# Predictions of the Resistance and Squat

of 12 “Lego” Series Model Hulls
February 27, 2014
Summary
Predictions of the resistance and squat of Doctors’ “Lego” Series model hulls are compared to measured val-
ues. All predictions were made using Flotilla version 6.1. Consult the Monohull Manual for an explanation
of the notation used.
1 NOTES
The performance of Doctors’ Lego series has been reported in several papers by Doctors and his co-workers
[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6], and the thesis by Robards [7].
2 GEOMETRY
The Lego series is based on the standard Wigley parabolic hull. In the Lego series, hulls are created from
the front half of the Wigley hull with varying amounts of parallel middle body and varying transom stern
sizes. Body plans of the hulls are shown in Fig. 1. Principal geometric particulars are summarised in
Table 1.
3 RESULTS
All results were calculated with Flotilla 6.1.
Hulls were represented with 41 waterlines but a diﬀerent number of stations was used for each hull,
varying from 41 stations for Lego 1 to 151 stations for Lego 12.
512 θ-intervals were used in the calculation of hydrodynamic integrals.
A diﬀerent turbulent eddy viscosity was used for each hull, varying from ν
t
= 0.0000095m
2
s
−1
for the
L=0.75 m Lego 1 hull to ν
t
= 0.0000689m
2
s
−1
for the L=2.813 m Lego 12. Consult the Monohull Manual
for a description of the method for scaling the turbulent eddy viscosity.
3.1 Resistance
Fig. 2 shows the speciﬁc resistance components of the vessels. Speciﬁc resistance is deﬁned as R/∆ where
R is the resistance component and ∆ is the weight of the vessel in Newtons.
Predictions for Froude numbers greater than 1 are poor for models 1 to 3, the shortest, stubbiest hulls
in the set. These hulls are diﬃcult cases for Flotilla and, indeed, for most codes, because they possess
very large transom sterns. Another diﬃculty is that the lengths of the hulls are very short, well below the
recommended minimum of about 1.5 m for towing tank models. As expected, predictions tend to become
better as the hull length increases.
The form drag and splash drag are very small for these hulls. It is possible that the discrepancies
between experiments and predictions are due to neglect of splash drag and wave-breaking at very high
Froude numbers. In that case, Flotilla’s splash drag model is inadequate. This is not unexpected because
the mathematical model was derived from the behaviour of the planing splash of surface eﬀect ships.
1
Robards’ [7] predictions for models 1, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 in Fig. 2 were made with the Hydros program
of Doctors. It seems that the program was unable to capture all of the features of the resistance curves
despite the use of two form factors, one applied to the skin-friction and the other to the wave resistance.
3.2 Squat
Fig. 3 shows the change in positions of the bow and stern relative to their static (i.e. at rest) values. Spikes
in the curves at higher Froude numbers are due to the hulls running at close to the critical depth-based
Froude number.
The experimental values of the Lego 9 hull were deemed to be atypical and have been omitted. It is
possible that the locations of the forward and aft towing posts were recorded incorrectly.
There is a tendency for Flotilla to under-predict the stern position at high Froude numbers.
Acknowledgements
This research was partly funded by the the Australian Institute of Sport, Rowing Australia, and CSIRO.
Thanks to Prof. L.J. Doctors for providing towing tank data.
References
[1] Doctors, L.J., “Prediction of resistance for ships with a transom stern”, The Australian Naval Architect,
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 1998.
[2] Doctors, L.J., “Progress in the prediction of squat for ships with a transom stern”, The Australian
Naval Architect, Vol. 3, No. 4, Nov. 1999.
[3] Doctors, L.J., “The squat of a vessel with a transom stern”, 15th Int. Workshop on Water Waves and
Floating Bodies, Cambridge, Israel, 27 Feb. – 1 Mar. 2000.
[4] Doctors, L.J. and Day, A.H., “Steady-state hydrodynamics of high-speed vessels with a transom stern”,
24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Val de Reuil, France, Sept. 17–22 2000.
[5] Doctors, L.J. and Day, A.H., “Nonlinear eﬀects on the squat of a vessel with a transom stern”, 17th
Int. Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Cambridge, U.K., 14–17 April 2002.
[6] Doctors, L.J. and Day, A.H., “Nonlinear free-surface eﬀects on the resistance and squat of high-speed
vessels with a transom stern”, 24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Fukuoka, Japan, July 2002.
[7] Robards, Simon William, “The hydrodynamics of high-speed transom-stern vessels”, M. Engineering
thesis, The University of New South Wales, Nov. 2008.
2
Hull L (m) L/B B/T C

