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Telenotes 8

Data Recovery and Disk Management
Chapter 4 Notes:
Hard Disk Structure
a) Physical Disk – the term used to identify hard drive installed in a computer
b) Disks are formatted into tracks and sectors
c) Tracks are subdivided into sectors
d) Each track and sector is identified by a number
i) An allocation unit - A grouping of one or more sectors
() The smallest unit of space that can be !ritten to"
(#) $i%ed in si&e
'nside a (ard Disk
T!o Types o" Disks:
#asic and Dynamic Disks
#asic Disks
A) )asic disks used for older *+ ,indo!s -. / -0
)) 1an be subdivided into partitions (Primary2 E%tended and 3ogical)
i) Primary Partition – is used to boot the computer (up to 4 )
(a) 1an have up to four primary partitions on a hard disk
(b) Active Partition – the primary partition set to boot a system5 only one
primary partition can be active at one time
ii) E%tended Partition – (up to ) can contain files but cannot be used to boot a
iii) 3ogical Drive – +ubdivision of E%tended Partition
6aster )oot 7ecord
i) A Master boot record (MBR) and a Partition Table are created !hen formatting
ii) The 6aster boot 7ecord contains information about the structure of the hard
drive on the partition table"
iii) 6)7 located in first sector of primary partition"
Primary Partition Types8
i) +ystem Partition (
Primary) – !here ,indo!s #999 boot files are stored
- Active partition ( only on Primary) – !ill be the boot partition
- 1an be assigned individual Drive Letter (e%" 18 )
ii) )oot Partition (#
Primary) – !here ,indo!s #999 system files are stored
iii) These # can be on the same partition (
E%tended Partitions
i) 1reated on free space not used by primary partitions
ii) 1an be subdivided into logical drives
() 3ogical Drives
(a) 1an be assigned individual Drive Letters (e%" D8 E8 ) or Mounted
Basic Disc
Dynamic Disks
Dynamic disks have volumes rather than partitions
Dynamic Disks
a) :olumes can span multiple hard drives5 partitions cannot
b) :olumes can be resi&ed !ithout losing data5 partitions cannot (!ithout special
c) )asic disks can be converted to dynamic disks
d) 1an create fault-tolerant volumes (e%" 6irrored and 7A'D. volumes)
Dynamic Disk 1onsiderations
a) *nly an advantage !ith multiple hard drives
b) 1an only be used !ith ,indo!s #999
c) 3aptop and removable drives cannot be converted to dynamic disks
Dynamic Disk :olumes
a) # Types8 +imple :olumes / +panned :olumes
i) +imple :olumes reside on a single hard drives
ii) +panned :olumes can reside on multiple hard drives
iii) Disadvantage8 ;o $ault Tolerance8 'f one disc crashes the !hole volume is
Dynamic Disk
Disk Management
The process of Partitioning and allocating of disk resources
Disk 6anagement Tool
i) <sed to manage disks and partitions
6ounting Drives
i) ;e! to ,indo!s #999
ii) Allo!s for more than #= (the number of letters) mounted drives e%"
$inance folder
:olume 6ount Point
() 6aps a disk partition to a folder rather than a logical letter drive
$ormatting Disks
a) $ormatting is setting up partition or volume so that it can accept data
b) Different kinds of formatting ($AT2 $AT>#2 ;T$+)
c) ;T$+ is native to ,indo!s #999
i) +upports hard disk larger than $AT/$AT>#
ii) )uilt in security using E$+ (Encrypting $ile +ystem)
iii) $ile compression using ("A"+"
iv) 1an assign specific disk ?uota to a user
v) 1ontains a Change Journal feature - allo!s files to be more efficiently
vi) 1annot be recogni&ed by ,indo!s -./-0 computers
$ormatting a Drive
i) 1an use @<' or command line tool
ii) 6ust select file system ($AT2 $AT>#2 or ;T$+)
iii) 6ust select allocation unit si&e
1onverting a $ormatted Drive
() 1onvert from $AT or $AT># to ;T$+ !ithout losing data
(#) 1annot convert back
(>) 6ust <se the 1*;:E7T command line tool
$ile 1ompression
a) 1an be set on $iles or $olders from the Properties menu
b) 's completely transparent to the user
c) 'f a folder is compressed2 only ne! files copied into the folder !ill be
compressed2 e%isting files !ill remain uncompressed"
R%&D 'Redundant %rray o" &ndependent Disks(
a) Has ault Tolerance
b) +tandard disk storage format (method) for using multiple hard drives
c) Different types of 7A'D
d) 6icrosoft supports 7A'D levels 92 2 and .
