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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED

SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON
“DETAIL STUDIES OF MANGO QUALITATIVE PRODUCTION,
ITS MARKETING AND MANGO PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN
UTTAR PRADESH”.
FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENT FOR
THE AWARD OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF: UNDER THE
Mr. A. K. Sr!"#$"!" GUIDANCE OF:
M"r%&$'( M"'"(&r FACULTY GUIDE OF
Pr)*&+$ I'+,"r(& "'- Pr)*&+$ G.-& IMS LUCKNOW
U.P STATE HORTICULTURE CO/OPERATIVE UNIVERSITY
MARKETING FEDERATION.


SUBMITTED BY
PREETI VERMA
E'r)001&'$ N).234444356
MBA 7332/44

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
1
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
CONTENT
1. Acknowledgemen !
". #$e%&ce '
(. )ecl&$&*on +
,. E-ec.*/e 0.mm&$1 2
!. O34ec*/e 5
A. INTRO)UCTION OF AN ORGANI6ATION
'. 7OFE) 1181+
9. INTRO)UCTION OF FRUITS MAINLY MANGO
+. F$e0: %$.*0 ; /ege&3le0< M&ngo 158"5
2. Im=o$&nce o% m&ngo (>
5. N.$**on&l /&l.e (18("
1>. Med*c*n&l /&l.e ((
11. V&$*e*e0 o% m&ngo (,8,(
1". #$e0en c$o==*ng =&e$n *n U.# ,,
C. #RO)UCTION TEC7NOLOGY OF MANGO
1(. So*l ; cl*m&e ,'8!(
1,. #l&n*ng *me !,
1!. M&n.$*ng ; %e$*l*?&*on !!
1'. I$$*g&*on !'8'1
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
2
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
1+. #l&n #$oec*on @=e0< *n0ec< d*0e&0e0A '18'2
12. L&nd =$e=&$&*on '28+>
15. Sow*ng +>8+1
">. #l&n =o=.l&*on +1
"1. N.$0e$1 $&*0*ng +18+"
"". Ine$ c.l*/&*on +"8+(
"(. 7&$/e0*ng +(8+!
",. Re4./en&*on o% m&ngo o$c:&$d +'
).MARKETING
"!. G$&d*ng ; =&ck*ng +28+5
"'. T$&n0=o$&*on< 0o$&ge ; m&$ke*ng +582>
"+. S.d1 on *m=$o/*ng :e 0el% l*%e o% m&ngo 21
"2. #&ck*ng =ol*c1 o% m&ngo 2"
"5. 9.1e$0 e-=ec&*on 2(
E. FRUIT #ROCESSING IN)USTRY OF MANGO
(>. In$od.c*on o% %$.* =$oce00*ng *nd.0$1 2!85>
(1. F$.* =$oce00*ng 51
(". M&ngo =$oce00*ng 5"81>1
((. Mo0 *m=o$&n /&$*e*e0 :e$e 0e&0on
; m&ngo =$od.c0 1>"811(
(,. Sc:eme %o$ ec:nolog1 .= g$&d&*on<
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
3
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
E0&3l*0:men< mode$n*?&*on %o$ F#I 11,811'
(!. F#O G.*del*ne0 11+81">
('. A==l*c&*on %o$ l*cen0e .nde$ :e %$.*
#$od.c0 o$de$ 155! 1"181""
(+. SWOT An&l10*0 1"(81",
(2. Re0e&$c: me:odolog1 1"!81(+
(5. #$o4ec con0$&*n0< 0.gge0*on ; concl.0*on 1(+81,1
,>. B.e0*onn&*$e 1,"81,'
,1. 9*3l*og$&=:1 1,+81,2
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
4
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Im=lemen&*on o% &n *de& dem&nd0 con/*c*on< en:.0*&0m &nd =e$0e/e$&nce %$om :e
gene0*0 *0el%. In &dd**on< 0.==o$ &nd enco.$&gemen con0&nl1 =.0: :e *de& ow&$d0
:e 0:o$e0 o% $e&l*?&*on. I &ke :*0 o==o$.n*1 o e-=$e00 m1 0*nce$e g$&*.de &nd
*nde3edne00 o &ll :o0e w:o we$e $e0=on0*3le %o$ *n%.0*ng con/*c*on &nd en:.0*&0m *n
me d.$*ng :e co.$0e o% m1 0.mme$ $&*n*ng.
M1 0.mme$ $&*n*ng :&0 3een & g$e& le&$n*ng e-=e$*ence %o$ me. I le&$n no onl1 &3o.
m1 =$o4ec 3. &l0o &3o. :e o$g&n*?&*on &0 & w:ole. M1 $&*n*ng =$o/*ded me & :ol*0*c
/*ew o% :e %.nc*on*ng o% :e o$g&n*?&*on. T:*0 le&$n*ng e-=e$*ence co.ld no :&/e 3een
=o00*3le w*:o. :e :el= o% :e 0ome e0eem =eo=le.
T:*0 $e=o$ &cknowledge0 o :e *nen0e d$*/*ng &nd ec:n*c&l com=eence o% :e en*$e
*nd*/*d.&l0 :& :&/e con$*3.ed o *.
T$&*n*ng *0 &n &gglome$&*on o% :eo$e*c&l< =$&c*c&l ; ec:n*c&l conce=0< w:*c:
en:&nce0 o.$ 0k*ll0 *n :e %*eld o% ec:nolog1.
An1 wo$k o% :*0 n&.$e wo.ld no :&/e =o00*3le w*:o. :e 0.==o$ &nd g.*d&nce o%
o:e$0 &$o.nd me. I %eel m1 %*$0 &nd %o$emo0 d.1 o e-=$e00 m1 dee= 0en0e o% g$&*.de
&nd =&1 m1 gen.*nel1 0*nce$e :&nk0 o
Mr. A. K. Sr!"#$"!" 8M"r%&$'( M"'(&r, Pr)*&+$ I'+,"r(& "'- Pr)*&+$ G.-&9 "'-,
Mr#. K&&r$ S'(, 8A###$"'$ M"'"(&r, Mr. S,"0&'-r" K.1"r S.1"' 8A##$.
M"'"(&r M"r%&$'(9, Mr. R"*! D:&- 8M"r%&$ D&!&0);1&'$ O<<+&r9, Mr. D&!
R"1 8M"'"(&r Pr)+.r&1&'$9
%o$ g*/*ng me :*0 o==o$.n*1 o le&$n :e 3&0*c0 o% & l&ng.&ge :& *0 no e&01 o
.nde$0&nd &nd w:*c: *0 .0ed *n :e $e&l wo$ld 3. &l0o con%*ded :*0 con%*dence *n me
:$o.g:o. m1 $&*n*ng en.$e *n 0=*e o% m1 3e*ng o&ll1 new o :*0 k*nd o% & wo$k.
W:ene/e$ & com=le- &nd con%o.nded =$o3lem con%$oned me< :e 0=on&neo.0 g.*d&nce
o% &ll o% m1 e&m mem3e$0 w&0 e/e$ & :&nd o 0ol/e m1 d*%%*c.l1.
I &m &l0o g$&e%.l o Mr. C.P.TIWARI 8T,& Dr&+$)r, H)r$+.0$.r&9 %o$ =$o/*d*ng me
w*: &n o==o$.n*1 o wo$k w*: :em &nd .nde$&ke & =$o4ec o% 0.c: *m=o$&nce.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
5
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
PREFACE
I :&d .nde$gone & =$&c*c&l $&*n*ng .nde$ U.P STATE HORTICULTURE CO/
OPERATIVE MARKETTING FEDERATION. I w&0 & good e-=o0.$e %o$ me o
.nde$go $&*n*ng *n 0.c: & o$g&n*?&*on o ge :e knowledge &nd e-=e$*ence $eg&$d*ng
:o$*c.l.$e =$od.ce. S.mme$ $&*n*ng *0 one o% :e m&4o$ e-=e$*enc*ng com=onen0 o%
:e knowledge< g&*n o% $ele/&n o% *n%o$m&*on &nd de&l*ng w*: 0*.&*on0 *n &
=$o%e00*on&l co.$0e l*ke M9A. W:e$e & =$o%e00*on&l =e$0on %&ce0 & =$o3lem *n & %*eld. I
w&0 &3le o ge %&m*l*&$*?ed w*: :e =$od.ce o% :o$*c.l.$e &nd c$e&e &w&$ene00 &mong
=eo=le de&l*ng *n &g$*3.0*ne00 =$od.ce &nd =$od.c0 o m&-*m*?e :e %..$e =$o0=ec &nd
0.cce00. F*eld com=onen l*ke 0.$/e1< gene$&*on o% C.e0*onn&*$e< &nd mee*ng w*:
=$od.ce$0 &nd de&le$0 o% &g$* =$od.c :el=ed me & lo.
T:e =$o4ec *0 O.come o% m1 0.d1 on “DETAIL STUDY OF MANGO
QUALITATIVE PRODUCTION, ITS MARKETING AND MANGO
PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN UTTAR PRADESH”. U.P STATE
HORTICULTURE CO/OPERATIVE MARKETTING FEDERATION. T:*0
o$g&n*?&*on o%%e$0 com=lee 0.d1 &nd $e0e&$c: on Ag$*3.0*ne00.
R*0k &nd .nce$&*n*e0 &$e =&$ o% l*%eD0 g$e& &d/en.$e. To o/e$come :e0e $*0k0 &nd
m*0:&=0 :*0 =$o4ec de0c$*3e0 :e =ol*c*e0 &nd 0c:eme0 o% 7OFE). . T:e w&1 :e
o$g&n*?&*on =$o/*de0 d*%%e$en 3ene%*0 o :e %&$me$0 &nd de&le$0 o% &g$*3.0*ne00. Now &
d&1D0 lo *0 3e*ng done o c$e&e &w&$ene00 &mong :e =.3l*c &3o. :e *m=o$&nce o%
&g$*c.l.$e =$od.ce &nd =$od.c0.
Fo$.n&el1 I %o.nd &n o==o$.n*1 o com=lee m1 Re0e&$c: =$o4ec Re=o$ *n :*0
o$g&n*?&*on. ).$*ng :*0 #$o4ec I cond.ced & de&*led 0.d1 on :e EDETAIL STUDY
OF MANGO QUALITATIVE PRODUCTION, ITS MARKETING AND MANGO
PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN UTTAR PRADESHF
EI *0 good o :&/e en:.0*&0m 3. * *0 e00en*&l o :&/e $&*n*ng. T$&*n*ng c&n 3e *n &ll
w&1 o% l*%e.F T:.0 I wo.ld 0&1 :& :*0 $&*n*ng w&0 3ene%*c*&l ed.c&*/e ; good
e-=o0.$e o me< w:*c: w*ll ce$&*nl1 :el= *n m1 ne&$ %..$e. T:e =$o4ec m&de me o ge
:e en:&nced knowledge $eg&$d*ng Ag$*3.0*ne00 *0< =$od.ce &nd =$od.c0.
T:*0 $e=o$ *0 ded*c&ed o :o0e w:o :&/e :el=ed me d.$*ng ; &%e$ :*0 =$o4ec.
#REETI VERMAG..
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
6
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
DECLARATION
I :e$e31 ce$*%1 :& :e wo$k w:*c: *0 3e*ng =$e0ened *n :e $e=o$ en*led “DETAIL STUDY
OF MANGO QUALITATIVE PRODUCTION, ITS MARKETING AND MANGO
PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN UTTAR PRADESH”. w*: 7OFE) @U.#. S&e
7o$*c.l.$&l Co8o=e$&*/e M&$ke*ng Fede$&*onA< L.cknow *n =&$*&l %.l%*lmen o% :e
$eC.*$emen0 %o$ :e &w&$d o% :e M&0e$0 In 9.0*ne00 Adm*n*0$&*on @Ag$*3.0*ne00A *0 &n
&.:en*c $eco$d o% m1 own wo$k c&$$*ed o. d.$*ng & =e$*od %$om 1>: o% H.ne ">1> o ",: o%
H.l1 ">1>< .nde$ :e g.*d&nce o% Mr. A.K.Sr!"#$"! < G&'&r"0 M"'"(&r/M"r%&$'( HOFED<
L.cknow.
I %o$ :e &w&$d o% &n1 o:e$ deg$ee o% :*0 o$ &n1 o:e$ In0*.e :&/e no 0.3m*ed :e m&e$
=$e0ened *n :*0 $e=o$.
#REETI VERMA IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
E=ECUTIVE SUMMARY
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
7
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
I< #$ee* Ve$m&< En$ollmen No.5>1111>(,< &m & 0.den o% INSTITUTE OF
MANAGEMENT SCIENCE< LUCKNOW UNIVERSITY. I w&0 g*/en :e o==o$.n*1
o =.$0.e m1 *ne$n0:*= *n U.P. S$"$& H)r$+.0$.r"0 C)/);&r"$!& M"r%&$'(
F&-&r"$)' %o$ & =e$*od o% 0*- week0. M1 =$o4ec *0 *led “DETAIL STUDY OF MANGO
QUALITATIVE PRODUCTION, ITS MARKETING AND MANGO PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN
UTTAR PRADESH”.
The !"#$ %&'(e$) )>*&+$!&# !&e !" *'++',"-
1. P&e"e/) $&'%%#/0 %!))e&/ #/ U))!& P&!1e"h.
2. S)213 '/ #4%&'5#/0 )he "he+* +#*e '* 4!/0'.
3. S2%%+e4e/)!&3 '* 4!/0' *&2#).
A0 & =&$ o% m1 =$o4ec I w&0 $eC.*$ed o c&$$1 o. 0.$/e10.
T:e %ollow*ng /*&l concl.0*on0 we$e de$*/edJ
*A 7*g: M&$ke*ng Co00 ; M&$g*n0
**A W*de #$*ce Fl.c.&*on0
***A 9oleneck0 *n So$&ge F&c*l**e0
*/A L&ck o% Long e$m Ind*&n M&ngo E-=o$ #ol*c1
/A.L&ck o% &/en.e0 o% .*l*?&*on o% m&ngo
Im=o$&n Recommend&*on0 :& we$e 0.gge0ed &$eJ
*A. T:e$e *0 & need %o$ =$omo*ng =$od.ce$D0 co8o=e$&*/e *n m&ngo g$ow*ng &$e&0 o
$ed.ce :e =$*ce g&= 3eween g$owe$0 &nd con0.me$0.
**A. T:e m&4o$ =o&o g$ow*ng 0&e0 0:o.ld &$$&nge &d/&nce %o$ec&0*ng o% &$e& .nde$
m&ngo &nd =l&n o d*/e$ :e m&ngoe0 o :e de%*c*en &$e&0 o$ 31 e-=o$ o &/o*d gl.
0*.&*on0 &nd =$*ce c$&0:e0 *n :e m&$ke0.
***A A3o. 5> =e$ cen o% o&l cold 0o$&ge0 *n :e co.n$1 .0ed %o$ m&ngo 0o$&ge &nd
mo0 o% :em &$e 0*.&ed *n 3*g own0 &nd m&$ke0. 7ence * *0 needed o :&/e new cold
0o$&ge .n*0 *n de%*c*en &$e&0 =&$*c.l&$l1 $.$&l &$e&0.
*/A. T:e 0*gn*%*c&n 0e= :&0 3een &ken *n :*0 d*$ec*on 31 Go/. o% Ind*& 31 e0&3l*0:*ng
Ag$* E-=o$ 6one0 @AE60A. AdeC.&e *n%$&0$.c.$e =&.c**e0 l*ke mo/emen o% m&ngo
%$om =$od.c*ng &$e&0 o e-=o$*ng co.n$*e0 &$e $eC.*$ed %o$ %.$:e$ *m=$o/emen.
5). The&e #" ! /ee1 )' 2)#+#6e +!&0e& 72!/)#)#e" '* 4!/0'e" #/ )he %&'$e""#/0
#/12")&#e" )' #4%&'5e !/1 e/h!/$e )he e**#$#e/$3 '* %&'$e""#/0 !/1 )' &e12$e
)he $'") '* %&'$e""#/0 !/1 %&'$e""e1 %&'12$)". De5e+'%e1 )e$h/'+'0#e" *'&
1eh31&!)e1 4!/0'e" ,#++ /') '/+3 e/"2&e %&'%e& &e)2&/ )' )he *!&4e&" 2)
!+"' ''") )he %&'$e""#/0 #/12")&3.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
8
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
M&n&gemen &0 & =$o%e00*on c&nD 3e &.g: me$el1 *n :e %o.$ w&ll0 o% cl&00$oom0. Onl1
:eo$e*c&l knowledge *0 no 0.%%*c*en o 3.*ld com=e**/e m&n&ge$0. #$&c*c&l
knowledge o% :e 3.0*ne00 en/*$onmen *0 eC.&ll1 *m=o$&n.
In od&1 3.0*ne00 wo$ld< Ag$*c.l.$e 0eco$ *0 $.nn*ng ow&$d0 *0 3oom*ng 0&ge. T:*0
&$e& 0*ll :&0 m&n1 :*ng0 o come .= o< 0o m&n1 c:&nge0 &nd o==o$.n**e0 w*ll 3e g*/en
31 7OFE) o$g&n*?&*on. So I c:oo0e 7OFE) O$g&n*?&*on %o$ m1 SI#. I c:oo0e
7OFE) O$g&n*?&*on 3ec&.0e * *0 one o% :o0e go/e$nmen =l&1e$0 w:o ene$ed :e
m&$ke *n 155" &nd m&de *0 own =l&ce &0 & /*$.&l o%%*ce o% A#E)A *n .&$ =$&de0:.
T:*0 $e=o$ 0:owed &3o. C.&l*&*/e =$od.c*on o% m&ngo<*0 m&$ke*ng ; %$.*
=$oce00*ng *nd.0$1 *n .&$ #$&de0: &0 &n *m=o$&n =&$ o% Ag$*3.00*ne00.
A0 & $&*nee o% 7OFE) go/e$nmen o$g&n*?&*on< I go =$&c*c&l knowledge &3o. :e
:o$*c.l.$e =$od.ce &nd :ow o wo$k *n o$g&n*?&*on< :ow o m&n&ge wo$k< :ow o
m&*n&*n $el&*on0 w*: o= le/el m&n&gemen &0 well &0 college0 &nd 3oom le/el
m&n&gemen. So< :*0 e-=e$*ence w*ll :el=%.l *n %..$e. I &m =le&0ed 31 &ken $&*n*ng &
Ind*&D0 one o% :e 3e0 go/e$nmen o$g&n*?&*on.
T:e 3&0*c o34ec*/e0 o% m1 0.d1 &$eJ
1. P&e"e/) $&'%%#/0 %!))e&/ #/ U))!& P&!1e"h.
2. S)213 '/ #4%&'5#/0 )he "he+* +#*e '* 4!/0'.
3. S2%%+e4e/)!&3 '* 4!/0' *&2#).
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
9
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
INTRODUCTION OF AN ORGANI?ATION
U.P STATE HORTICULTURE
CO/OPERATIVE MARKETING FEDERATION
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
10
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
HOFED
U.P STAE HORTICULTURE CO/OPERATIVE MARKETING
FEDERATION
U.#. S&e 7o$*c.l.$&l Co8o=e$&*/e M&$ke*ng Fede$&*on *0 &n o$g&n*?&*on o%
=$od.ce$0 ; e-=o$e$0 o% %$.*0 ; /ege&3le0. T:e Fede$&*on w&0 e0&3l*0:ed *n 155"
w*: :e &*m o% =$omo*ng C.&l*&*/e =$od.c*on &0 well &0 m&$ke*ng< e-=o$ o%
7o$*c.l.$&l c$o=0 %$om 0&e *n :e co8o=e$&*/e 010em. T:e Fede$&*on *0 :e $ec*=*en
o% :e A#E)A Aw&$d %o$ =$od.c )e/elo=men o% %$e0: %$.*0 @155'A :e o= Aw&$d *n
:e co.n$1. U&$ #$&de0: =$od.ce0 (."! m*ll*on one0 o% m&ngoe0 w:*c: *0 &$o.nd one8
:*$d o% Ind*&K0 o&l =$od.c*on. T$&d**on&ll1 :*0 no$:e$n Ind*&n 0&e w&0 :e cen$e o%
=owe$ %o$ :e *m=e$*&l Mog.l0. W:o de/elo=ed &nd =$o=&g&ed d*%%e$en /&$*e*e0 o%
M&ngoe0 l*ke :e ).0:e:&$* *n l&e M&1 o /&$*e*e0 l*ke C:&.0& .= o M*d A.g.0.
Pr)-.+$#
T:e 0oc*e*e0 .nde$ :e &eg*0 o% :e Fede$&*on =$od.ce & w*de $&nge o% %$.*0< /ege&3le0<
%lowe$0 &nd m.0:$oom0.
O>*&+$!&#
1. F&c*l*&e &nd =$omoe co8o=e$&*/e M&$ke*ng o% %$e0: &nd =$oce00ed
:o$*c.l.$&l =$od.c0 o 3ene%* :e =$od.ce$0.
". En:&nce =$od.c*on ; =$oc.$emen o% %$e0: &nd =$oce00ed :o$*c.l.$&l =$od.ce
%$om co8o=e$&*/e 0oc*e*e0 %o$ :e 3ene%* o% =$od.ce$0.
(. E-end nece00&$1 :el= *n ec:n*c&l< &dm*n*0$&*/e< %*n&nc*&l ; o:e$ &$e&0 o
mem3e$ 0oc*e*e0.
M&1>&r#,;
T:e$e &$e +5( Pr1"r@ H)r$+.0$.r"0 +)/);&r"$!& #)+&$&# o=e$&*ng & :e /*ll&ge
le/el con0*0*ng o% o/e$ "><>>> mem3e$0 $eg*0e$ed .nde$ :e de=&$men o% 7o$*c.l.$e
; %ood =$oce00*ng U.#. .= o M&$c:8">>' &nd con*n.o.0l1 3e*ng $eg*0e$ed.
A+$!$&#
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
11
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• S$eng:en*ng #$*m&$1 7o$*c.l.$&l Co8o=e$&*/e Soc*e*e0 &nd Coo=e$&*/e
M&$ke*ng Newo$k. +5( #$*m&$1 7o$*c.l.$e Co8o=e$&*/e Soc*e*e0 &l$e&d1
$eg*0e$ed & :e /*ll&ge le/el con0*0*ng o% o/e$ 1!<>>> mem3e$0.
• #$o/*d*ng ec:n*c&l g.*d&nceL*n=.0 o =$od.ce$ mem3e$0.
• #$omo*on&l *n%$&0$.c.$e de/elo=men.
• #$e ; #o0 7&$/e0 M&n&gemen T$&*n*ng %o$ =$od.ce$ mem3e$0.
• S.d1 o.$ %o$ =$od.ce$ mem3e$0.
• M&$ke *n%o$m&*on d*00em*n&*on.
• Log*0*c 0.==o$ %o$ d*0&n m&$ke*ng.
• )ome0*c $&de o% 7o$*c.l.$&l commod**e0.
• E-=o$ =$omo*on o% m&*n :o$*c.l.$&l =$od.c0 o% :e 0&e.
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Ind*&A
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8M.T. AHEC.9
1
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
12
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
13
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
A(r EB;)r$ ?)'&#
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
14
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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e-=&n0*on.
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6one.
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0oc*e*e0.
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
15
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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e-=&n0*on.
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6one.
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HOFED D W)r%'( "# APEDA Vr$."0 Br"'+,
7OFE) *0 wo$k*ng &0 S&e V*$.&l 9$&nc: o% A#E)A 0*nce 1552. 7OFE) *0 =$o/*d*ng
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
16
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
%*n&nc*&l 0c:eme0 o% A#E)A ec. We &$e &l0o d*0$*3.*ng :e conce$ned l*e$&.$e
&mong0 :e %&$me$0Le-=o$e$0 &nd %o$w&$d*ng :e &==l*c&*on %o$ $eg*0$&*on *n A#E)A.
V"r).# <'"'+"0 #+,&1&# )< APEDA
1. Sc:eme %o$ M&$ke )e/elo=men
". Sc:eme %o$ In%$&0$.c.$e )e/elo=men
(. Sc:eme %o$ B.&l*1 )e/elo=men
,. Sc:eme o$ Re0e&$c: ; )e/elo=men
R&(#$r"$)' Pr)+&-.r&
1. 9&nk ce$*%*c&e @*n 3&nkK0 0e&led co/e$ ce$*%1*ng :e %*n&nc*&l 0&nd*ng o% 1o.$
%*$m &long w*: 9&nkK %o$w&$d*ng lee$.
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on :e lee$ :e&d o% :e com=&n1 d.l1 0&m=ed &nd 0*gned.
(. #/.L#.3l*c Ld. Com=&n*e0LSoc*e*e0 0:o.ld %o$w&$d & co=1 o% :e*$
memo$&nd.m &nd A$*cle o% A00oc*&*on< l&e0 co=1 o% 3&l&nce 0:ee. #&$ne$0:*=
%*$m0 0:o.ld %o$w&$d :e*$ =&$ne$0:*= deed &e0ed 31 No&$1.
,. #:ooco=1 o% 1o.$ Im=o$ E-=o$ Code @IECA n.m3e$ *00.ed 31 ).G.F.T.
!. ))LC&0:L#&1 O$de$ o% R0. !>>>L8 ow&$d0 Reg*0$&*on %ee0 =&1&3le o A#E)A<
NEW )EL7I w*: wo =:ooco=*e0 o% ).).K0LC&0:L#&1 o$de$0.
'. Unde$&k*ng 0:o.ld 3e on Com=&n1 lee$ :e&d ; * m.0 3e &e0ed 31 No&$1.
Fo$ &n1 o:e$ *n%o$m&*on< =le&0e con&c o.$ o%%*ce.

MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
17
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
INTRODUCTION OF FRUITS AND MAINLY
MANGO
FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
I/1#! #" )he *&2#) !/1 5e0e)!+e !"9e) '* )he ,'&+1. I/1#! e#/0 ! h'4e '*
,#1e 5!&#e)3 '* *&2#)" !/1 5e0e)!+e" h'+1" ! 2/#72e %'"#)#'/ #/ %&'12$)#'/
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
18
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
*#02&e" !4'/0 ')he& $'2/)&#e". O5e& 90: '* I/1#!;" e<%'&)" #/ *&e"h %&'12$)"
0'e" )' ,e") A"#! !/1 E!") E2&'%e!/ 4!&9e)". H',e5e&= #) /ee1" )' !204e/)
#)" *''1 !/1 %&'$e""#/0 #/12")&3 !) ! 4e0! "$!+e= !$$'&1#/0 )' !/ !0&#$2+)2&e
$'/"2+)!/).
I/1#!;" e<%'&)" '* F&e"h F&2#) !/1 >e0e)!+e h!" #/$&e!"e1 R". 3659.11 ?&'&e"
#/ 2008-09 = ,h#$h #" #/$+21#/0 )he %&'12$)" +#9e F&e"h O/#'/= @!+/2)= F&e"h
M!/0'"= F&e"h G&!%e" !/1 ')he& *&e"h F&2#)" A >e0e)!+e".
A2/1!/) #/5e")4e/) '%%'&)2/#)#e" !&e )he&e #/ e<%!/1#/0 )he e<%'&)
4!&9e). A/ #/$&e!"#/0 !$$e%)!/$e '* /e, %&'12$)" ,#)h 4!&9e) 1e5e+'%4e/)
e**'&)" h!" ee/ ,#)/e""e1 +!)e+3 0#5e/ )he *!$) )h!) )he&e #" ! 0''1
#/)e&/!)#'/!+ 1e4!/1 *'& $e&)!#/ *&2#)" !/1 5e0e)!+e %&'12$)". I/1#! &!/9"
*#*)h #/ )he ,'&+1 #/ $&'%%e1 !&e! 2/1e& $2+)#5!)#'/ !/1 %&'12$)#'/ '*
%')!)'e". I/1#! %&'12$e" 40: '* ,'&+1;" 4!/0'e"= 26 :!/!/!"= 18 :
$!"he, /2)"= 28 : 0&ee/ %e!" !/1 12: '/#'/ . E<%'&)" '* 4!/0'e"= 0&!%e"=
42"h&''4" h!5e ")!&)e1 0'#/0 )' )he U/#)e1 B#/01'4= M#11+e E!")=
S#/0!%'&e !/1 H'/0 B'/0= !/1 !4'/0 5e0e)!+e= '/#'/ '$$2%#e" *#&")
%'"#)#'/ P')!)'e" !/1 0&ee/ 5e0e)!+e" +#9e '9&!= #))e& 0'2&1= 0&ee/ $h#++#e"
h!5e 0''1 e<%'&) %')e/)#!+.
FRUITS
I/1#! #" )he +!&0e") %&'12$e& '* F&2#)" #/ )he ,'&+1 !/1 #" 9/',/ !" *&2#)
!"9e) '* ,'&+1. The 4!('& *&2#)" 0&',/ #/ I/1#! !&e M!/0'"= G&!%e"=
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
19
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
A%%+e= A%&#$')"= O&!/0e= B!/!/! F&e"h= A5'$!1'"= G2!5!= C#$h#= P!%!3!=
S!%')! !/1 @!)e& Me+'/".
The individual products under this sub-head are as below:
B!/!/!" F&e"h O)he& F&e"h
F&2#)"
D!)e" F&e"h Pee+ O* ?#)&2" F&2#) O&
Me+'/"
D&3 D!)e" S'*) (Bh!62& Pe!$he"
D&3 D!)e" H!&1 (?hh'h!&!) P#/e!%%+e F&e"h
G2!5!
M!/0'e" S+#$e1 A D&#e1
O&!/0e" F&e"h
M!/1!&#/"
Ce4'/"
G&!%e*&2#) F&e"h
O)he& ?#)&2" F&2#)"
@!)e& Me+'/"
Me+'/" (O)he& Th!/ @!)e& Me+'/")
P!%!3!
A%%+e"
Pe!& A D2#/$e
A%&#$')"
?he&&#e"
P+24" A S+'e"
P'4e0&!/!)e"
T!4!&#/1 F&e"h
S!%')!
S#)!*!+
2")!&1 A%%+e
F#0" F&e"h
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S)&!,e&&#e" (F&e"h)
R!"%e&&#e"= B+!$9&"= M2+&"
B+!$9= @h#)e O& Re1 G''"ee&&#e"
?&/e&3 B#+e&"
B'&e
C#$h#
Varieties:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
20
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
The 4!('& 5!&#e)#e" 2/1e& O)he& F&e"h F&2#) %&'12$)" !&e !" *'++',"-
M!/0'e" (C!/0&!= ?h!2"!= F!6+#= B&#"h/! Bh'0= H#4"!0!&= Nee+!4=
B!/e"h!/= B!1!4#) G&!%e" (A/!-e-"h!h#= ?hee4! "!he#= 9#"h4#"h
$h'&/#= %e&+e))e= A&9!5!)#) A%%+e (M$I/)'"h= ?h!2!))#! A/2%!4= C!+ A4&#=
G'+1e/ De+#$#'2") B!/!/! F&e"h (D,!&* ?!5e/1#"h= R'2")!= R!")h!+#=
P''5!/) G2!5! (C-49= A++!h!!1 S!*e1!= B!/!&!"#= ?h#))#1!&= H!&#(h!)
P!%!3!(?''&0 H'/e3 De,= P2"! D,!&*= P2"! G#!/)= P2"! M!(e")3) S!%'%)!
(B!+#%!))#= P#+#%!))# H!&#(h!) P!%!3!(?''&0 H'/e3 De,= P2"! D,!&*= P2"!
G#!/)= P2"! M!(e")3) S!%'%)! (B!+#%!))#= P#+#%!))#= P!+!= G2)h#)= C#$h# (Sh!h#=
S,!&/! R''%!= ?h#/!= B!"!= E+!$h#= P2&#) .
Areas of Cultivation :
The 4!('& %&'12$)#'/ !&e!" #/ )he $'2/)&3 !&e #/ )he ")!)e '*
M!h!&!"h)&!=A/1h&! P&!1e"h=T!4#+ N!12=G2(!&!)=B!&/!)!9!=U))!&
P&!1e"h=B#h!&=@e") Be/0!+=Be&e+! E!442 A
B!"h4#&=A""!4=O&#""!=M!1h3! P&!1e"h=P2/(!.
India Facts and Figures :
F&e"h *&2#)" %&'12$)#'/ #/ I/1#! $'5e& !/ !&e! '* 5775.3 )h'2"!/1 H! ,#)h
)he %&'12$)#'/ '* 63502.7 )h'2"!/1 M) #/ 2007-08. I/1#!;" )')!+ e<%'&) '*
O)he& F&e"h F&2#)" ,!" R" 304.53 ?&'&e" #/ 2007- 08.
Major Eport !estinations "#$$%-$&' : UAE= B!/0+!1e"h= Ne)he&+!/1"=
S!21# A&!#!= Ne%!+.
MANGO
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
21
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
T! F"#$% o& '$n() * %! '$n( o& F"#$%)
Or('#
S$#e/)#")" h!5e ee/ ,'/1e&#/0 *'& 4!/3 3e!&" ,he&e 4!/0'" *#&") $!4e
*&'4. The#& $e/)&e '* '&#0#/ ,!" &e5e!+e1 )' e /'&)he!") I/1#!= M3!/4!& !/1
B!/0+!1e"h !*)e& *'""#+ &e$'&1" ,e&e *'2/1 )he&e 1!)#/0 !$9 25 )' 30 4#++#'/
3e!&".
H#$)r@
?2+)#5!)#'/ !/1 1'4e")#$!)#'/ '* 4!/0'" %&'!+3 e0!/ #/ )he I/1#!/
"2$'/)#/e/)= ,he&e )he3 h!5e ee/ 0&',/ *'& 4'&e )h!/ 4000 3e!&".
B211h#") 4'/9" )''9 4!/0' %+!/)" '/ 5'3!0e" )' M!+!3! !/1 e!")e&/ A"#! #/
)he 4)h !/1 5)h $e/)2&#e" B?. B3 )he )e/)h $e/)2&3 AD= Pe&"#!/ )&!1e&" h!1
)!9e/ 4!/0' )' )he M#11+e E!") !/1 E!") A*&#$!. @#)h )he !&&#5!+ '* )he
P'&)202e"e #/ I/1#! #/ )he 15)h $e/)2&3= #) ,!" +!)e& "%&e!1 )' S'2)h A4e&#$!=
)he Ph#+#%%#/e" !/1 )' @e") A*&#$!. M!/0'" !&e /', $2+)#5!)e1 $'44e&$#!++3
)h&'20h'2) )&'%#$" !/1 "2)&'%#$!+ !&e!".
I/ )he e!&+3 ")!0e" '* 1'4e")#$!)#'/= *&2#)" ,e&e %&'!+3 5e&3 "4!++ !/1
*#&'2" ,#)h'2) 42$h *+e"h. The M20h!+" !/1 P'&)202e"e "e+e$)e1 !/1
0&e, 0e/e&!)#'/" '* 4!/0' %+!/)". ?e/)2&#e" '* 1e5e+'%4e/) h!5e
%&'12$e1 5!&#e)#e" '* 4!/0'" *&ee '* ')h *#&e" !/1 2/%+e!"!/) *+!5'2&".
Th#" e5e/)2!++3 +e1 )' +!&0e& *&2#)" ,#)h )h#$9 *+e"h )h!) ,e !&e *!4#+#!& ,#)h
)'1!3..
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
22
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
INTRODUCTION OF MANGO
The M!/0' *&2#) )&ee;" ')!/#$!+ /!4e #" +M,n($&!", In-$.,+ - )he C!)#/
')!/#$!+ /!4e #/1#$!)e" #)" '&#0#/ - I/1#! .The '&#0#/!+ &'') /!4e ,!" )he
T!4#+ ,'&1 F4!/0!3FG #/ ?h#/e"e #) #" FM!/0-),'F G H#/$#1e/)!++3 #/ C'/1'/;"
?h#/! )',/ S2/1!3 4!&9e) I +e!&/) )h!) M''-C# ,!" ?h#/e"e *'& )he "'2)h
A"#!/ 4''+#I&!1#"hG J. A$$'&1#/0 )' F&e1e&#$9 N'&'/h!= FN' )&ee #/ h#")'&3 ('*
I/1#!) h!" ee/ 0#5e/ !" 4!/3 /!4e" !" )he 4!/0' )&ee K #) h!" ee/ $!++e1
>!"!/)!12)! (4e""e/0e& '* S%&#/0)= M!1h212)! (4e""e/0e& '* *&!0&!/$e)=
B!4!/0 (e4'1#4e/) '* ?2%#1)= B'9#+!5!"! (!'1e '* $2$9''")= !/1
B!4!5!++!h! ()he !4'&'2").F
The M!/0' h!" ee/ !&'2/1 4000 3e!&" !/1 #" &e+!)e1 "2&%&#"#/0+3 )' )he
$!"he, !/1 %#")!$h#' /2). I) #" ! 2/#72e *&2#) )h!) "e)" !%!&) )he S'2)h A"#!/
&e0#'/" *&'4 )he &e") '* )he 4!/0' 0&',#/0 &e0#'/" '* )he ,'&+1 - ,he&e )he
4!/0' 0') )&!/"%+!/)e1 *&'4 I/1#!. The 4!/0' ,!" )!9e/ )' B&!6#+ 3 )he
P'&)202e"e !/1 3 I/1#!/" )' )he F!& E!"). A/ e/)#&e h#")'&3 !/1 $2+)2&e
&e5'+5e" !&'2/1 )he 4!/0' 0'#/0 !$9 )h'2"!/1" '* 3e!&" 12&#/0 B211h!;"
)#4e". The ")'&3 '* 4!/0'e" #" !" $'4%+e< !/1 $!%)#5!)#/0 !" )he 4!/0' )&ee
#)"e+*= ,h#$h %&'12$e" *&2#) e5e&3 "e!"'/.
Mango Meditation
M!/0' 0&'5e" h!5e ee/ ! %+!$e '* "'+!$e *'& B211h!;" 4e1#)!)#'/. The
4!/0' )&ee #" $!&5e1 '/ )he S!/$h# ")2%! H150 B.?J . A4&!%!+#= !*)e& ,h'4 !
4!/0' #" !+"' /!4e1= ,!" ! e!2)#*2+ 1!/$e& !/1 $'2&)e"!/ *&'4 >!#"h!+#
H /e!& P!)/!= B#h!&J #/ B211h!;" )#4e H 600 B.?.J . She '**e&e1 B211h! !
4!/0' '&$h!&1 !/1= #4%&e""e1 3 h#" )e!$h#/0"= e$!4e ! /2/ H bhikshuJ.
B211h! ,!" '&/ /e!& ! 4!/0' 0&'5e !) C24#/# H563 B.?J . A) N!+!/1!
U/#5e&"#)3 H $'/"#1e&e1 '/e '* )he +!&0e") #/ )he ,'&+1 ,#)h 6 4#++#'/ ''9" J
)he&e ,!" ! 4!/0' 0&'5e $!++e1 Pavarika, ,h#$h ,!" B211h!;" *!5'&#)e %+!$e.
The M!/0' 0&'5e !) E#5!9! $!++e1 Amravana ,!" )he %h!&4!$3 '* E#5!9 )he
%h3"#$#!/ '* )he 9#/0 '* M!0!1h! ,he&e B211h! #" "!#1 )' h!5e $'4e *'&
)&e!)4e/).
Mango Mythology
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M!/0' +'""'4" !&e 2"e1 #/ )he ,'&"h#% '* S!&!",!)#= )he 0'11e"" '*
+e!&/#/0. M!/0'e" !&e !+"' $'/"#1e&e1 #/ I/1#! )' e ! "34'+ '* +#*e. I/
e5e&31!3 +#*e #/ I/1#! e5e/ )' )h#" 1!3 4!/0' +e!5e" !&e 2"e1 )' 1e$'&!)e )he
!&$h,!3" '* )he h'2"e ,he/ ! ,e11#/0 '$$2&" '& ,he/ ! /e, h'2"e #"
$'/")&2$)e1. M!/0' +e!5e" !&e !+"' 2"e1 !" 1e$'&!)#'/ #/ $e+e&!)#/0 )he
*e")#5!+" '* G!/e"h ?h!)h2&)h# !/1 >!"!/) P!/$h!4#.
Mango motifs
The E2&'%e!/ ,e!5#/0 #/12")&3;" '+1e") %!))e&/ K )he L%!#"+e3; - ,!" $'%#e1
*&'4 )he B!"h4#&# "h!,+" '* )he 15)h. $e/)2&3. A) )he e/1 '* )he 18)h $e/)2&3=
B!"h4#&# "h!,+" ,#)h )he 4!/0' 4')#* ,e&e #4%'&)e1 #/)' E2&'%e 3 )he
*!4'2" E!") I/1#! $'4%!/3. I/#)#!++3 "$!&$e !/1 5e&3 e<%e/"#5e= )he3 ,e&e
$'%#e1 !/1 "'+1 !" #4#)!)#'/ I/1#!/. I/ B&#)!#/= $&!*)"4e/ *&'4 S%#)!+*#e+1 =
N'&,#$h !/1 E1#/2&0h ")!&)e1 %&'12$#/0 $he!%e& #4#)!)#'/" #/ "#+9 3
1780 .C!)e& )he3 ,e&e %&'12$e1 3 )he S$'))#"h )',/ P!#"+e3 #/ 0&e!)e&
/24e&"= )h!/9" )' )he F&e/$h4!/;" E!$72!&1 +''4= ,h#$h !2)'4!)e1
,e!5#/0. >#e//! )'' ('#/e1 #/ )h#" %!#"+e3 "h!,+ %&'12$)#'/ $&!6e #/ e!&+3
19)h $e/)2&3.
Mango in Art
M!/0' )&ee" ,e&e %!#/)e1 #/ 1e)!#+ 3 )he B!/0&! 4#/#!)2&e "$h''+ #/ I/1#!.
The&e !&e ! $'2%+e '* ,e++ 9/',/ %!#/)#/0" 3 )he F&e/$h I4%&e""#'/#") P!2+
G!202#/ ,h' h!1 0'/e !/1 "e))+e1 )' %!#/) #/ T!h#)#.
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Two women in a mango orchard
M,n(o $n M#)$./Po!%"0 :
H *&'4 ! 1960" P!9#")!/# P2/(!# 4'5#e J-
"ambian dey booteyaan noo lag gya boor nee ,
root wey milapaan wali chan mera door nahin...."
"the mango trees have flowered ,
these are times of togetherness, and my beloved is not very far .... "

Amir Khusro [ 1800] glorified and celebrated mangoes in his poetry. Delhi last year was
resounding to this Khusros song!
" sakal ban phool rahi sarson, the mustard blooms in e"ery field#
ambva phootey, tesu phule# mango buds snap open# the tesu blooms#
koel boley dar dar# the $oel sings from e"ery branch#
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gori karat shingar........ fair women put ma$e%up.

Khusro described the mango in this "erse!
" &he choicest fruit of 'industan #
for gardens pride the mango is sought #
(re ripens other fruits to cut we ban#
)ut mango ser"es us ripe or not."
*oets such as Kalidasa compare the mango blossoms to the arrows of cupid %
+anmatha the 'indu ,od of lo"e .[ -isamhara ../ ]
%%" 0nto1icated by the nectar of mango blossoms #
the $oel $isses his mate happily in lo"e#...."
"&he lo"ely mango shoot is his choicest arrow#
the swarm of bees is his bow string#
..........
+ay the world%con2uering +anmatha#
Accompanied by "asanta#
,rant you more and more 3oy."

&he 4i$hs ha"e their own celebration in ,uru 5ana$s )ara +ah description of the
month of "6haet" [+arch % April]
" &he $oel calls in the +ango ,ro"e
her notes full of 3oy ..."
0n 17.8 Kumar ,andhar"a created a special theme concert called ",eet 9arsha"in
)ombay.
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%% "Amarayaan ke birakhan ke
pastan par patbhi anasi boodariya chamkay..."
" &he rain drops glistening on the lea"es of the +ango shine li$e fireflies."
&he following incident is yet again a story that interwea"es +ango and romantic poets. 0t
is reported that Ahmed :ara;# 8< years old# a *athan from Kohat# 5=:*# a leading
progressi"e >rdu poet from *a$istan was on a "isit in /001 to Delhi. 'e was ta$en to
the mazar [tomb] of the famous and his fa"ourite *ersian poet " )edil" called )aag%e%
)edil buried some ?00 years ago. 'ere is a touching report by Kaamme @ee writing in
the web site "www.>rdu *oetry.com"
" %% 'e bends to touch the gra"e as if he needs to physically establish a bond he had
cherished for so long in his heart. &he gra"eyard is peaceful# shady under neem and
mango trees . A $oel is cooing in anticipating the mango blossom. 4itting on a stone
bench he recites a couplet from )edil in *ersian!
" !edil a" kulfat#e#shikast mun$aal !a"m#e#hasti dukaan#e#shisagar ast."
)edil weep not for your losses# this party that is life# is after all held in a glassma$ers
shop. "
&he +ughal emperor A$bar described the mango in detail in his writings "Ain%e%A$bari
and had one la$h [ one hundred thousand] mango trees planted in the still famous "la$ha
bagh" near Darbhanga in )ihar# many of which continue to sur"i"e.
,halib the famous >rdu poet was another great lo"er of mangoesA " Aam meethey hon
aur bohat sehon [ mangoes should be sweet and in plenty] was his response when
as$ed about the fruits he preferred. Another saying attributed to him was the taunt of a
friend who said " dekho gadha bhi nahin khata aam [ e"en a don$ey does not eat
mangoes.. ] A ,halib 2uic$ witted that he was retorted "Haan, gadha hee to hai [ Bes a
don$ey indeed he is ..."]
MANGO 1,n!#2!")
,eneral Cia sent *.+. 0ndira ,andhi "Anwar -ataul" +angoes originating from *a$istani
orchards. +rs. ,andhi returned the fa"our after finding out that the origin of the Anwar -ataul
was actually from -ataul# a garden called 4hora%e%Afa2# near +eerut# 0ndia. According to a
farmer from that area the story of the Anwar -atual mango "ariety is that there were two
brothers A one of them# Anwar# migrated to *a$istan and started the "ariety Anwar -ataul.
0ronically ,eneral Cias 6%1?0 plane was reportedly sabotaged by loading the plane with crates of
mangoes [concealed with bombs] from )ahawalpur from where the plane too$ off and crashed
soon after.
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-ecently ,eneral +usharraf before going to the Agra *eace summit in /001 sent 6haunsa
mangoes to the 0ndian leaders % *+ and 'ome +inisters.
In-$,
M,n(o M,,",3,) 4 %! M#(,5)6 Mo#%7,%!"$n(
M,n(o!) :
The $e/)&e *'& S$#e/$e A De5e+'%4e/) H,,,.?SE#/1#!.'&0J h!" ! 5e&3
#/)e&e")#/0 4!0!6#/e $!++e1 F D',/ )' E!&)hF ,h#$h 1'$24e/)" )he &!%#1
e&'"#'/ '* )he #'1#5e&"#)3 '* *&2#)" #/1#0e/'2" )' )he "'2)h A"#!/ &e0#'/.
@&#)#/0 !'2) )he M!/0' 5!&#e)#e"= #) $&e1#)" )he M20h!+ &2+e&" !/1 A5!1h
HC2$9/',J !"e1 N!,!" #/ U))!& P&!1e"h HU.P.J !/1 D!&h!/0!-B#h!& !"
h!5#/0 %+!/)e1 #/ )he FC!9h! B!0hF '&$h!&1" !'2) 100=000 4!/0'
"ee1+#/0".
Be#/0 4!/0' +'5e&"= )he M20h!+ &2+e&" ,e&e !+e )' 0e) )he *#/e") 5!&#e)#e"
&'20h) 3 )he %e'%+e )' e %+!/)e1 #/ )he#& &'3!+ 0!&1e/". The !&)#$+e
4e/)#'/" )he 0e/e&!+ 1e$+#/e '* )he"e *!4'2" UP 4!/0' '&$h!&1".
S%e$#*#$!++3= #) ")!)e" )h!) )he FA/,!& R!)!2+F #" F&!&e+3 "#0h)e1F #/ I/1#! !/1
h!" e$'4e )he F/24e& '/e 4!/0' e<%'&) )' @e") A"#! *&'4 P!9#")!/F.
O5e&!++ )he&e h!" ee/ ! 40 : 1e$+#/e #/ )he 4!/0' 0e&4%+!"4= Th#" #" 12e
4'")+3 )' )he &2&!+ )' 2&!/ +!'2& 4#0&!)#'/ !" 3'2)h /' +'/0e& F"eeF I
%e&$e#5e 4!/0' 0&',#/0 )' e '* e$'/'4#$ !15!/)!0e )' )he4. S#4#+!&+3 )he
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!&)#$+e 4e/)#'/" &2&!+ 4!/0' 0&'5e" )h!) h!5e ee/ $2) 1',/ )' 2#+1 42+)#-
")'&e3e1 &e"#1e/)#!+ $'4%+e<e" ,#)h F!++ 4'1e&/ !4e/#)#e"F.
The !&)#$+e 4e/)#'/" )he ),' )e$h/#72e" Fh3&#1#"!)#'/ F !/1 F0&!*)#/0F ,h#$h
!&e 2"e1 )' $&e!)e e/1+e"" /e, 4!/0' 5!&#e)#e" A &e!9)h&'20h )e$h/'+'03
'* H3&#1#"!)#'/ $!4e )' I/1#! !'2) 25 3e!&" !0'. He&e "e+*-")e&#+e I2/*&2#)*2+
5!&#e)#e" ,e&e $&'""e1 ,#)h ')he& 5!&#e)#e" )' %&'12$e /e, 5!&#e)#e". S'4e '*
)he /e, /!4e" !" ! &e"2+) !&e A4&!%!+#= R!)/!= N#&!/(!/= S2/1e&1!4!0!&!=
A+!*!6+#= C!+!5#! Bh'0. A" !/ e<!4%+e= )he A4&!%!+# %&'12$e" !'2) 9 )'/"
%e& !$&e #/ )he /#/)h 3e!& '* %+!/)#/0 - )h#" #" !'2) )e/ )#4e" )he h!&5e")
*&'4 4'") "'2)h A"#!/ $2+)#5!)'&".
I/ h3&#1#"!)#'/= )he ),' 1e"#&e1 4!/0' )&ee 5!&#e)#e" !&e %+!/)e1 $+'"e )'
e!$h !/1 )he &e"2+) #" !"#$!++3 ! ,!#)#/0 0!4e '* $h!/$e- 42$h +#9e F@!#)#/0
*'& G'1')F . E!$h 4!/0' "ee1+#/0 #" ! 2/#72e 5!&#e)3. H!(# B!+ee42++!h 9h!/
#/ M!+#h!!1 = U))!& P&!1e"h #" )he ',/e& '* ! )&ee ,#)h !'2) 200 5!&#e)#e"
'/ #). I/ H!&!3!/!= #/ ! 5#++!0e $!++e1 B2&!#+ /e!& ?h!/1#0!&h #" ! 4!/0' )&ee
,#)h ! 0#&)h '* 32 *ee) = &!/$he" 2%)' 80 *ee) +'/0= $'5e&#/0 !/ !&e! '* 2700
"72!&e 3!&1" !/1 %&'12$#/0 !'2) 37=000 %'2/1" '* 4!/0'e" e5e&3 3e!&.
I/ 0&!*)#/0= !/')he& ,!3 '* 4!"" 4!/0' 5!&#e)3 %&'12$)#'/= )he 4')he& %+!/)
&!/$h ,#)h ! 21 #" ")2$9 ,#)h )he 1e"#&e1 %+!/) 5!&#e)3 ")e4 ,#)h 21 - !
9#/1 '* ! FCe0'F )3%e "/!% '/ )e$h/#72e.
P&'!+3 ! +') '* )he $2&&e/) *!4'2" 4!/0' /!4e" '&#0#/!)e *&'4 )h#" 16)h
$e/)2&3 F+!9h! !0hF%+!/)e1 3 )he *!4'2" M20h!+ &2+e&" '& *&'4 ')he&
5!&#'2" &e0#'/" '* U))!& P&!1e"h.

FC!/0&!F H +#)e&!++3 4e!/" +!4eJ - O,e" #)" '&#0#/ )' ! $h!/$e "ee1+#/0 *&'4
/e!& Be/!&e" $#)3.
FA44!/ D2""eh&# F - )he /!4e '* ! 5#++!0e /e!& C2$9/', !/1 M!+#h!!1. A
"2%e&#'& $h!/$e "ee1+#/0. O)he& 5!&#e)#e" '* )h#" /!4e #/$+21e C!#+!
M!(/2 H)he *!4'2" *'+9)!+e +'5e&"J =
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FH2""!/!&!F H ! +'5e+'&/ %&#/$e"" '& +!13 I e024.= S'*#3! H )!")#/0 '* "!2/* '&
!/#"e "ee1J .
FS!4!& B!h#"h)F H*&2#) '* %!&!1#"eJ - $'4e" *&'4 "2%e&#'& $h!/$e "ee1+#/0
/e!& M26!**!& N!0!&= U.P.
FA/,!& R!)!2+- *&'4 )he Sh'&!-e-A*!7 0!&1e/ #/ R!)!2+= Mee&2)= U.P.- #) #"
"4!++ H +e"" )h!/ !/ !%%+e J !/1 5e&3 ")&'/0+3 ",ee) ,#)h ! ,'/1e&*2+ *+!5'2&
!/1 "4e++.
IMPORTANCE
&he mango is the national fruit of 0ndia# *a$istan# and the *hilippines
0n 'induism# the perfectly ripe mango is often held by @ord ,anesha as a symbol of attainment#
regarding the de"otees potential perfection. +ango blossoms are also used in the worship of the
goddess 4araswati.
+ango lea"es are used to decorate archways and doors in 0ndian houses and during weddings
and celebrations li$e ,anesh 6haturthi. +ango motifs andpaisleys are widely used in different
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0ndian embroidery styles and are found in Kashmiri shawls# Kanchipuram sil$ sarees# etc.
*aisleys are also common to 0ranian art# because of its pre%0slamic Coroastrian past.
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NUTRITIONAL VALUE
Dne of the most delicious and most fattening fruits# mango is truly called the EKing of :ruits. A tropical fruit# it
comes in as many as 1000 different "arieties# each of them totally delectable. &hough nati"e to 4outhern
and 4outheast Asia# the fruit is now also grown in 6entral and 4outh America# Africa and the Arabian
*eninsula also. Apart from being high in calories# mangoes are also rich in a large number of nutrients and
hold great nutritional "alue. 0nfact# they ha"e been $nown to ha"e positi"e effects in case of a number of
ailments. 0n the following lines# we ha"e listed numerous health and nutrition benefits of eating mangoes.

