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GEOGRAPHY

The geography of India describes the geographic features of India, a country in South Asia. India lies largely on the Indian Plate, the
northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated north of the equator
between 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of
3,166,414 square kilometers (1,222,559 sq mi). India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to
west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi).
On the south, India projects into and is bounded by the Indian Ocean – in particular, by the Arabian Sea on the southwest,
the Laccadive Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate India from Sri Lanka to its
immediate southeast, and the Maldives are some 400 kilometers (250 mi) to the southwest. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, some 1,200
kilometers (750 mi) southeast of the mainland, share maritime borders with Burma, Thailand and Indonesia. Kanyakumari at 8°4′41″N and
77°32′28″E is the southernmost tip of the Indian mainland, while the southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Great Nicobar Island. India's
territorial waters extend into the sea to a distance of 12 nautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) from the coast baseline.
The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau and separate it from a narrow coastal
plain along the Arabian Sea. The range runs approximately 1,600 km (994 mi) from south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border
and across Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula. The average elevation is around
1,000 m (3,281 ft). Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats.
The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, which have been eroded and vivisected by the four major rivers of southern India,
the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. These mountains extend from West Bengal to Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, along the
coast and parallel to the Bay of Bengal. Though not as tall as the Western Ghats, some of its peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in height.
The Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the Eastern and Western Ghats. Jindagada Peak (1690 m), near Araku Valley of Andhra
Pradesh, is the tallest peak in Eastern Ghats.

India's wetland ecosystem is widely distributed from the cold and arid located in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, and those
with the wet and humid climate of peninsular India. Most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked to river networks. The Indian
government has identified a total of 71 wetlands for conservation and are part of sanctuaries and national parks. Mangrove forests are present all
along the Indian coastline in sheltered estuaries, creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats. The mangrove area covers a total of
4,461 km
2
(1,722 sq mi), which comprises 7% of the world's total mangrove cover. Prominent mangrove covers are located in the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, the Sundarbans delta, the Gulf of Kutch and the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers. Parts of Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Kerala also have large mangrove covers.

