International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2576


To Provide Security for Storage Services in Cloud Computing
D.Shravani
1
, Dr. S. Zahoor Ul Huq
2

1
M .Tech (C.S.E), G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College (Autonomous), JNTU Ananthapur University,
Computer Science and Engineering, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2
Associate professor, Dept of Computer Science and Engineering, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College
(Autonomous), JNTU Ananthapur University, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Abstract-- Cloud computing is the delivery of computing and
storage capacity as a service to a community of end-recipients.
Cloud computing entrusts services with a user's data, software
and computation over a network. It is an emerging computing
model in which resources of the computing communications are
provided as services over the internet. Cloud storage enables
users to remotely store their data and enjoy the on-demand high
quality cloud applications without the burden of local hardware
and software management. The proposed design allows users to
audit the cloud storage with very lightweight communication and
computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong
cloud storage correctness guarantee, but also simultaneously
achieves fast data error localization, i.e., the identification of
misbehaving server. Considering the cloud data are dynamic in
nature, the proposed design further supports secure and efficient
dynamic operations on outsourced data, including block
modification, deletion, and append. Analysis shows the proposed
scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure,
malicious data modification attack, and even server scheming
attacks. It propose some services for data security and access
control when users outsource sensitive data for sharing on cloud
servers.

Keywords-- Cloud Computing, Dependable distributed storage,
Public Auditing, Integrity.

I. INTRODUCTION

Moving data into the cloud offers great convenience to users
since they don’t have to care about the complexities of direct
hardware management. The pioneer of Cloud Computing
vendors, Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) are both well known examples.
While these internet-based online services do provide huge
amounts of storage space and customizable computing
resources, this computing platform shift, however, is
eliminating the responsibility of local machines for data use
Of maintenance at the same time. As a result, users are at the
mercy of their cloud service providers for the availability and
integrity of their data. Recent downtime of Amazon’s S3 is
such an example Cloud data and owner's constrained
computing capabilities further makes the task of data.
Correctness auditing in a cloud environment expensive and
even formidable for individual cloud Customers. Therefore,
enabling public audit ability or cloud storage is of critical
importance so that owners can resort to a specialized third
party auditor (TPA) to audit cloud storage services and
maintain strong storage correctness guarantee, while saving
their own precious computing resources. It addresses this
challenging open issue by, on one hand, defining and
enforcing access policies based on data attributes, and, on the
other hand, allowing the data owner to assign most of the
computation tasks involved in fine grained data access control
to un-trusted cloud servers without disclosing the underlying
data contents.

In Order to address this new problem and further achieve a
secure and dependable cloud storage service, we propose in
this paper a flexible distributed storage integrity auditing
mechanism, utilizing the token and distributed coded data.
Our proposed scheme enables the data owner to delegate tasks
of data file re-encryption and user secret key update to cloud
servers without disclosing data contents or user access
privilege information. We achieve this goal by exploiting and
uniquely combining techniques and algorithms as Correctness
Verification and Error Localization, traditional replication-
based file distribution. Considering the cloud data are
dynamic in nature, the proposed design further supports
secure and efficient dynamic operations on outsourced data,
including block modification, deletion, and append. Our
proposed scheme also has salient properties of user access
privilege confidentiality and user secret key accountability
and achieves scalability and data confidentiality for data
access control in cloud computing. Extensive analysis shows
that our proposed scheme is highly efficient and provably
secures under existing security models.

By utilizing the token with distributed verification of
erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the storage
correctness insurance as well as data error localization,
whenever data corruption has been detected during the storage
correctness verification, our scheme can almost guarantee the
simultaneous localization of data errors, i.e., the identification
of the misbehaving server(s). In order to strike a good balance
between error resilience and data dynamic, we further explore
the algebraic property of our token computation and erasure-
coded data.
II.PROBLEM STATMENT

A. System Model

Third Party Auditor (TPA): a TPA, which has expertise and
capabilities that clients do not have, is trusted to assess and
expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the clients
upon request. To protect client data privacy, audits are
performed without revealing original data files to TPA. In this
paper, we only consider verification schemes with public
verifiability any TPA in possession of the public key can act
as a verifier.

