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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS

AND DATA COMMUNICATION
1. INTRODUCTION
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) is a Global Fortune 500 company in
the Energy sector. HPCL has to re!ineries located in "umbai (#est Coast) and $isa%h
(East Coast) ith capacities o! 5.5 ""&P' and (.5 ""&P' respecti)ely* churning out
a ide range o! petroleum products. and o)er +00 grades o! lubricants* specialties and
greases as per ,-. standard.
HPCL has success!ully contributed close to /00 o! -ndia1s total re!ining re2uirements. 3)er the
years HPCL1s capacity o! production has e4panded massi)ely through )arious up gradation
initiati)es.
&he re!ineries* %non !or the !ull utili5ation o! capacity and orld class per!ormance are
the !oundations o! HPCL1s success!ul 6ourney toards meeting -ndia1s energy re2uirements.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) came into being in mid 78(9 a!ter ta%e o)er and
merging o! ersthile Esso and Lube -ndia underta%ings.
Catle4 as ta%en o)er by go)ernment o! -ndia in 78(: and subse2uently merged ith HPCL.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited thus emerged a!ter merging ;e!ining<"ar%eting
!acilities o! E..3 and C'L&E=.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited today is the second largest integrated oil company in
-ndia playing a signi!icant role in the nation>s economic de)elopment and groth. against the
bac%drop o! economic liberali5ation*
HPCL is consistently impro)ing its e4istence by strengthening its in!rastructural !acilities as
ell as di)ersi!ying upstream and donstream into e4ploration and production and poer and
petrochemicals and hori5ontally into L?G sector.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
HPCL produces the entire range o! petroleum products and ser)es all sectors o! the economyD
industry* agriculture* transport* domestic* public utilities and also ma6or consumers li%e the
railays* poer plants* de!ense* !ertili5er plants* etc.E
$isa%h re!inery per!ormance had been consistently Fe4cellentG o)er the years. &he ma6or
per!ormance indicators are crude thruput* total distillate* !uel and loss and implementation o!
E?C3? and en)ironmental pro6ects.
1.1 Origin and growt o! "PCL#$R
Commissioned in 785( as Catle4 oil re!inery -ndia limited (C3;-L). First oil re!inery on the East
Coast and the ma6or industry in the city o! $isa%hapatnam* 'ndhra Pradesh.
-nstalled capacity o! 0.:5 "illion "etric &ones per 'nnum H""&'I in 785( !or re!ining o!
crude oil into petroleum products J7+/00 bbl<dayK. C3;-L as ta%en o)er by the go)ernment o!
-ndia and merged ith HPCL in 78(L.
1.% R&!in&r' O(&r(i&w
$isa%h re!inery is !uels based re!inery generating ma6or products o! mass consumption li%e
petrol* diesel and %erosene. Hence* crude meeting general purpose characteristics can be
processed ith this re!inery con!iguration. $isa%h re!inery can process crude !rom Prussian gul!
under nonDbituminous category* bituminous crude (crude yielding bitumen* used !or pa)ing
road).
&he crude processed at re!inery include
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
CRUDE COUNTRY
Muait Muait
Aubai B'E
Bmmshai! B'E
Bpper 5a%um B'E
"urban .audi 'rab
'rab medium .audi 'rab
-ran mi4 -ran
La)an ,lend -ran
,arash Lt -ran

Prod)*t+ And Tr&at,&nt Fa*i-iti&+
S.NO Pro*&++ )nit Ca.a*it' /in MMPA0
7 CABD- 7.5
/ CABD-- +.0
+ CABD--- +.0
9 ,,B 0.//5
5 $,B 7.0
: FCCBD-(;) 0.85
( FCCBD-- 0.:0
L AHA. 7.L
8 P;B 0.7
LegendN
CABN Crude Aistillation Bnit FCCB N Fluidi5ed Catalytic Crac%ing
AHA.N Aiesel Hydro AeD.ulphuri5ation Bnit $,B N $is ,rea%er Bnit
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
&ableD7 crude e4port countries
&ableD/ Capacity o! )arious processing units
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
,,B N ,itumen ,loing Bnit P;B N Propylene ;eco)ery Bnit
Prod)*t+1
S.NO DAILY PRODUCTION CAPACITY/in ton&+0
1 Crude processing //500
% LPG :70
2 Propylene 700
3 .ulphur 7(O:5
4 Aiesel (L00
5 ?aphtha /750
6 L.H. 7(80
7 Fuel oil +500
Tr&at,&nt Unit+ 1
• AHA.NAiesel Hydro AeD.ulphuri5ation BnitN7.L ""P&'
• LPG 'mine &reatment Bnit
• LPG* '&F and Petrol "ero4 Bnits 'mine ;egeneration Bnit
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
&ableD+ Aaily Production capacity o! )arious products
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
En(iron,&nta- Contro- Fa*i-iti&+1
• .ulphur ;eco)ery BnitsN + no. J/ Locate &echnology o! Clauss processK
• .our ater striping BnitsN / no.
• E!!luent &reatment PlantsN 9 no.
• C3 ,oilersN / no.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
%. CONFIGURATION OF REFINERY
$isa%h ;e!inery is being operated under the !olloing ma6or unitsN
• Process Bnits
• &reating Bnits
• Poer and utilities
• 3il mo)ement and storage units
• En)ironment related units
%.1 Pro*&++ Unit
&he Process unit consists o! three unitsN
7. CAB /.FCCB +.P;B
Cr)d& Di+ti--ation Unit
CAB consists o! to sectionsN
• 'tmos section
• $acuum section
At,o+ +&*tion1
Crude oil is !irst preheated !rom +0D7/5
0
c and pressure about 70%g<cm
/
enters the Aesalter. &he
salts !rom crude are remo)ed in the desalter units. &he desalted crude is then boosted to a
pressure o! +0D+5%g<cm
/
* preDheated to around +:0
0
c.
&he oil is alloed into the !lash 5one o! atmos distribution column and the product to stripper
ith steam to strip o!! the lighter products. &he o)er headD)apors o! the atmos column are
condensed in a series o! conductors and the li2uid in the recei)er.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
Hea)y ?aphtha* %erosene < '&F P Aiesel product are ithdran as side steams and stripped o!!
as lighter ends ith supper heater "P steam in the respecti)e strippers. &he bottom stream in
atmos column is called ;C3.
Prod)*t+1 Fuel Gas* LPG* LightD?aphtha* Hea)yD?aphtha* %erosene* diesel P ;educed Crude
3il.
$a*)), +&*tion1
Hot reduced crude oil !rom atmospheric column bottom is heated in a )acuum to +L0
o
c and
introduced into the !lash 5one o! )acuum column. &he stop distillate out is ithdran !irst.
&he hydrocarbon )apors rising in the column are condensed into Hea)y $acuum Gas 3il
(H$G3) and Light $acuum Gas 3il (L$G3). $G3 is !eed to FCCB as !eed. &he bottom
product o! )acuum column is )acuum residue. &he )acuum in the column is maintained by a
multistage e6ector system.
Prod)*t+1 L$G3 and the H$G3 obtained are !ed to FCCB* the combination o! .hortD;esidue
and the slop cut !orms the !uel oil hich is consumed by the re!inery.
$i+ Br&a8ing Unit /$BU0
$acuum reside !rom either CAB - -- or --- or storage is recei)ed in )isbrea%ing !eed surge drum.
-t operates at a pressure hich is !loating on main !ractioning pressure )isbrea%ing !eed Q 5.0
%g<cm
/
g* 7/0
0
c R 7:0
0
c !rom surge drum is pumped by )isbrea%ing !eed charge pump hich are
o! scre type to a pressure o! (.: %g<cm
/
g.
-t is then heated in )isbrea%ing tar e4change to +/0
0
c by )isbrea%ing crude is then routed to
heater through booster pumps Q 5.L%g<cm
/
g preheated )isbrea%er !eed entries both passes o!
)isbrea%er heater under indi)idual pass.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
Control )isbrea%er heater is a toDpass single shell heater ith bridge all type con!iguration
turbuli5ing ater (,FML) is in6ected to both the passes at a point here )isbrea%ing reaction
starts. Fuel gasses heat )isbrea%er !eed to 955
0
c (9(0
0
c) ;esidual heat reco)ered by superheating
LP P "P steam. Gas oil 2uench or%s primarily by )apori5ation 2uench e!!luent entries main
!ractionators Q 9/5
0
c and ( %g<cm
/
g here it is separated into )isbrea%er tar or !uel oil as side
stream product and naphtha and gas as o)erhead product.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
FigD/.7 Crude distillation unit
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
Bit),&n B-owing Unit /BBU0
&he unit normally recei)es hot )acuum residue directly !rom )acuum unit. &he !eed is cooled to
about /+/
0
c in a stream generator be!ore entering the bitumen con)erter. -n bitumen con)erter
the )acuum residue is blon ith air* since the reaction e4othermic* the heat e)ol)ed has to be
remo)ed.
