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A P P E N D I X

Formulae and Physical Constants
Table of Contents
Topic Page
Common Units and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Basic Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Common Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Various Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Mathematical Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Applied Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Stress, Strain and Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Coefficients of Thermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Periodic Table of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Ion Names and Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
401
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 402
Common Units and Abbreviations
foot ft
pound lb
foot pound (work) ft•lb
pound foot (torque or moment) lb•ft
foot (feet) per second ft/s
mile mi
mile per hour mi/h mph
hour h
inch in
inches per minute in/min
second s
revolution per minute r/min rpm
horsepower hp
horsepower hour hp•h
British thermal unit Btu
yard yd
pounds per square inch psi
ampere A
ampere hour A•h
volt V
watt W
joule J
coulomb C
alternating current AC
direct current DC
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 403
Basic Units
U.S. Standard
Distance Conversions:
12 in. ϭ 1 ft 1 in. ϭ 25.4 mm
3 ft ϭ 1 yd 1 ft ϭ 30.48 cm
5280 ft ϭ 1 mile 1 mile ϭ 1.61 km
100 links ϭ 1 chain 1 yd ϭ 0.914 m
1 m ϭ 3.28 ft
Area Conversions:
1 ft
2
ϭ 144 in.
2
1 in.
2
ϭ 6.45 cm
2
ϭ 645 mm
2
1 yd
2
ϭ 9 ft
2
1 m
2
ϭ 10.8 ft
2
1 sq mile ϭ 640 acre ϭ 1 section 1 acre ϭ 0.405 ha
1 sq chain ϭ 484 sq yds. 1 sq mile ϭ 2.59 km
2
1 acre ϭ 43,560 sq ft.
Volume Conversions:
1 ft
3
ϭ 1728 in.
3
1 in.
3
ϭ 16.4 cm
3
1 yd
3
ϭ 27 ft
3
1 m
3
ϭ 35.3 ft
3
1(liquid) U.S. gallon ϭ 231 in.
3
1 litre ϭ 61 in.
3
ϭ 4 (liquid) quarts 1 U.S.gal ϭ 3.78 litres
1 U.S. barrel (bbl) ϭ 42 U.S. gal. 1 U.S. bbl ϭ 159 litres
1 imperial gallon ϭ 1.2 U.S. gal. 1 litre/s ϭ 15.9 U.S. gal/min
Mass and Weight Conversions:
2000 lb ϭ 1 ton (short) 1 kg (on Earth) results in a weight of
2.2 lb
1 long ton ϭ 2240 lb
Density Conversions:
weight density ϭ (on Earth) a mass density of
r ϭ
1 is equivalent to a weight density
of 0.0623
Density
In U.S. Standard the quantity is
specific gravity; for solids and
liquids a comparison of weight
density to that of water.
lb
ft
3
kg
m
3
w
V
a
lb
ft
3
b
weight
volume
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 404
Common Conversions
1 atmosphere (atmos. press. at sea level) ϭ 29.9 ins. mercury
or ϭ 760 mm mercury
or ϭ 14.696 psi
1Љ mercury ϭ 0.492 psi
1 Imp. gal fresh water ϭ 10 lbs
1 cu ft fresh water ϭ 62.4 lbs
1 Imp. gal ϭ 277 cu ins
1 U.S. gal ϭ 231 cu ins
1 Imp. gal ϭ 1.2 U.S. gals
1 ft head of water ϭ 0.4335 psi
1 psi ϭ 2.31 ft head of water
1 Btu ϭ 778 ft-lbs of work
1 horsepower-hour (hp-hr) ϭ 2545.2 Btu
1 horsepower-minute (hp-min) ϭ 42.4 Btu