Using Cloud Storage, users can remotely store their data and
enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services
from a shared pool of configurable computing resources,
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2577


without the burden of local data storage and maintenance.
Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud storage is of
critical importance so that users can resort to a third party
auditor (TPA) to check the integrity of outsourced data and be
worry-free. To securely introduce an effective TPA, the
auditing process should bring in no new vulnerabilities
towards user data privacy, and introduce no additional online
burden to user.

In this paper, we propose a secure cloud storage system
supporting privacy-preserving public auditing. We further
extend our result to enable the TPA to perform audits for
multiple users simultaneously and efficiently. Extensive
security and performance analysis show the proposed schemes
are provably secure and highly efficient. TPA through the
auditing protocol should be prohibited.

B. Security Model

The cloud computing generally, the checking scheme is
secure if there exists no polynomial-time algorithm that can
cheat the verifier with non-negligible probability and there
exists a polynomial-time extractor that can recover the
original data files by carrying out multiple challenges-
responses. Under the definition of this PoR system, the client
can periodically challenge the storage server to ensure the
correctness of the cloud data and the original files can be
recovered by interacting with the server. The authors in also
define the correctness and soundness of PoR scheme the
scheme is correct if the verification algorithm accepts when
interacting with the valid proves (e.g., the server returns a
valid response) and it is sound if any cheating server that
convinces the client it is storing the data file is actually storing
that file. Note that in the “game” between the adversary and
the client, the adversary has full access to the information
stored in the server, i.e., the adversary can play the part of the
proves(server). In the verification process, the adversary’s
goal is to cheat the client successfully, i.e., trying to generate
valid responses and pass the data verification without being
detected. In our scheme, servers are required to operate only
on specified rows in each challenge-response protocol
execution.
We will show that this “sampling” strategy on selected rows
instead of all can greatly reduce the computational overhead
on the server, while maintaining high detection probability for
data corruption. In order to successfully perform the
verification while achieving block less, the server should take
over the job of computing H (mi) and then return it to the
prover. The consequence of this variance will lead to a serious
problem: it will give the adversary more opportunities to cheat
the prover by manipulating H (mi) or mi. Due to this
construction; our security model differs from that of the
original PoR in both the verification and the data updating
process.



C. Adversary Model
We propose an effective and flexible distributed storage
verification scheme with explicit dynamic data support to
ensure the correctness and availability of users’ data in the
cloud. We rely on erasure correcting code in the file
distribution preparation to provide redundancies and guarantee
the data dependability against Byzantine servers, where a
storage server may fail in arbitrary ways. This construction
drastically reduces the communication and storage overhead
as compared to the traditional replication-based file
distribution techniques. By utilizing the homomorphism token
with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme
achieves the storage correctness insurance as well as data
error localization: whenever data corruption has been detected
during the storage correctness verification, our scheme can
almost guarantee the simultaneous localization of data errors,
i.e., the identification of the misbehaving server(s). In order to
strike a good balance between error resilience and data
dynamics, we further explore the algebraic property of our
token computation and erasure-coded data, and demonstrate
how to efficiently support dynamic operation on data blocks,
while maintaining the same level of storage correctness
assurance. In order to save the time, computation resources,
and even the related online burden of users, we also provide
the extension of the proposed main scheme to support third-
party auditing, where users can safely delegate the integrity
checking tasks to third-party auditors and be worry-free to use
the cloud storage services.
III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
A .Controlled Data Sharing

Recently, much of growing interest has been pursued in the
context of remotely stored data verification. Various sensitive
data pooled in the cloud demands the cloud data sharing
service to be responsible for secure, efficient and reliable
enforcement of data content access among potentially large
number of users on behalf of data owners. As cloud server
may no longer be in the same trusted domain as the data
owners, we have to rethink the problem of access control in
this open environment, where cloud server takes full charge of
the management of the outsourced data but are not necessarily
trusted with respect to the data confidentiality. What makes
the problem more challenging is the enforcement of fine-
grained data access, the support of access privilege updates in
dynamic scenarios, and the system scalability, while
maintaining low level complexity of key management and
data encryption.

