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Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 1 David Apsley

TOPIC B: MOMENTUM – EXAMPLES SPRING 2014

(Take g = 9.81 m s
–2
).

Force-Momentum

Q1. (Meriam and Kraige)
Calculate the vertical acceleration of the 50 kg cylinder for each of the two cases illustrated.
Neglect friction and the masses of the ropes and pulleys.



Q2.
The two blocks shown start from rest. The horizontal plane and the pulley are frictionless and
the mass of the pulley and cords is negligible. Determine the acceleration of each block and
the tension in the cord.




50
kg
80
kg
50
kg
80 x 9.81 N
(a) (b)
100 kg
300
kg

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 2 David Apsley
Friction

Q3.
Determine the tension T in the cable which will give the 50 kg block a steady acceleration of
2 m s
–2
up the incline in each case below. (Neglect the mass of cables and pulleys and assume
the pulley is smooth.)



Q4. (Meriam and Kraige)
Compute the acceleration of the block for the instant depicted. Neglect the masses of the
ropes and pulleys.




Q5.
The rod OA rotates with constant angular velocity ω = 3 rad s
–1
. A small mass is placed on
the rod at a distance r = 450 mm as it passes θ = 0. The mass is observed to slip at θ = 50º.
Determine the coefficient of friction between the mass and the rod.





5
0

k
g
5
0

k
g
 = 0.25
T
30
o
30
o
30
o
T
(a) (b)
30
o
 = 0.25
40 kg
 = 0.4
30
o
T = 100 N
m
r


O
A

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 3 David Apsley
Q6. (Meriam and Kraige)
A mass m
2
sits on the sloping face of a wedge-shaped block of mass m
1
as shown. Neglecting
friction associated with the wheels of the tapered block, determine the range of applied force
P for which the mass m
2
will not slip if the wedge angle is 20º and the coefficient of friction
between block and mass is 0.3.





Q7. (Dynamics 1, Examination May 2012 – modified)
A 200 kg mass is pulled up a 40º incline by a winch using a power of 4 kW, as shown below-
left. Initially the mass is moving with a constant speed of 2 m s
–1
.
(a) Compute the coefficient of dynamic friction between the mass and the slope.
(b) Due to a malfunction in the winch, the power output is suddenly halved. Find the
acceleration of the mass immediately after this occurs.

Soon after the malfunction the cable breaks and the mass starts to fall back down the slope. It
arrives at a safety net with a speed of 12 m s
–1
as shown below right. At the same moment the
net starts to impose a force P on the mass, which varies with time as the mass falls further
into the net. This variation is initially
2
100t P  N for the first 4 seconds, after which it
remains constant at its value after 4 s.
(c) Compute the speed 6 s after arriving at the safety net.





Impulse-Momentum

Q8.
A car with a mass of 1800 kg is driven down a 5º incline at a speed of 90 km h
–1
when the
brakes are applied, causing a constant total breaking force of 6000 N. Find the time required
for the car to come to a stop. Use the impulse-momentum principle.

P
20
o
 = 0.3
m
2
m
1
winch
v
40
o
200 kg
12 m/s
40
o
P

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 4 David Apsley
Collisions

Q9. (Mechanics for Civil Engineers Exam, January 2013)
Two vehicles are approaching a road junction, both moving with speed 45 kph (12.5 m s
–1
).
One vehicle has mass 1000 kg and the other mass 750 kg, and the roads meet at an angle of
60º as shown. The vehicles collide and initially move as a single body.

(a) Calculate the velocity and momentum of the individual vehicles before the collision,
using the x-y coordinate system shown.
(b) Calculate the velocity of the two vehicles immediately after the collision (treating
them as a single body).
(c) After the collision, the total frictional force on the two vehicles is 6000 N, in the
opposite direction to their combined velocity. How far do the vehicles travel after the
collision?


Q10. (Mechanics for Civil Engineers Exam, January 2012 – extended)
A ball of mass 2.0 kg is travelling on a line perpendicular to a wall with speed 10 m s
–1

towards a stationary ball of mass 1.5 kg, as shown. The balls are initially 5 m apart and the
stationary ball is 5 m from the wall, as shown. Assume all motion takes place on a smooth
horizontal surface, along a line perpendicular to the wall, and ignore friction. The coefficient
of restitution for collisions between the balls is e = 0.8, whilst the coefficient of resitution for
collisions between the balls and the wall is e = 0.7.


(a) Calculate the velocity and momentum of both balls after the 2.0 kg ball collides with
the 1.5 kg ball.
(b) Calculate the subsequent velocities of the balls, including all later collisions between
the balls, or between the balls and the wall.
(c) Sketch a suitable distance-time graph for the motions of the balls, indicating the times
and positions of the collisions.

12.5 m/s
1000 kg
750 kg
?
12.5 m/s
60
o
x
y
5 m 5 m
2.0 kg 1.5 kg
10 m/s

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 5 David Apsley
Q11.
A 10 kg package drops from a chute into
a 24 kg cart with a speed of 3 m s
–1
at an
angle 30º below the horizontal. If the cart
is initially at rest and can roll freely,
determine:
(a) the final velocity of the cart;
(b) the impulse exerted by the cart on
the package;
(c) the fraction of the initial energy
lost in the impact.



Q12. (Dynamics 1, Examination May 2012 – part, modified)
A ball is thrown at an angle of
70º from a height of 1 m above
floor level (point A in the
Figure). The ball follows the
trajectory shown and reaches a
maximum height at B, before
impacting the frictionless wall at
point C. It then rebounds in a
direction at tan
–1
(1/3) to the
wall. Model the ball as a point
particle and assume that air
resistance is negligible.