1 horsepower ϭ 33,000 ft-lbs/min
ϭ 550 ft-lbs/sec
1 horsepower ϭ 746 watts
1 watt/min ϭ Btu
1 kilowatt/hr ϭ
ϭ 3412 Btu
1 lb steam:
Latent heat of steam,
from and at 212° F ϭ 970.3 Btu
Latent heat of fusion of ice ϭ 144 Btu/lb
1 ton of refrigeration ϭ 144 ϫ 2000
ϭ 288,000 Btu
1 ton of refrigeration/24 hrs ϭ
ϭ 12,000 Btu/hr
ϭ 200 Btu/min
Temperature Scales
Freezing point of water ϭ 0° Celsius (Centigrade)
ϭ 272° Kelvin
ϭ 32° Fahrenheit
ϭ 492° Rankine
1° Celsius ϭ 1° Kelvin
ϭ 9/5° Fahrenheit
ϭ 9/5° Rankine
Velocities
Acceleration due to gravity (g) ϭ 32.2 ft/sec
2
60 miles per hr ϭ 88 ft/sec
Velocity of sound in air about 1100 ft/sec,
or 750 mph
388,000
24
33,000 ϫ 60 ϫ 1000
746 ϫ 778
33,000
746 ϫ 778
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS
Velocity of light ϭ 186,300 miles/sec
Angular Measure
1 revolution ϭ 360 degrees
ϭ 4 right-angles
1 degree ϭ 60 minutes
1 minute ϭ 60 seconds
1 radian ϭ 57° 17Ј45Љ or approx.
57.3°
Base of Napierian Logarithms ϭ 2.7183
Log
e
(In) ϭ 2.3 ϫ Log
10
Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Various Substances
Water (fresh) . . . . . . . . . . 1.00 Mica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9
Water (sea average) . . . . . 1.03 Nickel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6
Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.56 Oil (linseed) . . . . . . . . . 0.94
Antimony . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.70 Oil (olive) . . . . . . . . . . . 0.92
Bismuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.80 Oil (petroleum) . . . . . . . 0.76–0.86
Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.40 Oil (turpentine) . . . . . . 0.87
Brick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Paraffin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.86
Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.58 Platinum . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.5
Carbon (diamond) . . . . . 3.4 Sand (dry) . . . . . . . . . . . 1.42
Carbon (graphite) . . . . . . 2.3 Silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Carbon (charcoal) . . . . . . 1.8 Silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.57
Chromium . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Slate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1–2.8
Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.97
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.36–1.4 Steel (mild) . . . . . . . . . . 7.87
Cobalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Sulfur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07
Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.77 Tin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3
Cork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.24 Tungsten . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Glass (crown) . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Wood (ash) . . . . . . . . . . 0.75
Glass (flint) . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Wood (beech) . . . . . . . . 0.7–0.8
Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Wood (ebony) . . . . . . . 1.1–1.2
Iron (cast) . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.21 Wood (elm) . . . . . . . . . 0.66
Iron (wrought) . . . . . . . . 7.78 Wood (lignum-vitae) . . 1.3
Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Wood (oak) . . . . . . . . . . 0.7–1.0
Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . 1.74 Wood (pine) . . . . . . . . . 0.56
Manganese . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 Wood (teak) . . . . . . . . . 0.8
Mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Zinc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0
405
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Greek Alphabet
Alpha ␣ Iota ␫ Rho ␳
Beta ␤ Kappa ␬ Sigma ⌺, ␴
Gamma ␥ Lambda ␭ Tau ␶
Delta ⌬ Mu ␮ Upsilon ␷
Epsilon ⑀ Nu ␯ Phi ⌽, ␾
Zeta ␨ Xi ␰ Kai ␹
Eta ␩ Omicron ⌷ Psi ␺
Theta ␪ Pi ␲ Omega ⍀, ␻
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 406
Mathematical Formulae
Algebra
1. Expansion Formulae
(x ϩ y)
2
ϭ x
2
ϩ 2xy ϩ y
2
(x Ϫ y)
2
ϭ x
2
Ϫ 2xy ϩ y
2
x
2
Ϫ y
2
ϭ (x Ϫ y) (x ϩ y)
(x ϩ y)
3
ϭ x
3
ϩ 3x
2
y ϩ 3xy
2
ϩ y
3
x
3
ϩ y
3
ϭ (x ϩ y) (x
2
Ϫ xy ϩ y
2
)
(x Ϫ y)
3
ϭ x
3
Ϫ 3x
2
y ϩ 3xy
2
Ϫ y
3
x
3
Ϫ y
3
ϭ (x Ϫ y) (x
2
ϩ xy ϩ y
2
)
2. Quadratic Equation
If ax
2
ϩ bx ϩ c ϭ 0,
Then x ϭ
Trigonometry
1. Basic Ratios
Sin A ϭ , cos A ϭ , tan A ϭ
2. Pythagoras’ Law
x
2
ϩ y
2
ϭ h
2
3. Trigonometric Function Values
Sin is positive from 0° to 90° and positive from 90° to 180°
Cos is positive from 0° to 90° and negative from 90° to 180°
Tan is positive from 0° to 90° and negative from 90° to 180°
y
x
x
h
y
h
Ϫb Ϯ 2b
2
Ϫ 4ac
2a
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS
4. Solution of Triangles
a. Sine Law
b. Cosine Law
c
2
ϭ a
2
ϩ b
2
Ϫ 2 ab Cos C
a
2
ϭ b
2
ϩ c
2
Ϫ 2 bc Cos A
b
2
ϭ a
2
ϩ c
2
Ϫ 2 ac Cos B
a
Sin A
ϭ
b
Sin B
ϭ
c
Sin C
407
Geometry
1. Areas of Triangles
a. All Triangles
Area ϭ
Area ϭ
and,
Area ϭ
where, s is half the sum of the sides, or s ϭ
b. Equilateral Triangles
Area ϭ 0.433 ϫ side
2
2. Circumference of a Circle
C ϭ pd
3. Area of a Circle
A ϭ pr
2
ϭ ϭ d
2
ϭ 0.7854d
2
4. Area of a Sector of a Circle
A ϭ
A ϭ ϫ ␲ r
2
(␪ ϭ angle in degrees)
A ϭ (␪ ϭ angle in radians)
␪°r
2
2
␪°
360
arc ϫ r
2
p
4
circumference ϫ r
2
a ϩ b ϩ c
2
2s(s Ϫ a)(s Ϫ b)(s Ϫ c)
bc Sin A
2
ϭ
ab Sin C
2
ϭ
ac Sin B
2
base ϫ perpendicular height
2
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 408
5. Area of a Segment of a Circle
A ϭ area of sector Ϫ area of triangle
Also approximate area ϭ h
2
6. Ellipse
A ϭ Dd
Approx. circumference ϭ ␲
7. Area of Trapezoid
A ϭ h
8. Area of Hexagon
A ϭ 2.6s
2
where s is the length of one side
9. Area of Octagon
A ϭ 4.83s
2
where s is the length of one side
10. Sphere
Total surface area A ϭ 4␲r
2
Surface area of segment A
s
ϭ ␲dh
Volume V ϭ ␲r
3
Volume of segment
V
s
ϭ (3r Ϫ h)
V
s
ϭ (h
2
ϩ 3a
2
) where a ϭ radius of segment base
␲h
6
␲h
2
3
4
3
a
a ϩ b
2
b
(D ϩ d)
2

