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11/16/2013

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Static Electricity
11.1
What is Static Electricity?
All matter is made up of atoms.
Atoms contain small particles: protons, electrons and
neutrons.
Some of these particles have an electric charge

Particle Charge
Proton
+
Electron
-

Static Electricity
11.1
Neutral
object
# p
+
= # e
-

Static Electricity
11.1
When two objects are rubbed together, the electrons
from one object can be passed on to the other
object.

*Positive charges never move!
Only negative charges can be transferred.

The object that GAINS electrons will be
negatively charged.

The object that LOSES electrons will be
positively charged.


Static Electricity
11.1
Neutral
object
# p
+
= # e
-

Positively
charged object
# p
+
> # e
-

Negatively
charged object
# p
+
< # e
-

Static Electricity & Discharge
Static Electricity – an imbalance of electric
charge at rest on the surface of an object

Electric Discharge – sudden movement of
static charge between 2 objects.
11.1 Static Electricity
11.1
Electroscope:
An instrument to detect presence of electric charge
Ex: pith ball electroscope

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The Law of Electric Charges
11.1
Opposite charges
ATTRACT
Like charges
REPEL
The strength of the force between charged objects
is related to:


1. The DISTANCE between objects






Law of Electric Charges 11.1
Closer = Stronger force Far = Weaker force

2. The amount of charge on each object
Law of Electric Charges 11.1
Smaller charge
= Weaker force
Larger charge
= Stronger force
Induced Charge Separation
If you bring a charged object CLOSE TO (but not touching)
a neutral object, you will see a shift in the positions of
electrons. This is known as induced charge separation






11.1
Temporary charge in the wall is an
example of charging by induction.

Testing for Electric Charge
 A metal leaf electroscope can detect the presence of
charge.
 Made up of 2 metal strips attached to a metal rod
with a sphere on top
11.1 Testing for Electric Charge
 If a negatively charged object approaches, electrons
on the sphere gets repelled and move to the leaves
 The leaves then become charged & repel each other.
11.1
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Testing for Electric Charge
If we take the charged object away :
 electrons will move back to their original positions
 leaves will not repel each other anymore
11.1 Using Static Charges
Electrostatic paint sprayer – reduces waste and
air pollution
11.1
Recap…. 11.1
Seatwork – complete the following
questions:

• 11.1 – p. 471 #2 – 9





Charging by Contact
Charging by Friction
When 2 neutral objects made of different
materials are rubbed together, electrons are
transferred from one to another, causing each
to be charged.
11.2
Neutral hair &
neutral comb
Electrons go
from Hair to vinyl comb

Electrostatic
Series:

Human skin
Rabbit fur
Acetate
Glass
Human hair
Nylon
Wool
Cat fur
Silk
Paper
Cotton
Wood
Amber
Rubber Balloon
Vinyl
Polyester
Ebonite

Charging by Contact
Charging by Conduction
Electrons can be passed on between two objects with
different amount of electric charge if they touch each
other.

Negatively charged object touching Neutral object:






11.2

    
  


 
 


Electrons will move TO the
neutral object.
In the end BOTH objects will
have the SAME overall
charge  Negative charge



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Charging by Contact
Positively charged object touching Neutral object:






11.2

    
    


  
  


Electrons will move TO the positively charged object.

In the end BOTH objects end up with the SAME
overall charge  Positive charge.




Charging by Contact
Charged object touching Charged object:






11.2

    
    

Electrons will move from the LARGER negative charge
object to the smaller negative charge object, until both
objects end up with the SAME overall charge.





    
    

Grounding 11.2

Negatively charged object:
Electrons will move TO the
ground until the object
becomes neutral.







You can make charged objects neutral by GROUNDING 
connecting to a large body (ex: Earth)








    
    


    
    


Positively charged object:

Electrons will move FROM
the ground until the object
becomes neutral.

Using Static Charges
Swiffer duster:
uses electrostatic charges to attract dust
When duster is swept across an object  caused
build up of charges on duster
11.2
Using Static Charges
Electrostatic Precipitators
Device that uses electrostatic charge to remove
soot and dust particles from the air.
Used in smokestacks and room air purifiers
11.2
Seatwork – complete the following
questions:

• 11.2 – p. 477 #1 – 3, 5 – 7



HW: Read 11.3 & 11.4