The Sundarbans delta is home to the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and spreads across areas
of Bangladesh and West Bengal. The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, but is identified separately as the Sundarbans (Bangladesh)
and the Sundarbans National Park (India). The Sundarbans are intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands
of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for its diverse fauna, being home to a large variety of species of birds, spotted deer,
crocodiles and snakes. Its most famous inhabitant is the Bengal tiger. It is estimated that there are now 400 Bengal tigers and about 30,000
spotted deer in the area.
The Rann of Kutch is a marshy region located in northwestern Gujarat and the bordering Sindh province of Pakistan. It occupies a
total area of 27 900 km² (10,800 mile²). The region was originally a part of the Arabian Sea. Geologic forces such as earthquakes resulted in the
damming up of the region, turning it into a large saltwater lagoon. This area gradually filled with silt thus turning it into a seasonal salt marsh.
During the monsoons, the area turns into a shallow marsh, often flooding to knee-depth. After the monsoons, the region turns dry and becomes
parched.
India's total renewable water resources are estimated at 1,907.8 km3/year. Its annual supply of usable and replenshable groundwater
amounts to 350 billion cubic meters. Only 35% of groundwater resources are being utilized. About 44 million tonnes of cargo is moved annually
through the country's major rivers and waterways. Groundwater supplies 40% of water in India's irrigation canals. 56% of the land is arable and
used for agriculture. Black soils are moisture-retentive and are preferred for dry farming and growing cotton, linseed, etc. Forest soils are used for
tea and coffee plantations. Red soils have a wide diffusion of iron content.
Most of India's estimated 5.4 billion barrels (860,000,000 m
3
) in oil reserves are located in the Mumbai High, upper Assam, Cambay,
and the Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery basins. India possesses about seventeen trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and
Orissa. Uranium is mined in Andhra Pradesh. India has 400 medium-to-high enthalpy thermal springs for producing geothermal energy in seven
"provinces" — the Himalayas, Sohana, Cambay, the Narmada-Tapti delta, the Godavari delta and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (specifically
the volcanic Barren Island.)
India is the world's biggest producer of mica blocks and mica splitting. India ranks second amongst the world's largest producers of
barites and chromites. The Pleistocene system is rich in minerals. India is the third-largest coal producer in the world and ranks fourth in the
production of iron ore. It is the fifth-largest producer of bauxite and crude steel, the seventh-largest of manganese ore and the eighth-largest of
aluminum. India has significant sources of titanium ore, diamonds and limestone.
]
India possesses 24% of the world's known and economically
viable thorium, which is mined along shores of Kerala. Gold had been mined in the now-defunct Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka.
HISTORY
The early medieval period saw the rise of Muslim jihad in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal by the forces of the Delhi
Sultanate in 1323 CE. And the defeat of the Hoysalas in 1333 CE. Heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The grand struggle of the
period was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbarga and the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hamper.
By the early 16th century, the Bahmani empire fragmented into five different kingdoms based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bihar, Bijapur and
Golconda, together called the Deccan Sultanates.
Whereas on the South-Western Coast of South India, a new local economical and political power arose into the vacuum created by the
disintegration of Chera power. The Zamorins of Calicut, with the help of the Muslim-Arab merchants, dominated the maritime trade on Malabar
Coast for the next few centuries.
Vijayanagara Empire
Differing theories have been proposed regarding the Vijayanagara Empire’s origins. Many historians propose Harihara I and Bukka
Raya I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to
ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India. Others claim that they were Telugu people first associated with the Kakatiya kingdom who
took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were
supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers
during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about
the empire's history, fortifications, scientific developments and architectural innovations.
Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan, the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya
Kingdom of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai, and the tiny kingdom of Kampili had been repeatedly invaded by Muslims from the
north, and by 1336 they had all been defeated by Alla-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultans of Delhi. The Hoysala Empire was
the sole remaining Hindu state in the path of the Muslim invasion. After the death of Hoysala king Veera Ballala III during a battle against the
Sultan of Madurai in 1343, the Hoysala Empire merged with the growing Vijayanagara empire.
In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra River and
earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara ("master of the eastern and western seas"). By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara
I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and gained control over Goa in the west and the
Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north. The original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the
Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka. It was later moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya
I.
With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond
the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella. The next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful
against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Deva Raya II (called Gajabetekara)succeeded to
the throne in 1424 and was possibly the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulers. He quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as