&his is done in6ected steam into the reactor at the top. Heat is reco)ered !rom bitumen lea)ing
con)erter bottom by generating steam and the bitumen is !urther trim cooled be!ore sending to
storage.
&he hydrocarbon )apors steam and unreacted air lea)e the con)erter top to ater 2uench drum
here hydrocarbons are condensed along ith some ater. Hydrocarbon layer is sent to slop oil
hereas ater sent to aste ater treatment plant (##&P) a!ter separation o! same in the
settler.
F-)idi9&d Cata-'ti* Cra*8ing Unit /FCCU0
$acuum Gas 3il !rom )acuum unit and recycle streams are pumped to ra oil !urnace !or
preheating the !resh !eed.
&his !resh !eed is mi4ed ith regenerated catalyst and enters the reactor at the base o! riser
here they are )apouri5ed and raised to the reactor temperature by the hot catalyst.
&he mi4ture o! oil* )apour and catalyst tra)els up the riser into reactor. &he gas oil commences
to crac% immediately hen it contact the hot catalyst in the riser and continues until the oil
)apour is disengaged !rom the catalyst in the reactor.
&he crac%ed products in )apour !orm continue through the reactor )apour line to !ractionators.
&he catalyst stripper surrounds the upper portion o! the reactor passes around the reactor grid and
into the stripper* here i! !los o)er ba!!les counter current to the rising stripping steam*
displaces oil )apours to the reactor.
Co%e is deposited on the circulation catalyst in the reaction 5one. &he !uel gas lea)ing the top o!
the regenerator goes to coDboilers here super heat is produced.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
&he regenerated catalyst is recycled ith the incoming !eed to the reactor. $apours !rom reactor
are sending to Fractionators section here they are !ractionated into recycle gas oil hich is
returned to the reactor and produces Clari!ied 3il* Cycle 3il* "otor .print (Petrol)* and Gas
products.
&his is achie)ed by !irst sending the reactor products to !ractionators here recycled gas oil and
clari!ied oil are ta%en as bottom products* cycle oil as side dra o!! and unstabilised motor sprint
and gas as o)erhead products.
&he o)erhead gas is compressed and li2ue!ied and separated !rom the separator is scrubbed ith
unstabilised motor sprint in an absorber to reco)er the C
+
PC
9
in it.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION

&he li2uids !orm the separator and the absorbers are stripped o!! ethane and the gas stripped o!!
is recycled bac% to the gas compressor and li2ue!action system to reco)er C
+
>s and C
9
>s carried
ith the stripped gases. &he li2uid !orm stripper bottom is send to a Aebutani5ers here LPG is
ta%en as o)erhead product and stabili5ed ". as bottom product.
Prod)*t+1 Fuel Gas* Crac%ed LPG* Crac%ed Gasoline* Crac%ed ?aphtha* Aiesel component
JLight Cyclic 3il (LC3)* Hea)y Cyclic 3il (HC3)* Clari!ied 3il* Lo .ulphur Hea)y .toc%
(L.H.) Bsed as !uel !or -ndustries and boilers !rom lo sulphur crude processing. 'lso used in
.hips* Sute ,atch 3il* #ash 3ilD,* Propylene.
Pro.'-&n& R&*o(&r' Unit /PRU 0
&he Propylene ;eco)ery Bnit is de!ined to reco)er Propylene !rom Crac%ed LPG* hich is one
o! the product streams o! Fluidi5ed Catalytic Crac%ing Bnit (FCCB). Crac%ed LPG is a mi4ture
o! Propane* Propylene* and ,utane ith some traces o! C
/
P C
5
Hydrocarbons.
&he unit is designed to process about 7*00*000&P' o! crac%ed LPG produced at FCCBD- P --
and to reco)er //*000&P' o! Propylene. &he process consists o! !our steps. -n the !irst step* the
!eed to unit i.e.* Cr. LPG is prepared by draining out the traces o! caustic carryo)er.
-n the second step Crac%ed LPG is separated into C
+
>s and C
9
>s in a distillation column
consisting o! 55 trays. C
+
>s being lighter is reco)ered !rom the column top.
-n the third step* the C
+
>s are again separated into propylene and propane in the second
distillation column consisting o! 8L trays. Propylene being lighter is reco)ered !rom the top o!
the column. -n the !ourth step* the Propylene reco)ered is sub6ected to chemical treatment ith a
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig /./ Fluidi5ed Catalytic Crac%ing Bnit
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
mi4ture o! "ono Ethanol 'mine ("E') and Caustic* then ater ashed and passed through a
mechanical coalesce to %noc% o!! moisture to meet the !olloing speci!icationsN
• Purity N 85 0
• #ater N ?-L
• &otal .ulphur N 5 ppm
&he bottom products o! the !irst column consisting o! ,utane P ,utylenes along the bottom
product o! second column consisting Propane are routed to LPG .pheres. 3n special Propylene
is routed to its spheres and o!!D .pecial is routed to LPG spheres.
%.% Tr&ating Unit+
7. "ero4 Bnit /. Aiesel Hydro AeD.ulphurisation
M&ro: Unit
&he LPG containing is treated here and the sulphur is remo)ed !rom it. &he Merosene>s !lash
point is increased in this unit and the sore ater containing gas is treated here and the ater is
recycled !or usage.
LPG M&ro: Unit+
#hile separate !acilities are pro)ided !or straight run and crac%ed LPG>. !or e4traction* a
common !acility is pro)ided !or caustic generation. '!ter 'mine ashing LPG enters the caustic
preDash toer* the purpose o! hich is to remo)e traces o! hydrogen sulphide.
&he LPG e4tractor hich is per!orated tray column. -n this type o! e4traction column* caustic
soda containing dispersed "ero4 catalyst is ould lead to caustic soda entertainment. &he LPG
is introduced near the bottom o! the column belo the !irst per!orated tray. LPG* ith
mercaptans* is trans!erred to the caustic solution !orming sodium mercaptides.
&he LPG then goes in to the LPG settler. &he spent caustic carried o)er !rom the LPG e4tractor
decants and treated LPG is reco)ered and sent to storage.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
;&ro+&n& M&ro:
Merosene a!ter a caustic pre ash goes to the "ero4 reactor consists o! a catalyst bed o!
acti)ated charcoal impregnated ith "ero4 catalyst. 'ir is in6ected ith the !eed to the "ero4
reactor.
Di&+&- "'dro D&#S)-.)ri+ation
.ul!ur in Aiesel enhances the pollution P contributes signi!icantly to .34 in e4haust emissions.
-t leads to corrosion and ear o! engine systems.
-n order to ma%e ecoD!riendly diesel* it is desirable to remo)e impurities by treating the Aiesel
streams at certain operating conditions in presence o! catalyst and H
/
through a process %non as
AHA.. .traight run<Crac%ed diesel streams ha)e certain inherent impurities )i5 .ulphur*
34ygen* 3le!ins* metals etc. Tuantity o! these impurities depend on crude 2uality* generally
poorer the crude 2uality* higher the impurities.
#ith the implementation o! ,harat .tageD-- and EuroD--- spec* it is mandatory to produce Aiesel
ith ultra lo .ulphur content.
&he Process .teps in this unit areN
• Feed (?aphtha) PreDdesulphuri5ation
• Final desulphuri5ation
• .team ?aphtha ;e!orming
• C3 H& shi!t con)ersion
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
• Final puri!ication o! H
/
(P.')
&o remo)e .ulphur !rom ?aphtha* hich is poison to re!ormer catalyst ?aphtha and recycle H
/
are heated and sent to ;eactor here .ulphur compounds are con)erted to H
/
. o)er CobaltD
"olybdenum based catalyst.
R#S" < "
%
= R#" < "
%
S
.ulphur reduction !rom 7000ppm to 70ppm. &o reduce the sulphur content o! ?aphtha !rom 70
ppm to U 0.5 ppm.* ?aphtha and H
/
are heated and processed in ;eactorD-- to con)ert .
compounds to H/. o)er CobaltD"olybdenum based catalyst. &he H
/
. remo)ed !rom the
;eactorD-- is absorbed in Vn3 reactor.
>nO < "
%
S = >nS < "
%
O
AeD.ulphurised ?aphtha is mi4ed ith steam and passed through a ?ic%el catalyst pac%ed in
)ertical narro 70L tubes mounted in the re!ormer at high temperature
C
n
"
,
< n"
%
O = nCO < /%n<,0?%"
%
C"
3
< "
%
O = CO < 2"
%
/&ndot&r,i*0
C < "
%
O = CO < "
%
/&ndot&r,i*0
Si!t1 CO < "
%
O = CO
%
< "
%
/&:ot&r,i*0
Process is endothermic and heat is supplied by !uel !iring ith 90 topD!ired burners.