At the same time, though, such a service is also
eliminating data owners' ultimate control over the fate of
their data, which data owners with high service-level
requirements have traditionally anticipated. As owners no
longer physically possess their cloud data, previous
cryptographic primitives for the purpose of storage
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2578


correctness protection cannot be adopted, due to their
requirement of local data copy for the integrity verification.
Besides, the large amount of cloud data and owner's
constrained computing capabilities further makes the task
of data correctness auditing in a cloud environment
expensive and even formidable for individual cloud
customers. Therefore, enabling public auditability [for
cloud storage is of critical importance so that owners can
resort to a specialized third party auditor (TPA) to audit
cloud storage services and maintain strong storage
correctness guarantee, while saving their own precious
computing resources.


Fig.2. specialized third party auditor (TPA)
To achieve fine-grainedness, we propose to treat data as files
associated with a set of meaningful attributes, use logical
composition of attributes to reflect fine-grained data access,
and enforce owner's control via attribute-based encryption.
For the inherent scalability requirement of cloud system,
where user access privilege updates happen very frequently
and thus inevitably incurs significant user/data management
burden on data owner, we further propose to treat the cloud as
a mediated proxy, to which data owners can delegate most
cumbersome workload, like handling user access privilege
dynamics in large system, without affecting the underlying
data confidentiality. The experiment results demonstrate the
proposed scheme is highly efficient. Extensive security
analysis shows our scheme is resilient against Byzantine
failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server
colluding attacks. This paper presents a brief evaluation on
how Cloud Computing paradigm can be used to meet the
increasing demands of the Information Support Systems and
how Cloud Computing paradigm can prove to be future
solution for such systems.





Fig.3.Attribute-based encryption

B. Pre-Computed Verification Tokens
To verify the correctness of user’s data & to locate the
errors, we entirely rely on the pre-computed verification
tokens. These tokens are calculated before file distribution &
they are very short. We are computing the tokens by
pseudorandom function(PRF) and pseudorandom permutation
function(PPF) We pre-computes short verification tokens on
individual vector,
:(])i =Xrq = 1_qi ∗ 0(])[Iq],wℎcrc 0(])[Iq] = g(])Iq
Each token covering a random subset of data blocks. We have
assumed block size as 256 bits & r as 8 number of verification
per indices. We have three data devices and three checksum
devices. Then n=3 and m=3 we choose w=4 since 2^w>n+m.
0 (]) (] ∈ {1,...,n})
1 ) Algorithm: Token Pre-computation
1: procedure
2: Choose parameters l, n and function f, -;
3: Choose the number t of tokens;
4: Choose the number r of indices per verification;
5: Generate master key KPRP and challenge
key k chal;
6: for vector G (j), j ← 1, n do
7: for round i← 1, t does
8: Derive i =fkchal (i) and k (i) prp from KPRP.
9: Compute : (]) i =Prq = 1 qi ∗ 0(])[-k(i)prp(q)]
10: end for
11: end for
12: Store all the v
Later, when the user wants to make sure the storage
correctness for the data in the cloud, he challenges the cloud
servers. Upon receiving challenge, cloud server computes the
new value of tokens, which is compared with previously
calculated tokens.
{Iq ∈ [1,...,l]|1≤ q ≤ r},wℎcrcIq = _k (i)prp(q)

It gives clear idea about integrity of user‟s data. Again it
helps to locate the error which has not been done in previous
research work. In previous work, we were just able to detect
whether the data is intact or not. So it just provides us with
binary results & not the exact location of errors.
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2579