%utritional &alue of Mango
Dne medium si;ed mango comprises of!
• 6alories % 10<
• *rotein % 0.8F g
• 6arbohydrate % /8 g
• &otal :at % 0.F8 g
• :iber % ? g
• 9itamin A % .F/8 0>
• 9itamin 6 % F8.<mg
• +agnesium % 18 mg
• *otassium % ?00 mg
• 6alcium % /0 g
• 6holesterol % 0 g
• 4aturated fat % 0 g
• &races of manganese# selenium# iron# sodium and phosphorus
'ealth ( %utrition !enefits of )ating Mangoes
• +ango# being high in calories and carbohydrates# is good for those who are trying to gain weight.
• &he phenolic compound found in mangoes has been found to ha"e powerful antio1idant and
anticancer properties.
• )eing high in iron# mango is said to be "ery good for pregnant women as well as for people
suffering from anemia.
• +ango is belie"ed to be effecti"e in relie"ing clogged pores of the s$in.
• &he "itamin A Gbeta%caroteneH# "itamin ( and selenium present in mangoes pro"ide protection
against heart disease.
• +angoes ha"e been found to be 2uite helpful in treating acidity and poor digestion.
• 0t is being said that the 9itamin ( present in mango helps hormonal system function more efficiently
and thus# boosts se1 life.
• &he anti%inflammatory properties of mango might help alle"iate asthma symptoms.
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*ther !enefits
+ango has been found to be beneficial for people suffering from the following ailments
• )acterial 0nfections
• 6onstipation
• Diarrhea
• Dysentery
• (ye Disorders
• 'air @oss
• 'eat 4tro$e
• @eucorrhea
• @i"er Disorders
• +enstrual Disorders
• +orning 4ic$ness
• *iles
• *ric$ly 'eat
• 4cur"y
• 4inusitis
• 4pleen (nlargement
• 9aginitis
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MEDICINAL VALUE
+ango is called "&he King of fruits" due to its sweetness and richness in phytochemicals and
nutrients. 0t is praised as "hea"enly fruit" in 9edas. 0t is also $nown as "4uper fruit" due to its
potential health "alues.
Medicinal properties of Mango+
1.&he insoluble fibre# present in mangoes# helps the elimination of waste from the colon and
pre"ents constipation.
/. &he tartaric acid# malic acid# and a trace of citric acid found in the fruit help to maintain the
al$ali reser"e of the body.
?. A mil$%mango sha$e used in the summers help people gain weight.
F. (1tracts of lea"es# bar$# stem and unripe mangoes are belie"ed to possess antibacterial
properties against some micro%organisms
8. Dried mango flowers are used in the treatment of diarrohoea# chronic dysentery and some
problems of the bladder.
.. &he stone G$ernalH of the mango fruit is used widely in Ayur"edicmedicines for treatment of
different ailments
<. Antio1idents present in the mango fruits are belie"ed to play an important role in the
pre"ention of cancer and heart disease.
8. 4ome of the fla"onoids present in the fruit are belie"ed to strenghthen the immune system
of human body
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VARITIES OF MANGO
POPULAR VARIETIES OF MANGO
• ALMOST all our grafted varieties of mango have been selected from the
naturally occurring superior chance seedlings, having in view their earliness or
lateness and superior fruit quality.
• Some of these are still confined to the orchards of a few mango lovers and
need to be utilied both commercially as well as in breeding wor!.
• All these varieties have a wide range of adaptability under north "ndian
conditions.
• #or instance, there is no difference in the performance of the variety $Langra$
when grown at %aranasi or Saharanpur or for that matter even at &ulsar
'(u)arat*, although the + situations differ significantly in climatic and soil
factors.
• ,owever, performance of the north "ndian varieties undergoes a mar!ed
change when grown under south "ndian conditions.
• #or instance, if $Langra$ and $-ashehari$ varieties of northern "ndia are grown
under south "ndian conditions, the trees would flower and fruit very sparsely.
• ,owever, south "ndian varieties do flower and fruit under north "ndian
conditions but some of their characteristics might undergo a change.
• #or e.ample, $/eelum$ 'a south "ndian variety* trees tend to be sufficiently
dwarf under north "ndian conditions.
• Although the trees tend to bear every year, fruit sie is mar!edly reduced,
accompanied by delayed ripening.
• Li!ewise, $0umani$ variety of southern "ndia undergoes a change in the se.
ratio of flowers, resulting in sparse fruiting under north "ndian conditions.
• $ Alphonso$ of 0atnagiri cannot be duplicated away from the coastal region in
regard to its fruit quality.
• Thus commercial varieties of mango, although having a wide range of
adaptability, are specific to different regions of the country.
Nomenclature, Synonyms and Classification
• There is considerable confusion in the nomenclature of varieties due to many
synonyms of a single cultivar. ,owever, in various monographs on mango
published from time to time, correct name of a variety along with its synonym
has been furnished.
• 1reviously, even one variety found different names in different catalogues.
• Since most of the varieties in mango have been selected from the naturally
occurring chance seedlings by the interested growers and nurserymen, names
signify quality, lateness or earliness, sie and shape of fruit, names of the
place, person or !ing or nawab, colour, etc. #or most part names have been
ta!en from the local dialect.
• Synonyms used to be many, thus adding to the utter confusion of the grower.
• Some of the synonyms mentioned in their monograph for $Langra$,
$-ashehari$ and $&ombay (reen$ are2
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• 'Langra': $Langra &anarasi$, $Langra ,a)ipur$, $Langarhi$, $Ti!ari$ '#arrul!habad,
31*, $-avid #ord$, $,ardil4Ai$ '&hopal*, $Langra ,ardoi$, $Langra 1atna$,
$Sylhet$ 'Meerut, 31*, $Langra #aquirwala$, $0uh4e4afa$, $-arbhanga$ and
$5hhatpa$. .
• 'Dashehari': $Aman$, $Aman -ashehari$, $/irali Aman$ and $6amyab$.
• Bombay Green': $6ali &ombai$, $,ira7al &ombai$, $Sarauli$, $Malda$, $&ombay
Syah$, $&ombay 6alan$, $&ashi &ombai$, $Sheeri -han$, $&ho)puri$, $&ombai
&ho)puri$ and $Laile Alupur$.
• Thus the synonyms multiple, generally as the grafts changed hands from
different persons and places. /ew names were coined, based often on
persons and places from whom or where the grafts were obtained.
• The first systematic record of the good and bad varieties available is from the
account of this fruit tree in Ain-i-Akbari.A- 789:.
An Ideal Mango Variety
• /one of the e.isting commercial varieties of mango could be called an ideal
type, as these lac! some desirable character or the other.
• To establish mango4growing as a distinct industry, we need a mango variety
that could meet the challenge of the present4day requirements.
In this connection the following suggestions are made:
i. Trees ought to be dwarf so that these could be planted at a close distance of
+4; m. Only then the desirable sanitary conditions for obtaining optimum crop
per unit area can be maintained.
ii. #ruits of a medium sie, 8 in a !g with golden apricot colour on ripening could
be preferred. 0ed blush on the chee!s would be a welcome character from the
e.port point. Such fruits must have high pulp2 stone ratio, firm and fibreless
flesh, uniform consistency of the te.ture with e.cellent sugar4acid blend and
pleasing aroma.
iii. The variety ought to yield crop every year.
iv. "t should be highly tolerant to various fungal and bacterial diseases and also
to mango malformation.
v. Stable pleasant flavour should be characteristic of a variety particularly when
it undergoes processing.
vi. <hile this is true of $Alphonso$, most of the commercial varieties of northern
"ndia lac! this character.
vii. #ruits must have high !eeping quality.
viii. Although at present none of the commercial varieties of mango has all these
characteristics combined into one, it would be futile to ta!e up all these
ob)ectives at a time in any mango breeding wor!.
i.. Therefore these characters are to be incorporated at stages and the variety is
to be built up gradually.
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,mportant -ommercial &arieties
• There are hundreds of varieties in mango, out of which only a few happen to
be of commercial importance.
• -ifferent regions of the country have their own commercial varieties because,
as has already been indicated in the beginning, a particular variety of mango
is not e.pected to perform equally well under different sets of climatic factors
prevailing in various parts of the country.
• The most well4!nown varieties throughout the country are $Langra$,
$Alphonso$, $-ashehari$ and $&anganpalli$.
• Thus the choice of a commercial grower in north "ndia is mostly confined to
$&ombay (reen$ 'early*, $Langra$, $-ashehari$ and $Samar &ehest 5hausa$= in
the eastern part to $#ali$, $6ishenbhog$, $,imsagar2 $Langra$, $(ulab!has$ and
$>ardalu$= in the western part to $Alphonso$, $1airi$, $Mal!urad$ '(oa*, $6esar$,
$0a)apuri$ and $?amadar$ '(u)arat*= and in the southern part to $&eneshan$
'$&anganpalli$*, $/eelum$, $&angalora$, $0umani$, $Suvarnare!ha$, $Mulgoa$,
$0aspuri$ and $&adami$.
• Although the most delicious mangoes of the south are $Allampur &eneshan$,
$,imayuddin$ and $?ehangir$, these are not commercial types due to their shy
bearing.
• Among these $/eelum$ and $&angalora$ happen to be the most consistent
bearers 'regular* and $-ashehari$ by far the most delicious variety
The mango varieties under cultivation in different states are given in.
STAT@S %A0"T"@S (0O</
Andhra
1radesh
Allumpur &aneshan, &anganapalli, &angalora, 5heru!urasam.
&ihar &athua, &ombai, ,imsagar, 6ishen &hog, Su!ul.
(oa #ernandin, Man!urad.
(u)arat Alphonso, 6esar, 0a)apuri, %anra).
,aryana -ashehari, Langra, Sarauli '&ombay (reen*.
6arnata!a Alphonso, &angalora, Mulgoa, /eelum, 1airi.
Madhya
1radesh
Mostly seedling types and Alphonso, &ombai, Langra.
Maharashtra Alphonso, Man!urad, Mulgoa, 1airi.
Orissa Mostly seedling types and &aneshan, Langra, /eelum,
Suvarnare!ha.
1un)ab -ashehari, Langra, Sambar behest 5hausa.
Tamil /adu &anganapalli, &angalora, /eelum, 0umani, Mulgoa.
<est &engal &ombai, ,imsagar, 6ishen &hog, Langra.
3ttar 1radesh &ombay (reen, -ashehari, #a)ri, Langra, Safeda, Luc!now,
Samarbehisht 5hausa.
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• -etailed descriptions of these varieties have been published in the various
mango monographs.
• ,owever, it would be worthwhile to !now the merits and demerits of some of
the commercial varieties mentioned above.
%A0"@TA M@0"TS -@M@0"TS
$Langra$ Most popular variety
grown in "ndia <ide
adaptability Scion
characters very much
dominant #ruit quality
e.cellent
1oor fruiting in young age
due to e.cessive fruit drop
&iennial in habit 6eeping
quality of the fruits poor
Trees vigorous and
spreading
$-ashehari$ %ery rich in vitamin 5
@.cellent fruit quality
5ommercial bearing from
;
th
year of planting (ood
!eeping and canning
quality Amenable to crop
regulation
#lavour not stable &iennial
in habit @.ternal
appearance not very
attractive ,ighly
susceptible to mango
malformation
$S.&. 5hausa$ Most delicious fruits
available late in the
season (ood sie and
attractive colour ?uicy
1oor fruiting and
unpredictable bearing,
particularly in young age
Trees quite vigorous, show
apical dominance &iennial
in habit %ery high
incidence of floral
malformation
$&ombay (reen$ @arliest among the
commercial types Taste
and flavour e.cellent
Serves as a good blend for
mango nectar
,ighly susceptible to both
vegetative and floral
malformation &iennial in
habit 6eeping quality of
fruits poor
$Alphonso$ Most popular in mar!ets
abroad #ruits with
e.cellent flavour, shape,
sie, and colour %ery good
!eeping quality %ery good
Limited adaptability #lesh
develops spongy tissue
&iennial in habit.
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variety for canning #lavour
stable.
$/eelum$ Appreciably regular type
(ood fruits -warf under
north "ndian conditions
1recocious in bearing
"nferior fruit quality
B&angalora$ Appreciably regular type
%ery good yield @arly
arrival in the mar!et from
south
#ruit appearance not
impressive "nferior in
quality Susceptible to
bacterial spot
$#ail$ Late arrival in the mar!et
&ul! food
Abnormally big sie
"nferior in quality &iennial
in habit
$&anganpalli$ @arly mango 'from the
south* (ood !eeping and
canning quality &etter
yield
&iennial in habit #ruits
some4what flat in shape
• Apart from table varieties, there are quite a few suc!ing types characteried
by )uicy and soft flesh with fibres.
• These are not yet cultivated on commercial scale but grafted trees are grown
in the orchards of big mango growers.
• Some such varieties are $0aspoonia$, $Mithwa Sundar Shah$, $Mithwa
(haipur$, $Taimuriya$, $Sharbati &egrain$, $(ilas$, /auras$, $0asgola$, $,ardil4
ai$, $5heru!urasam$ and $1eddarasam$.
• #ruits of all these varieties e.cept the south "ndian ones range in sie from
small to medium.
• #urther, these varieties are mostly biennial in habit.
• This germplasm of )uicy mangoes, as well as of many other less.
• 6nown seedling suc!ing mangoes, may get e.tinct unless propagated and
multiplied by nurseries and popularied for commercial cultivation to cater to
the mango industry .
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(ol)e*br)onic Varieties
• The phenomenon of polyembryony, characteried by the formation of more
than one embryo in the seed, is !nown to occur in a number of mango
varieties growing under different conditions of climate and soil.
• The seedlings arising from the adventive embryos of nucellar origin are highly
uniform.
• These can therefore be used as such for the vegetative multiplication of a
polyembryonic variety.
• "f found suitable, they can also be utilied as standard rootstoc!s for some of
the monoembryonic varieties.
• "n "ndia almost all the commercial varieties are monoembryonic, A few that
are polyembryonic are comparatively of little economic value and these are
mostly confined to the west coast '6erala* of southern "ndia.
• Some of these are $&appa!ai, $&ellary, 5handra!aran, $(oa$, $(oa 6asargod$,
$6uru!!an$, $Mylepaliumt, $Olour$, $/ileswar -warf$ and $Salem$. Some of the
important polyembryonic varieties grown in the 1hilippines are $5ambodiana$,
$5arabao$, $5oraont, $1aho$, $1ahutan$, $1ico$, $Senora$ and $Strawberry$.
• The e.act criterion for distinguishing a nucellar seedling from a gametic
seedling in polyembryonic varieties of mango is not yet well established.
• "n polyembryonic seed4stone the ygote usually gets degenerated and the
seedlings emerge from nucellar embryos alone.
• Thus there are chances of the se.ual embryo being crowded out by ase.ual
ones in the early stages of embryo development.
• "n that case the seedlings emerging will be all nucellar.
• "n $1ico$ both the types of embryo develop appro.imately at the same time
and at the same speed.
• &ut in $Olour$, $5arabao$ and $5ambodiana$ the egg degenerates and all the
embryos in a mature seed are adventive.
• 3niformity in the colour of emerging leaves of the seedlings may, however, be
a fair indication of their nucellar origin.
• "t has been observed that some of the monoembryonic varieties may revert
to polyembryony when grown under different sets of soil and climatic
conditions.
• Some of the "ndian varieties which were mostly monoembryonic produced
more than one seedling in the 1hilippines.
• Similar position was observed with some "ndian varieties when grown under
1uerto 0ico conditions.
• This may be due to natural crossing of the monoembryonic with the
polyembryonic varieties commonly grown in these regions.
• The hybrids of polyembryonic and monoembryonic types are polyembryonic
under #lorida '3SA* conditions.
• ,owever, further breeding studies are needed to ascertain the nature of
inheritance of polyembryony in mango.
• Sometimes, seedlings with multiple shoots formed from lateral branches
arising in the a.il of the cotyledonary leaves are mista!en for polyembryonic
types.
• ,owever, these can easily be distinguished as monoembryonic or
polyembryonic on the basis of the number of tap roots.
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• Single tap root will be a fair indication that it is monoembryonic, whereas
more than one tap root with equal number of shoots will mean that the
variety is polyembryonic.
Coloured Varieties
• Most of the varieties developed in #lorida '3SA* are characteried by brilliant
red blush on the chee!s.
• "t adds to the desirable characteristics of a variety and enhances consumer
appeal.
• ,owever, almost none of the commercial varieties of mango in "ndia has this
component of red blush.
• Suitable varieties of this type can be developed by breeding.
• The varietal wealth of mango in "ndia is huge and a number of varieties are
!nown to have brilliant red blush on their chee!s.
• Some well4!nown varieties having red colour are $(ulab!has 0ed$
'$Sinduriya$*, $Sure!ha 5alcutta$, $>afran$, $,usnara$ 'this has the loveliest red
colour*, $?anardhan 1asand$, $Suvarnare!ha$, $Lal Mulgoa$ and $%anra)$.
• $Sensation$ from #lorida '3SA* is the most brilliantly coloured variety of
mango reported so far.
• Some of these have quite good fruit quality, and it will not be difficult to
combine still better fruit quality with desirable colour by breeding.
+nusual Varieties
• $5hitla Afaq$ and $5roton$ are unusual varieties of mango.
• The variegated fruits of the former are of an ornamental nature and serve as
a sort of curiosity. #ruits are small and oblongish with undulated surface.
• "t is quite )uicy, fibrous and sub4sweet in taste.
• There is also another strain of this variety, which bears variegated fruits of
smaller sie.
• /othing is !nown about the origin of this peculiar variety.
• The leaves of $5roton$ resemble those of the croton foliage shrub, and the tree
is of ornamental nature.
• The veins in the leaves are depressed and the surface in between them is
raised, presenting a peculiar leathery appearance.
• The fruits are small and oval. "t has abundant )uice and fibres and is sub4
sweet in taste.
• Another erratic variety of mango is $&aramasi$ or $-ofasla$, which may flower
and fruit twice or thrice a year.
• "t has many strains.
• #ruits are, however, of inferior quality. $6acha Mitha$, unli!e other varieties,
can be eaten in unripe form while the fruits are still green, as they lac!
acidity.
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,ew Mango -)brids as (otential Varieties
• The present commercial varieties of mango in "ndia, by and large, bear in
alternate years.
• The only e.ceptions are $/eelum$ and $&angalora$, which though inferior in
fruit quality are commercially cultivated in south "ndia, as these are regular
bearers.
• The mango hybridiation programme initiated at the "A0" has the main
ob)ective of producing a regular4bearing variety, having fruit quality
acceptable to the consumer.
• Of the various hybrids assessed so far, only a few have been found promising.
• @ven amongst the hybrids of the same parentage, enormous variation in fruit
sie, shape, fruit quality and bearing behavior has been observed.
• This is quite natural in a highly heteroygous plant li!e mango, and this
highlights the necessity of raising a very large population of hybrid seedlings
of each parental combination to select the desirable ones.
• Among the promising hybrids, only $/o.C8$, a cross between $/eelum$ and
$-ashehari$ has been released in 79D7.
• This has been named $Malli!a$.
• "ts tree is semi4vigorous.
• "t is medium to heavy cropper and has a strong tendency to bear regularly.
• The fruits have an attractive appearance and the average fruit weight is +:D g
compared with 78E; g of $-ashehari$ and 7F: g of $/eelum$.
• The pulp percentage is D;.: compared with CE and 89 in $-ashehari$ and
$/eelum$ respectively.
• The pulp is fibreless and firm, and the stone is very thin.
• The percentage of total soluble solids is higher 'F8* than that of $-ashehari$
'F7*.
• "t has a better !eeping quality and also matures later than $-ashehari$.
• Another variety, Amrapali$ has been evolved at. "A0" as a result of a cross
between $/eelum$ and $-ashehari$.
• This was released in 79DE.
• "t is precocious, distinctly dwarf, highly regular and prolific in bearing.
• "t is suitable for high4density orcharding.
• The fruit quality of$ Amrapali$ compares favourably with its better parent
'$-ashehari$* in many respects.
• The relatively small fruit sie, in comparison to $-ashehari$, is compensated
by other good points which are lac!ing in the latter, vi. regularity and prolific
bearing, high pulp percentage and total soluble solids.
• The flesh is deep orange4red and has about F.84+.: times more b 4carotene
content, which indicates higher vitamin A than its parents.
• &esides, because of the attractive flesh colour, this variety appears better
suited for preparing a good4 quality, highly colourful mango nectar, for which
there is considerable demand in the foreign mar!ets.
• Another hybrid $0atna$ has been evolved at the 0egional #ruit 0esearch
Station, %engurla 'Maharashtra*, by ma!ing reciprocal crosses of $Alphonso$
and $/eelum$. "t was released in 79E7.
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• The fruits are large '+78 g* and the flesh is firm and fibreless.
• They !eep in good condition for about a wee!.
• "t is a regular4bearing variety. #ruits are characteried by e.cellent taste and
flavour, attractive shape, colour and sie, good !eeping quality, early
maturity and absence of spongy tissue.
• Average pulp percentage is DE.CF, total soluble solids '
o
&ri.* F+.::, acidity
:.FCG and vitamin 5 F8 mg per 7:: g. The tree is moderately vigorous.
The parentage and characteristics of different mango varieties are given
below+
4.no 'ybrid 0esearch
Station
1arentage 5haracteristics
1. Malli!a "A0", /ew
-elhi
/eelum . -ashehari 0egular bearing, high TSS,
good colour, uniform fruits,
moderate !eeping quality.
/. Amarapali "A0", /ew
-elhi
-ashehari .
/eelum.
-warf, regular bearing,
cluster bearing, small sied
fruits, good !eeping
quality.
+. Au4
0umani
#.0.S.,
6odur
0umani . Mulgoa. Large fruits, good flavour,
heavy Mulgoa yielder, flesh
moderately firm.
F. Man)eera #.0.S.,
Sangareddy
0umani . /eelum. 0egular H prolific bearer,
flesh firm and fibreless.
8. 16M47 ,.0.S.,
1eriya!ulam
5hinnaswarnare!ha
. /eelum.
0egular bearing and good
quality. #ruits in clusters.
.. 16M4F ,.0.S.,
1eriya!ulam
/eelum . Mulgoa. 0egular bearing H good
quality.
<. 0atna #.0.S.,
%engurla
/eelum . Alphonso. 0egular bearing, free from
spongy tissue and fibre.
8. Sindhu #.0.S.,
%engurla
0atna . Alphonso. 0egular bearing, stone is
thin.
7. Alfali #.0.S.,
%engurla
Alphonso . #ali. Superior to #ail. /o
spongy tissue.
10. Sundar
Langra
#.0.S.,
%engurla
Sardar 1asand .
Langra
0egular bearing,
0esembles Langra
11. Ar!a
Aruna
"",0
&angalore.
&anganapalli .
Alphonso
0egular bearing, flesh free
from fibre H spongy tissue,
pale yellow, moderately
firm, good for mango bars.
#ruits sie is big. 1lants
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
dwarf.
1/. Ar!a
1uneet
"",0
&angalore.
Alphonso .
&anganapalli
0egular bearing, attractive
s!in colour, medium sied,
free from spongy tissue,
good !eeping quality, good
sugar acid blend.
1?. Ar!a
Anmol
"",0
&angalore.
Alphonso .
?anardhan 1asand.
0egular bearing, attractive
s!in colour, free from
spongy tissue, good
!eeping quality, good sugar
acid blend.
1F. "",0
&angalore.
Alphonso . /eelum. 0egular bearing, with
medium sied fruits, free
from spongy tissue, good
pulp colour, e.cellent s!in,
vigorous tree
• "n #lorida '3SA* the trees of Tommy At!ins$ come into bearing +4 ; years
after planting and bear regular, heavy crop up to about +:: !gItree.
• The fruit is medium to large with orange4yellow ground colour and a bright
red blush.
• The flesh is medium to dar! yellow with a good flavour.
• #ruit is resistant to anthracnose but internal brea!down may be serious in
some years.
• The only mutant variety reported in mango is $0osica$ from 1eru.
• "t is a bud mutant of the local 1eruvian cultivar $0osado de "ca$.
• "n trials it was found precocious and showed regular bearing, giving good
yield of high4quality fruit.
• 3nli!e other local cultivars, it did not produce small seedless fruits and it was
monoembryonic.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
PRESENT CROPPING PATTERN IN U.P
M&ngo @Mangifera indicaA *0 :e le&d*ng %$.* c$o= o% Ind*& &nd con0*de$ed o 3e :e k*ng
o% %$.*0. 9e0*de0 del*c*o.0 &0e< e-cellen %l&/o.$ &nd &$&c*/e %$&g$&nce< * *0 $*c: *n
/*&m*n A;C. T:e $ee *0 :&$d1 *n n&.$e &nd $eC.*$e0 com=&$&*/el1 low m&*nen&nce
co00.
M&ngo occ.=*e0 ""M o% :e o&l .nde$ %$.*0 com=$*0*ng o% 1." m*ll*on :ec&$e0< w*: &
o&l =$od.c*on o% 11 m*ll*on onne0. U&$ #$&de0: &nd And:$& #$&de0: &$e :&/*ng :e
l&$ge0 &$e& .nde$ m&ngo e&c: w*: &$o.nd "!M o% :e o&l &$e& %ollowed 31 9*:&$<
K&$n&&k&< Ke$&l& &nd T&m*l N&d..
M&ngo %$.* *0 .*l*0ed & &ll 0&ge0 o% *0 de/elo=men 3o: *n *0 *mm&.$e &nd m&.$e
0&e. R&w %$.*0 &$e .0ed %o$ m&k*ng c:.ne1< =*ckle0 &nd 4.*ce0. T:e $*=e %$.*0 3e0*de0
3e*ng .0ed %o$ de0e$ &$e &l0o .*l*0ed %o$ =$e=&$*ng 0e/e$&l =$od.c0 l*ke 0C.&0:e0<
01$.=0< nec&$0< 4&m0 &nd 4ell*e0. T:e m&ngo ke$nel &l0o con&*n0 281> =e$cen good
C.&l*1 %& w:*c: c&n 3e .0ed %o$ 0o&= &nd &l0o &0 & 0.30*.e %o$ col& *n con%ec*one$1.
F$e0: m&ngoe0 &nd m&ngo =.l= &$e :e *m=o$&n *em0 o% &g$*8e-=o$0 %$om Ind*&.
Ind*&K0 m&*n e-=o$ de0*n&*on0 %o$ m&ngo &$e UAE< K.w&* &nd o:e$ M*ddle E&0
co.n$*e0 w*: & l*m*ed C.&n*1 3e*ng 0:*==ed o E.$o=e&n m&$ke. Al:o.g:< Ind*& *0
:e l&$ge0 m&ngo =$od.c*ng co.n$1< &cco.n*ng &3o. '>M o% wo$ld =$od.c*on< :e
e-=o$ o% %$e0: %$.* *0 l*m*ed o Al=:on0o &nd )&0:e:&$* /&$*e*e0. Ind*&K0 0:&$e *n :e
wo$ld m&ngo m&$ke *0 &3o. 1! =e$cen. M&ngo &cco.n0 %o$ ,> =e$cen o% :e o&l %$.*
e-=o$0 %$om :e co.n$1. T:e$e *0 good 0co=e %o$ *nc$e&0*ng :e &$e& &nd =$od.c*/*1 o%
m&ngo *n :e co.n$1.
MBA
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF MANGO
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SOIL AND CLIMATE
• &oth soil and climate of a ecosystem are the important factors which
determine about success or failure of mango crop.
• Therefore one should give atmost importance to these two factors before
establishing a mango orchard.
• 1resently mango is being grown in varied types of soil as well as in different
types of climatic conditions across the country.
• <hile planning a mango orchard atmost importance should be given to ta!e
soil sample and its analysis for p,. nutrient status, @5, water soluble salt
content etc.
• Similarly with respect to climatic conditions temperature, rainfall, wind,
hailstorms and altitude of the given place should be considered especially in
the selection of a variety.
.oils
• Mango grows well on all types of soil provided they are deep and well drained.
• 0ed loamy soils are quite ideal.
• Al!aline, ill drained and soils with roc!y substratum are not suitable for
successful cultivation of mango crop.
• "n "ndia, mango is grown on lateritic, alluvial, kankar and other types of soil.
• ,owever, rich, medium and well drained soils give better results.
• %ery poor, stony and soils with hard substratum should be avoided.
• The vigour and cropping behavior of a mango tree are affected by the soil
type.
• "n our country the best mango gardens are situated on the deep fertile
alluvial soils of the "ndo4(angetic plain.
• On shallow soils of hill slopes, mango trees grow to a large sie but the yields
are not satisfactory.
• On the laterite soils of the west coast and of &idar '6arnata!a* the trees are
smaller and sandy loams of Telangana region of Andhra 1radesh "ndia,
produced trees of medium height.
• The red soils of -harwad '6arnata!a* and red laterites of &elgaum and
0atnagiri 'Maharashtra* and (oa "sland '"ndia* are the best soils for mango.
• &est quality fruits are produced on soils containing 8 to 7: per cent lime and
sufficient quantities of pero.ide of iron.
• 3nder such conditions fruits develop bright reddish tinge.
• The deep blac! cotton soils are generally considered not suitable for mango
cultivation, since soils are generally avoided for planting mango plants.
• Such soils need to be reclaimed by leaching out of salts using good quality
water, replacing the harmful sodium from the soil with calcium or by
establishing effective drainage course to avoid salt build up.
• ,owever, these are costly and the e.penditure is li!ely to recur as a
continuous threat of salinity faced year after year.
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• The mango growing soils should preferably have a very low total water
soluble salt content of :.:; to :.:8 per cent.
• #ruit crops are most sensitive than cereals and millets.
• Mango is rated as moderately tolerant to salts with ;4C dsm
47
.
• The fertility of soil is dependant on its physical, physico4chemical and
chemical characteristics.
(h)sical Characteristics
• Some of the important factors included under physical characteristics of soil
are the slope or contour of the land, soil type, depth of soil and water table.
.lope or contour of the land
• This is an important factor for successful growth and development of mango
crop.
• The land should be slightly elevated with little slope towards the drain.
• The drained and basin shaped areas should be avoided because such areas
collect more rain water and become water logged.
• Such situations lead to poor aeration of roots and the roots may turn blac!
and rot, ultimately die.
• "t is a common e.perience to see that, those trees that are sub)ected to
floods or low lying with poor drainage generally die quic!ly.
• This !ind of damage has been noticed in the waterlogged areas of Telangana
in Andhra 1radesh '"ndia*. @levated locations are more ideal for mango
cultivation.
• Soils with too much of slope are proned to erosion and too much of drainage
and such soils also get moisture depletion quic!ly and require frequent
irrigations.
.oils profile
• The fertile soil is the one that is present in the top 78 cm level.
• "t is the cultivated portion of the land.
• /ormally the soil profile is studied from top to a depth of 7.E m or more.
• "t is a pre4requisite for assessing the suitability of the soil of any crop.
• The depth, te.ture, structure and others are also considered.
!epth of the soil
• Mango has very deep and strong root system thus soils for mango should be
quite deep for easy penetration and spread of the root system.
• Soils with a depth of 7.F m or more are ideal for mango crop. More the depth
of soil, better is the suitability.
• ,ard soils, soils poor in depth or soils having hard pan in sub4soil should be
avoided.
• The deep and well drained soils with no impervious layers, allow good depth
and distribution of root system producing trees of standard sie, heavy yields
and long life.
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Teture
• "n "ndia some of the best mango orchards are located in the gangetic plains
of northern "ndia and also on the ban!s of great rivers of peninsular "ndia.
• The soils in these regions are highly fertile and silty loams or alluvial loams.
• Sandy soils are poor in organic matter content and other plant nutrients, as
such they need to be supplied by heavy manuring.
• Such soils do not provide good anchorage to root system.
• Sandy or gravelly soils have poor water holding capacity.
• <hile growing mango in such soils, te.ture of soil should be improved by
periodical application of organic manures li!e farm yard manure or compost.
• The most desirable soil for mango is one of medium te.ture, deep and well4
drained.
.tructure
• "t refers to arrangement of soil particles.
• The structure of the soil in different horions should be open, granular and
compact structure should be avoided.
• The sub4soil should be friable.
• They should not be impenetrable pans such as clay, Kankarand roc!y.
• The presence of a substratum of loose gravel or murumhelps in providing
good drainage.
/oot penetration
• "t is also a measure of soil aeration.
• The top 7 m soil should atleast permit the penetration of most roots of plants
in plenty.
• 1oor drainage is reflected by the poor growth, sic!ly appearance or death of
plants.
• Mango being a hardy crop, its roots penetrate easily into hard soils li!e
laterite soil and the plant grows lu.uriantly.
• Many such mango gardens grown on lateric soil can be seen in west coast of
"ndia and more particularly in 6on!an region of Maharashtra, (oa and coastal
6arnata!a.
0ater table
• A constant water table is more preferred for good growth and development of
mango crop.
• -uring any part of the year water table should remain constant and should
never fluctuate.
• #or mango the water table should always be at a depth of 7.E: to F.;: m.
• "f water table is too high then feeder roots will be submerged with water for a
long time leading to chloratic patches on leaves.
• Though the plant may not die but remain unhealthy and growth of the plant is
adversely affected.
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Che*ical Characteristics
• The chemical characteristics include nutrient status, soil reaction and salt
content of soil.
,utrient status
• 5lassification of soils with regard to mango has been done only to certain
e.tent.
• /utrient upta!e by mango differs with the variety, age of the plant, soil type
and management.
• "n general, a crop producing 78 tIha removes 7:: !g /, F8 !g 1FO8 and 7::
!g 6FO.
• A definite corelation e.ists between nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and
calcium status of soils and yield of mango.
• This has been revealed by a preliminary survey of soils conducted in areas of
best mango gardens in &ihar.
• "n Tamil /adu, it was noticed that presence of pero.ide of iron in the soil
increased the vigour of trees and sweetness of fruits.
• Most of the mango4growing soils in "ndia have a low soluble salt content,
ranging from :.:; to :.:8 per cent, whereas the total 1FO8 varies from :.:C
to :.:C:8 per cent, and available 6FO from :.::E to :.::ED per cent.
.oil reaction
• The soil reaction or the soil p, affects the growth of mango trees to a certain
e.tent.
• ,ighly calcarious soils having large quantities of lime nodules are considered
poor for mango cultivation.
• &eing highly al!aline, young plants are sub)ected to burning.
• Such soils are rich in sodium and become impenetrable to water.
• The presence of small amounts of kankar in neutral or slightly al!aline soils
upto p, of D.8 may not harm the tree.
• A range of 8.8 to D.8 is ideal for mango growing.
• The soils should preferably have a very low total water soluble salt content
':.:; to :.:8G*.
Climate
• Mango is grown in both tropical and sub4tropical conditions.
• "t can tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions.
• #or growing mango on a commercial and profitable scale the temperature and
rainfall have to be with in a clearly defined range.
• "n addition to altitude, temperature, rainfall and the wind velocity also
influence growth and production of mango. Mango thrives well under humid
and dry conditions.
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• "t requires good rainfall during its growing season i.e. ?une to October and
rainless, dry weather from /ovember onwards.
• 0ainy or cloudy weather during flowering favours the incidence of powdery
mildew disease and leafhoppers.
Altitude
• The climate of "ndia is more suitable for successful growth and development
of mango crop.
• As a result one can see large number of mango gardens in almost all parts of
the country.
• Altitude of a place is one of the important features of the climate which
determines good growth of the crop.
• The plant grows lu.uriantly and yields well from sea level to 7::: m above
mean sea level.
• ,owever, for commercial cultivation of mango crop C:: m altitude is ideal.
• As the altitude of the place increases over and above 7::: m from MSL the
growth and productivity of the crop are poor.
• The altitude has a definite role on the time of mango flowering.
• "t has been observed that an increase in every 7F m altitude, flowering is
retarded by four days.
• Similarly for each degree latitude, south or north of the tropics, flowering is
delayed by four days.
Te*perature
• 5limatic conditions particularly temperature, also govern the flowering time
and ripening time of fruits.
• Mango starts flowering early in &ihar, &engal and eastern 3ttar 1radesh due
to onset of high temperature early in the season.
• #ruit ripening is also earlier in these regions than in north4western parts.
• "n the south under moderate temperature conditions even during winter the
flowering may start in September or as late as /ovember.
• At 6anya!umari some of the varieties flower and fruit twice a year.
• This !s !nown as off4season bearing which may primarily be conditioned by
the differences in night and day temperatures and also humidity.
• The annual mean temperature at which mango thrives best is around FC.D
:
5.
• The optimum growth temperature for mango is F+.9
:
4 FC.D
:
5.
• Temperature plays a direct role on the flowering, fruit set and fruit
development in mango.
• 3nder &angalore '"ndia* conditions mangoes use to flower during /ovember4
-ecember months during early E:s and is now shifted to late ?anuary.
• This may be due to diurnal variation in temperature and relative humidity.
• <hen atmospheric temperature was high, fruits e.posed to direct sunlight
were normally affected with spongy tissue disorder.
• Air temperature of over and above ;:.8
:
5 develops spongy tissue in Alphonso
mangoes.
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• @.posure of fruits on western side is more dangerous as the fruit on that side
getting direct sun rays for longer period are more li!ely to have spongy
tissue.
• Though fruit splitting in mango is a very rare phonomenon, it is related with
variation in ma.imum and minimum temperature and relative humidity
between day and night time.
• 3nder &angalore conditions fruit splitting was around F per cent, specially at
later stages of fruit development in varieties li!e, Langra and Amrapalli.
• "t may be due to variation in day and night temperature and relative
humidity.
• After fruit splitting secondary infection occurs in the split portion of the fruit
ma!ing it unfit for consumption.
/ainfall
• "t is not the quantum of rainfall but the timing which is of importance in
growing mango.
• "n "ndia, mango grows equally well both under low and heavy rainfall of F84
F8: cm annually.
• ,owever, with the annual rainfall of D8 cm and above it can be grown with
little or no irrigation.
• One of the 1re4requisites for successful growing of mango is the absence of
rain during the flowering time.
• 0ain at flowering not only washes away the pollen, which adversely affects
fruit set, but also encourages greater incidence of mango hoppers, mealy
bugs and diseases li!e powdery mildew and anthracnose, which damage the
crop sometimes completely.
• 5loudy weather with resultant increased humidity in the atmosphere also
encourages greater incidence of such pests and diseases.
• This also interferes with the activity of pollinating insects, thus adversely
affecting fruit set.
• "n areas of e.cessive rainfall and high humidity even during the time of fruit
maturity, as in Assam, commercial mango growing may not be profitable due
to the attac! of fruit fly.
• "f high temperature, rainfall and humidity persist throughout the year, there
will be no distinct phases of vegetative growth and flowering in the mango
tree and bearing will be poor.
• "n the coastal region of 6erala, which has restricted e.port of mango to the
3SA, mango gets infested with stone weevil.
Frost
• Mango is adversely affected by frosts and freees if not properly protected.
• The damage depends on several factors, such as the age of the tree, moisture
content of the soil, condition of growth, timing, severity and duration of the
frost.
• (enerally, young trees with immature wood and those having active growth
are affected more severely than the well4grown trees with mature wood and
those in dormant condition.
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• Trees identical in growth and age and growing on dry soils are also severely
damaged as compared to those growing in wet land.
• The irrigation raises the soil temperature and provides protection against mild
frosts.
• @arly and late frosts cause more damage than the mid4season frosts of the
same severity.
• The trees are affected more severely by the former as they are not fully
dormant, while in the latter case damage occurs owing to reinitiation of
growth and tenderness of the tissues.
• #ront in)ury is e.hibited through bar! splitting, but this is not visible in the
young plants.
• Ooing of gum from stem bar!, death of new shoots, charred appearance of
leaves and burning appearance of developing fruit buds are the other
symptoms of frost in)ury.
• "f the temperature is below7.7
:
5, the mango plants are adversely affected by
frost.
• A short spell of 4+.+
:
5 and consequent longdrawn out cold spell led to the
drying out of the young shoots and leaves of mango plants, !illing the tree
from the top down to a point where the bar! was thic! and the sap moved
very slowly.
• The young mango trees in vigorous growth may be in)ured seriously at :
:
5.
• The minimum temperature of 4:.C to :
:
5 for 7 hr 78 min for F consecutive
days resulted in appreciable damage to mango trees.
• All 74year4old plants, though protected, were !illed completely.
• Similarly, all F4year4old plants were found adversely affected and some of
these could not survive. #our4year4old plants were partially affected.
• -ifferentiating and e.posed fruit buds in bud4brea! and bud4burst stages
were !illed outright.
• The turned blac!ish and dropped down.
• #or protection against frosts, the young mango trees should be covered fairly
early and the thatchings should be removed only when the danger is over.
• Some growers remove the covers too early, with the first warming up of
temperatures after winter= but the trees are li!ely to suffer if late frosts
occur.
0ind
• @.posure to strong winds, whether hot or cool is harmful to mango crop.
• "n fact high velocity of wind affects mango trees in several ways.
• <inds of high velocity lead to quic! evaporation of water from the soil and
thus reduce moisture availability which is very much necessary for ideal
growth and development of the plant.
• Mango trees normally assume a dome shaped top and are less prone to wind
damage, such as, brea!ing of limbs, branches, fruit drop etc.
• Strong winds, gales or storms blow away the branches, leaves or panicles and
sometimes fully grown trees also get toppled.
• "t is more so in the areas ad)uscent to coast or open areas that are not fully
protected with windbrea!s.
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• -warf mango varieties li!e Amrapali, 0umani and 6erala -warf are less prone
to wind damage compared to tall and huge trees li!e 1airi and Langra.
• ,igh velocity of wind may uproot the whole tree.
• This problem is commonly noticed in areas frequently affected with heavy
cyclone specially in /ellore, 6rishna, 0anga 0eddy and %is!hapatnam districts
of Andhra 1radesh and 6anya!umari district of Tamil /adu.
• #ruit drop at various stages of its growth can be noticed due to high velocity
of wind.
• 3nder &angalore conditions wind velocity of more than 7F: !m per hour
damaged the 1airi variety mango trees by brea!ing the limbs.
• At later stages of fruit development this problem was severe due to heavy
weight of the fruit.
• This necessiates the raising of live, thic! and strong windbrea!s around the
mango orchard.
• Seedlings of Casuarina, silver oa! or Accasia are some of the ideal windbrea!s
for mango garden.
• These wind brea!s may compete with the mango crop for nutrients and
moisture.
• Thus a trench of half a meter width and half to one meter depth should be
dug open between the mango tree rows and windbrea!.
-ailstor*s
• Occurrence of hailstorms is a natural phenomena and it causes partial or total
loss of mango crop.
• The hailstorms occur sporadically and that to during the pre4monsoon
showers.
• The damage caused to fruit is by physical hitting of hailstorms, which leads to
rupture of tissue and such areas get discoloured and start rotting.
• Secondary infection by fungus starts sometime after the physical damage.
• Affected fruits do not ripe and are unfit for consumption.
• Such fruits are not even fit for pic!ling.
• There is hardly any method to protect this damage.
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PLANTING TIME
*ropogated "egetati"ely by inarching or budding in situ in the nursery# either by using
:or$ert or by using the &%method. &he beginning of the monsoon in light%rainfall areas
and the end of the monsoon in hea"y%rainfall regions are the most suitable periods for
inarching or budding. -ecently# "eneer%grafting has been found to be the best method of
mango propagation. ,rafted plant are ready for transplanting in the field after si1 to
twel"e months. 4elect straight%growing grafts and set them in pits filled with soil mi1ed
with farmyard manure GF8 $gH and afertili;er mi1ture containing 0.//8 $g of 5# 0.F8 $g of
* and 0.//8 $g of K per pit. &he planting%distance is <.8 to 7 metres in poor
shallow soils and 18 to 1< metres in deep fertile soils. &he beginning of the monsoon in
low rainfall areas or the end of the monsoon in hea"y rainfall tracts is the best time
for planting. &he graft%3oint should be at least 18 cm abo"e the ground
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MA%./,%0 A%1 2)/T,3,4AT,*%
+anuring mango plant starts right from planting operation in the orchard. @iberal
applications of welldecomposed
organic manure can be gi"en each year to create proper soil physical en"ironment and
on account of se"eral other beneficial effects.
Age of the
5lant
67ears8
2ertili"er 1ose95lant 97ear
27M 6kg 8 % 6g8 5 6g8 : 6g8
1 8 100 80 100
/ 10 /00 100 /00
? 18 ?00 /00 ?00
F /0 F00 ?00 F00
8 /8 800 F00 800
. ?0 .00 800 .00
< ?8 <00 800 <00
10
th
onwards 80 1000 800 1000
(ntire dose of the :B+ and half dose of 5# * and K should be gi"en during monsoon
while the balance half is applied during the end of monsoon. )efore the application of
fertili;ers# the weeds should be remo"ed from basins. &he mi1ture of recommended
dose of fertili;ers should be broadcast under the canopy of plant lea"ing about 80 cm
from tree trun$ in old trees. &he applied fertili;er should be amalgamated well up to the
depth of 18 cm. &o increase fertili;er use efficiency# fertili;ers should be applied in /8 cm
wide and /8%?0 cm deep trenches dug around the tree / m away from trun$.
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&he application of micronutrients is not recommended as a routine. 5eed based
supplementationIs are essential when these become limiting factor for production. 0t is
ad"isable to apply micronutrients through foliar sprays.
IRRIGATION
• Success of mango orchards depends upon availability of rain or artificial
irrigation during critical periods of tree growth and fruit development.
• "rrigation requirements are governed by various factors such as soil type,
climate, root distribution etc.
• There are some other specific characteristics of mango and these
characteristics should be ta!en into consideration to )udge the irrigation
requirements of mango.
7. The deep and well spread root system of mango plant.
F. #ruit4bud differentiation ta!es place in terminal shoots of eight to ten
months.
+. -uring fruit4bud differentiation and vegetative phase requirements are
antagonistic.
;. The fruit quality depends upon moisture content in soil during fruit
development and maturity.
8. The irrigation requirements of young and non4bearing orchards differ
from the bearing orchards.
Irrigation in 1oung and ,on-2earing 3rchards
• The principal ob)ect of irrigation of young and non4bearing orchards is to
boost fast and vigorous growth of the plants.
• "n initial stage the root spread of the plants is limited.
• Light irrigation at frequent intervals is required to wet the soil.
• The non4bearing trees ;48 years of age are irrigated at wee!ly interval.
• The interval of irrigation depends upon tree age, soil and climate.
• #or the first si. months after planting, interval should be F to C days, for C to
7F months old plant at wee!ly interval and D to F: days till the plants attain
bearing age.
• "n light soil irrigation frequency is more than in heavy soils.
• -uring winter, the irrigation is specially required for protection against frost.
• I/ he!53 "'#+"= *&e72e/) #&&#0!)#'/ $!2"e" 1!4!0e )' &'') "3")e4 !/1
")e4 "' #) "h'2+1 e !5'#1e1.
• B2) )he #/)e&5!+ "h'2+1 /') e )'' +'/0 "' )h!) %+!/) *!$e" 4'#")2&e
")&e"" !/1 )he 0&',)h !/1 "%&e!1 #" $he$9e1.
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Irrigation in 2earing 3rchards
• The irrigation of bearing orchards at regular intervals '7: to 78 days* is prime
necessity during fruit set and for full fruit development.
• "t is helpful in attaining full fruit sie and reducing fruit drop.
• &ut to obtain good flowering, the irrigation during winter months 'F4+
months* flower bud differentiation should be stopped.
• "rrigation during this period promotes vegetative growth, which will be
detrimental to flowering.
• "n /orth "ndia +48 irrigations are required starting from #ebruary 'at panicle
emergence stage* to May 'at full fruit sie* at 78 days interval.
• "n light soils, the interval of irrigation would be high during hot, dry and
windy weather than in cold and calm atmosphere.
• The annual precipitation in most of mango growing regions varies from 7:: to
F8: cm.
• The 4'") '* )he"e &e0#'/" &e72#&e +#))+e #&&#0!)#'/.
• I&&#0!)#'/ #/ 4!/0' '&$h!&1"= ,he)he& #) #" 3'2/0= /'/-e!&#/0 '& #/
e!&#/0 ")!0e= 0e/e&!++3 1e%e/1" 2%'/ "'#+= $+#4!)e= &'') "3")e4 e)$.
(rinciples of Irrigation
Irrigation in /elation to .oil and Cli*ate
• The irrigation requirements of mango are closely related to soil and climate of
the orchard. The fine te.tured deep and well drained soil generally found in
"ndo4gangetic plains, red soils of -harwar and the laterite soils which have
the property of retention of water, require less irrigation.
• %ery fine te.tured and stic!y soil, li!e blac! cotton requires no irrigation.
Other groups of soils li!e light and medium te.tured require adequate surface
irrigation, provided they are well drained.
• Any type of soil having water table upto + metre from surface requires no
water as the roots of mango tree travel to this depth in search of water.
• "rrigation in mango is also associated with climate including humidity, rainfall
and temperature. Mango orchards situated in humid tropics do not require
irrigation irrespective of soil type while under dry climate having low humidity
and high temperature, irrigation is needed at 78 days interval.
Irrigation in /elation to /oot .)ste*
• Mango tree has deep, well spread and e.tensive root system in most of the
soils.
• The main root develops secondary roots that go to sub4soil layer.
• The one set of root system is found in the first C: to 9: cm of the soil.
• This e.tensive type of root system helps the mango tree for its success and in
most of the situations only light surface irrigation is sufficient.
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• This e.tensive root system of mango draws and gets the moisture from far
and wide.
• "n some odd conditions, the e.tensive root system development is chec!ed by
hard pan roc!, stony layer or the dwarfing rootstoc! used in grafting.
• "n this situation root one is !ept restricted and ultimately it restricts the
vegetative growth of plant.
• Trees under such situations require more frequent irrigation to get good yield
and quality fruits.
Irrigation in /elation to Fruit 2ud !ifferentiation
• The carbohydrate accumulation in mango is accompanied by fruit bud
differentiation and at this time there is no active growth, so little or no
carbohydrate is utilied by plant.
• "rrigation promotes vegetative growth under favourable climatic conditions.
• Therefore, it is suggested that during fruit bud differentiation period irrigation
of mango bearing plants should be stopped, otherwise irrigation during this
period converts fruitIflower bud into vegetative bud which ultimately
adversely affects the fruit yield.
Irrigation in /elation to Fruit .et4 .i5e and 6ualit)
• #ruit set in mango does not have any relation to soil moisture unless the soil
moisture is deficit for longer period.
• ,owever, soil moisture influences the fruit sie, quality as well as the drop of
immature fruits.
• -uring fruit development period, under hot and dry climate, the irrigation
prevents the drop of immature fruits.
• The moisture deficit in soil brings early maturity to fruits.
• So regular and normal irrigation to plants during fruit development and
maturity period improves the quality of fruits.
• The fruits are of better sie and more )uicy from irrigated plants than those
from tree under deficit soil moisture.
• Therefore, regular and timely irrigation of bearing plants becomes necessary.
Methods of Irrigation
• A number of irrigation systems li!e basin, ring, furrow, flood, sprin!ler and
drip are employed.
• @ach system has advantages and disadvantages as one system may be
suitable for one set of conditions but unsuitable for another.
• Therefore, proper selection of the irrigation method is important for better
orchard management practices.
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2asin Method
• "n this system of irrigation, small circular basins are made around the tree
trun!s.
• The"e !"#/" !&e $'//e$)e1 ,#)h e!$h ')he& )h&'20h ! ")&!#0h)
$h!//e+.
• The ,!)e& %!""#/0 )h&'20h )he"e $h!//e+" )'2$h )he )&ee )&2/9
1#&e$)+3.
• Such type of flow from plant to plant may cause damage and manures and
fertiliers may be washed away with water and deposited at the end of the
channel.
• The disease present in one plant may spread to other plants. "n this way it
increases the infection.
• The effective root one is not properly irrigated. Therefore, this system is
considered as defective one.
Modified 2asin .)ste*
• This system is similar to that of basin system e.cept that instead of circular
ring, the rectangular shape basin having bigger sie is made.
• This system is also not adopted on large scale.
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/ing .)ste*
• This system is an improvement over previous systems.
• The irrigation channel is made between two rows of mango trees.
• ,ere the basins are !ept small having circular shape.
• The individual basin is connected by sub4channel to the channel formed
between two rows.
• -ue to small sie of basin, adequate amount of water is not accommodated
which is sufficient for plant requirement.
• "t is the disadvantage of the system.
Modified /ing .)ste*
• This system is e.actly similar to that of ring method.
• The only difference is the sie of the ring.
• ,ere the ring is made upto the spread of plant canopy, which accommodates
sufficient water, required by tree.
Furrow Method of Irrigation
• ,ere the F4+ furrows are made along the row on both sides.
• This system is suitable for the places where the flow of water is so regulated
that it moves with slow speed.
• ,ere the plants are irrigated through lateral movement of water.
• Although this system is good but not adopted at large scale.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Flood Irrigation
• This system is adopted in such orchards where sufficient water is available.
• ,ere entire area of orchard is wetted and meets the water requirement of
tree and suited best to the e.tensive root system of mango.
Tric7le or !rip .)ste* of Irrigation
• This system is applied in those orchards where the water is in limited quantity
and available water is used more )udiciously.
• ,ere the irrigation to the mango plants is applied through drippersIemitters
connected through microtube to the lateral.
• The laterals are connected to sub4main or main line in which water is supplied
through a pumping unit from the source.
• (enerally, for young mango orchards two drippers of E7Iha are placed at a
distance of 7.: m on lateral line.
• The full grown trees are supplied water with double lateral lines and two
drippers on each lateral line are placed at 7 to 7.8: m distance.
• The young mango plants require 947F litreIdayIplant water for better growth.
• The plants of +4C years, C47: years, 947F years and full grown trees require
appro.imately +:4+8 litre, 8:4C: litre, E:49: litre and 7F: litreIdayIplant.
• This system has several advantages such as plant attains quic! growth, water
saving, weed control, labour saving, easy nutrient application and increase in
yield of good quality fruits.
• The only disadvantage is the high initial cost of installation.
PLANT PROTECTION
• -ifferent monitoring tools li!e pheromone traps, light traps, coloured stic!y
traps.
• 1reserved specimens of pests, natural enemies, infested plant portions as
identification tools.
• &ird perches.
• Seed dressing chemicals and seed dressing machines.
• Seeds of 0esistant varieties.
• @cofriendly insecticides li!e /eem products and bio4fungicides li!e
Trichoderma sp.
• /atural enemies li!e Trichogramma egg cards, and microbial preparations of
/1% H &t.
• Soft and target specific pesticides.
• &ait preparations.
• (ood plant protection equipment.
• #inally mostly farm based renewable resources that can enhance the recycling
phenomenon of ecosystem should form part of "1M strategy.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
62
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
+ango is prone to damages by a large number of pests# diseases and disorders. &he
recommended control measures for most important and common among them are briefed below.
MA%0* '*55)/;
&wo sprays Gat panicle emergence and at pea si;e of fruitsH with carbaryl G0.18JH monocrotophos
G0.0FJH or phosphamidon G0.08JH.
Mealy !ugs
As prophylactic measures plough inter%spaces in 5o"ember and dust /J methylparathin K/00
gLtree near the trun$ and fi1ing /0 cm wide F00 gauge polythene strips around the trun$ with
grease applied on the lower edge Gin ManuaryH &wo sprays with monocrotophos G0.0FJHat 18
days inter"el is necessary# if presence of mealy bugs are noticed.
5*<1)/7 M,31)<
&wo or three sprays of wettable sulphur G0./JH or Kerathane G0.1JH or )a"istin G0.1JH or 6ali1in
G0.1JH at 10 to 18 days inter"al.
A%T'/A-%*;)
&wo sprays of )a"istin G0.1JH at :ortnightly inter"el.
MA32*/MAT,*%
Dne spray of /00ppm 5AA in Dctober followed by deblossoming at bud stage in December %
Manuary.
2ruit 1rop +
G1H -egular 0rrigation during fruit de"elopment
G/H &imely and effecti"e control of pests and diseases
G?H 4praying /0 ppm 5AA at pea si;e of fruits.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
63
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
$8 PEST $$8 INSECTS $$$8 DISEASES
5est Management
2ruit 5rotection
@&!%%#/0 '& !00#/0 '* *&2#)" #" %&!$)#$e1 #/ 4!/3 !&e!" e$!2"e '* )he *'++',#/0-
• M#/#4#6e" #/$#1e/$e '* *&2#) *+3 !/1 ')he& *&2#) #/"e$)"
• M#/#4#6e" 1#"e!"e (*2/0!+) #/*e$)#'/
• Re12$e" #/$#1e/$e '* 4e$h!/#$!+ 1!4!0e
• P!%e& 2"e1 "e&5e" !" !"'&e/) *'& +!)e< *+', 12&#/0 h!&5e")
• Re"2+)" )' $+e!/e& *&2#) "9#/ !/1 4'&e !))&!$)#5e +#0h) 0&ee/ $'+'&
• P&'5#1e" !/ e")#4!)e '* h!&5e")!+e *&2#)" %e& )&ee
I/ 0e/e&!+= !00#/0 #" &e$'44e/1e1 )' %&')e$) *&2#)" *&'4 %e")" !/1 )' &e12$e
"%&!3#/0 '* #/"e$)#$#1e". Th#" %&!$)#$e #" 1'/e ,he/ *&2#)" !&e !'2) $h#$9e/;" e00
"#6e (55 )' 60 1!3" !*)e& *+',e& #/12$)#'/)