%.2 Pow&r And Uti-iti&+1
Ca.ti(& Pow&r P-ant /CPP0
Capaciti)e poer plant meets the total poer demand o! the HPCL. &his unit comprises !or !our
gas turbine generators (G&G)* to ith 8m capacity (F;'"ED+ "achines) each and to ith
/5m capacity (F;'"ED5 "achines) each.F;'"ED+ "achine is a to sha!t machine hereas
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
F;'"ED5 "achine is a single sha!t machine. H.A and ?aphtha are used !or the combustion o!
gas turbine.
.St&a, G&n&ration Unit
.team Generation unit is sub di)ided in to to i.e. Poer plant -P --. -n these units the A"
ater is con)erted in to steam by combusting the !uel oil in the presence o! air in the boilers C3
produced in FCCB is brought in to C3/ !or pollution in poer plant --. &he steam produced here
is utili5ed !or unit purposes. -t is Mg<cm
/
.
D&,in&ra-i9ation wat&r )nit
AeD"inerali5ation is a process o! remo)ing mineral salts !rom ater by using ion e4change
process. -n this unit the ra ater is treated P the PH )alue is maintained at ( by ma%ing the !ree
!rom acids* bases* etc* and ma%ing it a neutral solution* to use in boilers.
%.3 En(iron,&nt R&-at&d P-ant
E!!-)&nt tr&at,&nt .-ant
&he aste ater !rom e)ery plant containing oil is separated and then reused. &he remaining
ater containing contaminants is neutrali5ed and sent to the sea to control the en)ironmental
pollution.
S)-.)r R&*o(&r' Unit /SRU01
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
.ulphur ;eco)ery Bnit is designed to process and remo)e Hydrogen .ulphide (H
/
.) gas !rom
!uel gas (++L: D LL+L) ?m
+
<hr* .our ater .tripper gas (+L D/5() ?m
+
<hr and 'mine 'cid Gas
(7.: D /:) ?m
+
<hr* the process is based on the modi!ied Claus reaction.
"
%
S <
1
?
%
O
%
= "
%
O < S
&his reaction is accomplished by a solution called L3DC'& solution supplied by "<. ';-
&echnologies -nc.* B.'.
'll the three gas streams mentioned abo)e are treated ith L3DC'& solution. Aue to ide
)ariation in the 2ualities the !uel gas is treated separately in an absorber column and the other
to streams are treated combined in the absorber section o! the o4idi5er )essel. -n o4idi5er
)essel* the spent L3DC'& solution is regeneration using air.
&he sulphur generated due to the abo)e reaction remains !inely suspended in the L3DC'&
solution. ' slipstream !orm the o4idi5er is routed to the sulphur remo)al system consisting o!
mainly a )acuum belt !ilter* .ulphur .melter and a molten sulphur storage tan%. '!ter remo)ing
sulphur the balance L3DC'& solution routed bac% to the o4idi5er. &he treated !uel gas is then
routed to the ;e!inery Fuel Gas Header. &he )ent gases !orms the o4idi5ers (!ree o! H
/
.) are then
)ented through a stac%.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
2. STUDY OF ANALY>ERS
• &he analy5ers are mainly used as continuous ambient air monitoring systems
(C''".).&his gi)es the analysis o! )arious components in the air that are released
into the atmosphere during the crude e4traction process.
• For this purpose the so!tare named FE?$-A'.G.&his gi)es the concentration o!
)arious components present in the atmosphere in the stipulated time.&he time can be
set !rom 7 minute to 9L hours.
• &his C''". is used in getting the dust concentration in the plant.-n total there are
three monitoring stations in and around the plant.&his helps !or %noing the amount
o! ?3
4
gases* .3/* hydrocarbons* co and co
/
present in the pollutant air.
• &he in!ormation ill be sent to the 'PPC.N 'ndhra Pradesh Pollution Control
.tation.&he 'PPC. gi)es the standards o! all the gases to be present in the air.
• 'ccording to the in!ormation obtained* the board ill ta%e the action on the
production !rom the plant.&he C''". also measures the dust concentration in the
plant.
• &here are to channels !or the measurement o! suspended particle matter
7. .P" N.uspended Particle "atter
/. ;.P" N;espirable .uspended Particle "atter
• &his .P" measures the dust particles up to 70ug.&he ;.P" measures particular matter
up to /5ug.
&he HPCL plant uses BAM 1@%@ model !or this purpose.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
• 's per the time the so!tare uploads the data and sends to the central monitoring station
and that ill be !orarded to 'PPC..
2.1 BAM 1@%@ 1
&he main !eatures o! this ,'" 70/0 are
• Lo operating costs.
• 'utomatic hourly span chec%s.
• -t can store upto 7L/ days o! digital data in the internal storage.
• Fast and easy audits using common tools.
• Highly accurate* reliable and mechanically simple !lo system.
• Hourly !ilters ad)ances minimi5e e!!ects on )olatile compounds..
• ;ugged anodi5ed aluminum* stainless steel and ba%ed enamel construction.
• Aata retrie)al through ;./+/ ports using direct connection to pc* modem or digital data
collection systems.
PRINCIPLE 1
&he ,'"70/0 automatically collects* measures* records the air bourne particulates (in milligram
or micrograms per cubic meter) using the principle o! beta ray attenuation.
&housands o! ,'" 70/0 are deployed all o)er the orld no ma%ing it the most success!ul air
monitoring plat!orms in the orld.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
OPERATION1
• Each hour* a small 79C (carbonD79) element emits a constant source o! highDenergy
electrons (%non as beta rays) through a spot o! clean !ilter tape.
• &hese beta rays are detected and counted by a sensiti)e scintillation detector to
determine a 5ero reading.
• &he ,'"D70/0 automatically ad)ances this spot o! tape to the sample no55le* here a
)acuum pump then pulls a measured and controlled amount o! dustDladen air through the
!ilter tape* loading it ith ambient dust.
• 't the end o! the hour this dirty spot is placed bac% beteen the beta source and the
detector thereby causing an attenuation o! the beta ray signal hich is used to determine
the mass o! the particulate matter on the !ilter tape and the )olumetric concentration o!
particulate matter in ambient air.
• &hese are used in measuring the amount o! ?3
=*
.3/
*
C3* HC that are present in the
atmosphere.
• &hese le)els are sent to the central board and !rom it to the '.P. pollution board.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION





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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig +.7 ,'"D70/0 'naly5er -nstrument
Fig +./ 'naly5er section in HPCL
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
&his is the )ie o! the ,'" 70/0.recorder*hich shos the readings at that particular time.this
is inter!aced ith the atmosphere* and the readings are plotted don ith the help o! a recorder
hich is as shon belo.

• 'long ith .P" and ;.P" there are some gas analy5ers li%e
7. NO
A
N Chemilumenescene analy5er
/. SO
%
N Fluorescence analy5ers
+. "C N Hydrocarbon analy5ers
9. CO N Gas !ilter correlation analy5ers
• 'lso e !ind 5ero span analy5ers* eather monitoring station* noise meter
• &he principles o! each analy5er is
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig +.+ Filter tapes inside ,'"D70/0
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
a) .P" and ;.P" N loss o! beta rays
b) ?3
4
Nloss o! energy due to e4citation
c) .3
/
Nloss o! energy here B$ rays act as a source
d) C3 N"D; ratio
2.% NO
A
ANALYSER1 /RANGE BETBEEN /@#4@@..,00
• For the measurement o! nitric o4ides in the polluted air.
• &he principle o! chemilumenescene is employed.
• -t means that emission o! light during a chemical reaction that does not produce
signi!icant 2uantities o! heat.
• &he ?3
4
reacts ith the o5one* gets e4cited and return to lo energy le)el ith loss o!
energy.
• &he change in the intensity o! light energy gi)es the measurement o! ?3
4
-n this process a beta rays are emitted on to the air that is collected and the output o! it is passed
through o5one layer.
&he ?3
4
present in the atmosphere reacts ith the o5one and gets e4cited to the higher le)el.
'!ter a certain amount o! time this e4cited ?3
4
gets bac% to the normal le)el.
&he change in the intensity o! light energy gi)es us the e4act measurement o! ?3
4
present in the
atmosphere.
2.2 SO
%
ANLYSER1 /RANGE BETBEEN /@#%4@..,00
• For the measurement o! .3
/
in the ambient air.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
• &he principle is !luorescence.
• .ame as that o! ?3
4*
here the B$ rays are used !or the light radiation.
E)en this !ollos the same process but instead o! beta rays the B$ rays are used in this process.
Folloed by o5one layer. Aue to the B$ rays the .3
4
molecules in the air gets acti)ated and
hen passed through o5one get e4cited to higher energy le)els. '!ter some time they come bac%
to the original state.
&he di!!erence in the energy le)els gi)es us the measurement o! .3
4
present in the air.