4
A
d
h
Ϫ 0.608
4
3
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS
11. Volume of a Cylinder
V ϭ d
2
L where L is cylinder length
12. Pyramid
Volume
V ϭ base area ϫ perpendicular height
Volume of frustum
V
F
ϭ A ϩ a ϩ where h is the
perpendicular height, A and a
are areas as shown
13. Cone
Area of curved surface of cone:
A ϭ
Area of curved surface of frustum
A
F
ϭ
Volume of cone:
V ϭ
Volume of frustum:
V
F
ϭ
Applied Mechanics
Scalar —a property described by a magnitude only
Vector —a property described by a magnitude and a direction
Velocity—vector property equal to
The magnitude of velocity may be referred to as speed or
Speed of sound in dry air is 1085.7 at 32°F and increases by about 1.4 for
each °F rise
ft
s
ft
s
mi
h
ft
s
displacement
time
perpendicular height ϫ ␲(R
2
ϩ r
2
ϩ Rr)
3
base area ϫ perpendicular height
3
␲(D ϩ d)L
2
␲DL
2
B
2Aa A
h
3
1
3

4
409
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 410
Acceleration—vector property equal to
Acceleration due to gravity, symbol “g”, is 32.2
Linear Velocity and Acceleration
u initial velocity
v final velocity
t elapsed time
s displacement
a acceleration
Angular Velocity and Acceleration
␪ angular displacement (radians)
␻ angular velocity (radians/s); ␻
1
ϭinitial, ␻
2
ϭfinal
␣ angular acceleration (radians/s
2
)