the Zamorin of Calicut and Quilon in the south. He invaded the island of Lanka and became overlord of the kings
of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. The empire declined in the late 15th century until the serious attempts by commander Saluva Narasimha
Deva Rayair 1485 and by general Tuluva Narasa Nayaka in 1491 to reconsolidate the empire.
After nearly two decades of conflict with rebellious chieftains, the empire eventually came under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya, the son of
Tuluva Narasa Nayaka. In the following decades the Vijayanagara Empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five
established Deccan Sultanates. The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishna Deva Raya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently
victorious. The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including
Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. Many important monuments were either completed or
commissioned during the time of Krishna Deva Raya.
Krishna Deva Raya was followed by his younger brother Achyuta Deva Raya in 1529 and in 1542 by Sadashiva Raya while the real power play
with Aliya Rama Raya, the son-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya, whose relationship with the Deccan Sultans who allied against him has been
debated.
The sudden capture and killing of Aliya Rama Raya in 1565 at the Battle of Talikota, against an alliance of the Deccan sultanates, after a
seemingly easy victory for the Vijayanagara armies, created havoc and confusion in the Vijayanagara ranks, which were then completely routed.
The Sultanates' army later plundered Hamper and reduced it to the ruinous state in which it remains; it was never re-occupied. Tirumala Deva
Raya, Rama Raya's younger brother who was the sole surviving commander, left Vijayanagara for Penukonda with vast amounts of treasure on
the back of 1500 elephants.
The empire went into a slow decline regionally, although trade with the Portuguese continued, and the British were given a land grant for the
establishment of Madras. Tirumala Deva Raya was succeeded by his son Sriranga I later followed by Venkata II who was the last great king of
Vijayanagara empire, made his capital Chandragiri and Vellore, repulsed the invasion of the Deccan Sultanates and saved Penukonda from being
captured.
His successor Rama Deva Raya took power and ruled until 1632, after whose death Venkata III became king and ruled for about ten years . The
empire was finally conquered by the Sultanates of Bijapur and Golkonda. The largest feudatories of the Vijayanagar empire – the Nayaks of
Gandikota, the Mysore Kingdom, Keladi Nayaka, Nayaks of Madurai, Nayaks of Tanjore, Nayakas of Chitradurga and Nayak
Kingdom of Gingee palegars of gummanayakanapalya – declared independence and went on to have a significant impact on the history of South
India in the coming centuries. These Nayaka kingdoms lasted into the 18th century while the Mysore Kingdom remained a princely state
until Indian Independence in 1947 although they came under the British Raj in 1799 after the death of Tipu Sultan.
Nayak kingdoms
Vijayangara Empire had established military and administrative governors called Nayakas to rule in the various territories of the empire. After the
demise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the local governors declared their independence and started their rule. The Nayak of Madurai, Nayaks of
Tanjore, Keladi Nayakas of Shimoga, Nayakas of Chitradurga and Kingdom of Mysore were the most prominent of them. Raghunatha Nayak
(1600–1645) was the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks. Raghunatha Nayak encouraged trade and permitted a Danish settlement in 1620 at
Danesborg at Tarangambadi. This laid the foundation of future European involvement in the affairs of the country. The success of the Dutch
inspired the English to seek trade with Thanjavur, which was to lead to far-reaching repercussions. Vijaya Raghava (1631–1675 CE) was the last
of the Thanjavur Nayaks. Nayaks reconstructed some of the oldest temples in the country and their contributions can be seen even today. Nayaks
expanded the existing temples with large pillared halls, and a tall gateway tower was a striking feature in the religious architecture of this period.
Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar and Tipu Sultan from the Kingdom of Mysore, Madhukari Nayaka of Chitradurga Nayaka clan and Venkatappa
Nayaka of Keladi dynasty are the most famous among the post Vijayanagar rulers from Kannada country.
In Madurai, Thirumalai Nayak was the most famous Nayak ruler. He patronized art and architecture creating new structures and expanding the
existing landmarks in and around Madurai. His landmark buildings are the Meenakshi Temple Gopurams and Thirumalai Nayak Palace in
Madurai. On Thirumalai Nayak's death in 1659 CE, other notable ruler was Rani Mangammal. Shivaji Bhonsle, the great Maratha Ruler, invaded
the south, as did Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore and other Muslim Rulers, resulting in chaos and instability and the Madurai Nayak Kingdom
collapsed in 1736 following internal strife.
The Tanjavur Nayaks ruled till late 17th century until their dynasty was put to an end by Madurai Rulers, and the Marathas grabbing the
opportunity to install their ruler. The Tanjavur Nayak kings were notable for their contribution to Arts and Telugu literature.
Rise of the Marathas
The rise of Maratha military power under Shivaji and his heirs in the immediate north of what is today considered South India had a profound
influence on the political situation of South India, with Maratha control quickly extending as far east as Ganjam and as far south as Thanjavur.
Following the death of Aurangzeb, Mughal power withered, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom
of Mysore, which was originally in tribute to Vijayanagara and gained in strength over the next few decades, subsequently emerging as the
dominant power in the southern part of South India. The Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad controlled the territory north and east of Mysore, while the
Marathas controlled portions of what is today Karnataka. By the close of the "medieval" period, most of South India was either ruled directly
from, or under tribute to Nayak dynasty or Wodeyars.