2.3 "C ANALYSER1 /RANGE BETBEEN /@#1@..,00
• -n this* !or the measurement o! HC* a continuous air supply is re2uired.
• Fuel is H
/
and carrier gas is ?
/.
• &he principle is !lame ioni5ation detection.
• &he number o! ions that pass through the !lame and the output is a measure o!
concentrated HC.
2.4CO ANALYSER1 /RANGE BETBEEN /@#1@..,00
• &his consists o! a heel here in one hal! is !illed ith ?
/
and the other hal! is !illed ith
C3O?
/.
• #hen the beta rays is passed then ?
/
does not absorb the radiation here as the other hal!
ha)ing C3 and ?
/
* absorbs the light radiation due to the presence o! C3.
• &hen the beta rays are imposed on the optical mirrors in order to ad6ust the intensity ith
that o! detectors.
• Here the concentration is measured ith the re!erence %non as "; ratio hich is
appro4imately 7./.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
2.5 >ERO SPAN CALIBRATION1
• &his is used !or calibrating the analy5ers here !or the 5ero.
• Vero air modules are used in hich the concentration o! impurities is almost negligible.
• .pan measurement is ta%en by passing the air ith ma4imum amount o! impurities in it.
• &he calibration is done !or e)ery one month.

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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
3.PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER
' Programmable Logic Controller* or PLC !or short* is simply a special computer de)ice
used !or industrial control systems. -t is a se2uence controller* i.e it accepts inputs !rom sitches
and sensors* e)aluates these in accordance ith a stored program* and generates outputs to
control machines and processes.
&hey are used in many industries such as oil re!ineries* manu!acturing lines* con)eyor
systems and so on. #here e)er there is a need to control de)ices the PLC pro)ides a !le4ible ay
to Wso!tireW the components together.
-t uses a programmable memory to store instructions and e4ecute speci!ic !unctions that
include 3?<3FF control* timing* counting* se2uencing* arithmetic* and data handling.
3.1 "i+tor'
&he early history o! the PLC is !ascinating. -magine i! you ill a !i!ty !oot long cabinet
!illed ith relays hose !unction in li!e is to control a machine. #ires run in and out o! the
system as the relays clic% and clac% to the logic.
?o imagine there is a problem or a small design change and you ha)e to !igure it all out on
paper and then shut don the machine* mo)e some ires* add some relays* debug and do it all
o)er again.
-magine the labor in)ol)ed in the simplest o! changes. &his is the problem that !aced the
engineers at the HydraDmatic di)ision o! G" motors in the late 78:01s. Fortunately !or them the
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
prospect o! computer control as rapidly becoming a reality !or large corporations as
themsel)es. .o in 78:L the G" engineers de)eloped design criteria !or a Wstandard machine
controllerW. &his early model simply had to replace relays but it also had to beN
• ' solidDstate system that as !le4ible li%e a computer but priced competiti)ely ith a li%e
%ind relay logic system.
• Easily maintained and programmed in line ith the all ready accepted relay ladder logic
ay o! doing things.
• #or% in an industrial en)ironment ith all the dirt* moisture* electromagnetism and
)ibration.
• "odular in !orm to allo easy e4change o! components and e4pandability.
&his as a tall order in 78:L but !our companies too% on the challenge.
7. -n!ormation -nstruments* -nc. (!ully oned by 'llenD,radley a year later).
/. Aigital E2uipment Corp. (AEC)
+. Century Aetroit
9. ,ed!ord 'ssociates
,ed!ord 'ssociates on the contract and 2uic%ly !ormed a ne company around the technology
called "3A-C3? a!ter "odular Aigital Control. ,y Sune o! 78:8 they ere selling the !irst
)iable Programmable Controller* the W0L9W hich sold o)er one thousand units. &hese early
e4periences ga)e birth to their ne4t model the W7L9W in 78(+ hich set "odicon as the early
leader in programmable controllers. ?ot to be outdone* the poerhouse 'llenD,radley (all ready
%non !or its rheostats* relays and motor controls) purchased -n!ormation -nstruments in 78:8
and began de)elopment on this ne technology.
&he early models (PATD-- and P"C) ere deemed to be too large and comple4. ,y 78(7 3do
.truger and Ernst Aummermuth had begun to de)elop a ne concept %non as the ,ulletin 7((9
PLC hich ould ma%e them success!ul !or years to come. 'llenD,radley termed their ne
de)ice the WProgrammable Logic ControllerW (patent X+*89/*75L) o)er the then accepted term
WProgrammable ControllerW. &he PLC terminology became the industry standard especially
hen PC became associated ith personal.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
A PLC S'+t&,
&he basic units ha)e a CPB (a computer processor) that is dedicated to run one program that
monitors a series o! di!!erent inputs and logically manipulates the outputs !or the desired
control. &hey are meant to be )ery !le4ible in ho they can be programmed hile also pro)iding
the ad)antages o! high reliability (no program crashes or mechanical !ailures)* compact and
economical o)er traditional control systems.
Bnli%e a personal computer* though the PLC is designed to sur)i)e in a rugged industrial
atmosphere and to be )ery !le4ible in ho it inter!aces ith inputs and outputs to the real orld.
PLCs come in many shapes and si5es. &hey can be so small as to !it in a shirt poc%et hile more
in)ol)ed controls systems re2uire large PLC rac%s. .maller PLCs (a.%.a. Fbric%sG) are typically
designed ith !i4ed -<3 points. &he PLC>s used at HPCL are the Ymodular> ones. -t>s called
FmodularG because the rac% can accept many di!!erent types o! -<3 modules that simply slide
into the rac% and plug in.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig 9.7 ' ,asic PLC system
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
&he components that ma%e a PLC or% can be di)ided into three core areas.
• &he poer supply and rac%
• &he central processing unit (CPB)
• &he input<output (-<3) section
Pow&r S)..-' and Ra*8+1
&he rac% is the component that holds e)erything together. Aepending on the needs o! the control
system it can be ordered in di!!erent si5es to hold more modules. Li%e a human spine the rac%
has a bac%plane at the rear hich allos the cards to communicate ith the CPB.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig 9./ PLC 'rchitecture
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
&he poer supply plugs into the rac% as ell and supplies a regulated AC poer to other
modules that plug into the rac%. &he most popular poer supplies or% ith 7/0 $'C or /9
$AC sources.
T& CPU1
&he brain o! the hole PLC is the CPB module. &his module typically li)es in the slot beside
the poer supply. "anu!acturers o!!er di!!erent types o! CPBs based on the comple4ity needed
!or the system.
&he CPB consists o! a microprocessor* memory chip and other integrated circuits to control
logic* monitoring and communications.
&he CPB has di!!erent operating modes. -n programming mode it accepts the donloaded logic
!rom a PC. &he CPB is then placed in run mode so that it can e4ecute the program and operate
the process.
.ince a PLC is a dedicated controller* it ill only process this one program o)er and o)er again.
3ne cycle through the program is called a scan time and in)ol)es reading the inputs !rom the
other modules* e4ecuting the logic based on these inputs and then updated the outputs
accordingly.
&he scan time happens )ery 2uic%ly (in the range o! 7<7000th o! a second). &he memory in the
CPB stores the program hile also holding the status o! the -<3 and pro)iding a means to store
)alues.
I?O S'+t&,1
&he -<3 system pro)ides the physical connection beteen the e2uipment and the PLC. 3pening
the doors on an -<3 card re)eals a terminal strip here the de)ices connect. &here are many
di!!erent %inds o! -<3 cards hich ser)e to condition the type o! input or output so the CPB can
use it !or its logic.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
-t1s simply a matter o! determining hat inputs and outputs are needed* !illing the rac% ith the
appropriate cards and then addressing them correctly in the CPBs program.
In.)t Mod)-&1 &hese modules act as inter!ace beteen realDtime status o! process )ariable
and the CPB.
Ana-og in.)t ,od)-&1 &ypical input to these modules is 9D/0 m'* 0D70 $. For egN Pressure*
Flo* Le)el &4* ;&A (3hm)* &hermocouple (m$)
Digita- in.)t ,od)-& N &ypical input to these modules is /9 $ AC* 775 $ 'C and /+0 $ 'C.
For egN .itches* Pushbuttons* ;elays* pump )al)e on o!! status.
O)t.)t Mod)-&1 &hese modules act as lin% beteen the CPB and the output de)ices in the
!ield.
Ana-og o)t.)t ,od)-& N &ypical output !rom these modules is 9D/0 m'* 0D70$. For egN Control
$al)e* .peed* and $ibration
Digita- o)t.)t ,od)-&N &ypical output !rom these modules is /9 $ AC* 775 $ 'C and /+0 $
'C. For egN .olenoid $al)es* lamps* 'ctuators* dampers* Pump )al)e on o!! control.
PLC and PC are said to be similar in their physical construction but di!!er in their !unctions.