2
ϭ ␻
1
ϩ ␣ t
␪ ϭ ϫ t
␪ ϭ ␻
1
t ϩ
1
/2 ␣ t
2

2
2
ϭ ␻
1
2
ϩ 2 ␣ ␪
linear displacement, s ϭ r ␪
linear velocity, v ϭ r ␻
linear, or tangential acceleration, a
T
ϭ r ␣
Tangential, Centripetal and Total Acceleration
Tangential acceleration a
T
is due to angular acceleration ␣
a
T
ϭ r␣
Centripetal (Centrifugal) acceleration a
c
is due to change in direction only
a
c
ϭ v
2
/r ϭ r ␻
2
Total acceleration, a, of a rotating point experiencing angular acceleration is
the vector sum of a
T
and a
c
a ϭ a
T
ϩ a
c
Force
Vector quantity, a push or pull which changes the shape and/or motion of an
object
The unit of force is the pound lb

1
ϩ ␻
2
2
ft
s
2
ft
s
2
change in velocity
time
v ϭ u ϩ at
s ϭ t
s ϭ ut ϩ at
2
v
2
ϭ u
2
ϩ 2 as
1
2
a
v ϩ u
2
b
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 411
Weight
The gravitational force of attraction between a mass, m, and the mass of the
Earth
The mass of an object (rarely used), in slugs, can be calculated from the known
weight in pounds
m ϭ g ϭ 32.2
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
An unbalanced force F will cause an object of weight w to accelerate a, accord-
ing to:
F ϭ a, where w is weight
Torque Equation
T ϭ where T is the acceleration torque, I is the moment of inertia
in lb ft
2
and ␣ is the angular acceleration in radians/s
2
Momentum
Vector quantity, symbol p,
p ϭ v, where w is weight
Work
Scalar quantity, equal to the (vector) product of a force and the displacement
of an object. In simple systems, where W is work, F force and s distance
W ϭ F s ft-lb
Energy
Energy is the ability to do work, the units are the same as for work; ft-lb
Kinetic Energy
Energy due to motion
E
k
ϭ v
2
where w is weight
w
2g
w
g
Ia
g
w
g
ft
s
2
Weight
g
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 412
Kinetic Energy of Rotation
E
R
ϭ k
2

2
where k is radius of gyration, ␻ is angular velocity in rad/s
or
E
R
ϭ I␻
2
where I ϭ k
2
is the moment of inertia
Centripetal (Centrifugal) Force
F
C
ϭ where r is the radius
or
F
C
ϭ ␻
2
r where ␻ is angular velocity in rad/s
Potential Energy
Energy due to position in a force field, such as gravity
E
p
ϭ w h
where w is weight, and h is height above some specified datum
Thermal Energy
The units of thermal energy are British Thermal Units (Btu)
Conversions: 1 Btu ϭ 778 ftؒlb
Electrical Energy
The unit of electrical energy is the kWh
Conversions: 1 kWh ϭ 3,412 Btu ϭ 2.66 ϫ 10
6
ftؒlb
Power
A scalar quantity, equal to the rate of doing work
The units are:
Mechanical Power— , horsepower hp
Thermal Power—
Electrical Power—W, kW, or hp
Conversions: 746 W ϭ 1 hp
1 h.p. ϭ 550 ,
1 kW ϭ 0.948
Btu
s
ftؒlb
s
Btu
s
ftؒlb
s
w
g
wv
2
gr
w
g
1
2
w
g
1
2
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 413
Pressure
A vector quantity, force per unit area
The basic unit is the pound per square inch, psi
Atmospheric Pressure
At sea level atmospheric pressure equals 14.7 psi
Pressure Conversions
Pressure may be expressed in standard units, or in units of static fluid head.
Common equivalencies are:
1 kPa ϭ 0.294 in. mercury ϭ 7.5 mm mercury
1 kPa ϭ 4.02 in. water ϭ 102 mm water
1 psi ϭ 2.03 in. mercury ϭ 51.7 mm mercury
1 psi ϭ 27.7 in. water ϭ 703 mm water
1 m H
2
O ϭ 9.81 kPa
Other pressure unit conversions:
1 bar ϭ 14.5 psi ϭ 100 kPa
1 kg/cm
2
ϭ 98.1 kPa ϭ 14.2 psi ϭ 0.981 bar
1 atmosphere (atm) ϭ 101.3 kPa ϭ 14.7 psi
Simple Harmonic Motion
Velocity of P ϭ ␻
Acceleration of P ϭ ␻
2
x
The period or time of a complete oscillation ϭ
seconds
General formula for the period of S.H.M.
T ϭ 2␲
Simple Pendulum
T ϭ 2␲ T ϭ period or time in seconds for a double swing
L ϭ length in feet
A
L
g
A
displacement
acceleration
2␲