Sports
Sport (or sports) is all forms of usually competitive physical activity which,
[1]
through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or
improve physical ability and skills while providing entertainment to participants, and in some cases, spectators.
[2]
Hundreds of sports exist, from
those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognised as activities which are based in physicalathleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such
as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition,
[3]
and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions
precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
[2]
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities
claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises bothchess and bridge as bona fide sports,
and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports,
[4][5]
although limits the amount of mind
games which can be admitted as sports.
[1]

Sports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner.
Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first, or by the determination of judges who are scoring
elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.
In organised sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport
news. In addition, sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sports drawing large crowds to venues, and
reaching wider audiences through sports broadcasting.
The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on
a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations (including association
football, athletics, cycling, tennis, equestrian sports and more), and is therefore the de factorepresentative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should:
[1]

 have an element of competition
 be in no way harmful to any living creature
 not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such asarena football)
 not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport
They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics), primarily mind (such as chess or go), predominantly
motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating), primarily co-ordination (such as billiard sports), or primarily animal-supported (such
as equestrian sport).
[1]

There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as electronic sports, especially due
to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream sports organisations.
Competition
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sport involving
competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee(IOC) or
SportAccord.
[1]

Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of
physical exercise, including those completed just for fun.
In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive
physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.
[10][11]

In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, (e.g.
gender, weight and age). For each group, the first in the list will usually be the "winner". The measurement of the result may be objective or
subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement.
In gymnastics or diving the result is decided by a panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades in between, like boxing or
mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time.
There are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 2000 BC.
[12]
Gymnastics appears to have
been a popular sport in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were
well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt.
[13]
Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and
wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art ofZourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills.
[14]
Among
other sports that originate in ancientPersia are polo and jousting.
Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has
brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow
spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and
global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity, as sports fans began following the
exploits of professional athletes through radio, television, and the internet — all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with
amateur participation in sports


POLITICAL
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the
structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of
citizens. It is the longest
[1]
written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 448
[Note 1]
articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and
118 amendments. Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is widely regarded as the
father of the Indian Constitution.
The Constitution follows parliamentary system of government and the executive is directly accountable to legislature. Article 74 provides that
there shall be a Prime Minister of India as the head of government. It also states that there shall be a President of India and a Vice-President of
India under Articles 52 and 63. Unlike the Prime Minister, the President largely performs ceremonial roles.
The Constitution is federal in nature. Each State and each Union territory of India have their own government. Analogues to President and Prime
Minister, is the Governor in case of States,Lieutenant Governor for Union territories and the Chief Minister. The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act
also introduced the system of Panchayati raj in villages and municipalities. Also, Article 370of the Constitution gives special status to the state
of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950.
[2]
The date 26
January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially
became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental
governing document. To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of constitution inserted Article 395 in the constitution and by this Article
the Indian Independence Act, 1947 was repealed.
[3]
The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular,democratic republic,
assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them.
[4]
The words "socialist" and "secular" were
added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment (mini constitution).
[5]
India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January
each year as Republic Day.
[6]

The Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by the elected members of the provincial assemblies.
[9]
Dr B.R.
Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Munshi, Purushottam
Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, and Balwantrai Mehta were some
important figures in the Assembly. There were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes.Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian
community, and the Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. The Chairman of the Minorities Committee was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a
distinguished Christian who represented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Ari Bahadur Gururng represented the Gorkha Community.
Prominent jurists like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Benegal Narsing Rau and K. M. Munshi, Ganesh Mavlankar were also members of the
Assembly. Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh,Rajkumari Amrit Kaur and Vijayalakshmi Pandit were important women
members.
The process of re writing any part of the constitution is called amendment.Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the
procedure for which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by a two-thirds majority
and voting. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must be ratified by a majority of state
legislatures.
As of July 2013 there have been 118 amendment bills presented in the Parliament, out of which 98 have been passed to become Amendment
Acts.
[23]
Most of these amendments address issues dealt with by statute in other democracies. However, the Constitution is so specific in spelling
out government powers that many of these issues must be addressed by constitutional amendment. As a result, the document is amended roughly
twice a year.
In 2000 the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC) was set up to look into updating the constitution.
[24]


Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.
 First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)- This lists the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make
that change.
 Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221)- – This lists the salaries of officials holding
public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
 Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219)—Forms of Oaths – This lists the oaths of offices for elected
officials and judges.
 Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – This details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per
State or Union Territory.
 Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas
[Note 2]
and Scheduled Tribes
[Note
3]
(areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
 Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1))— Provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and
Mizoram.
 Seventh Schedule (Article 246)—The union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
 Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)—The official languages.
 Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Originally Articles mentioned here were immune from judicial review on the ground that they violated
fundamental rights. but in a landmark judgement in 2007, the Supreme Court of India held in I.R. Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu and others
that laws included in the 9th schedule can be subject to judicial review if they violated the fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14,
15, 19, 21 or the basic structure of the Constitution {(ambiguous)}
[22]

 Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2))—"Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State
Legislatures.
 Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-D)—Panchayat Raj (rural local government).
 Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)—Municipalities (urban local government).









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