' PLC is speci!ically designed !or harsh conditions ith electrical noise* magnetic !ields*
)ibration* e4treme temperatures or humidity. Common PCs are not designed !or harsh
en)ironments. -ndustrial PCs are a)ailable but cost more.
,y design PLCs are !riendlier to technicians since they are in ladder logic and ha)e easy
connections. 3perating systems li%e #indos are common. Connecting -<3 to the PC is not
alays as easy.
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION

.
PLCs e4ecute a single program in se2uential order. &hey ha)e better ability to handle e)ents in
real time. PCs* by design* are meant to handle simultaneous tas%s. &hey ha)e di!!iculty handling
real time e)ents.
3.% $&ndor+ o! PLC+ )+&d in "PCL1
7. -C. &riple4
/. .chneider Electric
+. Honeyell 'uthority -ndia Limited (H'-L)
9. "odicon
Page @ +7
AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig 9.+ ' PLC .ystem
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
5. GE Fanuc
$ario)+ PLC+ )+&d in $i+a8 R&!in&r'1
S No PLC
SYSTEM
MODEL
LOCATIO
N UNITS BAC;UP CONTENTS
7
.CH?E-AE
; TB'?&B" CE?&B"
3LA C3
,L; L'AAE; L3G-C
/
'LLE?
,;'ALEC /<5 CPP CPP H;.G7 .BPPL" F-;-?G
+
'LLE?
,;'ALEC /<5 CPP CPP H;.G/ .BPPL" F-;-?G
9
'LLE?
,;'ALEC 5</0 PP7 F<; PP7 #-LL L'AAE; L3G-C
5
'LLE?
,;'ALEC 5<90 CE?&B" CAB+
9/F07<F0/<9:F07 L'AAE;
L3G-C
:
'LLE?
,;'ALEC 5<:0 LPG C<; LPG LPG L3G-C #-&H ""-
(
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC CABD- CABD-
/F09 .33& ,L3#E;.
L'AAE;
L
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC CE?&B" AHA.D.;B :5M/07' L'AAE; L3G-C
8
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC CE?&B" AHA.D.;B :5M/07, L'AAE; L3G-C
70
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC CE?&B" AHA.D.;B :5M707, L'AAE; L3G-C
77
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC CE?&B" AHA.D.;B :5M707' L'AAE; L3G-C
7/
'LLE?
,;'ALEC .LC PP7 F<; PP7
.&'CM '?'LC.E;.
L'AAE;
7+
'?.HB"'
? A"P A"P .-L-C' '?'L L'AAE;
79 GEDF'?BC L" 80<+0 CE?&B" PP7 ?C3 ,3-LE; L'AAE;
75 GEDF'?BC L" 80<+0 A"P C<; A"P/ A"/ L3G-C #-&H H"-
7: GEDF'?BC L" 80<+0 A"P C<; A"P+ A"+ L3G-C #-&H H"-
7( GEDF'?BC L" 80<+0 FP. ,LAG F P . F-;E .-;E? .C.&E"
7L -C.D ;EGE?& CE?&B" FCCB7(;) "', < C', L'AAE;
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
&;-PLE= PLB.O L3G-C
78 "';MD$ &"; CPP C<; CPP -D.tation &7<&/ ,ac%up
/0 "';MD$ &"; CPP C<; CPP -D.tation &+ ,ac%up
/7 "';MD$ &"; CPP C<; CPP -D.tation &9 ,ac%up
// "3A-C3? "-C;3 CPP CPP '?'LC.E;. L'AAE;
/+ "3A-C3?
&=.
TB'?&B" CE?&B" H/
P.' C3?&;3L. #-&H
""-
/9 .-E"E?. "-C;3 E&P/ F P . F-;E #'&E; .C.&E"
/5 .-E"E?. .5 CE?&B" CAB/
77F07 .33& ,L3#E;.
L'AAE;
/: .-E"E?. .5D.-"'&-C PP7 F<; PP7 ,HP$ ,3-LE; L'AAE;
/
( .-E"E?. .( FCCB7 FCCB7 C'& &-"E; L'AAE;
/L &HL :/0D7/ PP/ F<; #-L , ,L; L'AAE; L3G-C
/8 &HL :/0D7: CPP CPP H;.G+ .<, L'AAE;
+0 &HL :/0D7: CPP CPP H;.G9 .<, L'AAE;
+7 &HL :/0D+5 CPP CPP H;.G9 .BPPL" F-;-?G
+/ &HL :/0D+5 CPP CPP H;.G+ .BPPL" F-;-?G
++ &HL :/0D+5 CAB7 F<; /F07<F0/ L'AAE; L3G-C
+9 &HL :/0D+5 CE?&B"
FCCB7(;)
#GC L'AAE; L3G-C
+5 &HL :/0D+5
FCCB/
F-ELA FCCB/ "', L'AAE; L3G-C
+: &HL :/0D+5
FCCB/
F-ELA FCCB/ #GC L'AAE; L3G-C
+( &HL
:/0D+5
#-&H L"" CE?&B" /F09 L'AAE; L3G-C
+L &HL
:/0D+5
#-&H L"" CE?&B"
FCCB7(;)
;; L'AAE; L3G-C
+8 &HL F.C CE?&B" AD.;B F.C ,'CM BP
90 &HL F.C CE?&B" AHA. F.C ,'CM BP
97 &HL F.C CE?&B" H/ F.C ,'CM BP
9/ &HL F.C .3E CE?&B" AHA. C3F-GB;'&-3? ,'CMBP
9+ &HL
."3ME
AE&
.C.&E" FP. ,LAG FP.
AE$EL3PE"E?& PC
,'CMBP
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
3.2 Con!ig)ration o! PLC+
• ALLEN BRADLEY PLC1

• MODICON PLC1
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig 9.9 'llen ,radley PLC
Fig 9.5 "odicon PLC
&ableD9 List o! $arious PLCs used in $isa%h re!inary
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION

• SIEMENS PLC1
3.3 A..-i*ation+ o! PLC+
PLCs are used in industries here there is a need !or the scan time to be the minimum possible.
For emergency shutdon o! !urnaces* heaters* batch processing* motor )al)es* plant interloc%s*
machine protection system* E.G o! any !urnaces* turbine control system* ater treatment in deD
minerali5ed plants* !ire ater auto cutting systems* !ire siren operation systems* etc.
Traditiona- a..-i*ation o! PLC+1
• Pac%aging
• ,ottling and canning
• "aterial Handling
• Poer Generation
• H$'C<,uilding control systems
• .ecurity .ystems
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
Fig 9.: .iemens PLC
Fig 9.5 "odicon PLC
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
• 'utomated 'ssembly
• #ater &reatment
• Food and ,e)erage
• Chemicals
• Pulp and Paper
• Pharmaceuticals
• "etals
 -n industry* there are many production tas%s* hich are o! highly repetiti)e nature. 'lthough
repetiti)e and monotonous* each stage needs care!ul attention o! operator to ensure good
2uality o! !inal product.
 "any a times* !lo super)ision o! process causes high !atigue on operator* resulting in loss
o! trac% o! process control.
 .ometimes* it is ha5ardous also as in case o! potentially e4plosi)e chemical processes.
 Bnder all the abo)e conditions e can use PLCs e!!ecti)ely in totally eliminating the
possibilities o! human error.
.ome o! the capabilities o! PLCs areN
• Logic control
• P-A control
• CoDordination and communication
• 3perator control
• .ignaling and listing etc.
3.4 Ad(antag&+ o! PLC+
R&d)*&d +.a*&1
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AND DATA COMMUNICATION
PLCs are !ully solid state and hence e4tremely compact as compared to hardired controller
herein electromechanical de)ices are used.
En&rg' +a(ing1
')erage poer consumption is 6ust one tenth o! poer consumed by an e2ui)alent relay logic
control.
Ea+& o! Maint&nan*&1
• "odular replacement
• Easy troubleshooting
• Error diagnostics ith programmer
E*ono,i*a-1
• Considering one time in)estment PLC is most economical system
• Cost o! PLC reco)ers ithin a short period (lo paybac% period)
Gr&at&r Li!& and R&-iaCi-it'1
.tatic de)ices* hence lesser number o! mo)ing parts* reduces ear and tear -n the case o!
hardired logic the control* hardare is either electromechanical or pneumatic and there!ore it is
prone to !aults due to ear and tear o! mo)ing parts resulting in lesser 3? &-"E o! the system.
Tr&,&ndo)+ !-&:iCi-it'1
• &o implement changes in control logic* no reiring is re2uired. .o* considerable time is
sa)ed.
• PLC can carry out comple4 !unctions such as generation o! time delays* counting*
comparing* arithmetic operations etc.
• 3nline as ell as 3!!line programming is possible.
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• High processing speed and greater !le4ibility in processing in both analog and digital
signals.
• .uitability !or closed loop tas%s ith se)eral loops and high sampling !re2uencies.