1R
2
Ϫ x
2
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 414
The Conical Pendulum
R/H ϭ tan ␪ ϭ F
c
/W ϭ ␻
2
R/g
Lifting Machines
W ϭ load lifted, F ϭ force applied
M.A. ϭ ϭ
V.R. (velocity ratio) ϭ
␩ ϭ efficiency ϭ
1. Lifting Blocks
V.R. ϭ number of rope strands supporting the load block
2. Wheel & Differential Axle
Velocity ratio ϭ
ϭ 2 R
Or, using diameters instead
of radii,
Velocity ratio ϭ
3. Inclined Plane
V.R. ϭ
4. Screw Jack
V.R. ϭ
circumference of leverage
pitch of thread
length
height
2D
(d Ϫ d
1
)
2R
r Ϫ r
1
2␲R
2␲(r Ϫ r
1
)
2
M.A.
V.R.
effort distance
load distance
W
F
load
effort
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APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 415
Indicated Horse Power
I.H.P. ϭ where I.H.P. is power in W, P
m
is mean or “average” effec-
tive pressure in psi, A is piston area in in
2
, L is length of
stroke in ft and N is number of power strokes per min
Brake Horse Power
B.H.P. ϭ T␻
for prony brake D ϭ w is weight on rim
s is balance reading
on other side
Stress, Strain and Modulus of Elasticity
Direct stress ϭ
Direct strain ϭ
Modulus of elasticity
E ϭ ϭ ϭ
Shear stress ␶ ϭ
Shear strain ϭ
Modulus of rigidity
G ϭ
Thermodynamics
Temperature Scales
°C ϭ (°F Ϫ 32) °F ϭ °C ϩ 32
°R ϭ °F ϩ 460 (R Rankine) K ϭ °C ϩ 273 (K Kelvin)
Sensible Heat Equation
Q ϭ wc⌬T
w is weight
c is specific heat
⌬T is temperature change
9
5
5
9
shear stress
shear strain
x
L
force
area under shear
PL
A¢/
P/A
¢//L
direct stress
direct strain
extension
original length
ϭ
⌬/
L
load
area
ϭ
P
A
(w Ϫ s) (speed of rim in ft per min)
33000
P
m
A L N
33000
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 415
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 416
Latent Heat
Latent heat of fusion of ice ϭ 144 Btu/lb
Latent heat of steam from and at 212°F ϭ 1,207,385 Btu/lb
1 ton of refrigeration ϭ 31,753 Btu/day
ϭ 220 Btu/min
Gas Laws
1. Boyle’s Law
When gas temperature is constant
PV ϭ constant or
P
1
V
1
ϭ P
2
V
2
where P is absolute pressure and V is volume
2. Charles’ Law
When gas pressure is constant, ϭ constant
or , where V is volume and T is absolute temperature
3. Gay-Lussac’s Law
When gas volume is constant, ϭ constant
Or , where P is absolute pressure and T is absolute temperature
4. General Gas Law
ϭ constant
P V ϭ w R T where P ϭ absolute pressure (lb/ft
2
)
V ϭ volume (ft
3
)
T ϭ absolute temp (°R)
w ϭ weight (lb)
R ϭ characteristic constant (ftؒlb/lb°R)
P
1
V
1
T
1
ϭ
P
2
V
2
T
2
P
1
T
1
ϭ
P
2
T
2
P
T
V
1
T
1
ϭ
V
2
T
2
V
T
997716 AppB p401-428 08/05/03 2:33 PM Page 416
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 417
Efficiency of Heat Engines
Carnot Cycle ␩ ϭ
Air Standard Efficiencies
1. Spark Ignition Gas and Oil Engines (Constant Volume Cycle or
Otto Cycle)
␩ ϭ 1 Ϫ where r
v
ϭ compression ratio ϭ
␥ ϭ
2. Diesel Cycle
␩ ϭ 1 Ϫ where r ϭ ratio of compression
R ϭratio of cut-off volume to clearance volume
3. High Speed Diesel (Dual-Combustion) Cycle
␩ ϭ 1 Ϫ
where r
v
ϭ
k ϭ
␤ ϭ
volume at end of constant P heating (combustion)
clearance volume
absolute pressure at end of constant V heating (combustion)
absolute pressure at beginning of constant V combustion
cylinder volume
clearance volume
k␤