C
B
C
M
C
P
C
VP
C
WP
S/L
2
Lego 1 0.750 5.00 1.600 4.48 0.444 0.500 0.667 0.667 0.667 0.297
Lego 2 0.938 6.25 1.600 5.05 0.486 0.573 0.729 0.667 0.729 0.243
Lego 3 1.120 7.50 1.600 5.65 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.667 0.750 0.204
Lego 4 1.313 8.75 1.600 6.32 0.486 0.656 0.729 0.667 0.729 0.173
Lego 5 1.500 10.00 1.600 6.60 0.556 0.667 0.833 0.667 0.833 0.158
Lego 6 1.688 11.20 1.600 7.10 0.566 0.667 0.850 0.667 0.850 0.141
Lego 7 1.875 12.50 1.600 7.61 0.567 0.667 0.850 0.667 0.850 0.127
Lego 8 2.063 13.80 1.600 8.18 0.552 0.667 0.828 0.667 0.828 0.114
Lego 9 2.250 15.00 1.600 8.47 0.593 0.667 0.889 0.667 0.889 0.107
Lego 10 2.438 16.20 1.600 8.91 0.597 0.667 0.896 0.667 0.896 0.099
Lego 11 2.625 17.50 1.600 9.37 0.595 0.667 0.893 0.667 0.893 0.092
Lego 12 2.813 18.80 1.600 9.88 0.582 0.667 0.874 0.667 0.874 0.085
Table 1: Principal particulars of Doctors’ Lego series model hulls.
Lego 1 Lego 1 Lego 2 Lego 2 Lego 3 Lego 3
Lego 4 Lego 4 Lego 5 Lego 5 Lego 6 Lego 6
Lego 7 Lego 7 Lego 8 Lego 8 Lego 9 Lego 9
Lego 10 Lego 10 Lego 11 Lego 11 Lego 12 Lego 12
Figure 1: Body plans of Doctors’ Lego series hulls.
3
0.00
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
R
/

F
Lego 1
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
R
/

F
Lego 2
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
R
/

F
Lego 3
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
R
/

F
Lego 4
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
R
/

F
Lego 5
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
R
/

F
Lego 6
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
R
/

F
Lego 7
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
R
/

F
Lego 8
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
R
/

F
Lego 9
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
R
/

F
Lego 10
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
R
/

F
Lego 11
Exp.
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
R
/

F
Lego 12
Exp.
Robards
Wave
Hollow
Friction
Form
Splash
Total
Figure 2: Speciﬁc resistance components of Doctors’ Lego series model hulls.
4
-0.040
-0.020
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
z
/
L
F
Lego 1
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.040
-0.030
-0.020
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.040
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
z
/
L
F
Lego 2
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.030
-0.020
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
z
/
L
F
Lego 3
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.030
-0.020
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.030
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
z
/
L
F
Lego 4
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.020
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
z
/
L
F
Lego 5
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.020
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
z
/
L
F
Lego 6
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.020
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
z
/
L
F
Lego 7
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
0.000
0.010
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
z
/
L
F
Lego 8
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
z
/
L
F
Lego 9
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
z
/
L
F
Lego 10
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
z
/
L
F
Lego 11
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
z
/
L
F
Lego 12
Exp. Bow
Exp. Stern
Pred. Bow
Pred. Stern
Figure 3: Location of bow and stern of Doctors’ Lego series model hulls.
5