Sort&r ProD&*t Ti,&:
&he hardired control system can be constructed only a!ter the tas% is de!ined. -n PLC* hoe)er*
the construction o! the controller and iring are independent o! control program de!inition. &his
means that the total hardare is standard and desired control is achie)ed through program.
Ea+i&r Storag& Ar*i(ing and Do*),&ntation1
&his is due to its compatibility ith PC<'&* Printer and Floppy Ais% etc.
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4.DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM
Aistributed Control .ystem is a type o! automated control system that is distributed throughout a
machine to pro)ide instructions to di!!erent parts o! the machine. -nstead o! ha)ing a centrally
located de)ice controlling all machines* each section o! a machine has its on computer that
controls the operation.
For instance* there may be one machine ith a section that controls dry elements o! ca%e !rosting
and another section controlling the li2uid elements* but each section is indi)idually managed by
a AC.. ' AC. is commonly used in manu!acturing e2uipment and utili5es input and output
protocols to control the machine.
4.1 "i+tor'
Early minicomputers ere used in the control o! industrial processes since the beginning o! the
78:0s. &he -," 7L00* !or e4ample* as an early computer that had input<output hardare to
gather process signals in a plant !or con)ersion !rom !ield contact le)els (!or digital points) and
analog signals to the digital domain.
&he AC. as introduced in 78(5. ,oth Honeyell and Sapanese electrical engineering !irm
Co%ogaa introduced their on independently produced AC.s at roughly the same time* ith
the &AC /000 and CE?&B" systems* respecti)ely. B.Dbased ,ristol also introduced their BC.
+000 uni)ersal controller in 78(5. -n 78L0* ,ailey (no part o! ',,) introduced the
?E&#3;M 80 system. 'lso in 78L0* Fischer P Porter Company (no also part o! ',,)
introduced AC-D9000 (AC- stands !or Aistributed Control -nstrumentation).
&he AC. largely came about due to the increased a)ailability o! microcomputers and the
proli!eration o! microprocessors in the orld o! process control. Computers had already been
applied to process automation !or some time in the !orm o! both Airect Aigital Control (AAC)
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and .et Point Control. -n the early 78(0s &aylor -nstrument Company* (no part o! ',,)
de)eloped the 7070 system* Fo4boro the F3=7 system and ,ailey Controls the 7055 systems.
'll o! these ere AAC applications implemented ithin miniDcomputers (AEC PAP 77* $arian
Aata "achines* "3AC3"P etc) and connected to proprietary -nput<output hardare.
.ophisticated (!or the time) continuous as ell as batch control as implemented in this ay.
' more conser)ati)e approach as .et Point Control* here process computers super)ised
clusters o! analog process controllers. ' C;&Dbased or%station pro)ided )isibility into the
process using te4t and crude character graphics. ')ailability o! a !ully !unctional graphical user
inter!ace as a ay aay.
4.% T& "i&rar*' o! DCS
• Aedicated control system
• Centrali5ed computer control
• Aistributed control system
D&di*at&d *ontro- +'+t&,1
's the name suggests* a computer is assigned to each process. Hoe)er* this ma%es the system
bul%y and costly. 's there are a greater number o! systems* there may be lac% o! coordination.
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Fig 5.7 Aedicated control system
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AND DATA COMMUNICATION
C&ntra-i9&d *o,.)t&r *ontro- 1
&hi+ system uses a computer called "ain!rame computer. &here is said to be only one single
computer in the system* controlling all the !unctions.
&he main disad)antage o! this system is that as a single computer has to control the system* it is
costly. -! there is a problem ith any one loop* the total system gets smashed and identi!ying the
loop is also )ery di!!icult. 's it needs to handle many processes* the speed decreases.
Programming is )ery di!!icult. &he system is not reliable and accurate.
'bout !i!ty years bac% pneumatic system as used !or process controls. &he transmitters and
controllers ere all pneumatic instruments operating on + to 75 psi air signals. &he main
disad)antages o! these pneumatic instruments ere
• $ery slo* response
• Highly maintenance oriented
• .peciali5ed s%ill re2uired !or maintenance
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Fig 5./ Centrali5ed Control ?etor%
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Ae)elopments in the electronic !ield in 78(0s led to the use o! electronic instruments. Electronic
transmitters and electronic controllers came to be idely used in process control applications.
&hey ere all analog instruments and 9 to /0 ma became the industry standard !or
instrumentation signals. &oards 78L0 remar%able progress as made in digital electronics.
&he ad)ent o! microprocessor initiated a ne era in the !ield o! instrumentation !or process
control. &he e4isting process plant pneumatic and electronics instrumentation is getting replaced
ith the microprocessor based distributed control system.
?e plants are coming up only ith the distributed digital control system (AC.). &he bene!its
that accrue !rom the introduction o! the AC. in then old plants as ell as a ne plants are many
such as impro)ed producti)ity* high amount o! !le4ibility* ad)anced control and optimi5ation*
2uic% start up o! the plant* less maintenance on the instrumentation* "-.* etc.
Folloing is a brie! description o! the )arious components o! the system.
4.2 Di+triC)t&d Contro- S'+t&,+ in "PCL
&he basic !unctionality o! the AC. is F&he or% is distributed depending upon the
!unctionality.G &he AC. is said to ha)e a layered structure.
Each layer corresponds to a group o! group o! !unctions to be per!ormed on loer layer* on
getting some instructions !rom the higher layer and each layer can or% independently.
&hree companies pro)ide HPCL ith AC.. &hey areN
1. "on&'w&-- A)to,ation India Li,it&d /"AIL0
%. Yo8ogawa India Li,it&d /YIL0
2. A+ian Brown Bra(&r' /ABB0
't the "PCL $i+a8 R&!in&r'*
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• &he CABD-* FCCBD-* AHA. and .;B are operated by using the "on&'w&-- DCS.
• &he Poer plants* CABD--* FCCBD--* "E;3=* .;B P P;B units are operated by using
the Yo8ogawa DCS.
• &he CABD--- and 3il "o)ement and .torage units are operated using ABB DCS.
5.DATA COMMUNICATION
5.1 SERIAL COMMUNICATION
-n telecommunication and computer science* serial communication is the process o! sending data
one bit at one time* se2uentially* o)er a communication channel or computer bus.
&his is in contrast to parallel communication* here se)eral bits are sent together* on a lin% ith
se)eral parallel channels. .erial communication is used !or all longDhaul communication and
most computer netor%s* here the cost o! cable and synchroni5ation di!!iculties ma%e parallel
communication impractical.
't shorter distances* serial computer buses are becoming more common because o! a tipping
point here the disad)antages o! parallel buses (cloc% s%e* interconnect density) outeigh their
ad)antage o! simplicity (no need !or seriali5er and deseriali5er (.E;AE.))
-mpro)ed technology to ensure signal integrity and to transmit and recei)e at a su!!iciently high
speed per lane ha)e made serial lin%s competiti)e. &he migration !rom PC- to PC- E4press is an
e4ample.
Ai!!erent .erial Communication 'rchitecturesN
• ;. /+/
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• ;. 9//
• ;. 9L5
• Ethernet
• "od,us
RS %2%
Ae!initely the most popular inter!ace* also being one o! the !irst. Hoe)er* things may soon
change !or ob)ious reasons. 'ny PC that is purchased ill ha)e one (and sometimes more) ;.D
/+/ port.
.ometimes* they are simply re!erred to as .E;-'L P3;&.* hoe)er this may cause con!usion
since there are other .erial inter!aces a)ailable. ;.D/+/ is idely used because it is so readily
a)ailable. Cou don1t usually need to purchase an ;.D/+/ port since it is a)ailable on any PC.
Hoe)er* it does ha)e some disad)antages. Here are a !eN
• Li,it&d Di+tan*& D Cable lengths are limited to 50 !t or less. "any ill claim to
go !urther* but this is not recommended* and is not part o! the ;.D/+/ speci!ication.
• S)+*&.tiC-& to Noi+& D ;.D/+/ is singleDended* hich means that the transmit and
recei)e lines are re!erenced to a common ground
• Not M)-ti#dro. D Cou can only connect one ;.D/+/ de)ice per port. &here are
some de)ices designed to echo a command to a second unit o! the same !amily o!
products* but this is )ery rare. &his means that i! you ha)e + meters to connect to a PC*
you ill need + ports* or at least* an ;.D/+/ multiple4or.
RS#374
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;.D9L5 is )ery similar to ;.D9//. .o much so that it o!ten causes con!usion. ,oth are multiD
drop* and both can communicate )ia )ery long distances* so then hy choose one o)er the otherZ
First o! all* ;.D9L5 is generally a /Dire system* although some manu!acturers may speci!y 9D
ire ;.D9L5* hich is !ar less common and )ery similar to ;.D9//.
-t is important that you identi!y hich one is being employed hen considering an instrument.