(a) Compute the initial speed required to reach point C.
(b) Find the velocity vector just before hitting C in the x-y coordinate system shown.
(c) By considering the direction of the rebound, find the coefficient of restitution for the
impact between the wall and the ball.




Q13.
The ram of a pile driver has mass 800 kg and is released from
rest at a height of 2 m above the top of a 2400 kg pile. If the
ram rebounds to a height of 0.1 m after a direct central impact
with the pile, determine the following:
(a) the velocity of the pile immediately after impact;
(b) the coefficient of restitution;
(c) the percentage of the energy lost in the impact.

30
o
3 m/s
70
o

tan  = 1/3
A
B
C
6 m
3 m
1 m
x
y
2 m drop
0.1 m
rebound
ram
pile

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 6 David Apsley
Q14. (Meriam and Kraige)
n spheres of equal mass m are suspended in
a line by wires of equal length so that the
spheres are almost touching each other. If
sphere 1 is swung aside and released and
hits sphere 2 with speed v
1
, find an
expression for the velocity v
r
of the r
th

sphere immediately after being struck by the
one adjacent to it. The common coefficient
of restitution is e.


Q15. (Meriam and Kraige)
A 2 kg sphere is projected horizontally with
a velocity of 10 m s
–1
against a 10 kg
carriage which is backed up by a spring with
stiffness 1600 N m
–1
. The carriage is
initially at rest with the spring
uncompressed.

If the coefficient of restitution is 0.6,
calculate:
(a) the rebound velocity v;
(b) the rebound angle θ;
(c) the maximum travel δ of the carriage after impact.




Q16.
Spherical particle 1 has velocity u
1
= 6 m s
–1
in the direction shown and
collides obliquely with spherical particle 2 of equal mass and diameter,
which is initially at rest. If the coefficient of restitution is e = 0.6, find the
speed and direction of each particle following impact and the percentage
loss of energy in the impact.





1 2 3 4 n
v
1
2 kg
10 m/s
60
o
10 kg

v
k = 1600 N/m
1
2
u
1

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 7 David Apsley
Q17. (Dynamics 1, Examination May 2011 – part (d) changed considerably)
A cannon of mass 1200 kg is located on a plateau above a gentle slope of 20º as shown. A
5 kg projectile is fired horizontally with a velocity of 200 m s
–1
relative to the ground. The
projectile leaves the cannon from a point 1 m above the ground and 50 m before the start of
the slope.
(a) Apply the principle of conservation of momentum to calculate the initial recoil speed
of the cannon.
(b) If air resistance is neglected, show that the maximum range of the projectile down the
slope, s, is around 3050 m (indicated by point B) and find the time of flight. Take the
origin of coordinates to be located at the beginning of the slope.

Target T (of negligible dimensions) is moving down the slope towards point B with a
constant speed of 40 m s
–1
as shown in the figure. The target has mass 200 kg.
(c) By considering the velocity of the projectile at the time calculated in part (b), show
that, at impact, the component of the projectile’s velocity acting along the slope is
around 237 m s
–1
.
(d) Assuming a completely inelastic impact between the projectile and target T, compute
their combined velocity after impact.




4
0

m
/
s
50 m
1 m
s
B
T
A
20
o

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 8 David Apsley
Centre of Mass

Q18.
Find the centre of mass of the asymmetric
rectangular frame shown.







Q19.
Where is the centre of mass of the plane
figure shown?





Q20.
(a) The uniform triangular lamina ABC shown
has weight 30 N and is right-angled at B;
AB = 300 mm and BC = 150 mm. The
lamina is suspended by vertical light
strings PA and QB and hangs in
equilibrium in a vertical plane with AB
horizontal and BC vertical (see diagram).
Find the tensions in the strings.
(b) The string QB is now cut and the lamina
settles in equilibrium supported only by the string PA. What angle does AB make
with the vertical?






Q21.
A uniform rectangular lamina has long side L and short
side 0.7 m and has a circular hole of radius 0.3 m cut
from it. The hole is equidistant from each of three
sides as shown. When hung freely from a corner near
the hole the long sides make an angle of 20° with the
vertical. Calculate the length L.

0.05 m
0.1 m
0.5 m
0.7 m
0.25 m
0.25 m
45 30
o o
5 cm
16 cm
A B
C
P Q
O
0.7 m
L
0.3 m

Mechanics Examples for Topic B (Momentum) - 9 David Apsley
Q22.
A uniform lamina is formed by cutting quarter-circles of
radius 0.5 m and 0.2 m from the top-right and bottom-left
corners respectively of a rectangle whose original
dimensions were 0.6 m by 0.8 m (see figure).
(a) Find the area of the lamina.
(b) Find the position of the centre of mass relative to
the top-left corner, A.
(c) If the lamina is allowed to pivot freely in a
vertical plane about corner A, find the angle made
by side AB with the vertical when hanging in
equilibrium.

(The centre of mass of a quarter-circular lamina of radius R is R
π 3
4
from either straight side.)



Q23.
A uniform solid cylinder of radius 0.05 m is held on a rough
plane inclined at 15° to the horizontal. The coefficient of friction
between plane and cylinder is 0.3. If the cylinder is then released
what happens if the height of the cylinder is:
(a) 0.4 m;
(b) 0.35 m.




A
B
0.5 m
0.2 m
0.8 m
0.6 m
0.05 m
15
o