. In addition, several methods have been

proposed based on system load ability and contingency

analysis to determine optimal location of shunt

controllers, such as SVC. It should be noted that the

calculation of the sensitivity to determine the suitable

location of shunt and series controllers must be

determined at the specific buses where the problems are

occurred, which is quite time consuming approach to

analyse for every bus and its respective line (Jurado and

Rodriguez, 1999).

Static Var Compensators (SVC): One type of FACTS

devices is SVC, which is a shunt connected static Var

controller with an adjustable output according the

required capacitive or inductive current. In other words,

SVC operates as a shunt compensator to control and

maintain the magnitude of voltage at a desired level by

the change of parallel susceptance from sensing the

change of bus voltage. Furthermore, SVC, which mainly

operated at load side bus as a replacement for existing

voltage control devices, can control transient stability,

power fluctuation, and low frequency oscillations in the

system (Song and Johns, 1999).

The equivalent circuit of SVC is shown in Fig. 5. As

shown in the figure, SVC is modelled by a variable

reactor and a fixed capacitor. Using the optimal

parameters for capacitors and variable reactor, the amount

of injected reactive power by the SVC can be continually

determined in order to control the voltage or to maintain

the desirable power flow in the system. Usually to control

the SVC parameters, some search algorithms such as GA

and SA are used in order to find the optimal parameters of

SVC to achieve the optimal coordinated control of the

compensator. It should be noted that SVC has its own

upper and lower susceptance limits, which determine the

capability of supplying adjustable reactive power within

these limits. When a SVC reaches to its limit, it cannot

supply the needed additional reactive power support.

Hence the system may lose its stability at this situation

(Khaki et al., 2008).

Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM): The

STATCOM (also known as the static VAR generator

(SVG)) is a voltage converter device which uses in order

to generate the active and reactive power needed by the

system. The STATCOM has several advantages including

fast response, continuous and quick control of reactive

power, and smaller storage capacitance (Zhang and Ding,

1997). In addition, the ability of the reactive power

compensation in STATCOM is better than SVC.

Therefore, STATCOM may consider as an effective

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(9): 1110-1116, 2012

1114

Fig. 7: Basic structure of TCSC

Fig. 8: Basic structure of SSSC

solution to the problem of voltage stability. Figure 6

shows the basic structure of STATCOM. Figure 6 shows

that STATCOM is a shunt connected device which is

connected to the grid through a series reactance.

On the DC side of the converter device, which is

equipped with a Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)

controller, there is only a capacitor and there is no source

or demand of real power. Dynamic reactive compensation

can be achieved by adjusting voltage and angle of internal

voltage source (Arnold, 2001; El-Moursi and Sharaf,

2006; Ghafouri et al., 2007; Ben-Sheng and Yuan-Yih,

2008).

Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC):The

TCSCs are a type of FACTS devices which are an

effective and economical means to provide fast active

power flow regulation and control of series compensation

such as sub-synchronous resonance. This device consists

of a set of capacitor bank and a parallel thyristor

controlled inductor. By controlling active power through

TCSC using the firing angle of the thyristors, this device

is able to indirectly control the power angle of remote

generator and enhancing the transient stability problems

(Stromberg, 1998; Mahajan, 2006; Wagh et al., 2009;

Meikandasivam et al., 2011). Figure 7 shows the basic

configuration of TCSC.

Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC): The

SSSC is a series connected, Voltage Source Convertor

(VSC) based device which is able to compensate reactive

power and increase the critical clearing time of fault and

damps out the post-fault rotor angle oscillations (Sen,

1998; Poshtan et al., 2006). The SSSC is able to directly

control the current, and indirectly the power of the system

by controlling the reactive power exchange between the

SSSC and the AC system (Kamarposhti and Lesani,

2011). The SSSC has numerous advantages over the

TCSC including omission of large passive components

such as capacitors and operational ability for both

inductive and capacitive modes (Padiyar, 2007). Figure 8

shows the basic configuration of SSSC.

CONCLUSION

Due to the increased reactive power consumption,

power systems have been operated under more stressed

conditions. Under this situations, a number of unstable

behaviour such as voltage drops have been experienced in

power systems. In this paper, a basic definition about

context of voltage stability has been addressed using

power-voltage relationships and P-V curve. Furthermore,

the effects of field current and frequency control at

generators on voltage stability and control has been

discussed. Also a brief explanation about fuzzy-PID and

Fuzzy neural networks controllers has been given. In

section 4, the effects of FACTS devices on modern

voltage stability control has been discussed and two

common types of FACTS devices including SVC,

STATCOM, TCSC and SSSC has been introduced.

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