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WY001-APX1 WY001-Bolsover-v2.cls October 23, 2003 15:25
APPENDIX:
CHANNELS AND CARRIERS
All the channels and carriers described in the book are listed here for reference.
Page for
Name Details Location Selective for Opened by Comments
CHANNELS
Large Channels
Gap junction
channel
55 Plasma
membrane of
many cells
Any solute of
M
r
< 1000
Contact with
second gap
junction channel
Allows solutes to
pass from
cytosol to cytosol
Porin 262 Outer mito-
chondrial
membrane
Any solute of
M
r
<10,000
Probably spends a
large fraction of
time open under
most
circumstances
Stress can cause
switch to a larger
form that allows
cytochrome c to
pass
Potassium
channels
Potassium
channel
310 Plasma
membrane of
all cells
Potassium
ions
Some isoforms are
opened by
depolarization;
some are open
all the time
Responsible for the
resting voltage
(Continued)
Cell Biology: A Short Course, Second Edition, by Stephen R. Bolsover, Jeremy S. Hyams,
Elizabeth A. Shephard, Hugh A. White, Claudia G. Wiedemann
ISBN 0-471-26393-1 Copyright C
2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
437
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WY001-APX1 WY001-Bolsover-v2.cls October 23, 2003 15:25
438 APPENDIX: CHANNELS AND CARRIERS
Page for
Name Details Location Selective for Opened by Comments
Calcium
channels
Voltage-gated
calcium
channel
327 Plasma
membrane of
sea urchin
egg, axon
terminal,
muscle, and
other cells
Calcium ions Depolarization of
plasma
membrane
The inward
movement of
calcium ions
changes the
transmembrane
voltage and
raises the
calcium
concentration in
the cytosol
Inositol
trisphosphate-
gated calcium
channel
344 Membrane of
endoplasmic
reticulum
Calcium ions Binding of
cytosolic
inositol
trisphosphate
Part of the system
that allows an
extracellular
solute to raise
cytosolic calcium
Ryanodine
receptor;
skeletal
muscle
isoform.
348 Membrane of
endoplasmic
reticulum
Calcium ions Direct physical
link to
voltage-gated
calcium
channels in the
plasma
membrane
Allows rapid
increase of
cytosolic calcium
concentration in
response to
depolarization of
plasma
membrane
Ryanodine
receptor;
standard
isoforms
348 Membrane of
endoplasmic
reticulum
Calcium ions Binding of
cytosolic
calcium
Allows a small
increase of
cytosolic calcium
concentration to
trigger a larger
increase
Mitochondrial
calcium
channel
305 Inner mito-
chondrial
membrane
Calcium ions Not easily studied,
probably always
open
Allows an increase
of cytosolic
calcium
concentration to
activate
mitochondria.
Sodium and
unselective
cation
channels
Voltage-gated
sodium
channel
330 Plasma
membrane of
nerve and
muscle cells
Sodium ions Depolarization of
plasma
membrane
Produces brief
action potentials
(Continued)
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APPENDIX: CHANNELS AND CARRIERS 439
Page for
Name Details Location Selective for Opened by Comments
Nicotinic
acetylcholine
receptor
channel
364 Plasma
membrane of
skeletal
muscle cells
and some
nerve cells
Sodium and
potassium
Extracellular
acetylcholine
An ionotropic cell
surface receptor
that causes the
plasma
membrane to
depolarize
Glutamate
receptor
channel
372 Plasma
membrane of
some nerve
cells
Sodium and
potassium,
some
isoforms
also pass
calcium
Extracellular
glutamate
An ionotropic cell
surface receptor
that causes the
plasma
membrane to
depolarize
cAMP-gated
channel
350 Plasma
membranes
of scent-
sensitive
nerve cells
Sodium and
potassium
cAMP in the
cytosol
Depolarizes the
plasma
membrane so
that the cell
produces action
potentials
cGMP-gated
channel
353 Plasma
membranes
of photore-
ceptor
cells
Sodium and
potassium
cGMP in the
cytosol
Depolarizes the
plasma
membrane
Chloride
channels
GABA receptor 373 Plasma
membrane of
some nerve
cells
Chloride ions Extracellular
GABA
When this channel
is open, it is
more difficult to
depolarize the
cell to threshold
CFTR 426 Plasma
membrane of
sweat gland
cells, airway
epithelial
cells, and of
many other
cells
Chloride ions Phosphorylation
by protein
kinase A
Required for
several transport
processes in
glands
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440 APPENDIX: CHANNELS AND CARRIERS
Page for
Name Details Location Mode of Action Comments
CARRIERS
Carriers with no
enzymatic action
Glucose carrier 316 Plasma membrane
of all cells Glucose
Required by all human cells
ADP/ATP exchanger 271 Inner mitochondrial
membrane
ADP
ATP
Gets ATP and ADP across
inner mitochondrial
membrane
Na
+
/Ca
2+
exchanger 317 Plasma membrane
of many cells
3 Na
+
Ca
2+
Pushes calcium ions out of
the cytosol
β-Galactoside permease 111 Bacterial plasma
membrane
Brings lactose into the cell.
One of the products of
the lac operon
Carriers with an
enzymatic action as
well as a carrier
action
ATP synthase 272 Inner mitochondrial
membrane
10H
+
Inter-
membrane
space
Matrix
3ATP
3ADP
+ 3P
i
Converts between energy in
the H
+
gradient and
energy as ATP
Ca
2+
ATPase 318 Plasma membrane
of many cells
Pushes calcium ions out of
the cytosol. All cells
have either this or the
Na
+
/Ca
2+
exchanger;
many have both
Na
+
/K
+
ATPase 270 Plasma membrane of
all cells
Converts between energy
as ATP and energy in the
Na
+
gradient
Electron transport chain 265 Inner mitochondrial
membrane
NAD
+
12H
+
Inter-
membrane
space
Matrix
+ H
2
O
+
1
/2O
2
+ H
+
NADH
Converts between energy
as NADH and energy in
the H
+
gradient