Ϫ 1
r
v
␥Ϫ1
[(k Ϫ 1) ϩ ␥k(b Ϫ 1)]
(R

Ϫ 1)
r
v
␥Ϫ1
␥(R Ϫ 1)
specific heat (constant pressure)
specific heat (constant volume)
cylinder volume
clearance volume
1
r
v
(␥Ϫ1)
where T
1
and T
2
are absolute temperatures of
heat source and sink
T
1
Ϫ T
2
T
1
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 417
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 418
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 418
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 419
4. Gas Turbines (Constant Pressure or Brayton Cycle)
␩ ϭ 1 Ϫ
where r
p
ϭ pressure ratio ϭ
Heat Transfer by Conduction
Q ϭ
where Q ϭ heat transferred in Btu
␭ ϭ thermal conductivity or coefficient of heat transfer in
A ϭ area in ft
2
t ϭ time in hr
⌬T ϭ temperature difference between surfaces in °F
d ϭ thickness of layer in ft
Btu ϫ ft
ft
2
ϫ n ϫ °F
␭At⌬T
d
compressor discharge pressure
compressor intake pressure
1
r
p
a
␥Ϫ1

b
Coefficients of Thermal Conductivity
Material Coefficient of
Thermal Conductivity
Aluminum 230
Brick 0.4
Concrete 0.54
Copper 398
Cork 0.026
Felt 0.03
Glass 0.5
Glass, fiber 0.63
Iron, cast 60
Tin 20
Wood 0.20
Wallboard, paper 0.034
Btu ft
(n•ft
2
)(°F/ft)
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 419
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 420
Thermal Expansion of Solids
Increase in length ϭ L ␣ (T
2
– T
1
)
where L ϭ original length
␣ ϭ coefficient of linear expansion
(T
2
– T
1
) ϭ rise in temperature
Increase in volume ϭ V ␤ (T
2
– T
1
)
Where V ϭ original volume
␤ ϭ coefficient of volumetric expansion
(T
2
– T
1
) ϭ rise in temperature
coefficient of volumetric expansion ϭ coefficient of linear expansion ϫ 3
␤ ϭ 3␣
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 420
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 421
Chemical Heating Value of a Fuel
Chemical Heating Value Btu/lb of fuel ϭ145000 C ϩ53400 ϩ4000 S
C is the mass of carbon per lb of fuel
H
2
is the mass of hydrogen per lb of fuel
O
2
is the mass of oxygen per lb of fuel
S is the mass of sulfur per lb of fuel
Theoretical Air Required to Burn Fuel
Air (lb per lb of fuel) ϭ
Air Supplied from Analysis of Flue Gases
Air in lb per lb of fuel ϭ
C is the percentage of carbon in fuel by weight
N
2
is the percentage of nitrogen in flue gas by volume
CO
2
is the percentage of carbon dioxide in flue gas by volume
CO is the percentage of carbon monoxide in flue gas by volume
Boiler Formulae
Equivalent evaporation ϭ
Factor of evaporation ϭ
Boiler efficiency ϭ
where ϭ mass flow rate of steam
h
1
ϭ enthalpy of steam produced in boiler
h
2
ϭ enthalpy of feedwater to boiler
ϭ mass flow rate of fuel w
#
f
w
#
s
#
w
s
(h
1
Ϫ h
2
)
#
w
f
ϫ calorific value of fuel
(h
1
Ϫ h
2
)
970.3 Btu/lb
#
w
s
(h
1
Ϫ h
2
)
970.3 Btu/lb
N
2
33 (CO
2
ϩ CO)
ϫ C
c
8
3
C ϩ 8aH
2
Ϫ
O
2
8
b ϩ Sd
100
23
aH
2
Ϫ
O
2
8
b
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 421
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 422
Fluid Mechanics
Discharge from an Orifice
Let A ϭ cross-sectional area of the orifice ϭ (␲/4)d
2
and A
c
ϭ cross-sectional area of the jet at the vena contracta = ((␲/4)
then A
c
ϭ C
c
A
or C
c
ϭ
where C
c
is the coefficient of contraction
At the vena contracta, the volumetric flow rate Q of the fluid is given by
Q ϭ area of the jet at the vena contracta ϫ actual velocity
ϭ A
c
v
or Q ϭ C
c
AC
v
The coefficients of contraction and velocity are combined to give the coefficient
of discharge, C
d
i.e. C
d
ϭ C
c
C
v
and Q ϭ C
d
A
Typically, values for C
d
vary between 0.6 and 0.65
Circular orifice: Q ϭ 0.62 A
Where Q ϭ flow (ft
3
/s) A ϭ area (ft
2
) h ϭ head (ft)
Rectangular notch: Q ϭ 0.62 (B ϫ H)
Where B ϭ breadth (ft) H ϭ head (ft above sill)
Triangular Right Angled Notch: Q ϭ 2.635 H
5/2
Where H ϭ head (ft above sill)
22gh
2
3
22gh
22gh
22gh
A
c
A
ϭ a
d
c
d
b
2
d
2
c
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 422
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 423
Bernoulli’s Theory
H ϭ h ϩ
H ϭ total head (ft) w ϭspecific weight (lb/ft
3
)
h ϭ height above datumlevel (ft) v ϭvelocity of water (ft per second)
P ϭ pressure (lb/ft
2
)
Loss of Head in Pipes Due to Friction
Loss of head in meters ϭ f
L ϭ length in ft v ϭ velocity of flow in ft per second
d ϭ diameter in ft f ϭ constant value of 0.01 for large pipes to 0.02
for small pipes
Note: This equation is expressed in some textbooks as
Loss ϭ 4f where the f values range from 0.0025 to 0.005
Electricity
Ohm’s Law
I ϭ
or E ϭ IR
where I ϭ current (amperes)
E ϭ electromotive force (volts)
R ϭ resistance (ohms)
Conductor Resistivity
R ϭ ␳
where ␳ ϭ specific resistance (or resistivity) (ohm inches, Ω·in)
L ϭ length (inches)
a ϭ area of cross-section (square inches)
Temperature correction
R
t
ϭ R
o
(1 ϩ ␣t)
where R
o
ϭ resistance at 0°C (⍀)
R
t
ϭ resistance at t°C (⍀)
L
a
E
R
L
d