,nsect 5ests
1. M,n(o 5!,& o99!"
D,1,(!: S2$9#/0 '* %+!/) "!% $!2"e" ,#)he&#/0 !/1 1&3#/0 '* )e/1e& "h'')"=
*+',e&" !/1 5e&3 3'2/0 *&2#)". I/ )he %&'$e""= #/"e$) "e$&e)e" ")#$93 *+2#1"
(h'/e31e,) )h!) %&'4')e" 1e5e+'%4e/) '* "'')3 4'+1= *2/0!+ 1#"e!"e.
Con%"o5: S%&!3 &e$'44e/1e1 $he4#$!+" ")!&)#/0 *&'4 *+',e&I21 *'&4!)#'/
)' *&2#) "e))#/0. ?'/*#1'& #" e**e$)#5e !0!#/") h'%%e&".
2. M,n(o %$9 :o"!"
D,1,(!: Sh'')" ,#+) !/1 )e&4#/!+ %!&)" 1#e. I* #/*e")e1= %!/#$+e" &e!9 !/1
)he *+',e&" "he1 '**.
Con%"o5:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
64
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
o P&2/e 1e!1 &!/$he" )' 1#"$'2&!0e "%&e!1 '* #/"e$). B2&/ %!&)" )h!)
!&e !**e$)e1.
o S#/$e )he !12+)" ")!&) )' 1e")&'3 )he *+',e&" *&'4 )he 21 e4e&0e/$e
)' e+'/0!)#'/= #) #" /e$e""!&3 )' "%&!3 #/"e$)#$#1e" )' %&')e$) )he"e
")!0e" e"%e$#!++3 12&#/0 h#) 4'/)h". I/"e$)#$#1e" 2"e1 *'& 4!/0'
h'%%e& $'/)&'+ !&e !+"' &e$'44e/1e1 *'& )#% '&e&.
;. T7$( .#%%!")
D,1,(!: Th#" #" 5e&3 1e")&2$)#5e 12&#/0 )he 1&3 "e!"'/. @he/ %&e"e/)= )he
/24e& '* *+',e&" )h!) ,#++ e *'&4e1 #" &e12$e1. The 4'") 5#"#+e #/1#$!)#'/
'* )he %&'+e4 #" )he %&e"e/$e '* 1e!1 ),#0" !/1 +e!5e" #/ )he $!/'%3.
Con%"o5:P&2/#/0 !/1 2&/#/0 e 1e!1 &!/$he" )' 1#"$'2&!0e "%&e!1 '* #/"e$).
P&')e$) *+2"he" *&'4 !12+)" 3 "%&!3 !%%+#$!)#'/ '* #/"e$)#$#1e.
<. P#59 7!!2$5
D,1,(!: Th#" #" ! 2/#72e %e") "#/$e )he +!&5!e '* )he #/"e$) *ee1 #/"#1e )he
*&2#) !/1 1e")&'3 )he %2+%= 3e) )he %ee+ h!" /' 5#"#+e 1!4!0e e5e/ 2% )'
h!&5e"). The #/"e$) #" %&e"e/) '/+3 #/ "'4e %!&)" '* P!+!,!/.
Con%"o5:
a. P&2/#/0 '* $&',1e1 4!/0' )&ee" !++',#/0 +#0h) )' %e/e)&!)e #/ )he
$!/'%3 #" 2/*!5'&!+e )' )he ,ee5#+. De!1 '& '5e&$&',1#/0 &!/$he"
"h'2+1 e &e4'5e1.
b. Bee% e!$h )&ee *&ee *&'4 ,ee1"= *!++e/ +e!5e"= *&2#) 1&'%%#/0" !/1
')he& 1e&#". ?2+)#5!)#'/ '* "'#+ #" !15!/)!0e'2" "#/$e )h#" e<%'"e" !/1
9#++" )he ,ee5#+ h#11e/ #/ )he "'#+ !*)e& h!&5e"). B2&/ #/*e")e1 *&2#)" )'
e+#4#/!)e "'2&$e" '* #/*e")!)#'/ 12&#/0 )he /e<) *&2#)#/0 "e!"'/.
c. F'& $he4#$!+ $'/)&'+= ?3%e&4e)h&#/ !) 50 4+I100 +# ,!)e& %&'5#1e" 0''1
%&')e$)#'/ !0!#/") )he ,ee5#+. Fe/5!+e&!)e !/1 ?!&!&3+ !&e !+"'
e**e$)#5e !0!#/") )he %e"). The #/"e$)#$#1e "h'2+1 e !%%+#e1 !) 14 1!3"
#/)e&5!+ *&'4 *&2#) "e) )' *2++ 1e5e+'%4e/) '* )he *&2#)".
NoeJ In0ec*c*de0 &$e no e%%ec*/e once :e =e0 *0 *n0*de :e %$.*.
2. M,n(o &"#$% &50
D,1,(!: A12+)" +!3 e00" '/ 4!)2&e *&2#)" !/1 +!&5!e *ee1 '/ )he *+e"h.
A**e$)e1 *&2#)" 1&'% )' )he 0&',/ !/1 !&e e!"#+3 $'/)!4#/!)e1 3
4#$&''&0!/#"4".
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
65
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Con%"o5: B!00#/0= $'++e$)#'/ !/1 %&'%e& 1#"%'"!+ '* *!++e/ *&2#)" !/1 h!&5e") !)
)he %&'%e& ")!0e '* 4!)2&#)3. I* $he4#$!+" h!5e )' e 2"e1= "%&!3 !) 90 '& 110
1!3" !*)e& #/12$)#'/.
;. M!,50 :#()
D,1,(!: A))!$9 /e,+3-*+2"he1 +e!5e"= *+',e&" !/1 *&2#)" !/1 "2$9 5#)!+ %+!/)
"!%". A**e$)e1 %!&)" )2&/ 3e++',= 1&3 2% !/1 e5e/)2!++3 *!++.
Con%"o5:Re4'5!+ '* #/*e")e1 *&2#)"= *+',e&" !/1 +e!5e". S%&!3 #/"e$)#$#1e" )'
9#++ !/)" !""'$#!)e1 ,#)h 4e!+3 20.
<. C,9)$- :#(
D,1,(!: A))!$9" 3'2/0 +e!5e"= ),#0" !/1 *&2#)". S!+#5! '* )he #/"e$) #" 5e&3
)'<#$ !/1 )he "#)e '* )he %2/$)2&e #" 4!&9e1 3 "2/9e/ +#")e&. The +e"#'/"
)2&/ &',/ !*)e& 24 h'2&"e$'4#/0 +!$9 !/1 "$!3 #/ 2-3 1!3". I/*e$)e1
3'2/0 *&2#)" *!++ %&e4!)2&e+3. C'$!++3= )he 1!4!0e #" $!++e1 L92&#9'/0; '&
L!&4!+#)e; '& L2)#;.
Con%"o5:P&2/e )&ee" e*'&e #/12$)#'/= 2/1e&&2"h#/0 !&e!" !&'2/1 )he )&ee=
"%&!3 #/"e$)#$#1e +!)e #/ )he !*)e&/''/ !/1 &e4'5e !+)e&/!)e h'")" +#9e
$!"he,= 02!5! !/1 $!$!'.
=. M,n(o .!.$- &50
D,1,(!:A12+)"= ,h#$h !&e 4'"72#)'-+#9e #/ !%%e!&!/$e= +!3 e00" '/ /e,
*+2"he". The +!&5!e 4#/e )he +e!5e" %&'12$#/0 0!++" '& ",e++#/0 '* )#""2e".
He!53 #/*e")!)#'/ &e"2+)" )' ,&#/9+#/0 '* )he +e!5e"G )he +e!5e" &e4!#/ 3e++',
#/ $'+'&. ?+'"e e<!4#/!)#'/ '* )he +e!5e" "h'," 1!&9 0&ee/= $#&$2+!& 0!++"
&!/1'4+3 1#")&#2)e1 '/ )he +e!* +!1e.
Con%"o5:
a. P&2/e '& $2) #/*e")e1 +e!5e" !/1 2&/.
b. P&!$)#$e '&$h!&1 "!/#)!)#'/. U/1e&&2"h ,ee13 !&e!" "#/$e !12+)" ")!3
#/ )he"e !&e!".
c. S%&!3 e#)he& Se5#/= De$#"= B!&!)e '& S)#/0&!3 (3-4 )"% %e& 16 +#)e&"
,!)e&) )' 4#/#4#6e 1!4!0e.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
66
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
6. S.,5! $n)!.%
D,1,(!: I/ /2&"e&#e"= +e!5e" '* 0&!*)e1 4!/0'e" !&e &e!1#+3 #/*e")e1 ,#)h
"$!+e #/"e$)"= $!2"#/0 )he4 )' 1&3 !/1 *!++. O/ e!&#/0 )&ee"= h#0h %'%2+!)#'/"
'* )he #/"e$) $!2"e +!$9e/#/0 '* $!/'%3 12e )' )he 0&',)h '* )he *2/02"
L"'')3 4'+1;. A**e$)e1 +e!5e" e$'4e $'5e&e1 ,#)h )h#/= +!$9 %!%e&3 *#+4
,h#$h %&'12$e" 2/"#0h)+3 !%%e!&!/$e. I/ !11#)#'/= !**e$)e1 &!/$he" !&e
1e*'&4e1 %&'12$#/0 0!++ +#9e %&')&2e&!/$e".
Con%"o5:
a. M'2/0 "$!+e #/"e$)" !&e $!&&#e1 !/1 1#")&#2)e1 3 &e1 !/)" )' 1#**e&e/)
%!&)" '* )he )&ee. T' %&e5e/) #/*e")!)#'/= 1e")&'3 !/)" 3 "%&!3#/0
M!+!)h#'/ !) 1 N )"% %e& 16 +#)e&" ,!)e&= De$#" !) 1-5 )"% %e& 16
+#)e&" ,!)e& '& B!&!)e !) O - 1 N )"% %e& 16 +#)e&" ,!)e&.
b. P&2/e !/1 2&/ he!5#+3 #/*e")e1 %+!/) %!&)" +#9e &!/$he" !/1 +e!5e".
Th#" "h'2+1 e *'++',e1 3 "%&!3 !%%+#$!)#'/ '* #/"e$)#$#1e"
&e$'44e/1e1 *'& )h#" %e") !/1 !%%+#$!)#'/ '* h#0h 1'"e '* /#)&'0e/.