7A'D 9 (stripping)
a) Also called2 a +tripe +et !ithout Parit!
Parity - Process of using data bits to verify other data bits !hen
they are !ritten to a hard disk
+tripe +et- (same as a Dynamic Disk :olume) – 1an span
multiple disks2 but the si&e of the disk sections must be e?ual"
b) )enefits8 'ncreases disk performance / !rite / read speed"
() <nlike :olumes2 the entire +tripe on a disk does not have to be full before
!riting to a second disk"
(#) All information is divided into logical blocks and saved on different hard
disk drives simultaneously" Data save / loads is much faster"
c) Problems8 "o com#lete fault tolerance
() 'f one hard disk drive becomes damaged then you loose information on all
the hard disk drives connected to this 7A'D"
7A'D (mirroring)
a) Has ault Tolerance using8 Disk mirroring
i) +ame data is !ritten to multiple hard drives
() )enefits8
(a) $ault tolerance – 'f one disc fails2 other disc contains information"
(b) +peeds read re?uests – # reads heads compete in looking for the same
(a) E%pensive- must purchase t!ice as many drives
(b) 'f both discs are connected to the same 1ontroller2 'f controller fails all
data id temporarily unavailable"
7A'D-9A (+tripping plus 6irroring)
a) A combination of 7A'D 9 and 7A'D
i) 6irroring a +triped 7A'D 9 – A )asic 7A'D 9 is mirrored
7A'D . (+triping !ith Parity) (most popular)
a) <ses Parity )its
i) Parity – data bits that keeps track of !hat is !ritten
b) ,rites same data to multiple drives but leaves one drive for parity data
i) )enefits
() 'f drive fails2 can continue !orking !ith data from other drives
(#) 'f drive fails2 data !ill automatically be rebuilt onto replaced ne! drive
(due to parity data tacking)
ii) Problems
() 7e?uires a minimum of three hard drives
(#) 1P< and )and!idth performance are slo!er
Disk Maintenance:
" <sing 1(GDG+ (check disk) to e%amine sectors on the hard drive
#" ,ill test and fi% bad sectors
>" 1an be run on hard and floppy drives
Disk Defragmenter
" 1ollects pieces of files together on contiguous (consecutive) sectors
#" 'mproves disk performance
>" 1an be run on a regular basis
Disk Huotas
" Allo! administrator to control amount of space used by user
#" 6ust be configured for each volume on the hard drive
>" 7e?uires the ;T$+ file system to be installed
4" 1an set !arning for users that are close to their ?uota
." Prevents users from saving files !hen their ?uota has been reached
=" Administrator accounts not subCect to disk ?uotas
7emote and 7emovable +torage
" 7emote storage is used for backup devices like tape drives
#" 7emovable storage is used for devices like I'P drives
>" $iles can be moved to remote storage but have links preserved on the system
4" ,hen users access a link the remote storage device is activated and the data
Purchasing a (D8
Ho! to Select a Hard Drive #ased on Speci"ications
T!o num)ers that are needed to kno!: si*e and speed+
+i&e8 in @) or gigabytes"
+peed8 in 7P6
6ost consumer desktop systems come !ith either a .499 rpm or F#99 rpm hard drive"
+ystems !hich use the .499 rpm drives tend to be slo!er but are used in more compact
systems or systems !hich are designed to be silent running" 't is more common to see
drives running at the F#99 rpm speed as they give better performance
&nter"aces: &D, and Serial %T%
The performance bet!een the t!o is essentially identical at this point" The maCor
difference really is the ease of installing the drives" +erial ATA drives have less cabling
and configuration re?uired to install a drive"
Choice should )e task dependent:
• ,ord Processing8 49A @)2 .499 rpm
• ,eb +urfing8 49A @)2 .499 rpm
• 3ight @aming8 09A @)" F#99 rpm
• Digital 6usic8 09A @)2 F#99 rpm
• (eavy @aming8 99A @)2 F#99 rpm
• @raphics Editing8 99A @)2 F#99 rpm
• Digital :ideo8 .9A @)2 F#99 rpm
