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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2458

A Survey of Methods used for Fast Retrieval of Images in Large scale dataset

S.Kalaiarasi Msc
1
, T.P.Senthilkumar Msc, M.Phil
2

1
M. Phil Scholar, Department of Computer Science, Gobi Arts and Science College, Gobi, Tamil Nadu, India.
2
Assistant professor, Department of Computer Science, Gobi Arts and Science College, Gobi, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract— An image retrieval system is a technique used
in computer system for searching and retrieving images
from a large set of database of digital images. Most
common and traditional methods of image retrieval used
some techniques for adding metadata such as keywords,
captions, or description to the images. By doing this, the
retrieval of image can be done based on these annotated
words. Manual image annotation consumes larger time,
laborious and expensive too. To address this issue, large
number of research has been done on automatic image
annotation. In addition, social web applications and
semantic web increasing rapidly, this has been inspired the
development of various web based image annotation tools.
The rapid evolution of the Internet and the explosive
growth of the visual contents of the Web, image search in
large scale has attracted considerable attention. The
ability of fast similarity search of an image in a large-scale
dataset is a research issue which is under consideration.
The following work is analysis over the image retrieval in
large database through various mechanisms available in
the literature.
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays the existence of online image repositories
contains hundreds of millions of images of all kinds of
content, quality and size. One example to show such an image
repository is Flickr. These repositories rapidly grow day by
day by making techniques for searching, indexing and
navigating. In current research, indexing is mainly based on
tags entered by manually or pattern usage of individual and
groups. A tag which has been entered manually is not sure that
it will refer the original content of the shown image. For
instance, consider an example that is the tag “Christmas” in
Flickr. As one might expect, only a very small amount of the
image depicts the religious event. Instead of that, the tag often
depicts the date and time of creation. Thus several parties and
vacation photos pop up with no real theme commonly. These
ambiguities and subjectivity of tags retrieve images based on
manually entered tags which is quite difficult.
Similarity search which is also known as nearest neighbor
search is one of the most fundamental problems in image
retrieval and in machine learning research communities. It
defines the task of finding close or more related samples for a
given query . It is most important for several multimedia
applications, such asclassification, annotation and content-
based multimedia retrieval. Recently, the rapid evolution of
the Internet and the explosive growth of the visual contents on
the Web, image search in large scale have attracted
considerable attention. Comparing the query image with each
sample in the database is infeasible because of the non
scalability of the linear complexity under practical situations.
For example, the photo sharing website such as Flickr, which
has over 4 billion images. And another visual content sharing
website known as YouTube receives more than 20 h of
uploaded videos per minute. Besides, various large-scale
content-based image retrieval applications suffer from the
dimensionality curse in the case of visual descriptors which
has usually hundreds or even thousands of dimensions.
Therefore, the storage of the original data tends to be a big
problem because searching becomes exhaustive when done
beyond the infeasibility. To overcome these difficulties,
following surveyed methods has been dealing with these
issues which had been considered effective.
Analysis of methods for fast image retrieval in large
datasets behavior of literature has been presented in the
following paper.

II. IMAGE RETRIEVAL BASED ON SIMILARITY

A. Region based similarity
In [1] an image retrieval system that is based on a
segmented representation of the visual content. This
segmented representation leads to a comparison of the image
content. That result obtained from that comparison is more
"semantic" than a classical global comparison. The regions
were compared by system using fuzzy similarity measures
and that showed to be psychologically intuitive and easy to
aggregate. Further exploitation of the aggregation between
similarity measures obtained by region lets the user to build
four different types of original visual requests.
The resemblance between regions is highly elaborated than
the global one. In [1] author considered several aspects of
comparison that are color, shape and position. The region is
considered as vector for each comparison. As these three
vectors belong to a different space, the relation between each
other cannot be found, the similarity between these pairs of
region depicted by three different measures: Only one
measure has been taken for each of the vector pairs.
Formally the two regions R(i) and I(j) extracted from Image
request R, and Image database entry I. The region similarity
Sreg is an aggregation of three sub-measures
Sreg|color-Measuring color similarity based on the
histogram.
Dreg|position-Evaluate proximity of the center of two
regions
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2459