Here are some main di!!erences beteen /Dire ;.D9L5 and ;.D9//N
• ;.D9L5 can ha)e multiple Commanding Ae)ices and multiple Listening Ae)ices.
;.D9// can ha)e only one Commander and multiple Listeners. For e4ample* you can
connect one PC (the Commanding de)ice) to 70 temperature controllers (listeners).
• &he PC can instruct any o! the controllers to change setpoint* or to send a
temperature reading* but none o! the controllers can command any o! the other
controllers. #ith ;.D9L5* you can ha)e multiple PC1s and multiple controllers on one
bus* so that one PC can send a command to change a setpoint*and another PC can send a
command to send bac% data* etc. ;emember that all de)ices on the bus must ha)e a
uni2ue unit address* so that only the addressed unit ill respond. (similar to ;.D9//)
• ;.D9L5 iring is easier since you are only dealing ith / ires instead o! 9.
• Programming ;.D9L5 is more di!!icult* since you are sending and recei)ing on
the same to ires* you need to enable and disable the transmitter at the correct time so
that you may per!orm proper communications. -magine sending a command [/.E?A out
o! the transmitter. -! the transmitter is not turned o!! in time* then data being sent by
another de)ice ill be missed. -! the transmitter is turned o!! too 2uic%ly* there is a
chance that part o! the command [./E?A ill be truncated be!ore it e)er has a chance
!inishing the transmission o! the character bits.
#hen programming an ;.D9L5 plugDin card* you ould read the .&'&B.
;EG-.&E; to determine i! it is time to sitch or not. .ome cards* such as the 3"GD
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BL&;'D9L5 has an 'B&3 mode here it is intelligent enough to do this automatically*
ma%ing it transparent to the programmer. .ince ;.D9//* and ;.D/+/ !or that matter* ha)e
separate transmit and recei)e lines* they are easier to implement. 3! course* there are
other matters to consider such as handsha%ing* but ill not be co)ered in this brie!
description.
5.% PARLLEL COMMUNICATION1
-n telecommunication and computer science* parallel communication is a method o! sending
se)eral data signals simultaneously o)er se)eral parallel channels. -t contrasts ith serial
communicationE this distinction is one ay o! characteri5ing a communications lin%.
&he basic di!!erence beteen a parallel and a serial communication channel is the number o!
distinct ires or strands at the physical layer used !or simultaneous transmission !rom a de)ice.
Parallel communication implies more than one such ire<strand* in addition to a ground
connection. 'n LDbit parallel channel transmits eight bits (or a byte) simultaneously. ' serial
channel ould transmit those bits one at a time. -! both operated at the same cloc% speed* the
parallel channel ould be eight times !aster.
' parallel channel ill generally ha)e additional control signals such as a cloc%* to indicate that
the data is )alid* and possibly other signals !or handsha%ing and directional control o! data
transmission.
E4amples o! parallel communication systems
• Computer peripheral busesN -.'* '&'* .C.-* PC- and Front side bus* and the onceD
ubi2uitous -EEED7/L9 < Centronics Wprinter portW
• Laboratory -nstrumentation bus -EEED9LL
Co,.ari+on o! S&ria- and Para--&- Co,,)ni*ation
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,e!ore the de)elopment o! highDspeed serial technologies* the choice o! parallel lin%s o)er serial
lin%s as dri)en by these !actorsN
• S.&&d1 .uper!icially* the speed o! a parallel data lin% is e2ual to the number o! bits sent
at one time times the bit rate o! each indi)idual pathE doubling the number o! bits sent at
once doubles the data rate (see Parallel transmission). -n practice* s%e reduces the speed
o! e)ery lin% to the sloest o! all o! the lin%s.
• CaC-& -&ngtN Crosstal% creates inter!erence beteen the parallel lines* and the e!!ect
orsens ith the length o! the communication lin%. &his places an upper limit on the
length o! a parallel data connection that is usually shorter than a serial connection.
• Co,.-&:it'1 Parallel data lin%s are easily implemented in hardare* ma%ing them a
logical choice. Creating a parallel port in a computer system is relati)ely simple*
re2uiring only a latch to copy data onto a data bus.
• -n contrast* most serial communication must !irst be con)erted bac% into parallel !orm by
a uni)ersal asynchronous recei)er<transmitter (B';&) be!ore they may be directly
connected to a data bus.
&he decreasing cost o! integrated circuits* combined ith greater consumer demand !or speed
and cable length* has led to parallel communication lin%s becoming deprecated in !a)or o! serial
lin%sE !or e4ample* -EEE 7/L9 printer ports )s. B.,* 'd)anced &echnology 'ttachment )s.
.erial '&'* and .C.- )s. Fire#ire.
3n the other hand* there has been a resurgence o! parallel data lin%s in ;F communication.
;ather than transmitting one bit at a time (as in "orse code and ,P.M)* ellD%non techni2ues
such as P."* P'"* and "ultipleDinput multipleDoutput communication send a !e bits in
parallel. (Each such group o! bits is called a WsymbolW).
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.uch techni2ues can be e4tended to send an entire byte at once (/5:DT'"). "ore recently
techni2ues such as 3FA" ha)e been used in 'symmetric Aigital .ubscriber Line to transmit
o)er //9 bits in parallel* and in A$,D& to transmit o)er :09L bits in parallel.
5.2 FiC&r O.ti* Co,,)ni*ation1
FiberDoptic communication is a method o! transmitting in!ormation !rom one place to another by
sending pulses o! light through an optical !iber. &he light !orms an electromagnetic carrier a)e
that is modulated to carry in!ormation.
First de)eloped in the 78(0s* !iberDoptic communication systems ha)e re)olutioni5ed the
telecommunications industry and ha)e played a ma6or role in the ad)ent o! the -n!ormation 'ge.
,ecause o! its ad)antages o)er electrical transmission* optical !ibers ha)e largely replaced
copper ire communications in core netor%s in the de)eloped orld.
&he process o! communicating using !iberDoptics in)ol)es the !olloing basic stepsN Creating the
optical signal in)ol)ing the use o! a transmitter* relaying the signal along the !iber* ensuring that
the signal does not become too distorted or ea%* recei)ing the optical signal* and con)erting it
into an electrical signal.
A..-i*ation+1
3ptical !iber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals*
-nternet communication* and cable tele)ision signals. Aue to much loer attenuation and
inter!erence* optical !iber has large ad)antages o)er e4isting copper ire in longDdistance and
highDdemand applications. Hoe)er* in!rastructure de)elopment ithin cities as relati)ely
di!!icult and timeDconsuming* and !iberDoptic systems ere comple4 and e4pensi)e to install and
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operate. Aue to these di!!iculties* !iberDoptic communication systems ha)e primarily been
installed in longDdistance applications* here they can be used to their !ull transmission capacity*
o!!setting the increased cost.
Tran+,itt&r+1 &he most commonlyDused optical transmitters are semiconductor de)ices such
as lightDemitting diodes (LEAs) and laser diodes.
R&*&i(&r+1 &he main component o! an optical recei)er is a photodetector* hich con)erts light
into electricity using the photoelectric e!!ect. &he photodetector is typically a semiconductorD
based photodiode.
FiC&r1 'n optical !iber consists o! a core* cladding* and a bu!!er (a protecti)e outer coating)* in
hich the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method o! total internal
re!lection.
&he core and the cladding (hich has a loerDre!racti)eDinde4) are usually made o! highD2uality
silica glass* although they can both be made o! plastic as ell. Connecting to optical !ibers is
done by !usion splicing or mechanical splicing and re2uires special s%ills and interconnection
technology due to the microscopic precision re2uired to align the !iber cores.
&o main types o! optical !iber used in !iber optic communications include multiDmode optical
!ibers and singleDmode optical !ibers. ' multiDmode optical !iber has a larger core (\ 50
micrometres)* alloing less precise* cheaper transmitters and recei)ers to connect to it as ell as
cheaper connectors.
Hoe)er* a multiDmode !iber introduces multimode distortion* hich o!ten limits the bandidth
and length o! the lin%. Furthermore* because o! its higher dopant content* multimode !ibers are
usually e4pensi)e and e4hibit higher attenuation.
&he core o! a singleDmode !iber is smaller (U70 micrometres) and re2uires more e4pensi)e
components and interconnection methods* but allos much longer* higherDper!ormance lin%s.
Co,.ari+on wit E-&*tri* Tran+,i++ion1
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&he choice beteen optical !iber and electrical (or copper) transmission !or a particular system is
made based on a number o! tradeDo!!s. 3ptical !iber is generally chosen !or systems re2uiring
higher bandidth or spanning longer distances than electrical cabling can accommodate.
&he main bene!its o! !iber are its e4ceptionally lo loss* alloing long distances beteen
ampli!iers or repeatersE and its inherently high dataDcarrying capacity* such that thousands o!
electrical lin%s ould be re2uired to replace a single high bandidth !iber cable.