C. Correctness Verification
The newly computed tokens from servers for each challenge
are compared with pre-computed tokens to determine the
correctness of the distributed storage to eliminate the errors in
storage systems key prerequisite is to locate the errors.
However, many previous schemes do not explicitly consider
the problem of data error localization, thus only provide
binary results for the storage verification. In our scheme we
integrate the correctness verification and error localization in
our challenge-response protocol.This also gives information to
locate potential data errors.
2) Algorithm: Correctness Verification and Error Localization
1: procedure CHALLENGE (i)
2: Recompute i =fkchal (i) and k(i)
Prp from KPRP;
3: Send {i, k(i)prp} to all the storage servers;
4: Receive from servers:{R(])i =Prq = 1 qi ∗
0(])[-k(i)prp(q)]|1 ≤ ] ≤ n}
5: for (j ← m + 1, n) do
6: R(]) ← R(]) −Prq = 1¡k](sIq,]) ·]qi ,Iq =
-k(i)prp(q)
7: end for
8: if ((R(1)i , . . . ,R(m)i )·P==(R(m+1)i , . . . ,R(n)i )) then
9: Accept and ready for the next challenge.
10: else
11: for (j ← 1, n) do
12: if (R(j)i ! =v(j)i ) then
13: return server j is misbehaving.
14: end if
15: end for
16: end if
17: end procedure
D. File Retrieval and Error Localization
The comparison of pre-computed tokens and received
response values can guarantee the identification of
misbehaving server. Therefore user can recover the corrupted
data. Our system recovers data from backup server &
distributes all data vectors to corresponding servers.
(P) ← Gen Proof (F, Φ, chal) this will results in successful
recovery of corrupted data. But due to file splitting we made
at the time of file distribution, users need to recover file from
all the servers.
3) Algorithm: Verification
1: procedure
% Assume the block corruptions have been detected among%
the specified r rows:% Assume s ≤ k servers have been
identified misbehaving
2: Download r rows of blocks from servers;
3: Treat s servers as erasures and recover the blocks.
4: Resend the recovered blocks to corresponding servers.
5: end procedure
Therefore, the user can always ask servers to send back blocks
of the r rows specified in the challenge and regenerate the
correct blocks by erasure correction, shown in Algorithm 3, as
long as the number of identified misbehaving servers is less
than k. otherwise, there is no way to recover the corrupted
blocks due to lack of redundancy, even if we know the
position of misbehaving servers.


IV. DATA OPERATIONS

Here are some operations we use for data. First is update
operation. In cloud data storage, an user wants to modify any
data then he can use update operation. Second is delete
operation. After being stored in the cloud, certain data blocks
may needed deleted. At that time we use delete operation.
Then third operation is append operation. If the user may want
to increase the size of stored data by adding blocks at the end
of the data file then we refer it as append operation. Then last
operation is insert operation. An insert operation to the data
file refers to as we can insert the data which we want any
where in our data block rather than first or last we can insert at
any point of data.

V. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

We evaluate the security of the proposed scheme by analyzing
its fulfillment of the security guarantee described in the
storage correctness and privacy-preserving property. We start
from the single user case, where our main result is originated.
Then we show the security guarantee of batch auditing for the
TPA in multi-user setting Algorithms are implemented using
open-source erasure coding library J erasure written in C. We
now assess the performance of the proposed privacy-
preserving public auditing schemes to show that they are
indeed lightweight. We will focus on the cost of the efficiency
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2580


of the privacy-preserving protocol and our proposed batch
auditing technique. The experiment is conducted using C on a
Linux system with an Intel Core 2 processor running at 1.86
GHz, 2048 MB of RAM, and a 7200 RPM Western Digital
250 GB Serial ATA drive with an 8 MB buffer. Our code uses
the Pairing-Based Cryptography (PBC) library version 0.4.18.
The elliptic curve utilized in the experiment is a MNT curve,
with base field size of 159 bits and the embedding degree 6.
The security level is chosen to be 80 bit, which means |_i| =
80 and |p| =160. All experimental results represent the mean
of 20 trials.According to [2], if t fraction of the file is
corrupted, by asking proof for a constant c blocks of the file,
the verifier can detect this server misbehavior with probability
p =1 − (1 − t)c. Let t =1 − ρ and we get the variant of this
relationship p =1−ρc. Under this setting, we quantify the
extra cost introduced by the support of dynamic data in our
scheme into server computation, verifier computation as well
as communication overhead.
VI. RELATED WORKS