Sreg|shape-Measures the shape similarity based on the
minimum bounding rectangles (MBR) of R (i) and I (j).
These three measures average can be combined by using
the aggregation operator
Sreg(R(i),I(j))=c.Sreg|color(R(i),I(j))+p.Dreg|position(R(
i),I(j))+s.Sreg|shape(R(i),I(j))
With c+p+s=1. These parameters are used to balance
the influence of each of the three feature spaces on region
similarity.. These values can be set as c=0. 6, s=0. 2, p=0.

B. Similarity evaluation using simple features
Recently the development of complex multimedia
applications has called for new types of methods for the
organization and retrieval of video sequences and still images
.In [2] , few results of a study on similarity evaluation in
image retrieval using object orientation, color and relative
position as content features. Additionally feature descriptor
and queries were query performance can be calculated by
using a simple prototype system. The feature extraction
process is completely automated and requires no user
intervention. The system used in [2] is not a general purpose
tool, but it is oriented to thematic image repositories where the
stored image semantics are limited to a specific domain.
The approach considered in [2] is oriented to retrieving
images from a thematic database. Most image collections
available in the public domain or through the professional and
commercial distribution channels which are organized in sub-
collections (directories). And each of them covers a separate
theme.

C. Fast Kernel machines
In [3] an approach to learn image similarity from Flickr
groups was developed. The motivation of [3] is Flickr groups
shows how people would like to group similar images on the
Internet. To resolve this issue two query images can be
considered similar if they are likely to belong to the same set
of Flickr groups. In [3] author also described SIKMA, an
algorithm used to train an SVM with the histogram
intersection kernel by using tens of thousands of training
examples. SIKMA is used to train classifiers such that it
predicts Flickr group memberships. Experimental results
shown in [3] give strong evidence such that learned image
similarity works better on many tasks such as unsupervised
clustering and image matching than directly measuring
similarity with visual features.

III. SIMILARITY SEARCH VIA HASHING

A. Self-taught Hashing
In [5] Locality-sensitive Hashing (LSH) for the
purpose of devising main memory algorithms for nearest
neighbor search is proposed. This does not require hash
buckets to store only one point which was used in earlier
research of [5]. This approach shows better running time and
generalization of analysis can be made in the case of
secondary memory. The experimental result can be done on
two data sets. First data set contains 20,000 histograms of
color images from Corel. The second dataset contains 270,000
points of dimensions. The two performance measures have
been calculated by the author in [5] they are speedy and
Accuracy. The performance of this approach has been
compared with SR-tree. The result obtained by experiment
indicates it works well even for large number of dimensions
and data sizes .An additional advantage obtained in [5] is
running time is essentially determined in advance.
.
B. Locality-sensitive Hashing
The fundamental premise of peer-to-peer (P2P)
systems is that of individual peers are shared by voluntary
resources .Then there is an inherent tension between
collective welfare and individual rationality that threatens the
viability of these systems. In [7] the intersection of computer
science and economics , targets the design of distributed
systems which consisting of rational participants with selfish
and diverse interests has been discussed. In particular, major
findings and open questions related to free-riding in P2P
systems such as challenges in the design of incentive
mechanisms for P2P systems, factors affecting the degree of
free-riding and incentive mechanisms to encourage user
cooperation were discussed in [7].

C. Semi-Supervised Hashing
In [6] a semi-supervised hashing method has been
discussed .This method formulates minimizing empirical error
on the labeled data. This can be done while maximizing
variance and independence of hash bits over the unlabeled and
labeled data. This method can handle both semantic as well
as metric similarity. The experimental results on two large
datasets (up to one million samples) demonstrate its superior
performance over unsupervised and supervised methods.
In this [6], a semi-supervised paradigm is presented to learn
efficient hash codes .These hash codes can handle semantic
similarity/dissimilarity among the data points. This method
leads to a very simple Eigen-decomposition based solution.
To get top eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the use of iterative
solvers makes the computation to work faster.