,mportant 1iseases
1. An%",.no)!
D,1,(!: Th#" #" )he 4'") %&e5!+e/) !/1 1e")&2$)#5e 1#"e!"e '* 4!/0' ')h #/
)he *#e+1 !/1 !*)e& h!&5e"). S34%)'4" !&e e<h##)e1 /') '/+3 '/ )he *&2#)" 2")
!+"' '/ *+',e&" !/1 +e!5e".
P"!2!n%$on ,n- Con%"o5:
!. F#e+1 "!/#)!)#'/
. P&2/e #/*e$)e1 &!/$he"= 2&/ )he4 !/1 2&3 )he )&!"h
$. S$he12+e *+',e& #/12$)#'/ !*)e& )he &!#/3 "e!"'/ '& 12&#/0 )he 1&3
4'/)h"
1. I/$+21e #/"e$)#$#1e !/1 *2/0#$#1e ,he/ "%&!3#/0 *+',e& #/12$e&
e. @&!% )he *&2#)" 50-60 1!3" !*)e& *+',e&#/0 )' %&')e$) )he4 *&'4 %e")"
!/1 1#"e!"e".
*. A*)e& h!&5e")= %&!$)#$e h') ,!)e& )&e!)4e/)
2. S%!1 !n- "o%
D,1,(!:Th#" #" !/')he& %'")-h!&5e") 1#"e!"e '* 4!/0' !/1 !%%e!&" 12&#/0
")'&!0e !/1 )&!/"#). The 1#"e!"e '$$2&" '/+3 #/ &#%e/e1 *&2#)".
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
67
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Con%"o5 M!,)#"!):
!. D2&#/0 h!&5e")= +e!5e '/e $e/)#4e)e& %e1#$e+ !))!$he1 )' )he *&2#) )'
!5'#1 )'' 42$h +!)e< ")!#/#/0. The $!"2!+ '&0!/#"4 0e&4#/!)e" !/1
0&'," #/ )he %&e"e/$e '* +!)e<.
. P!$9 4!/0'e" #/ '<e" '* ),' +!3e&" )' !5'#1 #/(2&3 12e )' $'4%!$)#'/
$. D' /') 2"e '&0!/#$ 4!)e&#!+" 12&#/0 %!$9#/0
;. S.,:
D,1,(!: The 1#"e!"e '$$2&" #/ /2&"e&#e" !/1 12&#/0 4'#") ,e!)he&. D!4!0e
'$$2&" ,h#+e *&2#) #" ")#++ 0&ee/
Con%"o5 M!,)#"!):The 4e)h'1" '* $'/)&'+ !&e "#4#+!& )' )h!) '* !/)h&!$/'"e.
H',e5e&= "$! #" e**e$)#5e+3 $'/)&'++e1 2"#/0 $'%%e& *2/0#$#1e.
<. G#11o)$)
D,1,(!: Th#" *2/0!+ 1#"e!"e $!2"e" ")e4 +ee1#/0= $&',/ !/1 &'') &').
I/*e$)#'/ 4!3 ")!&) 12&#/0 )he "ee1+#/0 ")!0e !/1 4!3 !%%e!& 12&#/0 ')h 1&3
!/1 ,e) "e!"'/.
Con%"o5 M!,)#"!):
!. P+!/) #/ ,e++-1&!#/e1 "'#+.
. D#"#/*e$) /2&"e&3 "#)e" e*'&e %+!/)#/0 ,#)h 4e)h3+ &'4#1e=
?h+'&'%#$)#/ '& ')he& *2/0#$#1e"
$. A5'#1 )'' $+'"e %+!/)#/0 )' !++', !e&!)#'/ !/1 5e/)#+!)#'/.
1. Re4'5e 1#&)= ,ee1" '& )&!"h
e. A5'#1 124%3 "'#+" *'& +'/0 12&!)#'/ !) )he !"e '* )he )&ee".
*. ?2+)#5!)#'/ )' !e&!)e )he "'#+ #" /e$e""!&3 )' &e12$e *2/0!+ #/*e$)#'/
0. P&2/e $&',1e1 &!/$he"
h. F'+#!& "%&!3 '* e)h3+ %h'"%h!)e 4e)!<3+ ') %&'"e)h!+ !) 20 %e& +#)e&
,!)e& e5e&3 80 1!3"
#. D&e/$h #/*e$)e1 %!&)"= e<%'"e1 1!4!0e !/1 $'5e& ,#)h "+2&&3 '*
*2/0#$#1e
=. Soo%0 1o5-
D,1,(!:The $!2"!+ '&0!/#"4 (*2/02") 1e5e+'%" #/ )he %&e"e/$e '* h'/e31e,
e<$&e)e1 3 #/"e$)" +#9e h'%%e&"= "$!+e" !/1 4e!+3 20". A" "2$h= #) ")!#/" )he
*&2#)" !/1 4!9e" )he4 +''9 1#&)3 !/1 2/!))&!$)#5e.
Con%"o5 M!,)#"!):S%&!3 #/"e$)#$#1e )' 9#++ h'%%e&= "$!+e" !/1 4e!+3 20".
B!0 *&2#)" !) 60 DAFI.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
68
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED

In%!(",%!- P!)% M,n,(!1!n%
Th#" #/5'+5e" )he *'++',#/0 %&!$)#$e"-
!. P+!/)#/0 '* he!+)h3 "ee1+#/0".
. P&'%e& +!/1 %&e%!&!)#'/ !/1 $2+)#5!)#'/. Th#" #/$+21e" $+e!&#/0 !/1 &e4'5!+ '*
#/*e$)e1 %+!/) &e"#12e" #/ )he *#e+1 !/1 e<%'"#/0 )he "'#+ )' 1#&e$) "2/+#0h).
Th#" ,#++ he+% e+#4#/!)e "'#+-'&/e %!)h'0e/".
$. P&'%e& #&&#0!)#'/ !/1 1&!#/!0e )' !5'#1 ,!)e& +'00#/0 !/1 &e12$e ,!)e&-'&/e
1#"e!"e".
1. ?'&&e$) 1#")!/$e '* %+!/)#/0 !/1 &', '&#e/)!)#'/. Th#" ,#++ !++', 4!<#424
"2/+#0h) %e/e)&!)#'/= !e&!)#'/ !/1 e!"e '* *!&4 '%e&!)#'/" "2$h !" %e") !/1
1#"e!"e $'/)&'+= $2+)#5!)#'/= %+',#/0= "4210#/0= *e&)#+#6e& !%%+#$!)#'/=
h!&5e")#/0= e)$.
e. I/)&'12$)#'/ !/1 4!#/)e/!/$e '* /!)2&!+ e/e4#e" !/1 ')he& #'+'0#$!+ $'/)&'+
4e)h'1" +#9e e/)'4'%h!0'2" *2/0# !0!#/") 4!/0' h'%%e&". I/)e&$&'%%#/0
,#)h )&ee" )h!) $!/ &e%e+ h!&4*2+ #/"e$)" !/1 "e&5e !" ,#/1 &e!9".
*. A%%+#$!)#'/ '* &e$'44e/1e1 *e&)#+#6e&" !/1 "'#+ $'/1#)#'/e&"= 4!#/)!#/ )he
&#0h) %H '* 6-7.
0. P&!$)#$e '* $+e!/ !/1 "!/#)!&3 $2+)2&e. Th#" #/$+21e" %&2/#/0= ,ee1#/0=
)h#//#/0= $2+)#5!)#'/ !/1 2&/#/0 '* #/*e")e1 1e&#".
h. U"#/0 #/"e$)#$#1e" !/1 *2/0#$#1e" 1e&#5e1 *&'4 %+!/) e<)&!$)" +#9e /ee4= $h#/!
e&&3 !/1 $2")!&1 !%%+e.
#. U"e '* !#)" !/1 +#0h) )&!%" *'& *&2#) %e") (*&2#) *+3 !/1 '&e&").
(. M'/#)'&#/0 '* %e") %'%2+!)#'/ !/1 !%%+#$!)#'/ '* %e")#$#1e '/+3 ,he/
/e$e""!&3.
9. ?'4#/e $2+)2&!+= #'+'0#$!+ !/1 $he4#$!+ 4e!/" )' 4#/#4#6e %e")".
L"'- Pr&;"r"$)'
.u**er (loughing
• Summer ploughing improves soil structure due to alternate drying and
cooling. Soil permeability is increased by brea!ing the compacted layers.
Tillage improves soil aeration which helps in multiplication of micro
organisms. Organic matter decomposition is hastened resulting in higher
nutrient availability.
• "ncreased aeration also helps in degradation of herbicide and pesticide
residues and harmful allelopathic chemicals e.uded by roots of previous crop
or weed. "t also helps in reducing the soil dwelling insect pests. "n view of
several benefits summer ploughing could be ta!en up at optimum moisture
level.
• #requent harrowing has to be avoided as it results in destruction of soil
structure. Tillage at improper moisture level is to be discouraged as it also
damages soil structure and leads to development of hard pans.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
.hallow (loughing
• "t is generally followed by the most of the farmers repeatedly at the same
depth '7F478 5m*. As a result of this hard pans are created, which inhibits
the penetration of roots in deep rooted crops.
• @g2 5otton roots grow to a depth of F Mts. in deep alluvial soils without any
pans, when hard pans are present they grow only upto hard pan '8 4 F: cm*.
&ut shallow ploughing is practiced to open the soil crust to increase the
receptivity of rainfall.
(uddling
• J Ma!ing soil impermeable by manipulating and compacting it in standing
water, which reduces its apparent specific volume, thus facilitates
transplanting.J As a result of puddling, an impervious layer is formed below
the surface which reduces deep percolation losses of water.
8evelling
• Levelling is the tillage operation in which the soil is moved to a establish a
desired soil elevation stage. -ue to levelling the use of water and fertilier
efficiency increases effectively.
-arrowing
• ,arrowing is a secondary tillage operation which pulveries, smoothens and
pac!s the soil in seed4bed preparation and control weeds.
Conservation Tillage
• The main ob)ective is to conserve soil and moisture .5onservation tillage is an
operation that is designed to maintain roughness of a field surface and leave
most of the previous crop residues on the surface while providing a suitable
seed4bed and weed control for the ne.t crop.
• This roughness reduces water run off and soil erosion.
/idges and Furrows
• A long, row ridge of earth with gently sloping sides and a shallow channel
along the upper side, to control erosion by diverting surface run4off across the
slope instead of permitting it to flow uninterrupted down to slope.
• @(2 Sugarcane, Sunflower, %egetable crops.
2unding
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• "t is the process of forming an artificial earthern emban!ment made across
slopping agricultural land to cut short lengthy soil slopes and reduces run4off
and erosion.
• These bunds are also formed along the contours across the slope of land in
the low rainfall regions to conserve soil moisture.
E9uip*ent
Summer
1loughing
"ndigenous plough 'peddamada!a 0ayalaseema* Mould board
plough, -isc plough, sub4soil plough, chisel 1lough.
Shallow
1loughing
5ountry plough, 0otary 1lough.
1uddling Tractor drawn implements, A1A3 1uddler.
,arrowing -isc harrow, &lade harrow, indigenous blade harrow '(unta!a*.
0idges And
#urrows
0idge plough, 0idge former '0idger*.
&unding &und former, Spade.
S):'(
Methods of .owing
2road Casting
• Seeds are spread uniformly over well prepared land and is covered by
ploughing or plan!ing. "t is most primitive method of sowing crops. The
broadcasting has severaldisadvantages.
• Seeds fall at different depths when broadcasted resulting in uneven stand.
7. "t requires more seed rate.
F. Seeds fallen deep in the soil may not germinate.
+. -ue to broadcasting e.cess competition at certain areas and no competition
at all in other areas ta!es place in the field. So, yield returns will be
decreased.
;. <ater use efficiency and fertilier efficiency will be decreased.
8. There is no possibility of controlling weeds by inter cultivation.
!rilling
• To overcome the problems of broadcasting drilling the seeds in lines has come
into practice. <eeds can be controlled economically by inter cultivation in line
sown crops. "n addition, drilling or line sowing facilitates uniform depth of
sowing resulting in uniform crop stand. Seed rate can be considerably
reduced drilling.
(lanting
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• <hen individual seeds or seed material is placed in the soil by manual labour,
it is called planting.
• (enerally crops with bigger sied seeds and those needing wider spacing are
sown by this method. @g 2 5otton, Maie, 1otato, Sugarcane, etc.
Transplanting
• "t is the process of planting seedlings in prepared main field. Small seeded
crops li!e Tobacco, 5hillies, Tomato, etc. are to be sown shallow and
frequently irrigated for proper germination. Ta!ing care of the germinating
seed or seedlings which are spread over large area is a problem with regard
to application of water, weed control, pest control etc. Therefore, seeds are
sown in a small area called nursery and all the care is ta!en to raise the
seedlings.
• The advantages of transplanting saving in irrigation water, good stand
establishment and increase in intensity of cropping. "n respect to paddy the
nursery is raised in small puddled plots and later transplanted in the main
field at required spacing.
.eed /ate
• The quality of seed required for sowing in a unit area of land. "t is usually
e.pressed in !gI ha.
.pacing
• The distance between crop row ' inter4row spacing* and between plants
within the row 'intra 4 row spacing* is referred as spacing. "t is e.pressed in
5ms.
P0"'$ P);.0"$)'
• /umber of plants maintained in an unit area of land is !nown as plant
populationI density. @stablishment of optimum plant population is essential to
get ma.imum yield. <hen sown densely competition among plants is more
for growth factors resulting in reduction of yield.
• Aield per plant decreases gradually as plant population per unit area is
increased. The plant population density vary with the type of soil and crop.
Optimum plant population density has to be maintained for securing
ma.imum yield.
N.r#&r@ R"#'(
• <hen more than one crop is to be grown in an year on the same piece of
land, the time occupied by each crop has to be reduced.
• The seedling growth in the early stages is very slow. Seedlings need e.tra
care for establishing in the field because of their tenderness. Small seeded
crops are to be sown shallow and frequently irrigated for proper germination.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• Ta!ing care of the germinating seed or seedlings which are spread over large
area is a problem with regard to application of water, weed control, pest
control etc. Therefore, seeds are sown in a small area called nursery and all
the care is ta!en to raise the seedlings.
Transplanting
Method
• Transplanting is usually done manually. "n case of rice it is also done
mechanically with transplantor provided the nursery is raised through dapog
method.
Ti*e
• #or achieving good results from transplanting, the seedlings are to be
transplanted at optimum age and at proper depth. The age of seedlings for
transplanting depends on crop and seasonal conditions.
E9uip*ent
For .owing
5ountry plough 'A!!adi*, Seed drill, #erti4cum4seed drill, Mechanical seed drillare
generally, used.
Inter Cultivation
• "t is an operation of soil cultivation performed in standing crop. "t is also
called as inter culturing. "t facilitates good aeration, and better development
of root system.
0eeding
• <eeding is the process of eliminating competition of unwanted plants to the
regular crop in respect to nutrition and moisture. So that crops can be grown
profitably. "t also facilitates other operations li!e irrigation and fertilier
application. The advantages of weeding are
7. 5onservation of soil moisture.
F. 0educed competition for nutrients and water.
+. 1urity of seed can be maintained.
Earthing +p
• "t is the process of putting the earth or soil )ust near the base for certain
crops li!e Sugar cane, 5assava, 1apaya, 1otato, etc. to give support to the
plants.
• Sugarcane, 1apaya, &anana 4 To avoid lodging
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• 5assava, 1otato 4 To provide more soil volume for the growth of tubers.
%egetables 4 To facilitate irrigation.
/idges and Furrows
• "t is also included in inter cultivation and generally done at the base of the
crop to provide e.tra support against lodging and also provide soil volume for
better growth. "t also facilitates uniform spread of moisture during operation
of irrigation.
3ther 3perations
• 5ertain other operations li!e gap filling, thinning and propping are required as
part of inter cultivation operations. "n crops li!e 5otton, 1addy, the gap filling
is done in missing areas of the planted main field to maintain optimum
population .
• Li!e wise thinning is also practiced in direct sown crops li!e ?owar, 5hillies, to
avoid over crowding and to maintain uniform plant stand. "n crops li!e
Sugarcane,betelwine, (rapes propping is necessary to support the main crop
establishment.
E9uip*ent
• 1loughs, blade harrow and weeders.
• <eeding 2 <eeders ' Meesala (unta!a *, Metla (unta!a, -anthi, Star4
weeder, ?apanese rotary weeder.
@arthing 3p 2 5ountry plough, Spade.
-arvesting
• "t is an operation of cutting, pic!ing, pluc!ing, digging or combination of
these for removing the useful part or economic end product, part from the
plant.
Ti*e
• 5rops can be harvested at physiological maturity or at harvest maturity. 5rop
is considered to be at physiological maturity when the translocation of
photosynthates are stopped to economic part. "f the crop is harvested early,
the produce contain high moisture and more immature grains.
• The yields will be low due to unfilled grains. Late harvesting results in
shattering of grains, germination even before harvesting during rainy season
and brea!age during processing. ,ence, harvesting at correct time is
essential to get good quality of grains and higher yields.
Methods
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• ,arvesting is done by either manually or by mechanical.
Manuall)
• Manual harvesting is practiced by cutting crop with sic!le or !nife. "n some
crops li!e Sugarcane, Millets, 1addy the crop is cut with sic!les and !nives.
• "n some crops li!e (roundnut, tuber crops the plants are pulled and economic
parts are separated. "n other crops li!e 5otton, 5hillies, and fruits the pic!ing
is practices to remove the economic parts li!e !appas, pods and fruits etc.
Mechanicall)
• The combines are used to perform several operations such as cutting the
crop, separating the grain from straw, cleaning the grain from chaff and
transporting grains to the storage tan!. /ow a days the harvesting is
e.clusively for harvesting crops li!e 1addy and threshing paddy are used.
Machines are now available for separating pods from the plants and also for
shelling pods 'decorticators* in respect to (roundnut crop.
• Li!ewise machines are available for threshing sunflower heads, shelling of
castor capsules and sowing of grain.
!r)ing and (rocessing
• -rying is a process by which moisture content from grain is reduced to safe
limit. -rying is done either by using solar energy or by artificial heating.
• 1rocessing is the conversion of the produce into a more finished condition
before it is offered for sale.
Cleaning
• The removal of foreign and dissimilar material by washing, screening, hand4
pic!ing, aspiration or any other mechanical means is !nown as cleaning. "t is
required to maintain the quality of the produce.
E9uip*ent
• ,arvesting2 Sic!le, !nife, combines, harvesters
• Threshing2 &ulloc!s, Tractors, and -ecorticators etc.
• -rying, -ryers.
(ost -arvest Field Manage*ent
• After harvest of the crop, the remnants of the plant vi. Straw, stubbles,
leaves, etc. are ploughed into soil to decompose, there by providing source of
organic matter for the ne.t season crop.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• "n some places the floc!s of sheep are housed 'penning* during night time.
So that the e.creta is collected on the field which is also a good source of
organic nutrients.
• The left over stubbles, plant residues in crops li!e 5otton, 5hillies, Maie,
Sunflower etc. may be burnt as part of soil steriliation as to reduce
population of harmful microbes and soil dwelling insect pests.
• "n crops li!e 1addy the stubbles may be removed by ploughing after harvest
to eliminate hibernating stem borer population. #ield bunds may be trimmed
to avoid hibernating grass hopper egg masses.
H"r!&#$'( "'- Y&0-:
T:e o$c:&$d 0&$0 3e&$*ng %$om 0*-: 1e&$ onw&$d0 &nd :e econom*c l*%e o% & m&ngo $ee
e-ceed0 (! 1e&$0.
Y*eld o% %$.*0 /&$*e0 con0*de$&3l1 &cco$d*ng o :e /&$*e1< cl*m&*c cond**on0< =l&n
=o=.l&*on ec. On &n &/e$&ge< :e 1*eld $&nge0 %$om ! o 5 L&c$e. G$&%ed =l&n0 0&$
3e&$*ng e&$l1.
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SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED

/)=.&)%AT,*% *2 MA%0* */-'A/1
In gene$&l< ,>8,! 1e&$0 old m&ngo $ee0 e-:*3* decl*ne *n %$.* 1*eld 3ec&.0e o% den0e &nd
o/e$c$owded c&no=1. T:e $ee0 do no ge =$o=e$ 0.nl*g: $e0.l*ng *n dec$e&0ed
=$od.c*on o% 0:oo0. New eme$g*ng 0:oo0 &$e we&k &nd &$e .n0.*&3le %o$ %lowe$*ng
&nd %$.**ng. :e =o=.l&*on o% *n0ec0 &nd =e00 3.*l0 .= &nd :e *nc*dence o% d*0e&0e0
*nc$e&0e0 *n 0.c: o$c:&$d0. T:e0e .n=$od.c*/e $ee0 c&n 3e con/e$ed *no =$od.c*/e
one0 31 =$.n*ng w*: :e ec:n*C.e de/elo=ed & :e In0*.e.
Ine$m*ngl*ng< d*0e&0ed &nd de&d 3$&nc:e0 &$e $emo/ed. T:e$e&%e$ .nde0*$&3le 3$&nc:e0
o% .n=$od.c*/e $ee0 &$e m&$ked. A :e end o% )ecem3e$< :e0e m&$ked 3$&nc:e0 &$e
3e:e&ded & 1.! o ".> mee$ %$om d*0&l end &nd :e c. =o$*on0 &$e =&0ed w*: co==e$
o-1c:lo$*de 0ol.*on. ).$*ng M&$c:8A=$*l< & n.m3e$ o% new 0:oo0 eme$ge &$o.nd c.
=o$*on0 o% :e =$.ned 3$&nc:e0. Onl1 2 o 1> :e&l:1 &nd o.w&$d g$ow*ng 0:oo0 &$e
$e&*ned & =$o=e$ d*0&nce 0o :& & good %$&me8wo$k *0 de/elo=ed *n :e %ollow*ng 1e&$0.
T:e0e $e4./en&ed $ee0 &$e %e$*l*?ed w*: ".! kg .$e&< (.> kg 0*ngle 0.=e$=:o0=:&e &nd
1.! kg m.$*&e o% =o&0: =e$ =l&n. T:e :&l% do0e o% %e$*l*?e$0 *0 &==l*ed *n :e mon: o%
Fe3$.&$1 &nd :e o:e$ :&l% & :e end o% H.ne. :e =l&n0 &$e *$$*g&ed & &n *ne$/&l o% 1!
d&10 e0=ec*&ll1 *n :e mon:0 o% A=$*l< M&1 &nd H.ne %o$ :e&l:1 g$ow: o% new 0:oo0.
In :e %*$0 week o% H.l1 1!> kg o% com=o0 =e$ $ee *0 &l0o &==l*ed. Unw&ned eme$g*ng
new 0:oo0 &$e $eg.l&$l1 $emo/ed o m&*n&*n :e $ee c&no=1 &nd &/o*d*ng $ec$owd*ng
o% :e 3$&nc:e0. I &l0o :el=0 *n ge*ng =$o=e$ no.$*0:men o $e&*ned 0:oo0. A%e$ wo
1e&$0 o% =$.n*ng new 0:oo0 come *no 3e&$*ng &nd :e 1*eld o% %$.* *nc$e&0e0 g$&d.&ll1.
T:.0< old &nd .n=$od.c*/e $ee0 &$e con/e$ed *n o =$od.c*/e one0.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
77
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
MARKETING OF MANGO
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
78
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
0/A1,%0
G$&d*ng *0 m&*nl1 3&0ed on :e 0*?e< colo.$ &nd m&.$*1 o% :e %$.*0. W:*le g$&d*ng<
0m&lle$ %$.*0 &$e 0e=&$&ed %$om :e l&$ge$ one0 *n o$de$ o &c:*e/e .n*%o$m $*=en*ng.
Imm&.$e< o/e$$*=e< d&m&ged &nd d*0e&0ed %$.*0 &$e d*0c&$ded *n :e =$oce00 o% g$&d*ng.
T:e %$.*0 &$e gene$&ll1 :&$/e0ed e&$l1 *n :e 0e&0on & & =$e8m&.$e 0&ge o c&=.$e
e&$l1 m&$ke. S.c: %$.*0 &$e $*=ened 31 .n*%o$ml1 d*==*ng *n +!> ==m. e:$el @1.2ml.Ll.A
*n :o w&e$ & !"N"> C %o$ ! m*n.e0. w*:*n ,82 d&10 .nde$ &m3*en cond**on0. M&.$e
%$.*0 &$e $*=ened w*: lowe$ do0e0 o% e:$el %o$ .n*%o$m colo.$ de/elo=men.
5A-:,%0
M&ngo %$.*0 c&n 3e =&cked *n :$ee w&10J
• <ith stems removed!% I% :e 0em0 &$e $emo/ed< *n**&l 0=.$ o% 0&= wo.ld
3.$n :e %$.*< le&/*ng & 3lem*0: :& w*ll de/elo= d.$*ng 0o$&ge &nd $&n0=o$.
S&= 3.$n0 m.0 3e &/o*ded. T:e 0em0 0:o.ld 3e cl*==ed 0:o$< w:*le :old*ng :e
%$.* w*: :e 0em end down. F$.*0 c&n 3e =l&ced on :e de80&==*ng 3enc: &nd
&llow :em o d$&*n %o$ ">8(> m*n.e0 .n*l :e 0&= %low :&0 0o==ed.
• <ith stem attached! $!&e "h'2+1 e )!9e/ ,h#+e h!/1+#/0 )he"e
*&2#)" "' )h!) ")e4" !&e /') !$$#1e/)!++3 &'9e/.
• Telescopic tray of >?@ABC@AD@? mm! T:e0e $&10 &$e $o3.0 &nd
=$oec %$.*0 well. A =l&0*c c.= *n0e$< c&lled & =l*- l*ne$< *0 .0ed< w:*c: &c0 &0 &
=&ck*ng g.*de &nd &l0o One00D :e %$.*. Fo$ 3ee$ look*ng< %$.*0 c&n 3 e =l&ced
w*: 0em end down &nd con/e- c.$/e .=. T:*0 =o0**on &l0o =$e/en0 &n1 0&= :&
oo?e0 &%e$ :e %$.* :&0 3een =&cked %$om 0=o*l*ng :e &==e&$&nce o% :e %$.*.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
79
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Gene$&ll1< wooden 3o-e0 &$e .0ed %o$ =&ck*ng &nd $&n0=o$&*on o% m&ngo %$.*0.
Unde$ d1n&m*c $&n0=o$ cond**on0< n&*l0 come o. d.e o /*3$&*on &nd =.nc.$e :e
%$.*0< w:*c: $e0.l *n 3$.*0*ng< dec&1 &nd le00 =$*ce $e&l*?&*on o% %$.*0. C&$on
%*3e$3o&$d 3o-e0 o% ! kg &nd 1> kg 0:o.ld 3e .0ed o &/o*d :e n&*l*ng =$o3lem0. A0
c.0:*on*ng m&e$*&l %o$ :e =&ck&g*ng o% %$.*0< low8den0*1 =ol1e:1lene @L)#EA l*n*ng
:&d 3een %o.nd 3ene%*c*&l &0 * m&*n&*n0 :.m*d*1< w:*c: $e0.l0 *n le00e$ 0:$*nk&ge
d.$*ng 0o$&ge. W$&==*ng o% %$.*0 *nd*/*d.&ll1 @Un*=&ckA w*: new0=&=e$ o$ *00.e =&=e$
&nd =&ck*ng *n :one1com3 0$.c.$e :el=0 *n ge*ng o=*m.m $*=en*ng w*: $ed.ced
0=o*l&ge.
TRANSPORTATION
A%e$ :&$/e0*ng< %$.*0 &$e :&nd8=&cked *n 0*ngle l&1e$ %*3e$3o&$d $&10. Fo$ l&$ge$ %$.*0<
d*%%e$en de=: o% $&10 0:o.ld 3e .0ed. T$&10 0:o.ld 3e =&cked *n :e m&nne$ 0o :&
%$.*0 :old e&c: o:e$ %*$ml1 *n =l&ce< w*: no mo/emen w:en :e l*d *0 clo0ed. A
c&$on c&n lo0e &$o.nd ,>> g *n $&n0* $e0.l*ng *n & /e$1 loo0e =&ck & :e m&$ke.
A%e$ $&n0* & 0&nd&$d c&$on 0:o.ld we*g: '.! o + kg.
STORAGE
One o% :e mo0 *m=o$&n =$o3lem0 *n :e %$.* *nd.0$1 *0 :&< *n gene$&l< :e =e$*od
w:en :e m&$ke dem&nd *0 :e g$e&e0 *0 no .0.&ll1 :e =e$*od w:en :e =$od.c*on *0
:e :e&/*e0. In :e l&e$ =e$*od< 0.$=l.0e0 %&$ e-ceed :e o%%8&ke c&=&c*1 o% :e .0.&l
m&$ke0. T:*0 *0 =&$*c.l&$l1 0o *n m&ngo w:e$e $eg.l&$< &nn.&l c$o=0 &$e 0o $&$e :& *n
:e 1e&$0 o% :e&/1 c$o=0< :e g$owe$0 &$e o%en %o$ced o $e0o$ o d*0$e00 0&le0. Long
*me 0o$&ge .nde$ 0.c: cond**on0 *0 *ne/*&3le. F.$:e$< w*: :e e-=&n0*on o% %$.*
=$oce00*ng *nd.0$1< 0o$&ge *0 3ecom*ng &n *m=o$&n %&co$ *n :e o=e$&*on o% :e
=$oce00*ng =l&n & & .n*%o$m $&e.
Cold 0o$&ge &nd &==l*c&*on o% 0k*n co&*ng0 o con$ol :e $*=en*ng =$oce00e0 &nd $ed.ce
&g*ng &nd w&e$ lo00 :&/e 3een *n/e0*g&ed *n m&ngo *n Ind*& *n :e =&0 wo dec&de0< o
de/elo= e%%*c*en 0o$&ge =$&c*ce0. K*$=&l S*ng: e &l @5A %o.nd :& :e o=*m.m
em=e$&.$e %o$ cold 0o$&ge o% To&=.$* @9&ng&lo$&A m&ngoe0 w&0 ,"P,!Q F & 2!P5> =e$
cen R.7.< :e 0o$&ge l*%e 3e*ng 0e/en week0. Al:o.g: :e lo00 *n we*g: w&0 :e le&0 &
(!P(2QF< :*0 em=e$&.$e $&nge c&.0ed mo$e w&0&ge 31 low em=e$&.$e *n4.$1 &nd
%.ng.0 d*0e&0e0. Acco$d*ng o G&nd:* @1A %.ll1 m&.$e Al=:on0o m&ngoe0 co.ld 3e
0o$ed & ,!P,2QF %o$ 0e/en week0 3. 3elow :*0 $&nge< :e %$.* *0 *n4.$ed $e0.l*ng *n
%&*l.$e o $*=en =$o=e$l1 w:en 0:*%ed o $oom em=e$&.$e. M&:.$ &nd S.3$&m&n4&m @,A
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
80
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
*n/e0*g&ed :e e%%ec o% & %.ng*c*d&l w&- co&*ng on 9&d&m* @Al=:on0oA m&ngoe0. T:e
0.d1 w&0 m&de o% %$.*0 d*==ed *n &C.eo.0 0ol.*on0 o% %.ng*c*d&l w&- em.l0*on
con&*n*ng 1.+< "." &nd ".+ =e$ cen 0ol*d0 &nd ! =e$ cen o$:o8=:en1l8=:enol< &nd 0o$ed
& +5P2'QF &nd R.7. !!P2+ =e$ cen. T:e =:10*olog*c&l lo00 *n we*g: w&0 %o.nd o
dec$e&0e w*: *nc$e&0*ng C.&n**e0 o% 0ol*d0 *n :e w&- em.l0*on. A :e end o% "> d&10
0o$&ge< :e =e$cen&ge w&0&ge d.e o d*0e&0e w&0 0*gn*%*c&nl1 lowe$ *n w&- em.l0*on
w*: ".+ =e$ cen 0ol*d0. T:*0 $e&men *nc$e&0ed :e 0o$&ge l*%e *n non8$e%$*ge$&ed
0o$&ge &3o. !> =e$ cen. S*ng @1>A *n :*0 3ook :&0 $e/*ewed :e wo$k done on cold
0o$&ge o% m&ngoe0 *n Ind*& &nd & T$*n*d&d. T:e m&*n =o*n0 3$o.g: o. *n :e $e/*ew
&$e :& d*%%e$en /&$*e*e0 $eC.*$ed d*%%e$en 0o$&ge em=e$&.$e 3elow w:*c: c:*ll*ng
*n4.$1 occ.$$ed. F$.*0 ke= *n =e$%o$&ed =ol1e:1lene 3&g0 $*=ened /e$1 0e&d*l1 & low
em=e$&.$e 3. .n=&cked m&ngoe0 0.%%e$ed 3&dl1 %$om *mmed*&e $o*ng on $emo/&l
%$om cold 0o$&ge< d.e =$o3&3l1 o c:*ll*ng *n4.$1. Se/e$&l /&$*e*e0< %o.nd o:e$w*0e
C.*e 0.*&3le %o$ cold 0o$&ge 0:owed c:*ll*ng *n4.$1 & ,>P,!QF. Acco$d*ng o S*ng:
@1>A d*%%e$en /&$*e*e0 0:owed & /&$*&*on *n :e c$**c&l em=e$&.$e w:*c: l*e0 3eween
,>P,!QF &nd w&0&ge d.e o c:*ll*ng m&1 3e &/o*ded 31 kee=*ng :e %$.*0 &3o/e :*0
$&nge.
MA/:)T,%0
M&$ke*ng o% :e =$od.ce *0 m&*nl1 con$olled 31 *ne$med*&$*e0 l*ke
W:ole0&le$0 &nd comm*00*on &gen0.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
81
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
STUDY ON IMPROVING SHELF LIFE OF
MANGO
A :1=o3&$*c 0o$&ge 010em w&0 de/elo=ed o e/&l.&e :e 0o$&ge l*%e o% m&ngoe0 .nde$
$o=*c&l cond**on0 &k*ng *no con0*de$&*on :e =$e00.$e< em=e$&.$e &nd :.m*d*1 o%
0o$&ge cond**on0. T:e e%%ec0 o% :e0e /&$*&3le0 &0 well &0 =$e$e&men0 0.c: &0
=$ecool*ng &nd w&-*ng on :e $*=en*ng &nd C.&l*1 o% m&ngoe0 we$e e/&l.&ed 3&0ed on
%*$mne00< o&l 0ol.3le 0ol*d0< we*g: lo00< dec&1< c:lo$o=:1ll conen &nd 0k*n colo$
c:&nge.
T:e $e0.l0 $e/e&1ed :& low =$e00.$e 0o$&ge m&$kedl1 del&1ed :e $*=en*ng o% %$.*.
So$&ge =$e00.$e0 o% 1>> &nd '> $om 7g & 1(QC we$e %o.nd o 3e mo0 e%%ec*/e w:e$e
:e 0o$&ge l*%e o% m&ngoe0 w&0 e-ended .= o , week0. A em=&$&.$e o% ">QC w&0 &l0o
o30e$/ed o 3e e%%ec*/e %o$ low =$e00.$e 0o$&ge & =$e00.$e0 no lowe$ :&n 1!> mm 7g.
In :*0 c&0e :e 0o$&ge l*%e o% m&ngoe0 w&0 =$olonged o ".! week0. 7owe/e$< :e
C.&l*%1 o% 0o$ed %$.* w&0 lowe$ :&n & 1(oC All %$.*0 0o$ed & 0.3&1mo0=:e$*c
=$e00.$e & ">oC &nd 1(oC $e0=ec*/el1 $*=ed 1 o " d&10 &nd , o ! d&10 &%e$ :e1 we$e
$&n0%e$$ed o 0:el% l*%e & (1QC. T:e %$.*0 0o%ened 0lm*l&$l1< 3. %*$me$8%$.l0 we$e
o30e$/ed w:en 0o$ed & lowe$ =$e00.$e0. C:em*c&1 w&-*ng $e&men w&0
c&=&3le o% $e&*n*ng c:lo$o=:1ll .= o "> d&10 o% 0o$&ge 3. *n4.$ed :e 0k*n &%e$ ">
d&10 0o$&ge & :*g: concen$&*on w&- $e&men& &nd ndmded :e $*=en*ng =$oce00 o%
m&ngo &%e$ $emo/&1 o $oom em=e$&.$e cond**on0.
9$own colo$ dewIo=men on :e 0k*n d.$*ng 0o$&ge $e0.led *n &n .nde0*$&3le
&==e&$&nce on :e 0&m=le0.
#$ecool*ng $e&men w&0 %o.nd o 3e &n e%%ec*/e me:od o =$olong :e 0o$&ge l*%e. A &
(>QC =$ecool*ng em=e$&.$e< lo00 In %*$mne00< lo00 *n c:lo$o=:1ll< 0.g&$ &cc.m.l&*on<
*nc$e&0e *n =7< &nd we*g: lo00 w&0 o30e$/ed o 3e :*g:e$ :&n & 1!QC =$ecool*ng<
M&ngoe0 =$ecooled o 1!QC w*: low concen$&*on @3elow >.!MA c:em*c&l $e&men
we$e ke= %o$ .= o (> d&10 *n 0o$&ge w*:o. lo00 *n C.&l*1 &%e$ $*=en*ng.
RA00oc*&e #$o%e00o$ o% #o0 7&$/e0 Tec:nolog1 &nd V*0**ng F&c.l1 $e0=ec*/el1<
)*/*0*on o% Ag$*c.l.$&l &nd Food Eng*nee$*ng. A0*&n *n0*.e o% Tec:nolog1< 9&ngkok
1>!>1< T:&*l&nd.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
82
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
PACKAGING POLICY OF MANGO
Mango 1ac!aging
#armer$s mango orchards are often spread out over a wide area. -amage may occur when
mangoes are transported from the orchard to the pac!ing station or collection point. "n
"ndonesia, the pac!aging technique to prevent mechanical damage still uses bamboo bas!ets.
The ob)ective of this research was to develop a suitable pac!aging method for ,arumanis
mango for short4 and long4distance transportation. The pac!ing method tested for short4
distance transportation compared the traditional farmerItrader method 'a bamboo bas!et with
a capacity of +:48: !g* with a rigid plastic bas!et with a capacity of F: !g. #or long4distance
transport, bamboo bas!ets, cartons and rigid plastic bas!ets, each with a capacity of 79 !g,
were tested. Transportation was in truc!s with a capacity of ;::: !g, and the pac!ages were
piled into four layers. The tests were repeated si. times. &amboo bas!ets were of two !inds=
one without partitions and the other with a wood partition. #or short4distance transportation
'84;: !m*, bamboo bas!ets with a capacity of either +: !g or 8: !g, and rigid plastic bas!ets
with a capacity of +: !g, all caused mechanical damage.
5ardboard 5artons (ave &est 0esult
One4day monitoring after long4distance transportation '1asuruan4?a!arta* showed the least
mechanical damage when mango were transported in cardboard bo.es 'D G*, followed by
rigid plastic bas!ets '77G*, bamboo bas!ets with wood partitions '++G* and bamboo bas!ets
without partitions '8CG*, in that order. #or healthy fruits !ept in storage, there is no
difference between the four types of pac!aging, in terms of quality and storage life. The best
pac!aging method, especially for long4distance transportation, is cardboard cartons.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
83
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
BUYERS EXPECTATION
In :e 3&ckd$o= o% e-=eced 3.m=e$ m&ngo c$o= :*0 0e&0on< :e U&$ #$&de0:
go/e$nmen *0 keen o &.gmen m&ngo e-=o$0 %$om :e 0&e. To 0eek :e
coo=e$&*on o% *nd.0$1< :e U# Ag$*c.l.$&l M&$ke*ng 9o&$d @M&nd* #&$*0:&dA *0
o$g&n*0*ng & 3.1e$0D80elle$0D mee *n M.m3&* ne- mon:.
T:e mee o 3e :o0ed 31 M&nd* #&$*0:&d &nd U# S&e 7o$*c.l.$&l Coo=e$&*/e
M&$ke*ng Fede$&*on @7o%edA *n :e %*$0 week o% A=$*l w*ll 3e &ended 31 :e
co.n$1D0 o= m&ngo e-=o$e$0< =$*m&$*l1 3&0ed *n And:$& #$&de0: &nd M&:&$&0:$&.
EWe w*ll 0eek *n=.0 %$om e-=o$e$0 o :el= .0 *nc$e&0e m&ngo e-=o$0 %$om U# &nd
&l0o con0*de$ :e*$ dem&nd0 %o$ &cce=&nce<F #&$*0:&d d*$eco$ R&4e0: K.m&$ S*ng:
old 9.0*ne00 S&nd&$d.
Acco$d*ng o =$el*m*n&$1 e0*m&e0< m&ngo =$od.c*on *n U# *0 l*kel1 o o.c: &lmo0
(>><>>> onne0 :*0 0e&0on< .= %$om !><>>> onne0 l&0 1e&$. T:e 0&e =$od.ce0 (>>8
,>> /&$*e*e0 o% m&ngo &nd :e o&l &c$e&ge *0 o.ed & 1+<>>> :ec&$e0.
9e0*de0< ).00e:$* m&ngo< =$*m&$*l1 g$own *n :e M&l*:&3&d $eg*on o% L.cknow< :&0
3een $eg*0e$ed .nde$ :e Geog$&=:*c&l Ind*c&*on @GIA Ac.
T:e #&$*0:&d :&0 &l0o =$o=o0ed o 0e .= &n *$$&d*&*on =l&n *n L.cknow o %&c*l*&e
m&ngo e-=o$0 o :e USA.
EWe =l&n &n *$$&d*&*on =l&n *n L.cknow o 0&n**0e m&ngo me&n %o$ e-=o$ o :e
US. O.$ &==l*c&*on *0 =end*ng %o$ &==$o/&l 3e%o$e :e 9:&3:& Aom*c Re0e&$c:
Cen$e<F S*ng: *n%o$med.
I$$&d*&*on *0 & me:od o% 0e$*l*0*ng &nd d*0*n%ec*ng %ood .0*ng *on*0*ng $&d*&*on o
k*ll m*c$o8o$g&n*0m0 &nd *n0ec0< w:*c: &l0o *nc$e&0e0 *0 0:el% l*%e. M&ngo e-=o$ o
:e USA *0 0.34ec o *$$&d*&*on $e&men. T:e =l&n< l*kel1 o co0 R0 ! c$o$e< co.ld
3e .0ed %o$ d*0*n%ec*ng o:e$ %ood *em0 d.$*ng :e m&ngo le&n 0e&0on< S*ng: &dded.
Ind*&n m&ngo *0 m&*nl1 e-=o$ed o :e G.l% &nd So.: E&0 A0*&n co.n$*e0
*ncl.d*ng S*ng&=o$e. 7owe/e$< e-=o$0 %$om #&k*0&n &$e g*/*ng o.g: com=e**on o
:e dome0*c /&$*e*e0 d.e o *0 =$o-*m*1 o :e A$&3 wo$ld< w:*c: 0.30&n*&ll1 c.0
$&n0=o$&*on co00.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
84
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
FRUIT PROCESSING INDUSTRY OF MANGO
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
85
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
INTRODUCTION OF
FRUIT PROCESSING INDUSTRY
The installed capacity of fruits and vegetables processing industry has increased
from 7.7 million tonnes in ?anuary 799+ to F.7 million tonnes in F::C. The
processing of fruits and vegetables is estimated to be around F.FG of the total
production in the country. The ma)or processed items in the fruit and vegetable
segment are fruit pulps and )uices, fruit based ready4to4serve beverages, canned
fruits and vegetables, )ams, squashes, pic!les, chutneys and dehydrated vegetables.
Some recent products introduced in this segment include vegetable curries in
retortable pouches, canned mushroom and mushroom products, dried fruits and
vegetables and fruit )uice concentrates.

The fruits and vegetable processing industry is highly decentralied, and a large
number of units are in the cottage, household and small4scale sector, having small
capacities of up to F8: tonnes per annum. Since F:::, the food processing industry
has seen significant growth in ready4to4serve beverages, fruit )uices and pulps,
dehydrated and froen fruits and vegetable products, pic!les, processed mushrooms
and curried vegetables, and units engaged in these segments are e.port oriented.

Eporters 3f Fruit : Vegetables
"6uantit) in MT4 Value in /s Mn'


#$$;-$# #$$<-$= CA>/
6uantit) Value 6uantit) Value 6uantit) Value
-ried H 1reserved %egetables F:978D.E 8+D7.8 +87:+;.+ DC8D.8 7E.E 7F.8
Mango 1ulp DCD+8.7E F;7+.; 9:9EE.C +::E.C 8.E D.C
1ic!les H 5hutney +ED8E.9D 7F:+.; CD79+.F9 7F:8.E F:.7 :.7
Other 1rocessed #ruits H %egetables C7++F.+9 F:7D.; E:DC:.8 FD88.+ 9.C 7:.9
Total +E89E;.+ 77::8.D 8E99DC.D 7;CFD.F 78.F 9.9
.ource: Ministr) of Food (rocessing Industries4 Annual /eport #$$=-$?
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
86
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED

The domestic industry has to change its preference in favour of processed foods.
5onsumption of value added fruits and vegetables are low compared to the primary
processed foods, and fresh fruits and vegetables. The inclination towards processed
foods is mostly visible in urban centers due to a high purchasing power.

A remar!able push can be given to this sector by strengthening lin!ages between
farmers and food processors. The poor and wea! lin!age between farmers and
mar!ets, as well as, farmers and processing companies has brought about
inefficiencies in the supply chain and encouraged the involvement of middlemen
leading price rise to the products. The (overnment of "ndiaKs /ational Agriculture
1olicy envisages the participation of the private sector through contract farming and
land leasing arrangements which not only assures supply of raw material for
processing units, but also a mar!et for agriculture produce, accelerate technology
transfer and capital inflow into the agriculture sector.

"nnovative practices li!e contract farming in wheat practiced in Madhya 1radesh by
,industan Lever Ltd and by 1epsi #oods Ltd in 1un)ab for tomatoes, food grains,
spices and oilseeds are some successful e.amples of contract farming in "ndia, which
changed the farming landscape and promoted the cultivation of processable variety
of farm produce this will certainly power the fruits, vegetables and grain processing
industry. &esides such initiatives, fiscal incentives and ta. concessions will also give
impetus to the sector. The five4year 7::G ta. e.emption announced by the
(overnment in the finance year F::8 was one such incentive for upcoming fruits and
vegetable processing units.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
87
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
.o*e of the 7e) constraints identified b) the food processing industr)
include:
• 1oor infrastructure in terms of cold storage, warehousing, etc
• "nadequate quality control and testing infrastructure
• "nefficient supply chain and involvement of middlemen
• ,igh transportation and inventory carrying cost
• Affordability, cultural and regional preference of fresh food
• ,igh ta.ation
• ,igh pac!aging cost
In ter*s of polic) support4 the *inistr) of food processing has ta7en the
following initiatives:
• #ormulation of the /ational #ood 1rocessing 1olicy
• 5omplete de4licensing, e.cluding for alcoholic beverages
• -eclared as priority sector for lending in 7999
• 7::G #-" on automatic route
• @.cise duty waived on fruits and vegetables processing from F::: L :7
• "ncome ta. holiday for fruits and vegetables processing from F::; L :8
• 5ustoms duty reduced on freeer van from F:G to 7:G from F::8 L :C
• "mplementation of #ruit 1roducts Order
• "mplementation of Meat #ood 1roducts Order
• @nactment of #SS &ill F::8
• #ood Safety and Standards &ill, F::8
Apart fro* these initiatives4 the Centre has re9uested state >overn*ents to
underta7e the following refor*s:
• Amendment to the A1M5 Act
• Lowering of %AT rates
• -eclaring the industry as seasonal
• "ntegrate the promotional structure
-orticulture 2ased Industries "Fruit and Vegetable (rocessing'
Unde$ :*0< :e %ollow*ng 0c:eme0 &$e co/e$edJ
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
88
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
5lan
;.%o. ;cheme
!.). DCCC#
B@@@
/.). DCCC#
B@@@
!.). B@@@#
B@@D
1.
Assistance for setting upLe1pansionLup gradation of :ood
*rocessing industries
1.80 1.00 0.?8
/.
Assistance for manpower de"elopment in food processing
industries
?.00 /.00 /.<0
?.
,eneric Ad"ertising on processed foods and for pro"iding
mar$eting assistance
?.00 1.00 F..0
F.
Assistance for setting up of Demonstration >nitL*ilot
*ro3ect
/.00 0.?8 1.80
8. Assistance for 4trengthening of )ac$ward @in$ages 1.00 1.00 0.70
Total 5lan D@.?@ ?.E? D@.@?
8R# ' Cr)r&#9
%on#5lan
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
89
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
;.%o. ;cheme
!.).
DCCC#B@@@
/.).
DCCC#B@@@
!.).
B@@@#B@@D
1. 6ontinuous 0nspection of :ruit *roducts 0.8F 0.8F 0.88
/. (stablishment :ruit *roducts 6ontrol Drder 0.?? 0.?? 0.?<
?. 6onsultancy 4er"ice 6ell 0.0. 0.0. 0.08
Total %on#5lan @.CE @.CE D.@@
Total 5lan9%on#5lan DD.>E F.BG DD.@?
U'-&r $,& H)r$+.0$.r& >"#&- I'-.#$r&#, $,& <)00):'( #+,&1&# :&r& 1;0&1&'$&- -.r'( $,& @&"r 4222/7333:/
849 A###$"'+& <)r #&$$'( .;A&B;"'#)'A.; (r"-"$)' )< <))- ;r)+&##'( '-.#$r&#
T:e M*n*0$1 =$o/*de0 &00*0&nce %o$ 0e*ng .=Le-=&n0*on &nd mode$n*?&*on o% %ood
=$oce00*ng .n*0 *ncl.d*ng mode$n*?&*on o% =.l0e m*ll*ng .n*0. F*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce *0 *n
:e %o$m o% lo&nLg$&n8*n8&*d. ).$*ng 15558">>> &==$o/&l %o$ &00*0&nce :&0 0o %&$ 3een
&cco$ded o 1' .n*0. #l&n %.nd .*l*?&*on .nde$ :*0 0c:eme d.$*ng 155+81552 &nd 15528
1555 w&0 R0.(.!! c$o$e0 &nd R0.(.,' c$o$e0 $e0=ec*/el1.
879 A###$"'+& <)r M"';):&r D&!&0);1&'$ ' F))- Pr)+&##'( I'-.#$r&#
One o% :e com=onen0 o% :e 0c:eme $el&e0 o =$o/*d*ng &00*0&nce %o$ 0e*ng .= o%
Food #$oce00*ng ; T$&*n*ng Cen$e0 @F#TC0A *n $.$&l &$e&0. T:e 0c:eme en/*0&ge0
%*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce *n :e %o$m o% g$&n %o$ =.$c:&0e o% =l&n &nd m&c:*ne$1 &0 well &0
0eed c&=*&l. S.c: cene$0 c&n 3e 3o: 0*ngle =$od.c l*ne &nd m.l* =$od.c l*ne. W:*le
%o$ 0*ngle =$od.c l*ne< :e &00*0&nce *0 l*m*ed o R0.( l&k:0 @R0." l&k:0 %o$ =l&n &nd
m&c:*ne$1 &nd R0.1 l&k: %o$ 0eed c&=*&lA< %o$ m.l*=$od.c l*ne< * *0 R0.5.!> l&k:0
@R0.+.!> l&k:0 %o$ =l&n &nd m&c:*ne$1 &nd R0.".>> l&k:0 %o$ 0eed c&=*&lA. Cen$&l &nd
S&e Go/e$nmen O$g&n*?&*on0< Ed.c&*on&l ; Tec:n*c&l In0*.*on0< Non8Go/e$nmen
O$g&n*?&*on0 &nd Co8o=e$&*/e0 &$e el*g*3le %o$ &00*0&nce. ).$*ng 15558">>>< &00*0&nce
%o$ 0e*ng .= "> F#TC0 @5 0*ngle =$od.c l*ne &nd 11 m.l* =$od.c l*neA :&0 3een
$ele&0ed.
T:e 0c:eme &l0o en/*0&ge0 $&*n*ng o% =e$0on0 eng&ged *n $&d**on&l me& =$oce00*ng
&c*/*1< *n80e$/*ce wo$ke$0 &nd .nem=lo1ed =e$0on0. ).$*ng 15558">>> &00*0&nce :&0
3een e-ended o *n0*.e0 %o$ *m=&$*ng $&*n*ng o ,> c&nd*d&e0 on =o$k =$od.c*on<
=$oce00*ng &nd m&$ke*ng *n :e S&e o% A00&m.
T:e 0c:eme &l0o en/*0&ge0 %*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce %o$ *m=&$*ng $&*n*ng *n %lo.$ m*ll*ng
ec:nolog1. #l&n %.nd .*l*?&*on %o$ :*0 0c:eme d.$*ng 155+81552 &nd 155281555 w&0
R0.>.21 C$o$e0 &nd R0.".12 C$o$e0 $e0=ec*/el1.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
90
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
859 G&'&r+ "-!&r$#'( )' ;r)+&##&- <))-# "'- <)r ;r)!-'( 1"r%&$'(
T:e Sc:eme &*m0 & 3.*ld*ng &w&$ene00 &mong con0.me$0 &3o. :e &d/&n&ge0 o%
=$oce00ed %ood0 &nd :e*$ C.&l*1 &00.$&nce mec:&n*0m 3o: :$o.g: @&A gene$*c
&d/e$*0emen &nd =.3l*c*1 &nd @3A m&$ke =$omo*on c&m=&*gn %o$ new =$od.c m*- &nd
3$&nd n&me 0.==o$. ).$*ng :e 1e&$ 15558">>> &d/e$*0emen :$o.g: /&$*o.0 med*& *0
3e*ng .nde$&ken. #l&n %.nd .*l*?&*on %o$ :e 0c:eme d.$*ng 155281555 w&0 R0.>.5>
c$o$e.
869 A###$"'+& <)r #&$$'( .; )< -&1)'#$r"$)' .'$#A;0)$ ;r)*&+$
T:e 0c:eme en/*0&ge0 %*n&nc*&l 0.==o$ %o$ 0e*ng .= demon0$&*on .n*0 *n $e0=ec o%
new =$od.c0 :& &$e com*ng .=. F*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce *0 =$o=o0ed o 3e &cco$ded %o$
0e*ng .= 1>> m*n* =.l0e =$oce00*ng .n*0. #l&n %.nd .*l*?&*on d.$*ng 155281555 w&0
R0.>.(! c$o$e.
8E9 A###$"'+& <)r #$r&'($,&''( )< >"+%:"r- 0'%"(&#
T:e 0c:eme &*m0 & enco.$&g*ng :e conce= o% 3&ckw&$d l*nk&ge0 3eween :e
=$oce00o$0 &nd :e %&$me$0. T:e o34ec*/e o% :*0 0c:eme *0 o *nc$e&0e c&=&c*1
.*l*?&*on o% %$.*0 &nd /ege&3le =$oce00*ng &0 well &0 g$&*n &nd co&$0e g$&*n 31 en0.$*ng
$eg.l&$ 0.==l1 o% $&w m&e$*&l0 :$o.g: con$&c %&$m*ng. T:e %&$me$0 &$e en0.$ed
$em.ne$&*/e =$*ce0 31 c$e&*ng d*$ec l*nk&ge0 3eween %&$me$0 &nd =$oce00o$0. T:e
=$oce00*ng com=&n*e0 &$e $eC.*$ed o 0.==l1 :*g: C.&l*1 0eed0L%e$*l*?e$0L=e0*c*de0 &nd
ec:nolog1 o con$&ced %&$me$0 &long w*: nece00&$1 e-en0*on wo$k. T:e g$o.= o%
con$&ced %&$me$0 0:&ll no 3e le00 :&n "! *n n.m3e$. T:e %*n&nc*&l 0.==o$ .nde$ :*0
0c:eme *0 &0 g$&n *n :e %o$m o% $e*m3.$0emen .= o !M o% :e o&l =.$c:&0e0 m&de 31
=$oce00o$0 *n & g*/en 1e&$ l*m*ed o R0.1> l&k:0 =e$ 1e&$ %o$ & m&-*m.m =e$*od o% :$ee
1e&$0. ).$*ng 15558">>> &00*0&nce :&0 3een =$o/*ded o :$ee 0.c: .n*0 &nd & %ew o:e$
c&0e0 &$e .nde$ =$oce00. #l&n %.nd .*l*?&*on %o$ :*0 0c:eme d.$*ng 155+81552 ; 15528
1555 w&0 R0.>.,, c$o$e &nd R0.>.(! c$o$e $e0=ec*/el1.
FRUIT PROCESSING
F&2#)" h!5e "%e$#!+ "#0/#*#$!/$e )' h24!/ e#/0" !" %&')e$)#5e
*''1. The3 !&e &#$h "'2&$e '* 4#/e&!+ !/1 5#)!4#/" #/ 1#e). I/1#!
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
91
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
%&'12$e" ! 5!&#e)3 '* *&2#)" "2$h !" A%%+e= !'/+!= !/!/!= $#)&2"=
0&!%e"= 02!5!= (!$9*&2#)= +#)$h#= 4!/0' e)$. F&2#) !&e !5!#+!+e '/+3 *'& !
+#4#)e1 %e&#'1 12&#/0 )he "e!"'/ he/$e= )he3 /ee1 )' e %&e"e&5e1 *'&
$'/"24%)#'/ 12&#/0 '** "e!"'/. F&2#) !"e1 %&'$e""#/0 2/#)" !&e %2+%"=
e5e&!0e" $'/$e/)&!)e "+#$e"= *&'6e/ %&'12$)"= %#$9+e"= (!4 !/1 (e++3.
The &e$e/) 1e5e+'%4e/) #/ *&2#) %&'$e""#/0 !&e IDF %&'$e"" *'&
*&ee6#/0 ,h#$h &e72#&e +e"" )#4e )' *&ee6e= 1e5e+'%4e/) '* &e)'&)!+e
%'2$he" #/ %+!$e '* )#/ $!/ ,h#$h #4%&'5e1 %&'12$) 72!+#)3= !"e%)#$
%&'$e""#/0 *'& "2%e&#'& 72!+#)3 '* %&'12$)"= '"4')#$ %&'$e"" ,h#$h
&e4'5e" 30 )' 50 %e&$e/) ,!)e& ,#)h'2) he!)#/0 !/1 1e5e+'%4e/) '*
/e, %&'12$)" "2$h !" !'/+! !"e1 he&!+ %&'12$)"= '#+ +e"" %#$9+e=
1eh31&!)e1 &#%e 4!/0' "+#$e"= *&2#) !&= $e&e!+ *+!9e"= !3 *''1" !/1
+e/1". The&e !&e )&e4e/1'2" %'""##+#)#e" #/ e<%'&) 4!&9e). F&2#)
!"e1 e<%'&)!+e %&'$e""e1 %&'12$)" !&e %2+%= "+#$e"= $'/$e/)&!)e=
%',1e&= %#$9+e"= (!4= $'/*e$)#'/!&3 %&'12$)" "2$h !" $!/1#e1 *&2#)=
0+!6e1 *&2#)= )'**ee !/1 !'/+! !"e1 4e1#$#/!+ %&'12$)". The )e$h/#72e
*'& %&'$e""#/0 '* *&2#)" !&e 0#5e/
MANGO PROCESSING
M&ngo *0 :e k*ng &mong :e $o=*c&l %$.*0 &nd g$e&l1 $el*0:ed %o$ *0 0.cc.lence<
e-o*c %l&/o.$ &nd del*c*o.0 &0e. Ind*& *0 :e =$*nc*=le m&ngo g$ow*ng co.n$1 *n :e
wo$ld. T:e mo0 *m=o$&n m&ngo g$ow*ng 0&e0 &$e U&$ #$&de0:< And:$& #$&de0:<
9*:&$< We0 9eng&l< O$*00&< Ke$&l& &nd M&:&$&0:$& o:e$ m&ngo g$ow*ng 0&e0 *ncl.de
T&m*l N&d.< G.4&$&< K&$n&&k&< M&d:1& #$&de0: &nd #.n4&3.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
92
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
M&ngo =$oce00*ng *0 & $&d**on&l &c*/*1 &nd =$od.c0 l*ke =*ckle< c:.ne1< m.$&33& &$e
con0.med :$o.g:o. :e 1e&$. E/e$1 $eg*on :&0 *0 own &0e o$ l*k*ng &nd & c&$e :&0 o
3e
&ken o .nde$0&nd * &nd &cco$d*ngl1 :e $ec*=e :&0 o 3e %*n&l*0ed.
C)1;0"'+& :$, FPO "'- PFA A+$ # '&+&##"r@.
MARKET POTENTIAL
Ind*&n0 &$e %ond o% &3le en$*c:e$0< w:*c: &$e $eg.l&$l1 .0ed &long w*: :e m&*n co.$0e
&0
well &0 0n&ck0. A=&$ %$om *nd*/*d.&l :o.0e:old0< $e0&.$&n0< e&e$*e0< $o&d0*de d:&3&0<
cl.30< :o0el0< c&e$e$0 ec. &$e :e 3.lk con0.me$0. T:e$e &$e 0ome 3$&nded =$od.c0
&/&*l&3le *n :e m&$ke 3. :e1 &$e co0l1. T:e $e&l com=e**on wo.ld 3e %$om :e &ge8
old
=$&c*ce o% m&k*ng =*ckle0 o$ c:.ne10 o$ m.$&33& dome0*c&ll1. M&n1 Ind*&n
:o.0e:old0
m&ke :e0e *em0 d.$*ng :e 0e&0on. 9. :*0 =$&c*ce *0 g$&d.&ll1 d*0&==e&$*ng d.e o
c:&ng*ng l*%e01le0< :&00le0 o% m&k*ng :e0e *em0 &nd :e*$ &/&*l&3*l*1 :$o.g:o. :e
1e&$
%$om m&$ke. T:e$e &$e m&n1 /&$*&n0 o% :e0e =$od.c0 &nd w*: ce$&*n c:&nge *n :e
*ng$ed*en0< &0e d*%%e$0. 7ence< * *0 *m=e$&*/e o c&e$ o :e $eg*on&l =&l&e.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
I *0 /e$1 well 0&nd&$d*0ed. In c&0e o% =*ckle0< .n$*=e m&ngoe0 &$e w&0:ed &nd c. *no
0m&ll
=*ece0 &nd :en 0&l &nd .$me$*c =owde$ *0 &==l*ed on * &nd :en :e0e =*ece0 &$e 0.n8
d$*ed
%o$ co.=le o% :o.$0. T:en m&ngo =*ece0 &nd o:e$ *ng$ed*en0 l*ke me:* =owde$< 0=*ce0
ec.
&$e :o$o.g:l1 m*-ed w*: ed*3le o*l &nd %*n&ll1 =&ck*ng *0 .nde$&ken. M&ngo c:.ne1 *0
=$e=&$ed &%e$ w&0:*ng m&ngoe0 &nd c.*ng :em *no 0m&ll =*ece0. T:en :e1 &$e
cooked
w*: 0=*ce0 &nd &%e$ &dd*ng 0.g&$ &nd /*neg&$< * *0 =&cked. M.$&33& *0 =$e=&$ed %$om
=*ece0 o% m&ngo. T:e0e =*ece0 &$e 0o&ked *n lemon w&e$ %o$ co.=le o% :o.$0 &nd :en
w&0:ed. T:en :e1 &$e cooked w*: 0.g&$ 01$.= & &$o.nd '>8'!O C &nd =&cked. &long
w*:
0.g&$ 01$.= &%e$ cool*ng. Remo/&l o% 0eed &nd =$oce00 w&0e &cco.n %o$ (!M lo00.
CAPITAL INPUTS
L"'- "'- B.0-'(
T:e$e *0 no need o .nde$&ke con0$.c*on 31 =.$c:&0*ng l&nd. In0e&d< & $e&d1m&de
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
93
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
=$em*0e o% &$o.nd 1>> 0C.m$0. w*: " o$ ( $oom0 wo.ld 3e 0.%%*c*en %o$ =$od.c*on<
0o$&ge
&nd =&ck*ng. A =$o/*0*on o% R0. ".!> l&c0 *0 m&de.
M"+,'&r@
M&4o$*1 o% :e o=e$&*on0 &$e m&n.&l &nd :e$e%o$e< =$od.c*on c&=&c*1 *0 =$*m&$*l1
dee$m*ned 31 m&$ke. #$oce00*ng o% ' onne0 =e$ mon: %o$ & =e$*od o% 2 mon:0 wo.ld
$eC.*$e %ollow*ng %&c*l**e0J
M#+&00"'&).# A##&$#
O:e$ *em0 l*ke %.$n*.$e &nd %*-.$e0< 0o$&ge $&ck0< =&ck*ng &3le0 ec. 0:&ll 3e $eC.*$ed
%o$ w:*c: & =$o/*0*on o% R0.(!< >>>L8 *0 m&de
U$0$&#
To&l =owe$ $eC.*$emen 0:&ll 3e " 7# w:e$e&0 w&e$ $eC.*$ed %o$ w&0:*ng o% m&ngoe0
&nd
=o&3le &nd 0&n*&*on =.$=o0e0 0:&ll 3e &3o. 2>>85>> l$0. =e$ d&1. A$o.nd ( g&0
c1l*nde$0
0:&ll 3e $eC.*$ed e/e$1 mon:.
R": M"$&r"0#
T:e mo0 *m=o$&n $&w m&e$*&l w*ll 3e good C.&l*1 .n$*=e m&ngoe0. Mo0 o% :e &$e&0
o%
9*:&$ ; H:&$k:&nd =$od.ce m&ngoe0 &nd =$oc.$*ng &$o.nd ' onne0 e/e$1 mon: *0 /e$1
e&01. M&ngoe0 w*ll 3e &/&*l&3le %o$ &3o. ! mon:0 &nd 0ock %o$ $em&*n*ng ( mon:0
0:&ll
:&/e o 3e m&*n&*ned. #*ece0 o% m&ngoe0 0:o.ld 3e ke= *n 0&l &nd l*me w&e$ d.$*ng
:e
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
94
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
%&g8end &nd &%e$ d$1*ng :em< :e1 0:o.ld 3e =$e0e$/ed %o$ ( mon:0 o m&ke =*ckle &nd
c:.ne1. M.$&33& c&n 3e m&n.%&c.$ed d.$*ng 0e&0on onl1 &nd 0ock o% %*n*0:ed good0
0:o.ld 3e ke=. O:e$ m&e$*&l0 l*ke 0&l< 0=*ce0< ed*3le o*l< 0.g&$ ec. 0:&ll 3e &/&*l&3le
%$om
loc&l m&$ke. T:e 0&nd&$d =&ck*ng co.ld 3e !>> gm0. %o$ e&c: =$od.c &nd =$e%e$&3l1
%ood
g$&de =l&0*c 3ole0 0:o.ld 3e .0ed. O:e$ m&e$*&l0 l*ke l&3el0< co$$.g&ed 3o-e0< 3o-
0$&==*ng ec. 0:&ll 3e $eC.*$ed. #$o=e$ &$$&ngemen0 0:o.ld 3e m&de %o$ =&ck*ng
m&e$*&l0.
DETAILS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT
B.0-'(
A $e&d1m&de =$em*0e o% &$o.nd 1>> 0C.m$0. m&1 3e 3o.g:. T:e =$*ce *0 &ken &0
R0. ".!> l&c0.
M"+,'&r@
An e-=end*.$e o% R0. 5+<>>>L8 *0 e-=eced &0 e-=l&*ned e&$l*e$.
M#+&00"'&).# A##&$#
A =$o/*0*on o% R0.(!< >>>L8 *0 m&de .nde$ :*0 :e&d &0 n&$$&ed e&$l*e$.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
95
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Pr&01'"r@ C Pr&/);&r"$!& EB;&'#&#
T:e$e w*ll 3e ce$&*n =$e8=$od.c*on e-=en0e0 on $&/ell*ng< $eg*0$&*on< e0&3l*0:men
&nd
&dm*n*0$&*/e e-=en0e0< *ne$e0 d.$*ng *m=lemen&*on< $*&l $.n e-=en0e0 ec. A
=$o/*0*on
o% R0.,>< >>>L8 wo.ld &ke c&$e o% :e0e e-=en0e0.
W)r%'( C";$"0 R&F.r&1&'$#
T:e$e w*ll no 3e m.c: 0ock d.$*ng 0e&0on w:e$e&0 d.$*ng o%%80e&0on< :e$e w*ll 3e
0ock o% %*n*0:ed good0. Re&*l*ng w*ll 3e done w*: :e :el= o% 0m&ll $e&*le$0. 9&nk m&1
%*nd * d*%%*c.l o %*n&nce &0 =e$ 0&nd&$d no$m0. 7ence< * *0 &00.med :& :e 3&nk wo.ld
e-end com3*ned =$e &nd =o0 0&le0 %&c*l**e0 o% R0. !><>>>L8 &nd =$omoe$0 wo.ld
con$*3.e R0.!>< >>>L8 ow&$d0 m&$g*n
mone1.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
96
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
F*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce *n :e %o$m o% g$&n *0 &/&*l&3le %$om :e M*n*0$1 o% Food
#$oce00*ng
Ind.0$*e0< Go/. o% Ind*&< ow&$d0 e-=end*.$e on ec:n*c&l c*/*l wo$k0 &nd =l&n &nd
m&c:*ne$1 %o$ el*g*3le =$o4ec0 0.34ec o ce$&*n e$m0 &nd cond**on0.
PROFITABILITY CALCULATIONS
Pr)-.+$)' C";"+$@ C B.0-/.;
A0 &g&*n0 :e =$oce00*ng c&=&c*1 o% ' onne0 =e$ mon:< :e &c.&l .*l*0&*on *0
&00.med o
3e '!M *n :e %*$0 1e&$ &nd +!M :e$e&%e$.
S"0&# R&!&'.& "$ 433G
#$oce00*ng o% ' onne0 e/e$1 mon: wo.ld $e0.l *n =$od.c*on o% &3o. , onne0.
A00.m*ng
0ell*ng =$*ce o% R0. !><>>>L8 =e$ on %o$ e&c: =$od.c< o&l 0&le0 w*ll 3e R0. 1'.>> l&c0
d.$*ng
& =e$*od o% 2 mon:0.
R": C P"+%'( M"$&r"0# r&F.r&- "$ 433G
U$0$&#
To&l co0 o% .*l**e0 & 1>>M &c*/*1 le/el %o$ & =e$*od o% 2 mon:0 w*ll 3e R0. "><>>>L8.
S&00'( EB;&'#&#
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
97
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
A =$o/*0*on o% 1!M o% o&l 0&le0 *0 m&de ow&$d0 0ell*ng comm*00*on< $&n0=o$&*on<
=.3l*c*1< %$ee 0&m=l*ng< ec.