'nother bene!it o! !ibers is that e)en hen run alongside each other !or long distances* !iber
cables e4perience e!!ecti)ely no crosstal%* in contrast to some types o! electrical transmission
lines. Fiber can be installed in areas ith high electromagnetic inter!erence (E"-)*(along the
sides o! utility lines* poerDcarrying lines* and railroad trac%s). 'llDdielectric cables are also
ideal !or areas o! high lightningDstri%e incidence.
For comparison* hile singleDline* )oiceDgrade copper systems longer than a couple o!
%ilometers re2uire inDline signal repeaters !or satis!actory per!ormanceE it is not unusual !or
optical systems to go o)er 700 %ilometers (:0 miles)* ith no acti)e or passi)e processing.
.ingleDmode !iber cables are commonly a)ailable in 7/ %m lengths* minimi5ing the number o!
splices re2uired o)er a long cable run. "ultiDmode !iber is a)ailable in lengths up to 9 %m*
although industrial standards only mandate / %m unbro%en runs. -n short distance and relati)ely
lo bandidth applications* electrical transmission is o!ten pre!erred.
5.3 ET"ERNET1
Ethernet is a !amily o! !rameDbased computer netor%ing technologies !or local area netor%s
(L'?s). &he name comes !rom the physical concept o! the ether.
-t de!ines a number o! iring and signaling standards !or the Physical Layer o! the 3.-
netor%ing model* through means o! netor% access at the "edia 'ccess Control ("'C) <Aata
Lin% Layer* and a common addressing !ormat.
Ethernet is standardi5ed as -EEE L0/.+. &he combination o! the tisted pair )ersions o! Ethernet
!or connecting end systems to the netor%* along ith the !iber optic )ersions !or site bac%bones*
is the most idespread ired L'? technology.
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-t has been in use !rom around 78L0 to the present* largely replacing competing L'? standards
such as to%en ring* FAA-* and ';C?E&.
Ethernet as originally based on the idea o! computers communicating o)er a shared coa4ial
cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. &he methods used sho some similarities to
radio systems* although there are !undamental di!!erences* such as the !act that it is much easier
to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast.
&he common cable pro)iding the communication channel as li%ened to the ether and it as
!rom this re!erence that the name WEthernetW as deri)ed.
From this early and comparati)ely simple concept* Ethernet e)ol)ed into the comple4
netor%ing technology that today underlies most L'?s. &he coa4ial cable as replaced ith
pointDtoDpoint lin%s connected by Ethernet hubs and<or sitches to reduce installation costs*
increase reliability* and enable pointDtoDpoint management and troubleshooting
.tarL'? as the !irst step in the e)olution o! Ethernet !rom a coa4ial cable bus to a hubD
managed* tistedDpair netor%. &he ad)ent o! tistedDpair iring dramatically loered
installation costs relati)e to competing technologies* including the older Ethernet technologies.
'bo)e the physical layer* Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data pac%ets*
bloc%s o! data that are indi)idually sent and deli)ered. 's ith other -EEE L0/ L'?s* each
Ethernet station is gi)en a single 9LDbit "'C address* hich is used to speci!y both the
destination and the source o! each data pac%et.
?etor% inter!ace cards (?-Cs) or chips normally do not accept pac%ets addressed to other
Ethernet stations. 'dapters generally come programmed ith a globally uni2ue address* but this
can be o)erridden* either to a)oid an address change hen an adapter is replaced* or to use
locally administered addresses.
Aue to the ubi2uity o! Ethernet* the e)erDdecreasing cost o! the hardare needed to support it*
and the reduced panel space needed by tisted pair Ethernet* most manu!acturers no build the
!unctionality o! an Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards* eliminating the need !or
installation o! a separate netor% card.
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AND DATA COMMUNICATION
5.4 MODBUS1
"odbus is a serial communications protocol published by "odicon in 78(8 !or use ith its
programmable logic controllers (PLCs). -t has become a de !acto standard communications
protocol in industry* and is no the most commonly a)ailable means o! connecting industrial
electronic de)ices.
't HPCLD$; one o! the most crucial uses o! the "odbus is that it is used !or interconnection
beteen PLCs and AC.. &he main reasons !or the e4tensi)e use o! "odbus o)er other
communications protocols areN
• -t is openly published and royaltyD!ree
• ;elati)ely easy industrial netor% to deploy
• -t mo)es ra bits or ords ithout placing many restrictions on )endors
"odbus allos !or communication beteen many de)ices connected to the same netor%* !or
e4ample a system that measures temperature and humidity and communicates the results to a
computer. "odbus is o!ten used to connect a super)isory computer ith a remote terminal unit
(;&B) in super)isory control and data ac2uisition (.C'A') systems.
Proto*o- $&r+ion+1
$ersions o! the "odbus protocol e4ist !or serial port and !or Ethernet and other netor%s that
support the -nternet protocol suite.
"ost "odbus de)ices communicate o)er a serial E-'D9L5 physical layer.
For serial connections* to )ariants e4ist* ith di!!erent representations o! numerical data and
slightly di!!erent protocol details. "odbus ;&B is a compact* binary representation o! the data.
"odbus '.C-- is human readable* and more )erbose.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
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,oth o! these )ariants use serial communication. &he ;&B !ormat !ollos the commands<data
ith a cyclic redundancy chec% chec%sum* hile the '.C-- !ormat uses a longitudinal
redundancy chec% chec%sum. ?odes con!igured !or the ;&B )ariant ill not communicate ith
nodes set !or '.C--* and the re)erse.
For connections o)er &CP<-P* the more recent )ariant "odbus<&CP e4ists. -t does not re2uire a
chec%sum calculation.
Aata model and !unction calls are identical !or all three communication protocolsE only the
encapsulation is di!!erent.
'n e4tended )ersion* "odbus Plus ("odbusO or ",O)* also e4ists* but remains proprietary to
"odicon. -t re2uires a dedicated coDprocessor to handle !ast HALCDli%e to%en rotation. -t uses
tisted pair at 7 "bit<s and includes trans!ormer isolation at each node* hich ma%es it
transition<edge triggered instead o! )oltage<le)el triggered. .pecial inter!aces are re2uired to
connect "odbus Plus to a computer* typically a card made !or the -.' (.'L5)* PC- or PC"C-'
bus.
I,.-&,&ntation+1
'lmost all implementations ha)e )ariations !rom the o!!icial standard. Ai!!erent )arieties may
not communicate correctly beteen di!!erent suppliers e2uipment. .ome o! the most common
)ariations areN
Data T'.&+
• Floating Point -EEE
• +/ bit integer
• L bit data
• mi4ed data types
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
• bit !ields in integers
• multipliers to change data to<!rom integer. 70* 700* 7000* /5: ...
Proto*o- &:t&n+ion+
• 7: bit sla)e addresses
• +/ bit data si5e (7 address ] +/ bits o! data returned.)
• ord sapped data
Li,itation+
• "odbus as designed in the late 78(0s to communicate to programmable logic
controllers* the number o! data types is limited to those understood by PLCs at the time.
Large binary ob6ects are not supported.
• ?o standard ay e4ists !or a node to !ind the description o! a data ob6ect* !or e4ample* to
determine i! a register )alue represents a temperature beteen +0 and 7(5 degrees.
• .ince "odbus is a master<sla)e protocol* there is no ay !or a !ield de)ice to Wreport by
e4ceptionW (e4cept o)er Ethernet &CP<-P* called openDmbus)D the master node must
routinely poll each !ield de)ice* and loo% !or changes in the data. &his consumes
bandidth and netor% time in applications here bandidth may be e4pensi)e* such as
o)er a loDbitDrate radio lin%.
• "odbus is restricted to addressing /9( de)ices on one data lin%* hich limits the number
o! !ield de)ices that may be connected to a master station (once again Ethernet &CP<-P
pro)ing the e4ception).
• "odbus transmissions must be contiguous hich limits the types o! remote
communications de)ices to those that can bu!!er data to a)oid gaps in the transmission.
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A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
BIOBLIOGRAP"Y
7. Computer architecture and 3rganisation N "orris "ano "c.GraDHill*?eyor%* .econd
edition.
/. 'd)anced "icroprocessors and pheripherals N'.M.;ay *M " ,hurchandi*"c.GraDHill
.econd edition.
+. -EEE standard Programmable Logic -nter!ace &echnology N&he institute o! Electrical and
Electronics Engineers*7889.
9. ,'"D70/0 HPCLD$; user maintainance manual +
rd
Edition.
5. #ireless Communication 'nd ?etor%s N&heodre ;appaport.#illey Publication
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AEP';&"E?& 3F ECE* G-&'" B?-$E;-.&C
A STUDY OF ANALYSERS, PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS, DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND DATA COMMUNICATION
:. 'bromo)ici.".breuer and Freid "an *F Aata Communication systems and its testing.
-ndianapolis*-nd.#ileyD-EEE press*7889.
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