Detail -$ .urchasing Specs:
/hat to 0ook "or in a Hard &: .er"ormance
A slo! hard drive directly impacts all of your computing tasks" (ard drive performance
is really determined by four core attributes of a drive8
" 'nterface 'DE / +1+'
#" 7otational +peed
>" Access Times
4" )uffer +i&e
T!o primary inter"aces 8 +1+' and 'DE"
SCS& - for high performance drive arrays and server systems and generally not found in
the home computer market" 'ts
-advantage is its ability to handle many drives concurrently"
-current +1+' standard is <ltra =9 that allo!s for =9 megabytes of data
per second"
&D, - most common form of interface found on personal computers"
- number of speeds available (from ATA/>> to ATA/>>)" 6ost
- The number in the version indicates the ma%imum band!idth in
megabytes per second the interface can handle" e%2 an ATA/99
interface can support 99 6)/sec"
- +ystems are restricted to the P1' )us speed that can only handle about
>> megabytes per second"
(andling multiple devices"
Each 'DE controller has # channels that in turn can support #
devices" The controller runs at the speed of the slo!est device"
E%" 'f (ard drive and *ptical drives on same 'DE2
1ontroller runs at optical drive speed !hich slo!s
performance for the hard drive"
Rotational Speed –
- largest factor in the performance of the drive"
- The higher the rotational speed of the drive2 the more data the drive
can read and !rite from the
- (eat and noise are created at higher rotational speed"
-(eat impacts the performance
-;oise causes distractions
6ost rotate at either .499 or F#99 rpm"
%ccess Times-
-length of time it takes the drive to position the drive head on the
-4 access times (milliseconds)8
• 7ead +eek
• ,rite +eek
• Track-to-Track
• $ull +troke
Read seek is generally an average time it takes to move the head from one
position on the drive to another to read data from the drive"
/rite seek is the average amount of time that it takes the drive to move to
an empty space on the disk and begin !riting the data"
Track1to1track is the average amount of time the drive takes to move the
drive head to a ne! side track on the drive"
$ull stroke is the amount of time it takes the drive head to move from the
outer to inner portion of the
-$or all of these2 a lo!er number means higher performance"
#u""er Si*e1
- Amount of 7A6 on the drive to store fre?uently accessed data from
the drive"
- +ince 7A6 is faster at transferring data than the drive head operation2
it increases the speed of the drive"
- 6ost drives today come !ith a #6) drive buffer"
.art &&: Capacity and %esthetics
-+i&e of data in @igabytes a drive can store
- Every drive is made of one or more disk platters each !ith its o!n drive heads
to read and !rite the information from the platters" (7ated capacities e%" each
platter may be rated #9 @)" )
- Additional platters on the same (ardDrive can increase performance as the
number of drive heads to read the data is increased
-more drive heads/platters2 translates into a higher ambient noise
-more drive heads/platters2 more energy that must be used to turn the
platters at the proper speeds" 'ncreases the amount of heat produced and
can actually decrease performance
'n comparison- to a similar capacity drive !ith fe!er platters may mean
a better performing hard drive"
-Also 1alled environmental s#ecifications
-All drives produce8 noise and heat"
-;oise can be a distraction for people"
- +lo!er rotational drives tend to produce less noise than higher rotational
speed drives" ;oise ratings are listed in decibels (d)A)" The higher the
number of decibels2 the louder the drive is"
-(eat affects the lifespan of your computer system and hard drive"
E%" ')6 Deskstar drives are only rated for temporary use"
-(ard drives are usually not rated on heat