I'$&r&#$
Ine$e0 on e$m lo&n o% R0. (.'> l&c0 *0 c&lc.l&ed S 1"M =e$ 1e&$ &00.m*ng o&l
$e=&1men
*n , 1e&$0 *ncl.d*ng & mo$&o$*.m =e$*od o% 1 1e&$ w:e$e&0 *ne$e0 on wo$k*ng c&=*&l
lo&n
*0 com=.ed S 1,M e/e$1 1e&$.
D&;r&+"$)'
I *0 com=.ed on W)V 3&0*0 S 1>M on 3.*ld*ng &nd ">M on m&c:*ne$1 &nd
m*0cell&neo.0
&00e0.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
98
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
PROJECTED PROFITABILITY
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
99
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
LEVERAGES
F'"'+"0 L&!&r"(&
T E9ITLE9T
T 1.+' U 1.(1
T 1.(,
O;&r"$'( L&!&r"(&
T Con$*3.*onLE9T
T (.(1 U 1.(1
T ".!(
D&(r&& )< T)$"0 L&!&r"(&
T FLLOL
T 1.(, U ".!(
T >.!(
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
100
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
T:e IRR *0 &$o.nd 1+M.
S)1& )< $,& 1"+,'&r@ #.;;0&r# "r&
)el*g: Engg. Wo$k0< L&ne no. 2< A0&l& #.$&< Mo$&d&3&d8",,>>1.
Tel No. ",52(52L1'2+< F&-J "15,(+2
N&g=&l 9$o0.< C81"+< #:&0e II< M&1&=.$* Ind.0$*&l A$e&< New )el:*811>>',.
Tel No. "!,>>,>+L>"'(1
Flo$& Engg. Co$=o$&*on< "2 A< #:ool 9&.g< R&m=.$&< New )el:*811>>(!.
Tel No. "!,1!((!L5">
E&0end Engg. Com=&n1< 1+(L1< Go=&l l&* :&k.$ Rd.< Kolk&&8+>>>(!.
Tel No. "!++(,1'L'(",
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
101
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
M)#$ 1;)r$"'$ !"r$&# $,&r& #&"#)' "'- 1"'() ;r)-.+$#
T:e mo0 *m=o$&n /&$*e*e0 g$own *n d*%%e$en 0&e0 &nd :e*$ 0e&0on o%
:&$/e0 *0 g*/en *n T&3le 1.
T">0& 4. M"'() !"r&$&# "'- $,&r ,"r!&#$'( #&"#)'
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
102
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
8"9 C,&1+"0 C)1;)#$)' )< r;& <r.$
>!&#e)3= 4!)2&#)3= "#6e= "'#+ *e&)#+#)3= &e0#'/ !/1 "e!"'/
#/*+2e/$e )he $he4#$!+ $'4%'"#)#'/ '* )he *&2#). Be$!2"e '* )he
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
S%,%! V,"$!%0 H,"2!)%$n(
)!,)on
U))!& P&!1e"h D!"heh!&#
?h!2"!
+!/0&!
E2/e - E2+3
E2/e e/1 - E2+3 e/1
E2/e - E2+3
B#h!& F!6+# E2+3 - A202")
@e") Be/0!+ F!6+# E2+3 - A202")
A/1h&!
P&!1e"h
S,!&/!&e9h!
B!/e"h!/
M!&$h - A%&#+
A%&#+ - E2/e
M!h!&!"h)&! A+%h'/"' A%&#+ - E2/e
T!4#+/!12 Nee+24
B!/e"h!/
Se%)e4e& -
O$)'e&
A%&#+ - E2/e
G'! Fe&/!/1#/ A%&#+ - E2/e
G2(!&!) Be"!&
A+%h'/"'
M!3 - E2/e
A%&#+ - E2/e
O&#""! B!/0!/%!++#
(B!/e"h!/)
B!/0+'&! (T')!%2&#)
A%&#+ - E2/e
A%&#+ - E2/e
B!&/!)!9! A+%h'/"'
T')!%2&#
M!3 - E2+3
A%&#+ - E2+3
103
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
1#**e&e/$e" e),ee/ 5!&#e)#e"= '/+3 )he &!/0e '* 5!&#!)#'/ '* )he
%h3"#$!+ !/1 $he4#$!+ $'4%'/e/)" '* *&2#)" #" 0#5e/ #/ T!+e 2.
T">0& 7. C,&1+"0 +)1;)#$)' )< 1"'() <r.$#
Co19on!n% V,5#!
M'#")2&e 76 - 86 (:)
P2+% 50 - 70 (:)
T')!+ "'+2+e
"'+#1"
14 - 24 (:)
A$#1#)3 0.15 - 0.5 (:)
M#/e&!+" 0.4 - 0.6 (:)
>#)!4#/ A 4522 - 5200 IU
>#)!4#/ ? 30 -100 40
?!+'&#$ >!+2e 50I100 0
8>9 Pr)+&##'( )< r": 1"'()
R&w m&ngo %$.*0 &$e =$oce00ed *no /&$*o.0 =$od.c0 0.c: &0 0l*ce0<
=*ckle0< c:.ne1 &nd &mc:oo$. T:e =$oce00 %o$ :e0e &$e g*/en 3elowJ
>$8 S5$.!):
R&w m&ngo 0l*ce0 0e$/e &0 :e 3&0e =$od.c %o$ =*ckle0< c:.ne10 &nd &mc:oo$.
Sl*ce0 &$e =$e0e$/ed *n d*%%e$en w&10 .
S0+&# ' >r'&
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
104
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
R&w m&.$e m&ngo %$.*→W&0:*ng→Remo/*ng o% 0em→Sl*c*ng→C.*ng *no
0m&ll =*ece0 :$o.g: d*ce$→So$*ng o% =*ece0 *n cemened &nk .nde$ 3$*ne o% 1! =e$cen
0&l con&*n*ng c*$*c &c*d @"MA &nd &ce*c &c*d @"MA→M&*n&*n*ng :e 0&l =e$cen&ge 31
&dd*ng mo$e 0&l w*: *me o% 0o$&ge &nd co/e$*ng :e 0l*ce0 com=leel1 .nde$ :e 3$*ne.

The ')he& )e$h/#72e 4e/)#'/e1 e+', $!/ !+"' e
2"e1 *'& %&e"e&5#/0 )he "+#$e" *'& !'2) 3 4'/)h".
R&w m&ngo %$.*→W&0:*ng→Remo/*ng o% 0em→Sl*c*ngL C.*ng o% e*:e$
=eeled o$ .n=eeled %$.* o% de0*$ed :*ckne00→ )*==*ng o% 0l*ce0 *n =o&00*.m
me&3*0.l=:*e 0ol.*on @(>>==m o$ >.+gLl* o% w&e$A %o$ ! m*n.e0→)$&*n*ng o% 0l*ce0
&nd &*$ d$*ed→ M*-*ng w*: =owde$ed 0&l =$o=e$l1→ F*ll*ng *no %le-*3le
=o.c:e0Lcon&*ne$→ So$&ge %o$ &3o. ( o , mon:0→ U*l*?*ng %o$ m&k*ng de0*$ed
=$od.c0.
>$$8 P$.?5!):
P#$9+e" $!/ e %&e%!&e1 #/ 5!&#'2" ,!3" "2$h !" ,#)h
"!+)= ,#)h '#+ !/1 ",ee) %#$9+e.
5ickle with salt
R&+;&:
M&ngo 0l*ce0 1kg< S&l ">>g< C:*ll*e0 @=owde$A 1>g< Fen.g$eek 1>g< 9l&ck
=e==e$ 1>g< C&$d&mom !g< C.m*n 1>g< A0&%oe*d& !g< Clo/e @:e&d le00 ' *n n.m3e$A.
T!.n$@#!:
R&w m&ngo %$.*→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng w*: :e :el= o% =eele$ o $emo/e o.e$
g$een 0k*n→C.*ng *no , C.&$e$0 e*:e$ 31 m&c:*ne o$ m&n.&ll1→Remo/*ng 0one0→
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
105
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
C.$*ng m&ngo =*ece0 w*: 0&l .nde$ :e 0.n %o$ " 8 ( d&10→M*-*ng w*: &ll 0=*ce0→
So$&ge.
P$.?5! 7$% o$5
R&+;&:
M&ngo =*ece0 1kg< S&l 1">g< G&$l*c c:o==ed 1>>g< G*nge$ c:o==ed !>g<
Fen.g$eek =owde$ "!g< T.$me$*c =owde$ "!g< Red c:*ll*e0 "!g< 9l&ck =e==e$ (>g<
N*gell& 0eed 1!g< An*0eed =owde$ "!g< A0&%oe*d& "g< M.0&$d o*l (!>ml< Gl&c*&l &ce*c
&c*d 1>ml.
T!.n$@#!:
R&w m&ngo %$.*→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng w*: :e :el= o% =eele$ o $emo/e o.e$
g$een 0k*n→C.*ng *no , C.&$e$0 e*:e$ 31 m&c:*ne o$ m&n.&ll1→Remo/*ng ke$n&l→
C.$*ng m&ngo =*ece0 w*: 0&l .nde$ :e 0.n %o$ " 8 ( d&10→7e&*ng o*l &nd cool*ng→
M*-*ng 0=*ce0 *n l*le o*l→M*-*ng w*: m&ngo =*ece0→L*le :e&*ng→Add**on o%
gl&c*&l &ce*c &c*d→ F*ll*ng *no con&*ne$→ Add**on o% $em&*n*ng o*l→ C&==*ng→
So$&ge.
S:&&$ 1"'() ;+%0&

R!.$9!:
Sl*ced m&ngo 1kg< S&l 1">g< Red c:*ll*e0< C.m*n< C&$d&mom @l&$geA< An*0eed<
9l&ck =e==e$< Co$*&nde$ =owde$ 1>g e&c:< Clo/e ' *n n.m3e$< S.g&$ L 4&gge$1 !>>g.
T!.n$@#!:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
106
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
R&w m&.$e m&ngo→W&0:*ng→Remo/&l o% 0em→#eel*ng w*: :e :el= o%
=*ll&$→Sl*c*ng→Remo/&l o% ke$n&l→M*-*ng 0l*ce0 w*: 0&l→M*-*ng w*: 0=*ce0→
M*-*ng w*: 0.g&$→#&ck*ng *n cle&n 0$el*?ed 3ole0→C&==*ng→So$&ge.
89 C,.$'&@
The&e !&e ),' )3%e" '* 4!/0' $h2)/e3 #.e. ",ee) !/1
h').
S:&&$ +,.$'&@
R!.$9!:
R&w m&ngo g$&ed 0l*ce0 1kg< S.g&$ 1kg< S&l =owde$ !>g< On*on c:o==ed !>g<
G&$l*c c:o==ed 1!g< G*nge$ 0:$ed01>g< S=*ce0 @Red c:*ll*e0< c&$d&mom< c.m*n<
c*nn&mon< 3l&ck=e==e$ &nd &n*0eed =owde$ 1>g e&c:A V*neg&$ 12>ml.
T!.n$@#!:
M&.$e $&w m&ngo→W&0:*ng→Remo/&l o% 0em→#eel*ng o% g$een 0k*n→
G$&*ng *no %*ne 0l*ce0→Cook*ng 0l*ce0 *n l*le w&e$ %o$ 0o%en*ng→M*-*ng w*: 0.g&$
&nd 0&l→Allow o 0we& %o$ &n :o.$ @0o :& 0.g&$ &nd 0&l d*00ol/eA→7e&*ngLCook*ng
0lowl1→T1*ng &ll :e *ng$ed*en0 e-ce= /*neg&$ *n clo: 3&g0→#.*ng *n m*-.$e w:*le
cook*ng→#$e00*ng :e 0=*ce0 3&g occ&0*on&ll1 d.$*ng cook*ng→Cook*ng .= o 4&m
con0*0enc1→Remo/*ng 0=*ce0 3&g &%e$ 0C.ee?*ng :e e-$&c *n :e m*-.$e→Add**on
o% /*neg&$→ Cool*ng 0l*g:l1→ #&ck*ng *no cle&n 0$el*?ed 3ole0→ Cool*ng→
C&==*ngLSe&l*ng→So$&ge *n cool &nd d$1 =l&ce.
Ho%
R!.$9!:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
107
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
R&w m&ngo g$&ed 0l*ce0 1kg< S.g&$ >.!kg< S&l =owde$ !>g< G*nge$ 0:$ed !>g<
On*on c:o==ed +!g< G&$l*c c:o==ed ">g< Red c:*ll*e0 =owde$ 1!g< 9l&ck =e==e$ 1>g<
C.m*n 1>g< C&$d&mom 1>g< C*nn&mon 1>g< V*neg&$ 12> ml.
T!.n$@#!:
Me:od o% =$e=&$*ng :o c:.ne1 *0 =$ec*0el1 :e 0&me &0 :& %o$ 0wee m&ngo
c:.ne1. Onl1 =$o=o$*on o% 0ome o% :e *ng$ed*en0 o$ mo$e &nd 0.g&$ *0 le00 &0
com=&$ed o 0wee c:.ne1.
>$28 A1.oo" >D!0-",%!- ",7 1,n(o 9"o-#.%8:
R&w g$een m&ngo→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→Sl*c*ng @1"mm :*ckne00A→)ee=*ng *n
=o&00*.m me&3*0.l=:*e 0ol.*on @1.!MA %o$ ! m*n.e0→)$&*n*ng→)$1*ng *n 0.n o$
)e:1d$&*on & ,! o !>
>
C %o$ " :$0 @.=o ,M mo*0.$eA→ G$*nd*ng *no =owde$
@&mc:oo$A→#&ck*ng→So$&ge.
8+9 Pr)+&##'( )< r;& 1"'()
R*=e m&ngoe0 c&n 3e =$oce00ed *no 0e/e$&l =$od.c0 0.c: &0 M&ngo 0l*ce0 *n
01$.= m&ngo< =.l=< 3e/e$&ge0< 4&m< %$.* 3&$< m&ngo le&:e$< ce$e&l %l&ke0< S$&*ned 3&31
%ood< Sweeened m&ngo =owde$ &nd %$o?en =$od.c0.
89 C"''&- M"'() #0+&# ' #@r.;
F*$m $*=e m&ngoe0 o% 0.*&3le /&$*e1→So$*ng &nd g$&d*ng→W&0:*ng→
#eel*ng→C.*ng @" o , long*.d*n&l 0l*ce0 o% &==$o-*m&el1 eC.&l 0*?e→We*g:*ng→
F*ll*ng *no =l&*n A" o$ A"
1
L" *n c&n @!!> gL c&nA S1$.=*ng @:o 01$.= o% (! o ,>M o&l
0ol.3le 0ol*d 0$eng: P ''' g 0.g&$ L l*. o% w&e$ con&*n*ng >."!M c*$*c &c*d le&/*ng
:e&d 0=&ce >.( o >.! cmA→e-:&.0*ng @& 1>>
>
C %o$ + o 1> m*n.e0 o$ em=e$&.$e *n
:e cene$ o% :e c&n $e&c:e0 & le&0 &3o. +!
>
CA→Se&l*ng→#$oce00*ng @*n 3o*l*ng
w&e$ & 1>>
>
C %o$ "! m*n.e0 A" 0*?e o% c&n &nd (> m*n.e0 %o$ A"
1
L" 0*?e c&nA→
Cool*ng @& (+
>
CA→W*=*ng→L&3ell*ng→So$*ng.
89 C"''&- 1"'() ;.0;
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
108
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
T&+,'F.&:
#.l=1 /&$*e1 o% $*=e m&ngo→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→E-$&c*ng #.l= w*: :e :el=
o% =.l=e$→7omogen*?*ng @3lende$ o$ :omogen*?e$A→7e&*ng @2>
>
CA→F*ll*ng :o *no
0$el*?ed c&n0 @A"
1
L" 0*?eA→ Se&l*ng→ #$oce00*ng *n 3o*l*ng w&e$ %o$ (> m*n.e0→
Cool*ng @(+
>
CA→L&3ell*ng→So$*ng.
89 C"''&- 1"'() *.+&
R&+;&:
#.l= conen ,!M< o&l 0ol.3le 0ol*d0 1!M &nd &c*d*1 >.(M.
T&+,'F.&:
S.*&3le /&$*e1 o% %.ll1 $*=e m&ngoe0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→C.*ng→
#.l=*ng L H.*ce e-$&c*on→M*-*ng w*: 01$.= 0ol.*on @0.g&$ V w&e$ V c*$*c &c*d<
:e&*ng 4.0 o d*00ol/e :e 0.g&$ &nd %*le$*ng cle&$ 01$.=A→7e&*ng 2> o 2!
>
C→F*ll*ng
:o *no 0$el*?ed c&n0 @A"
1
L" 0*?eA→ #$oce00*ng *n 3o*l*ng w&e$ %o$ "! m*n.e0→
Cool*ng @(+
>
CA→L&3ell*ng→So$*ng.
>$28 R!,-04%o4 )!"2! 1,n(o :!2!",(! >RTS8

R&+;&:
M&ngo 4.*ce 1>M< To&l 0ol.3le 0ol*d0 1" o 1!M< Ac*d*1 >.(M< SO
"
+> ==m.
T!.n$@#!:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
109
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
S.*&3le /&$*e*e0 o% $*=e m&ngo→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng &nd c.*ng→#&00*ng
:$o.g: =.l=*ng m&c:*ne→#.l=→M*-*ng w*: 01$.= 0ol.*on @S.g&$ V w&e$ V c*$*c
&c*d< :e&*ng 4.0 o d*00ol/e :e 0.g&$ 0$&*n*ng &nd %*le$*ng cle&$ 01$.=A→Add**on o%
=$e0e$/&*/e→9ol*ng→C$own co$k*ng→#&0e.$*?&*on & +!
>
C %o$ (> m*n.e0→A*$
cool*ng→So$*ng.
8!9 M"'() '&+$"r

R!.$9!:
#.l= conen ">M< To&l 0ol.3le 0ol*d0 1!M &nd &c*d*1 >.(M.
T!.n$@#!:
S.*&3le /&$*e*e0 o% $*=e m&ngo→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng &nd c.*ng→#&00*ng
:$o.g: =.l=*ng m&c:*ne→#.l=→M*-*ng w*: 01$.= 0ol.*on @S.g&$ V w&e$ V c*$*c
&c*d< :e&*ng 4.0 o d*00ol/e :e 0.g&$ 0$&*n*ng &nd %*le$*ng cle&$ 01$.=A→Add**on o%
=$e0e$/&*/e→9ol*ng→C$own co$k*ng→#&0e.$*?&*on & 2> o 2!
>
C %o$ (> m*n.e0→
A*$ cool*ng→So$*ng.
6vi8;Huash
R!.$9!:
#.l= "!M< To&l 0ol.3le 0ol*d0 ,!M< Ac*d*1 1."M< SO
"
(!> ==m.
T!.n$@#!:
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
110
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
R*=e %$.*→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→#&00*ng :$o.g: =.l=*ng m&c:*ne→#.l=→
M*-*ng w*: 01$.= 0ol.*on @S.g&$ V w&e$ V c*$*c &c*dA→Add**on o% =$e0e$/&*/e→
9ol*ng→C&==*ng→L&3ell*ng→So$*ng.
8!9 J"1
R!.$9!:
S.g&$ >.+! kg< C*$*c &c*d " g< w&e$ 1>> ml.
T!.n$@#!:
R*=e %$.*→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→C.*ngLg$&*ng→Seed $emo/&l→#.l=→
Add**on o% 0.g&$ &nd w&e$→Cook*ng .=o de0*$ed con0*0enc1→Add**on o% c*$*c
&c*d→H.dg*ng o% end =o*n @Tem=e$&.$e 1>!
>
C o$ TSS '2 o +>MA→F*ll*ng :o *no
cle&n &nd 0$el*?ed 3ole0→Cool*ng→C&==*ng L Se&l*ng→So$*ng.
8!9 T)<<&&
R!.$9!:
M&ngo =.l= 1 kg< S.g&$ >.'! kg< Gl.co0e >.2! kg< Sk*m m*lk =owde$ 1+> g<
:1d$ogen&ed %& 1>> g.
T!.n$@#!:
M&ngo =.l=→Concen$&*ng @Se&m 4&ckeed keleA o &3o. one :*$d o% *0
o$*g*n&l /ol.me→ M*-*ng w*: o:e$ *ng$ed*en0→ Cook*ng con*n.e o & de0*$ed
con0*0enc1→ T$&n0%e$$*ng cooked m&00 *n $&1 :&/*ng 0moo: 0.$%&ce &nd 0me&$ed
l*g:l1 w*: %&→S=$e&d*ng o% =$od.c *no & :*n 0:ee &3o. >.! cm :*ck→Cool*ng o
0e→C.*ng o% 0ol*d 0:ee *no 0:&=e o% o%%ee0→W$&==*ng *n *00.e =&=e$→#&ck*ng *n
&*$ *g: con&*ne$ @H&$L*n0A→So$*ng.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
111
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
8B9 Fr.$ >"r
R&+;&:
M&ngo =.l= 1kg< S.g&$ 1!> g< C*$*c &c*d 1 g< KMS 1 g.
T&+,'F.&:
#.l=1 /&$*e1 o% $*=e m&ngoe0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→#.l=*ng→M*-*ng w*:
0.g&$< c*$*c &c*d &nd KMS→ S=$e&d*ng on $&10→ )$1*ng *n c$o00 %low &*$ d$1e$→
C.*ng *no 0m&ll 3&$0→W$&==*ng *n cello=:&ne =&=e$→#&ck*ng *n =ol1:ene =o.c:e0 L
0.*&3le con&*ne$0→So$*ng.
8B9 L&"$,&r 8A1":"$9

