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Detecting, Locating and Assessing

Voltage Sags
Presented by
1691210043

 Definition of Voltage Sag.
 Detecting VS by Wavelet transformation.
 Locating VS by making use of Real current component.
 Assessing VS by the method of critical distances.
 Conclusion.
 References.
 Audience time
What is Voltage Sag?
• Voltage sag is a short time (10 ms to 1 min) event during which a
reduction in RMS voltage magnitude occurs.
• Caused by multitude of reasons viz. switching heavy loads or
starting large motors.
• Sag is different from voltage dip.(VD=100-VS) expressed in %.
• The production process comes to a halt.-The disturbance
may be over within one second, but the restoration process
may take several hours.
• Characterised by Magnitude and Duration.
Detecting Voltage Sag by
Wavelet transformation
Wavelet Transformation???
• A wavelet is a waveform of effectively limited duration that
has an average value of zero.
• Decomposing the signal into two parts is called WT.
• 2 parts are approximations, the high-scale, low-frequency
components of the signal and details are the low-scale, high-
frequency components.

Voltage Signal Decomposition
• Daub4 wavelet is used as mother wavelet in computation
here.
• First level of the transformed signal clearly shows a peak at
the beginning and end of the voltage sag.

Locating Voltage Sag by
Real current component

Why do we need to locate???

• Only after information about a voltage sag source location is
available, can power-quality trouble-shooting, diagnosis and
mitigation be carried out.
• Any disputes among the major responsibility party can be
resolved fairly.

• Phase angle difference between current and voltage is used to
determine the voltage sag source.
• In the method, magnitude of currents and phase angles of
voltages and currents are measured at the measuring point.
• The current magnitude is then multiplied with the cosine of
the power factor angle and the product is then plotted against
time.
• The product polarity is used to indicate the direction of
voltage sag source either it is from upstream or downstream
relative to the measuring point.
• A positive polarity of the product will indicate the voltage sag
source is from downstream.
• A negative polarity of the product will indicate that the
voltage sag source is from upstream.
Behind the scene
• Consider a fault at X and two monitoring points M
A
and M
B
.
• For a fault at X, using Kirchhoff's second law, the voltage at
M
A
will be:
V=E
1
-IZ
1
V and I are the voltage and current measured directly at M
A.

• Multiply both sides of the Eq by I* gives
VI

= E
1
I

− I
2
Z
1
• Extracting the real part will lead to
VI cos(ɵ − α) = E
1
I cos(φ
1
− α) − I
2
R

• where θ and α are the phase angles for voltage and current at the
measuring point MA, respectively. The phase difference (θ − α) is the
power factor angle at the monitoring point.
Algorithm
• Create a voltage sag condition by simulating a short-circuit fault at
a specified location.
• Obtain the magnitude and phase of voltage and current from the
measuring meter at pre-fault and during fault times.
• Calculate the values of I cos(ɵ−α) for a few cycles of pre-fault and
during fault durations.
• Plot coordinates of I cos(ɵ−α) against time of a few cycles of pre-
fault and during fault durations.
• Check the polarity of I cos(ɵ− α) at the beginning of fault.
• If it is positive, the source of voltage sag is from downstream.
• If it is negative, the source of voltage sag is from upstream.

Sample plot
Voltage sag calculation:

• This method is a simple prediction technique based on the
voltage divider model.
• The voltage sag magnitude at the point of common coupling
(pcc) during the fault is represented as

where ZF and ZS are the feeder and source impedance, respectively.
The pre-event voltage is assumed 1 pu, thus E = 1.
This results in the following expression for the sag magnitude as

Method of critical distance:

• For every load, there is a critical voltage, VCrit is defined as the
voltage below which the equipment will trip.
• The critical distance is the distance from the pcc at which a fault
would lead to voltage below VCrit at the pcc.
The critical distance for a voltage VCrit is given by

where α is the impedance angle, i.e., the angle in the complex plane
between source and feeder impedance is the feeder impedance per
unit length.

The critical distances as a function of the critical voltage can also be
expressed in simplified form as in the eq below, which is used to
estimate the exposed area at every voltage level in the supply to a

Voltage divider model: Impedance angle
CONCLUSION:
• WT method uses discrete wavelet transforms to determine beginning and
ending of the voltage sag with sag magnitude. It has the advantage of
finding voltage sag magnitude and duration with real time operation and
low cost implementation.
• The proposed real current component method satisfy 100% of the voltage
sag source location for the three-phase balanced and unbalanced faults
for the one-source system. The method has also been verified for the two-
source system in which it has given very promising results.
• The method of critical distance is the more accurate one ,This proposed
method provides good accuracy in the results in comparison with the
method of fault positions for SLGF, LLF and 3PF.
References
1. Khan AK. Monitoring power for the future. Power Eng J 2001;15(2):81–5.
2. Bollen MHJ. Understanding power quality problems: voltage sags and interruptions.
New York: IEEE Press; 1999.
3. Yalcınkaya G, Bollen MHJ, Crossley PA. Characterization of voltage sags in
industrial distribution systems. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1998;34(4):682–8.
Parsons AC, Grady WM, Powers EJ. A wavelet-based procedure for
automatically determining the beginning and end of transmission system
voltage sags. In: Proc. IEEE-PES Winter Meeting, vol. 2; 1999. p. 1310–5.
4. Gu IYH, Bollen MHJ. Time-frequency and time-scale domain analysis of voltage
disturbances. IEEE Trans Power Delivery 2000;15(4):1279–84.
5. Fernandez RM, Rojas HND. An overview of wavelet transforms applications in power
systems. 14th PSCC, Sevilla, 24–28 June 2002.
6. Gaouda M, Salama MA, Sultan MR, Chikhani AY. Power quality detection and
classification using wavelet-multiresolution signal decomposition. IEEE Trans Power
Delivery 1999;14(4):1469–76.
7. M.H.J. Bollen, Voltage sags in three-phase systems, IEEE Power Eng. Rev. 17 (2001)

• M.H.J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems, IEEE Press, 2000,
pp. 1–34.
• M.F. McGranaghan, D.R. Mueller, Voltage sags in industrial systems,
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29 (2) (1993) 397–403.
• IEEE Std. 1159-1995: Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric
Power Quality. ISBN 1-55937-549-3.
• C. Li, T. Tayjasanant, W. Xu, X. Li, Method for voltage sag source detection
by investigating slope of the system trajectory, IEE Proc. Gen. Transm.
Distrib. 150 (3) (2003) 367–372.

Queries???

Thank You