IV. MULTIMEDIA INDEXING, SEARCH AND
RETRIEVAL
In [7] Multimedia content is being shared by users in web
for uploading videos, audios and photos in social network


A. Event-based Multimedia Indexing
Recently, Event detection of web data has attracted a lot
of research attention. This attraction is due to the desire of
users to extract/exploit structured information and immense
amount of available information. In [7] the semantic gap
bridging between plain multimedia analysis and human
perception has been discussed. In order to support a more
human-centered retrieval process and new query types the
multimedia researchers developed method to detect and link
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2460

events to multimedia .Retrieval of multimedia content can be
done by event identification and indexing.
.
B. Time-related multimedia indexing
In [7] The speed of multimedia content sharing in the
Social web, Social media databases with greater volumes of
data in very short time windows. Thus, a major difference
between the common multimedia databases and Social web
databases is the that they are constantly increasing and
population of information with fresh contents. This tends to
ask for complicated queries which include time/date related
information by the user. Evolution of these databases stores
millions of records every day in a certain period of time..
However, queries which filter the retrieved content in
specified time windows are needed. In order to enable for
efficient search and retrieval the time-evolved social
multimedia databases are required.

V. GEOMETRY-PRESERVING VISUAL PHRASES

In [8] an approach which encodes more spatial information
into BoV representation is proposed. This shows enough
efficient to be applied to large-scale databases. In this work
[8] an approach encodes more spatial information through the
geometry-preserving visual phrases (GVP). In addition to co-
occurrences the long-range spatial layouts and local of words
were captured by GVM method. The searching algorithm
which is based on GVP increases computational time or little
memory usage compared to the BoV method. Moreover, [8]
shows an approach can also be integrated to the min-hash
method for improving the retrieval accuracy. The experiment
results shown on [8] used Oxford 5K and Flicker1M dataset
.The result shows that this approach outperforms the BoV
method even after following a RANSAC verification.

VI. LDA-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

In [9] Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for retrieving
image from a large scale database has been discussed. It is a
generative probabilistic model which is developed for the
collections of text documents. In this document are
represented by a finite mixture over latent topics which also
called hidden aspects. Each topic is characterized by a
distribution over words. The main objective of [9] is to model
image databases not text databases. LDA represent an image
as a mixture of topics, ( i.e. as a mixture of multiple objects).

This work [9] studies the representation of images by Latent
Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models in the context of query by-
example retrieval. This can be done on a large real world
image database consisting of more than 246,000 images.
Results obtained on [9] shows that the approach performs
well. The combination of appropriate similarity measure with
LDA-based image representation outperforms previous
approaches of [9] such as a p LSA-based image
representation. The similarity measure based on probabilities
and developed for information retrieval gives the best retrieval
results.
VII. NONNEGATIVE SHARED SUBSPACE
LEARNING
In [10], A shared subspace learning framework to leverage a
secondary source. This is used mainly to improve retrieval
performance from a primary dataset. This can be achieved by
learning a shared subspace. These learning can be done
between the two sources under a joint Nonnegative Matrix
Factorization. These sources explicitly control the level of
subspace sharing. The framework of image and video retrieval
tasks in which tags can be validated from the Label Me
dataset. These are all used to improve image retrieval
performance from video retrieval from a YouTube dataset and
Flickr dataset.

VIII. CONCLUSION

Image retrieval in a large set of database is still a problem
of interest in the database and vision communities. A lot of
techniques have been discussed to retrieve images quickly in
large set of database using similarity search method. In the
above survey deals with fast retrieval of images using
similarity search based on different hashing techniques,
Multimedia Indexing, and other major techniques Non
negative shared subspace learning, LDA-Based image
retrieval etc. Each of the surveyed methods proves and shows
better in some categories and not in some other categories.
Still it is a research issue to search and retrieve images in a
large set of database such as YouTube, Flickr etc.
.
REFERENCES

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International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2461


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