R&+;&:
M&ngo =.l= 1 kg< C*$*c &c*d ( g< Sod*.m me&3*0.l=:*e >.! g.
T&+,'F.&:
M&ngo =.l=→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→E-$&c*on o% =.l=→7omogen*?&*on @In
3lende$A→Add**on o% c*$*c &c*d &nd SMS 31 d*00ol/*ng 0e=&$&el1 *n 0m&ll C.&n*1 o%
w&e$ o :e =.l=→M*-*ng :o$o.g:l1→#o.$*ng o% =.l= o 1 cm :*ckne00 *n $&10
0me&$ed w*: 3.e$→)$1*ng *n & d$1e$→A%e$ d$1*ng &no:e$ l&1e$ o% 1 cm :*ckne00 o%
:e =.l= m&1 3e =o.$ed on *→)$1*ng &g&*n .= o ! 8 2M mo*0.$e→C.*ng o% le&:e$
*no 0m&ll L 0.*&3le =*ece0→#&ck*ng *n =ol1:ene =o.c:e0→So$*ng *n & cool &nd d$1
=l&ce.
8B9 C&r&"0 <0"%&#
R!.$9!:
M&ngo =.l= 1 kg< W:e& %lo.$ @m&*d&A 1>> g< S.g&$ '> g< Gl.co0e '> g<
C&lc*.m c&$3on&e 1 g< Sod*.m 3*c&$3on&e 1 g< #ec*n >.>' g.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
112
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
T!.n$@#!:
R*=e m&ngo %$.*0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→E-$&c*on o% =.l=→7e&*ng o
2> o 2!
>
C &nd =7 &d4.0ed o !.>→M*-*ng w*: w:e& %lo.$ =&0e @#$e=&$ed 31 cook*ng
w*: ( *me0 *0 we*g: o% w&e$ & & em=e$&.$e o% +! o 2>
>
C %o$ " m*n.e0A→7e&*ng
o% m*-.$e o & em=e$&.$e o% 2> o 2!
>
C→ Add**on o% o:e$ *ng$ed*en0 @S.g&$<
gl.co0e< C&lc*.m c&$3on&e &nd 0od*.m 3*c&$3on&eA→M*-*ng :o$o.g:l1→Cook*ng→
Add**on o% =ec*n *n :e %o$m o% "M 0ol.*on *n w&e$→)$1*ng *n & do.3le d$.m d$1e$→
Fl&ke0→Second&$1 d$1*ng @In c&3*ne d$1e$A→#&ck*ng *n :e$me*c&ll1 0e&led clo0ed *n
o$ gl&00 con&*ne$→So$*ng.
8B9 C.#$"r- ;):-&r 8S$r"'&- >">@ <))-9
R!.$9!:
M&ngo =.l= 1> kg< S.g&$ !>> g< Sk*m m*lk =owde$ !>> g< Co$n 0&$c: "!> g<
Sod*.m 3*c&$3on&e o $ed.ce :e =7 o% :e =.l= !.'.
T!.n$@#!:
R*=e m&ngoe0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→#.l= e-$&c*on→S*e/*ng =.l=→M*-*ng
w*: 0.g&$ &nd 0k*m m*lk =owde$→Add**on o% gel&*n*?ed 0&$c: @31 cook*ng :e co$n
0&$c: w*: w&e$8 , *me0 :e we*g: o% co$n 0&$c:A→M*-*ng :o$o.g:l1→#&00*ng
m*-ed m&00 :$o.g: :e :omogen*0e$ o m&ke * %*ne→ )$.m d$1*ng @do.3le d$.m
d$1e$A→F.$:e$ d$1*ng *n c&3*ne d$1e$ @&3o. 181.!M m&00A→#owde$*ng→#&ck*ng *n
&gge$8 o= *n0→So$*ng.
>A$$$8 F"oB!n )5$.!):
F*$m $*=e %$.*0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→Sl*c*ng→F*ll*ng *no =ol1:ene 3&g→
Co/e$*ng w*: ,>
>
9$*- 0.g&$ 01$.= 0ol.*on con&*n*ng >.(M c*$*c &c*d &nd >.!M
&0co$3*c &c*d L /*&m*n C→ Se&l*ng o% =ol1:ene 3&g→ #l&c*ng *n w&-ed c&$on0→
F$ee?*ng & 8,>
>
C→So$*ng & 8">
>
C.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
113
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED

8B!9 Fr)H&' ;.0;:
R*=e m&ngoe0→W&0:*ng→#eel*ng→#.l=*ng→#.l=→Ad4.0*ng 3$*- o ">
&nd &c*d*1 >.!M→ 7e&*ng o 2!
>
C→ Cool*ng & $oom em=e$&.$e→ F*ll*ng *no
=ol1:ene 3&g→Se&l*ng =l&c*ng 3&g *n w&-ed c&$on→F$o?en & 8 ,>
>
C→So$*ng & 8">
>
C.
/ S.!1! &o" T!.no5o(0 U9(",-,%$on
/ E)%,:5$)1!n% Mo-!"n$B,%$on &o" Foo-
P"o.!))$n( In-#)%"$!)
: T$) S.!1! .o2!") %! &o55o7$n( ,.%$2$%0
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
114
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Se*ng .=Le-=&n0*onLmode$n*?&*on o% %ood =$oce00*ng *nd.0$*e0 co/e$*ng &ll
0egmen0 /*? %$.*0 ; /ege&3le< m*lk =$od.c< me&< =o.l$1< %*0:e$1< o*l 0eed0 &nd
0.c: o:e$ &g$*8:o$*c.l.$&l 0eco$0 le&d*ng o /&l.e &dd**on &nd 0:el% l*%e
en:&ncemen *ncl.d*ng %ood %l&/o.$0 &nd colo.$0< oleo$e0*n0< 0=*ce0< cocon.<
m.0:$oom< :o=0.
2. : O:3!.%$2!
Inc$e&0e :e le/el o% =$oce00*ng< $ed.c*on o% w&0&ge< /&l.e &dd**on< en:&nce :e
*ncome o% %&$me$0 &0 well &0 *nc$e&0e e-=o$0 :e$e31 $e0.l*ng *n o/e$&ll econom*c
de/elo=men.
3. & E5$($:$5$%0 P,%%!"n o& A))$)%,n.!
All *m=lemen*ng &genc*e0 eng&ged *n 0e*ng .=Le-=&n0*onLmode$n*?&*on o% %ood
=$oce00*ng *nd.0$*e0 co/e$*ng &ll 0egmen0 wo.ld 3e el*g*3le %o$ %*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce.
T:e &00*0&nce w*ll 3e *n :e %o$m o% g$&n 0.34ec o "!M o% :e =l&n ; m&c:*ne$1
&nd ec:n*c&l c*/*l wo$k 0.34ec o & m&-*m.m o% R0. !> l&k: *n Gene$&l A$e&0 &nd
((.((M .=o R0. +! l&k: *n )*%%*c.l A$e&0.
1. No%!
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
115
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
A==l*c&*on %o$ %*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce d.l1 com=leed 0:o.ld 3e 0.3m*ed o :e MF#I
:$o.g: :e conce$ned SNA *n :e =$e0c$*3ed %o$m& g*/en & A==end*- P I. T:e1 &$e
&l0o &d/*0ed o go :$o.g: e-=l&n&*on g*/en *n A==end*- P II.
2. No%!
A0 $eC.*$ed :e SNA 0:o.ld e-&m*ne :e &==l*c&*on e-=ed**o.0l1 &nd %o$w&$d :e
0&me o :e MF#I &long w*: :e*$ $ecommend&*on0.
3. No%!
F*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce o $*ce m*ll0< %lo.$ m*ll0 &nd =.l0e =$oce00*ng< &e$&ed 0o%
d$*nk0L=&ck&ged d$*nk*ng w&e$< m*ne$&l w&e$ .n*0 *0 no &/&*l&3le. In c&0e o% do.3
on o:e$ =$od.c0 k*ndl1 cl&$*%1.

4. No%!
A==l*c&*on 0.3m*ed o SNA &%e$ commencemen o% comme$c*&l =$od.c*on w*ll
no 3e el*g*3le %o$ %*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce. A==l*c&n &$e &d/*0ed o 0.3m* :e*$
&==l*c&*on0 &0 0oon &0 &n &==$&*0&l 31 & 0c:ed.led comme$c*&l 3&nk o$ %*n&nc*&l
*n0*.*on :&0 3een o3&*ned. O$*g*n&l &==$&*0&l $e=o$ o$ *0 ce$*%*ed co=1 0:o.ld 3e
0.3m*ed &long w*: :e &==l*c&*on. In &==$&*0&l $e=o$< %*n&nc*&l =&$&mee$0 l*ke
IRR< 9E#< )SCR< )ER ec.< m.0 3e ce$*%*ed.
5. No%!
F*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce *0 no g*/en o & .n* *ncl.d*ng *0 0*0e$ conce$n 3e1ond wo *me0.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
116
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
6. N')e
G$&*n M*ll*ng *0 & non8=$*o$*1 0eco$. T:e$e%o$e %*n&nc*&l &00*0&nce o & g$&*n m*ll*ng
.n* *ncl.d*ng *0 0*0e$ conce$n *0 l*m*ed o one *me onl1.
7. N')e
I% & .n* :&0 &l$e&d1 $ece*/ed &00*0&nce %$om :e MF#I :en 0econd g$&n o :e .n* %o$
e-=&n0*onLmode$n*?&*on o% :e 0&me .n* *n :e 0&me loc&*on 0:&ll no 3e =$o/*ded.
7owe/e$< :*0 cond**on w*ll no &==l1 *% :e .n* *0 0e*ng .= & =l&n & & d*%%e$en
loc&*on.
8. N')e
Gene$&l &nd )*%%*c.l A$e&0 8 T:e 0c:eme =$o/*de0 %o$ d*%%e$en*&l 0c&le o% &00*0&nce %o$
=$o4ec o 3e 0e.= *n Gene$&l &nd )*%%*c.l A$e&0 o% :e co.n$1. I en/*0&ge0 en:&nced
$&e o% &00*0&nce %o$ )*%%*c.l A$e&0 *.e. H&mm. ; K&0:m*$< 7*m&c:&l #$&de0:<
U&$&nc:&l< S*kk*m< No$:8E&0e$n S&e0. And&m&n ; N*co3&$ I0l&nd0< L&k0:&dwee=<
Ineg$&ed T$*3&l )e/elo=men #$o4ec @IT)#A &$e&0.
Noe 5.
Rele&0e o% A00*0&nce P A00*0&nce *n :e %o$m o% g$&n wo.ld 3e $ele&0ed d*$ecl1 o :e
conce$ned *m=lemen*ng &genc*e0 :$o.g: :e 3&nk o$ %*n&nc*&l *n0*.*on0 w:e$e/e$
=o00*3le.

MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
117
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
#1O (uide4Lines
GUIDELINES FOR SETTING UP OF UNIT
UNDER FRUIT PRODUCTS ORDER
N' %e&"'/ "h!++ $!&&3 '/ )he 2"#/e"" '* ! 4!/2*!$)2&e '* *&2#) %&'12$)"
#/$+21#/0 "3/)he)#$ "3&2%"= "3/)he)#$ 5#/e0!& !/1 !e&!)e1 ",ee)e/e1
e5e&!0e" e<$e%) 2/1e& !/1 #/ !$$'&1!/$e ,#)h )he )e&4" '* !/ e**e$)#5e
+#$e/$e 0&!/)e1 )' h#4 2/1e& FPO.

?!)e0'&3-,#"e !&e! &e72#&e4e/)= !//2!+ %&'12$)#'/ +#4#) !/1 +#$e/$e *ee *'&
'/e )e&4" '& %!&) )he&e'* (Re*. ?+!2"e 5(2) !/1 %!&) I(B) '* )he Se$'/1
S$he12+e '* F&2#) P&'12$)" O&1e&= 1955
-ategory 2or manu#
facturing
premises
6,n ;H. metres8
2or storage and
office purpose
6,n sH. metres8
3icence fees for
one term or part
thereof
Annual production
permissible per calendar
year
'ome scale N) /8 /8 -s.100L% >pto 10 +.&.
6ottage scale .0 .0 -s./80L% Abo"e 10 +.&. but less than
80 +.&.
4mall scale NA 100 100 -s.F00L% Abo"e 80 +.&. but less than
100 +.&. with installed
capacity not e1ceeding 1
+.&.Lday.
4mall scale N) 180 180 -s..00L% )elow /80 +.&. with installed
capacity not e1ceeding / +.&.
per day.
@arge scale ?00 ?00 -s.1800L Abo"e /80 +.&. with installed
capacity e1ceeding / +.&. per
day.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
118
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
A&e! '$$2%#e1 3 4!$h#/e&3 "h!++ /') e 4'&e )h!/ 50: '* )he 4!/2*!$)2&#/0
!&e!.
2. (2)The 4#/#424 he#0h) '* )he *!$)'&3 %&e4#"e" 2/1e& H'4e S$!+e PB; !/1
?'))!0e S$!+e $!)e0'&#e" #" 10 *ee) !/1 *'& "4!++ "$!+e A +!&0e "$!+e
$!)e0'&#e" 14 *ee).

E5e&3 4!/2*!$)2&e& "h!++ 4!/2*!$)2&e *&2#) %&'12$)" #/ $'/*'&4#)3 ,#)h )he
"!/#)!&3 &e72#&e4e/)" !/1 !%%&'%&#!)e ")!/1!&1" '* 72!+#)3 !/1 $'4%'"#)#'/
"%e$#*#e1 #/ )he Se$'/1 S$he12+e '* FPO.

T! S!.on- S.!-#5!
P,"% 1 >,8: S,n$%,"0 "!@#$"!1!n%) o& , &,.%o"0 o& &"#$% 9"o-#.%)

1. The P&e4#"e" "h!++ e !1e72!)e+3 +#0h)e1= 5e/)#+!)e1 A $+e!/e1 3 ,h#)e
,!"h#/0I$'+'2& ,!"h#/0 '& '#+ %!#/)#/0.
2. @#/1'," A !++ '%e/#/0" "h!++ e ,e++ "$&ee/e1 ,#)h ,#&e-4e"h A )he 1''&"
*#))e1 ,#)h !2)'4!)#$ $+'"#/0 "%&#/0"= &''* "h!++ e %e&4!/e/)= *+''&
$e4e/)e1.
3. The e72#%4e/)" !/1 )he *!$)'&3 "h!++ /') e 2"e1 *'& 4!/2*!$)2&e '*
&e%20/!/) %&'12$)" +#9e *#"h= 4e!)= e00" e)$. H',e5e&= %e&4#""#'/ 4!3 e
0&!/)e1 !" ! "%e$#!+ !"e #* !&&!/0e4e/)" !&e 4!1e *'& 1#"#/*e$)#'/" '*
%&e4#"e" !*)e& $h!/0#/0 *&'4 4e!) %&'12$)" )' *&2#) %&'12$)" ('/e 4'/)h #1+e
0!% ,#++ e &e72#&e1 *'& $h!/0e'5e&).
4. The %&e4#"e" "h!++ e +'$!)e1 #/ ! "!/#)!&3 %+!$e ,#)h '%e/ "2&&'2/1#/0"=
%&e*e&!+3 #/ #/12")&#!+ !&e!Ie")!)e". The %&e4#"e" "h!++ /') e 2"e1 !" '&
$'442/#$!)e1 1#&e$)+3 ,#)h &e"#1e/$e.
5. A1e72!)e !&&!/0e4e/)" *'& $+e!/#/0 e72#%4e/)"= 4!$h#/e&3= $'/)!#/e&"
)!+e" !/1 &!, 4!)e&#!+" "h!++ e %&'5#1e1.
6. ?'%%e& &!"" '& #&'/ e72#%4e/)"= $'/)!#/e&" '& 5e""e+" !&e /') %e&4#))e1= #/
)he %&e%!&!)#'/= %!$9#/0 '& ")'&!0e '* *&2#) %&'12$)"= '/+3 !+24#/24=
")!#/+e"" ")ee+=. 0+!"" '& )#/" e72#%4e/) !&e !++',e1.
7. The ,!)e& 2"e1 "h!++ e %')!+e !/1 "h!++ e 0') e<!4#/e1 $he4#$!++3 !/1
!$)e&#'+'0#$ !++3 3 ! %2+#$ He!+)h C!'&!)'&3 (#* /' 42/#$#%!+ ,!)e& #"
!5!#+!+e !) )he %&e4#"e"). The ,!)e& "!4%+e "h'2+1 e 1&!,/ *'& "2$h
e<!4#/!)#'/ 3 )he %2+#$ He!+)h A2)h'&#)3 '* )he !&e! ,he&e )he %&e4#"e" #"
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
119
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
+'$!)e1 '& "h'2+1 e 1&!,/ #/ )he %&e"e/$e '* )he !'5e !2)h'&#)3. F&ee
*'++',#/0 )!% ,!)e& '* 1 9#+'+#)&e %e& 1!3 "h!++ e 4!1e !5!#+!+e.
8. A1e72!)e 1&!#/!0e "3")e4 !/1 %&'5#"#'/" *'& 1#"%'"!+ '* &e*2"e "h!++ e 4!1e.
9. S2**#$#e/) /24e& '* +!)&#/e A 2&#/!+" "h!++ e %&'5#1e1 *'& ,'&9e&".
10. @he&e5e& $''9#/0 #" 1'/e '/ '%e/ *#&e= %&'%e& '2)+e)" *'& "' "4'9eI")e!4
e)$. +#9e $h#4/e3= e<h!2") *!/ e)$. "h!++ e %&'5#1e1.
The ,'&9e&" e/0!0e1 #/ )he *!$)'&3 "h!++ e he!+)h3 !/1 "h!++ e 4e1#$!++3
e<!4#/e1= #/'$2+!)e1 !/1 5!$$#/!)e1 ,he/e5e& &e72#&e1.
12.The ,'&9e&" "h!++ e %&'5#1e1 ,#)h !%&'/"= he!1-,!&" 0+'5e" e)$. !/1 "h!++ e
%e&"'/!++3 /e!) !/1 )#13.

P,"% 1>B8: C#,5$&$.,%$on) o& %!.n$.,5 )%,&&

P&'12$)#'/ "h!++ e "2%e&5#"e1 3 ! %e&"'/ %'""e""#/0 '/e '* )he *'++',#/0
72!+#*#$!)#'/"-

S1,55 ).,5!:
(1) B.S$. ,#)h ?he4#")&3IA0&#$2+)2&e !" '/e '* )he "2(e$)".
(2) A D#%+'4! '& ! $e&)#*#$!)e #/ *&2#) %&e"e&5!)#'/ '& ! $'2&"e '* !) +e!") 3
4'/)h" 12&!)#'/ *&'4 ! &e$'0/#"e1 #/")#)2)#'/.

L,"(! S.,5! -
(1) B.S$. (Te$h.) ,#)h F''1 Te$h/'+'03I?he4#$!+ E/0#/ee&#/0 ,#)h !) +e!") '/e
3e!& e<%e&#e/$e #/ *&2#) %&e"e&5!)#'/ *!$)'&3.
(2) B.S$. ,#)h ?FTRI D#%+'4! '& D#%+'4! '* B!+!4!""e&3 (Be&!+! G'5e&/4e/))
P'+3)e$h/#$.
(3) B.S$. ,#)h ?he4#")&3IA0&#$2+)2&e ,#)h )h&ee 3e!&" e<%e&#e/$e #/ *&2#)
%&e"e&5!)#'/ *!$)'&3.
M$n$1#1 !@#$91!n%) * 1,.$n!"0 &o" #n$% o9!",%$on
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
120
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
1. =ashing of raw materials 1H -ectangular tan$s with false bottom of not less than /0 gallons
capacity
/. =ashing of bottles 1H &an$s ha"ing not less than F0 gallons capacity.
)ottle washing machine# brushes GOmachine# rac$# trolleyH.
)uc$ets GO 4terlising tan$sH.
?. *reparation of :ruitL9eg. /%1L/ :t. high table with aluminiumL steel top ha"ing area not less than
/0 42. ft.
5ot less than 1/ trays.
?H 4tainless steel $ni"es.
(2uipment for blanching
F. Muicing# pulping P +ising Muice e1tractor of bas$et press
GO *ulping machineLhydraulic pressH.
4teet sie"e.
9essels of not less than 100 litres capacity.
8. *rocessing :urnaceL,as sto"es GO )oilerH
9esselsL4team 3ac$et $ettle.
@adle.
&hermometer# hydrometer G-efractometerH
4ensiti"e balance for weighing chemicals# colour etc.
.. :ermentation 1H )arrelsL6arboysL(arthen 3ars.
<. :illing P sealing +ugsL:unnels GO :illing machineH.
6rown cor$ machineL-.D. sealing machine.
=eighing balance.
8. (1hausting# *rocessing for cans P
bottles.
&an$s with cratesL(1haust )o1.
Double 4eamerL4emi%automatic can sealer.
6ooling tan$s with cratesLcranes.
FH *ressure coo$erLretortsLsterilising e2uipments.
0ncubatorLpressure can tester.
O *asteuriser.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
121
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
7. 6arbonation or aeration *ower dri"er aerated machine or semi%automatic aerating and sealing
machine.

No%! 4 Q Re72#&e1 *'& S4!++ S$!+e !/1 C!&0e S$!+e 2/#)" '/+3.
T') 2,/;T ;-')1.3)
F"o1 DAE
S!! .5,#)! =>18
A;;0+"$)' <)r L+&'+& .'-&r $,& Fr.$ Pr)-.+$#
Or-&r,42EE
1. N!4e !/1 !11&e"" '* )he !%%+#$!/) .
1(!) N!4e '* )he 4!/!0#/0 1#&e$)'&= 1#&e$)'&"= %&'%&#e)'&" = %!&)/e&"=
e)$.
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
2. A11&e"" '* )he *!$)'&3I*#&4.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
122
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
2 (!) A11&e"" '* 0'1',/I")'&e" '* *#/#"he1 %&'12$)".
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
3. De"$&#%)#'/ '* )he *&2#) %&'12$)" ,h#$h )he !%%+#$!/) ,#"he" )'
4!/2*!$)2&eI&e+!e+. Q
4. Pe&#'1 *'& ,h#$h +#$e/$e #" &e72#&e1
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
5. P+!/ '* )he *!$)'&3 !/1 +#") '* e72#%4e/)"
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
RRRRRRR
6. (!) ,he)he& !/3 %',e& #" 2"e1 #/ 4!/2*!$)2&e '* *&2#) %&'12$)". I* "'=
")!)e )he e<!$) h'&"e %',e& 2"e1
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
() I/")!++e1 $!%!$#)3 %e& 8 h'2& "h#*)Q
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
7. C#$e/$e *ee %!#1 12&#/0 )he %&e5#'2" 3e!&
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
8. T')!+ 5!+2e '* F&2#) P&'12$) M!/2*!$)2&e1I&e+!e+e1Q 12&#/0 )he
%&e5#'2" 3e!&
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
9. II@e he&e3 2/1e&)!9e )' $'4%+3 ,#)h !++ )he %&'5#"#'/" '* )he *&2#)
%&'12$)" '* )he F&2#) P&'12$)" O&1e&= 1955.
10.II@e h!5e *'&,!&1e1 ! "24 '* R2%%ee" RRRRRRRRRRRR #/ &e"%e$) '* )he
+#$e/$e *ee 12e !$$'&1#/0 )' )he %&'5#"#'/" '* F&2#) P&'12$)" O&1e& =
1955.
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
123
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
S#0/!)2&e(") '* )he
!%%+#$!/) (")
• S)&#9e '2) ,h#$he5e& #" #/!%%+#$!+e .
SFOT ANALGSIS
THE SFOT ANALGSIS OF THE MANGO PROCESSING INDUSTRG IS
AS FOLLOFS:
STRENGHTS
• NO SOUR?ING REDUIRED DUE TO SECF SUFFI?IENT PRODU?TION
• MOSTCM SMACC KS?ACE ENTERPRISES @ITH CO@ ESIT BARRIERS
• CARGE PRODU?TION BASE TO SUPPORT THE INDUSTRM
• CO@ ?OSTS
@EABNESS
• IN>ESTMENT IN MARBETING CA?BING
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
124
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• >ERM CO@ PRODU?TION INNO>ATION.INDUSTRM GETTING
?OMMODITISED
• CO@ PRODU?TI>ITM AT FARM CE>EC A CA?B OF PRO?ESSABCE
>ARIETIES
• CO@ ?APA?ITM UTICISATION OF UNITS(PRODU?TION AND
A>AICABICITM OF RA@ FRUITS SEASONAC)
• CARGE NUMBER OF MIDDCEMEN
• INFRASTRU?TURE BOTTCENE?BS(STORING ?OOCING =ET?)
OPPORTUNITIES
• GO>ERNMENT SUPPORT TO THE SE?TOR IN TERMS OF
INFRASTRU?TURE DE>ECOPMENT
• GRO@TH OF FAST FOOD ?HAINS A FOOD RETAIC
• ?HANGING INDIAN ?ONSUMER-HIGHER A??EPTABICITM OF
PRO?ESSED PRODU?TS
• IMPRO>EMENTS IN THE SER>I?E AND COGISTI?S
• REDU?TION IN THE TRANSIT TIME(FARM TO INDUSTRM)
THREATS
• OTHER SOUR?ES-BRATIC=HOCCAND
• NE@ PRODU?TS
• FRUITS GRO@ERS FRAGMENTED(CO@ >OCUME A>AICABICITM)
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
125
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• IN?REASED NEED FOR STANDARDITATION AND HIGH >OCUMES
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
M&$,)-)0)(@
Re0e&$c: de0*gn *0 =.$el1 &nd 0*m=l1 :e %$&mewo$k o$ =l&n< 0$.c.$e &nd
:e 0$&eg1 o% :e *n/e0*g& *on =$oce00 w:*c: 0e0 o. o o3&*n &n0we$0
o $e0e&$c: C.e0*on0 &nd g.*de0 :e &n&l10*0 o% d&&.
The &e"e!&$h 1e"#0/ 42") $'/)!#/ #/ &#e*-
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
126
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
• A $+e!& ")!)e4e/) '* &e"e!&$h %&'+e4.
• The "%e$#*#$!)#'/ '* )he %'%2+!)#'/ )' e ")21#e1
!/1 4e)h'1 "!4%+#/0.
• Me)h'1 '* %&'$e""#/0 !/1 !/!+3"#" 1!)!.
• P&'$e12&e" !/1 )e$h/#72e" )' e !1'%)e1 *'&
1!)! $'++e$)#'/.
SOURCES OF DATA:
 P"$1,"0: )he 1!)! $'++e$)e1 3 4e
)h&'20h 72e")#'//!#&e A &e"e!&$h.
 S!.on-,"0: )he 1e)!#+" I $'++e$)e1
*&'4 HOFDA AND APEDA.
 S,195! A"!, C2$9/',
 S,195! S$B! 100
 S,195! Un$% RANDOMCM SECE?TED
O**#$e&" A/1
?'/"24e&"
CUESTIONNAIRE
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
127
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
NAME-
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
UUUUUUUUUU.
STORE-
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
UUUUUUUUUU.
?ONTA?T NUMBER-
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
UU..
ADDRESS-
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
UUUUUUUU...
FOR OFFICER
D1. @h#$h %&'$e""e1 *&2#) %&'12$)" !&e 4'")+3 "'+1V
!. A%%+e 20
. G2!5! 5
$. M!/0' 55
1. O&!/0e 15
e. O)he&"U "%e$#*3UUUUUUU 5
@
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MA%0* ??I
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*T')/ ?I
D2. S!+e" '* 4!/0' !"e1 %&'$e""e1 *''1 !/1 e5e&!0e" !&e
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
128
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
!. C', 2
. A5e&!0e 28
$. H#0h 70
@
D@
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A&)/A0) BGI
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D3. A/3 "%e$#*#e1 &!/1 *'& 4!/0' #)e4" !"9e1 3 $2")'4e&
!. Me" 90
. N' 10
$. I* 3e" )he/ /!4e '* &!/1 UUUUUUU4!6!!="+#$eUUU.
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D4. S!+e '* M!/0' %#$9+e" !&e
!. C', 30
. A5e&!0e 50
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
129
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
$. H#0h 20
@
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A&)/A0) ?@I
',0' B@I
D5. @h!) )3%e '* 4!/0' %#$9+e 1' %e'%+e !"9V
!. B&!/1e1 65
. C'$!+ 35
@
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3*-A3 E?I
D6. @h!) %e'%+e %&e*e& )' h!5e #/ e5e&!0e"V
!. S'*) 1&#/9 55
. E2#$e 45
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
130
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
@
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=.,-) >?I
D7. N24e& '* 4!/0' !"e1 %&'12$) !5!#+!+e #/ ")'&eV
!. 1-5 60
. 5-10 30
$. 10-15 10
1. M'&e )h!/ 15 /'/e
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D8. M!/0' !"e1 %&'$e""e1 %&'12$) !/1 e5e&!0e" #" #/ 1e4!/1
4!<#424 !4'/0
!. ?h#+1&e/ 30
. M'2)h 60
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
131
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
$. A12+) 10
@
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J@
-',31/)% E@I
7*.T' F@I
A1.3T D@I
D9. De4!/1" '* 4!/0' #)e4" !&e h#0h #/ ,h#$h "e!"'/V
!. S244e& 50
. @#/)e& 30
$. M'/"''/ 5
1. A2)24/ 15
@
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
139
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
140
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
141
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
142
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
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(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
146
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
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SOFT DRIN'S HUICE
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MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
147
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
D21. @h#$h *&2#) !"e1 (!4= (e++3= $!/13 3'2 %&e*e& )' h!5eV
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. T:e F*n&nc*&l E-=$e00
". T*me0 o% Ind*&
(. Econom*c T*me0
MAGA?INES
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
148
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
1. 9.0*ne00 Tod&1
". 9.0*ne00 Ind*&
(. Ad/e$*0*ng ; M&$ke*ng
4. 9.0*ne00 Wo$ld
BOOKS
1. #&*l &nd K.lk&$n* M&$ke*ng Re0e&$c:
". #:*l*= Kole$ M&$ke*ng M&n&gemen
(. W. H. S&non #$*nc*=le o% M&$ke*ng M&n&gemen
,. Edw&$d C&nd*%% SALES M&n&gemen
!. H. C. G&nd:* E00en*&l o% M&$ke*ng M&n&gemen
'. R. S. )&/&$ M&$ke*ng M&n&gemen
WEBLIOGRAPHY
:=JLLwww.*k*0&n.comL
:=JLLwww.&g$*8:*0o$1.o$gL=d%LMed*c*n&lM">0moke.=d%
:=JLLen.w*k*=ed*&.o$gLw*k*LM*n.eIM&*d
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
149
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
150
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT-HOFED
Th!/9 M'2X
MBA
(AGRIBUSINESS) 2009-2011
151