Information Support Systems (ISS) are computer
technology/network support systems that interactively support
the information processing mechanisms for individuals and
groups in life, public, and private organizations, and other
entities. Over some decades in the past, organizations have put
efforts to be at the forefront of the development and
application of computer-based Information Support Systems
to collect, analyze and process the data and generate
information to support decisions. Various computing
paradigms have been employed for the purpose and needs
have emerged for enormous infrastructure, unlimited system
accessibility, cost effectiveness, increased storage, increased
automation, flexibility, system mobility and shift of IT focus.
This paper presents a brief evaluation on how Cloud
Computing paradigm can be used to meet the increasing
demands of the Information Support Systems and how Cloud
Computing paradigm can prove to be future solution for such
systems.
Using Cloud Storage, users can remotely store their data and
enjoy the on-demand high quality applications and services
from a shared pool of configurable computing resources,
without the burden of local data storage and maintenance.
Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud storage is of
critical importance so that users can resort to a third party
auditor (TPA) to check the integrity of outsourced data and be
worry-free. To securely introduce an effective TPA, the
auditing process should bring in no new vulnerabilities
towards user data privacy, and introduce no additional online
burden to user. In this paper, we propose a secure cloud
storage system supporting privacy-preserving public auditing.
We further extend our result to enable the TPA to perform
audits for multiple users simultaneously and efficiently.
Extensive security and performance analysis show the
proposed schemes are provably secure and highly efficient.



VII. IMPLEMENTATION

In this paper we have implementing file-encoding
functionality in order to test the effect of dispersal code choice
on encoding time. The encryption process is needed while
storing the data, and the data decryption is needed while
retrieving the data. After the user’s login has been
successfully verified, if the CRM Service System requires
client information from the user, it sends a request the
information (for encryption and decryption) to the Storage
Service System.
The code was written in C++and experiments were run on
an Intel Core 2 processor running at 2.16 GHz. All
cryptographic operations utilize the RSA BSAFE C library.
The dispersal code was implemented using the optimized
library written in C. In order to implement the integrity
protected, PRF values are added to the fragments stored on
secondary servers. One subtle issue when implementing the
IP-ECC construction is that the symbol size of Reed-Solomon
encoding should be equal to the Security Parameter However,
implements codes with symbol sizes up to 32 there are a
number of interesting PDP variants to explore in follow-up
work. The protocols we have described above for PDP only
provide assurance for static files. We are investigating in
current work design of similar protocols that accommodate
file updates. We believe that the PDP techniques we have
introduced in this paper help pave the way for valuable
approaches to distributed file system availability

VIII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we tackle the privacy problem caused by the
public auditing scheme. After presenting a new construction
of ASBB scheme, we propose an efficient zero knowledge
privacy preserving public auditing scheme for data storage
security in cloud computing, i.e. the adversary cannot deduce
any information of the file stored through the auditing
interaction between CS and TPA. We rely on erasure-
correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide
redundancy parity vectors and guarantee the data
dependability. By utilizing the homomorphic token with
distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme
achieves the integration of storage correctness insurance and
data error localization. Considering the time, computation
resources, and even the related online burden of users, we also
provide the extension of the proposed main scheme to support
third-party auditing, where users can safely delegate the
integrity checking tasks to third-party auditors and be worry-
free to use the cloud storage services. Through detailed
security and extensive experiment results, we show that our
scheme is highly efficient and resilient to Byzantine failure,
malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding
attacks. Future research should therefore be devoted to the
design of an overall framework, integrating all the presented
solutions, and activating the most appropriate solutions
dependent on the current device, network and cloud server
status.
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 8– August 2013
ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2581