v
2
2g
L
d

v
2
2g
P
w
ϩ
v
2
2g
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 423
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 424
␣ ϭ temperature coefficient which has an average value for copper of
0.004 28 (⍀/⍀°C)
R
2
ϭ R
1
where R
1
ϭ resistance at t
1
(⍀)
R
2
ϭ resistance at t
2
(⍀)
Dynamo Formulae
Average e.m.f. generated in each conductor ϭ
where Z ϭ total number of armature conductors
c ϭ number of parallel paths through winding between positive and
negative brushes where c ϭ 2 (wave winding), c ϭ 2p (lap winding)
⌽ ϭ useful flux per pole (webers), entering or leaving the armature
p ϭ number of pairs of poles
N ϭ speed (revolutions per minute)
Generator Terminal volts ϭ E
G
Ϫ I
a
R
a
Motor Terminal volts ϭ E
B
ϩ I
a
R
a
where E
G
ϭ generated e.m.f.
E
B
ϭ generated back e.m.f.
I
a
ϭ armature current
R
a
ϭ armature resistance
Alternating Current
R.M.S. value of sine curve ϭ 0.707 maximum value
Mean value of sine curve ϭ 0.637 maximum value
Form factor of sinusoidal ϭ
Frequency of alternator ϭ cycles per second
Where p ϭ number of pairs of poles
N ϭ rotational speed in r/min
pN
60
R.M.S. value
Mean value
ϭ
0.707
0.637
ϭ 1.11
2⌽NpZ
60c
(1 ϩ ␣t
2
)
(1 ϩ ␣t
1
)
␣ Values ⍀/⍀ºC
copper 0.00428
platinum 0.00385
nickel 0.00672
tungsten 0.0045
aluminum 0.0040
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 424
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 425
Slip of Induction Motor
ϫ 100
Inductive Reactance
Reactance of AC circuit (X) ϭ 2␲fL ohms
where L ϭ inductance of circuit (henries)
Inductance of an iron cored solenoid ϭ henries
where T ϭ turns on coil
␮ ϭ magnetic permeablility of core
A ϭ area of core (square centimeters)
L ϭ length (centimeters)
Capacitance Reactance
Capacitance reactance of AC circuit ϭ ohms
where C ϭ capacitance (farads)
Total reactance ϭ ohms
Impedence (Z) ϭ
ϭ
Current in AC Circuit
Current ϭ
Power Factor
p.f. ϭ
also p.f. ϭ cos ⌽, where ⌽ is the angle of lag or lead
Three Phase Alternators
Star connected
Line voltage ϭ ϫ phase voltage
Line current ϭ phase current
Delta connected
Line voltage ϭ phase voltage
Line current ϭ ϫ phase current 23
23
true watts
volts ϫ amperes
impressed volts
impedance
A
R
2
ϩ a2␲fL Ϫ
1
2␲fC
b
2
ohms
2(resistance)
2
ϩ (reactance)
2
a2␲fL Ϫ
1
2␲fC
b
1
2␲fC
1.256T
2
␮A
L ϫ 10
8
Slip speed of field Ϫ speed of rotor
Speed of field
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 425
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 426
Three phase power
P ϭ E
L
I
L
cos ⌽
E
L
ϭ line voltage
I
L
ϭ line current
cos ⌽ ϭ power factor
23
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 426
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 427
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 427
APPENDI X B • FORMULAE AND PHYSI CAL CONSTANTS 428
Ion Names and Formulae
Monatomic Polyatomic
Ag
ϩ
silver ion BO
3

borate ion
Al

aluminum ion C
2
H
3
O
2
Ϫ
acetate ion
Au
ϩ
and Au

gold ion ClO
Ϫ
hypochlorite ion
Be

beryllium ion ClO
2
Ϫ
chlorite ion
Ca

calcium ion ClO
3
Ϫ
chlorate ion
Co

and Co

cobalt ion ClO
4
Ϫ
perchlorate ion
Cr

and Cr

chromium ion CN
Ϫ
cyanide ion
Cu
ϩ
and Cu

copper ion CO
3

carbonate ion
Fe

and Fe

iron ion C
2
O
4

oxalate ion
K
ϩ
potassium ion CrO
4

chromate ion
Li
ϩ
lithium ion Cr
2
O
7

dichromate ion
Mg

magnesium ion HCO
3
Ϫ
hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate ion
Na
ϩ
sodium ion H
3
O
ϩ
hydronium ion
Zn

zinc ion HPO
4

hydrogen phosphate ion
H
2
PO
4
Ϫ
dihydrogen phosphate ion
HSO
3
Ϫ
hydrogen sulfite or bisulfite ion
HSO
4
Ϫ
hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate ion
MnO
4
Ϫ
permanganate ion
N
3
Ϫ
azide ion
NH
4
ϩ
ammonium ion
NO
2
Ϫ
nitrite ion
NO
3
Ϫ
nitrate ion
O
2

peroxide ion
OCN
Ϫ
cyanate ion
OH
Ϫ
hydroxide ion
PO
3

phosphite ion
PO
4

phosphate ion
SCN
Ϫ
thiocyanate ion
SO
3

sulfite ion
SO
4

sulfate ion
S
2
O
3

thiosulfate ion
997716 AppB p401-428 7/16/03 11:57 AM Page 428