REFERENCES

[1]. H. Shacham and B. Waters, “Compact proofs of retrievability,” in Proc.
of ASI- ACRYPT’08. Springer-Verlag, 2008, pp. 90–107.
[2]. G. Ateniese, R. Burns, R. Curtmola, J . Herring, L. Kissner, Z. Peterson,
and D. Song, “Provable data possession at untrusted stores,” in Proc. of
CCS’07. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 598–609.
[3]. A. J uels and B. S. Kaliski, J r., “Pors: proofs of retrievability for large
files,” in Proc. of CCS’07. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2007, pp. 584–597.
[4]. Amazon.com, “Amazon s3 availability event: J uly 20, 2008,” Online at
http:// status.aws.amazon.com/s3-20080720.html, J uly
2008.
[5]. J . Black, S. Halevi, H. Krawczyk, T. Krovetz, and P. Rogaway. UMAC:
Fast and secure message authentication. In CRYPTO, volume 1666 of LNCS,
pages 216–233, 1999.
[6]. K. D. Bowers, A. J uels, and A Oprea. HAIL: A High-availability and
integrity layer for cloud storage, 2008. IACR ePrint manuscript 2008/489.
[7]. C. Cachin, K. Kursawe, A. Lysyanskaya, and R. Strobl.
Asynchronous verifiable secret sharing and proactive cryptosystems. In 9th
ACM CCS, pages 88–97, 2002.
[8.]C. Cachin and S. Tessaro. Asynchronous verifiable information dispersal.
In 24th IEEE SRDS, pages 191–202, 2005.
[9]. L. Carter and M. Wegman. Universal hash functions. Journal of
Computer and System Sciences, 18(3), 1979.
[10]. R. Curtmola, O. Khan, and R. Burns. Robust remote data checking. In
4th ACM StorageSS, 2008.
[11]. R. Curtmola, O. Khan, R. Burns, and G. Ateniese. MR-PDP:
Multiple-replica provable data possession. In 28th IEEE ICDCS, pages 411–
420, 2008.
[12]. K. D. Bowers, A. J ules, and A Oprea. Proofs of retrievability: Theory
and implementation, 2008. IACR ePrint manuscript 2008/175.
[13]. A. Herzberg, M. J akobsson, H. Krawczyk, and M. Yung. Proactive
public key and signature systems. In 4th ACM CCS, pages 100–110, 1997.
[14]. A. Herzberg, S. J arecki, H. Krawczyk, and M. Yung. Proactive secret
sharing, or: How to cope with perpetual leakage. In CRYPTO, volume 1963 of
LNCS, pages 339–352, 1995.
[15]. A. J uels and B. Kaliski. PORs: Proofs of retrievability for large files. In
14th ACM CCS, pages 584–597, 2007.
[16].H. Krawczyk. LFSR-based hashing and authentication. In CRYPTO,
volume 839 of LNCS, pages 129–139, 1994.[17].M. Lillibridge, S. Elnikety,
A. Birrell, M. Burrows, and M. Isard. A cooperative Internet backup scheme.
In USENIX Annual Technical Conference, pages 29–41, 2003.
[18].S. Micali, C. Peikert, M. Sudan, and D. Wilson. Optimal error correction
against computationally bounded noise. In TCC, pages 1–16.
[19]. J . S. Plank and Y. Ding, “Note: Correction to the 1997 tutorial on reed-
solomon coding,” University of Tennessee, Tech. Rep. CS-03-
504, April 2003.
[20]. C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, “Privacy-preserving public
auditing for storage security in cloud computing,” in Proc. of IEEE
INFOCOM’10, San Diego, CA, USA, March 2010.
[21]. S. Wilson, “Appengine outage,” Online at http://www. cio-
weblog.com/50226711/appengine outage.php, J une 2008.
[22]. R. C. Merkle, “Protocols for public key cryptosystems,” in Proc. Of
IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Los Alamitos, CA, USA,
1980.
[23]. Q. Wang, K. Ran, W. Lou, and Y. Zhang, “Dependable and secure
sensor data storage with dynamic integrity assurance,” in Proc. Of IEEE
INFOCOM’09, Rio de J aneiro, Brazil, Appril 2009.
[24].J . S. Plank, S. Simmerman, and C. D. Schuman, “J erasure: A library in
C/C++ facilitating erasure coding for storage applications - Version 1.2,”
University of Tennessee, Tech. Rep. CS-08-627, August 2008.
[26]. M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk, “Keying hash functions for
message authentication,” in Proc. of Crypto’96, volume 1109 of LNCS.
Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 1–15.
[27]. T. Schwarz and E. L. Miller, “Store, forget, and check: Using algebraic
signatures to check remotely administered storage,” in Proc. of ICDCS’06,
2006, pp. 12–12.